Military Review

Marshall Monsey. Chief of gendarmes with a reputation as a man of honor

145

Statue of Marshal Monsey, Rue de Rivoli, facade of the Louvre


Bon-Adrien Jeannot is better known in our country as Marshal Moncey (de Moncey), although in fact, of course, he should be called Monse (according to the same rule as the name Ney sounds “Not”).

Monsay in this case is the name of the village, bought by the parents of our hero from the Marquis de Scheilard only in 1789. That is, if completely in Russian, you get something like Andrei Ivanov from Mons.

And in the army, our hero was known to many under the name Fabius (Fabius) - apparently, he was named so in honor of the Roman commander Quintus Fabius Maximus, the winner of Hannibal.

Republican Rome and everything connected with it was extremely popular in revolutionary France. So the future king of Sweden, Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, could not resist then and added Jules to his name - in honor of Julius Caesar. Others were called Brutus and Gracchi.

So, today we will talk about Marshal Mons (or Monsey, if someone is more accustomed to it), who owns the phrase:

"Selflessness, loyalty to your duty, your country, and come what may."

And whom Bonaparte called "a man of honor."

Marshall Monsey. Chief of gendarmes with a reputation as a man of honor
Bon Adrien Jeannot-de-Moncey, Lithographie

Beginning of Moncey's military service


The future marshal was born on July 31, 1754 in Palise (Palise, Franche-Comté department). He was the son of a lawyer of the Parliament of Besancon, in addition to him, 10 more children were born in this family.

To avoid confusion, let's just say that the parliament in royal France is an appellate court, and not at all an elected legislature. In 1789, France had 13 parliaments, the oldest of which was the Paris one.


Parliaments of the Kingdom of France in 1789

The Jeannot family was quite respectable and wealthy. Parents could afford to send their children to study in prestigious educational institutions by local standards.

Bon-Adrien got into the Besançon College of Law, but he was disgusted with his studies, because he dreamed of military service. It all ended with the fact that in 1769 (at the age of 15), attributing an extra year to himself, he enlisted in the Condé infantry regiment (Regiment de Conde-infanterie).

The parents were simply shocked, the father went for the young man and bought out his contract. A few months later, Adrien ran away from home again and joined the Champagne Infantry Regiment.

The young man was tall beyond his years and therefore got into the grenadiers. Here he served for 4 years, and then, succumbing to his father's persuasion, he returned home and even studied law for several months. But again he did not sit still: at the end of 1774 he entered the Luneville gendarmerie.

The word "gendarme" in royal France was derived from gens d'armes - "people with weapons”, “armed retinue”. Companies of gendarmes then guarded members of the royal family and princes of the blood.

In Lunéville, there was a privileged unit created by Louis XV to protect his father-in-law, King Stanislav Leshchinsky, who was expelled from Poland. Privates in it were equated with so-lieutenants of ordinary units.

Here Adrien served for another 4 years, after which in 1779, with the rank of second lieutenant, he transferred to the Nassau-Siegen infantry corps (Corps d'infanterie de Nassau-Siegen). For three years he rose to the rank of 2nd lieutenant. Finally, in 1785 he became 1st lieutenant.

So, in 1789, at the beginning of the French Revolution, Adrien Jeannot is 35 years old, he is only a 1st lieutenant, and he has practically no career prospects.

In 1790, at the age of 36, he married Charlotte Remillet, who was already 28 years old.

Looking ahead, let's say that three children were born in their family. The only son, already at the age of 19, became a knight of the Order of the Legion of Honor, at the age of 21 he received the rank of colonel of the hussars. In 1817 he died while hunting. At present, Moncey's descendants from his daughters live in France.

The future marshal did not enjoy family life for long.

With the beginning of the French Revolution, time has accelerated dramatically, and all capable people have opportunities and chances to change their fate, which they could not even dream of under the old regime.

Republican period of Moncey's service


On June 1, 1790, Adrien Jeannot de Monse was transferred to the 5th battalion of the Cantabrian Chasseurs. On April 12, 1791, he received a promotion - the rank of captain.


Pierre-Joseph Dedreux-Dorcy. Moncey, capitaine du 5e bataillon de chasseurs en 1792

In 1792, his battalion was sent to Spain.

Monsey distinguished himself in the battles of the First Coalition war and a year later became the commander of his battalion, on the basis of which the 1793th semi-brigade of the line infantry was formed in 5.

And then a fantastic take-off follows: in February 1794, he received the rank of brigadier general, just three months later, in June, he became a divisional general.

After successful actions during the storming of the fortress of Saint-Sebastian, on September 1, 1794, he was appointed commander of the Army of the Western Pyrenees. Under his command, this army fought several successful battles.

Commissioner Garrot wrote in his report to Paris:

"The soldiers of this army are not human - they are either demons or gods."

Moncey was appointed commander-in-chief of the French troops in Spain, but tried to evade such an honor, declaring his unwillingness to become the head of such a large army.

However, the Convention did not take into account his opinion and finally approved him in office.

After that, Moncey's troops, operating in Catalonia and the Basque Country, defeated the Spaniards at Villareale and Mondragone, captured Bilbao, and then defeated them at Vitoria and reached the Ebro River. Thanks to these successes, Spain was forced to sign on July 22, 1795, the Basle Peace Treaty, which was beneficial to France.

Monsey was offered the post of commander of the Brest army, after refusal he was appointed commander of the XI military district, whose headquarters were in Bayonne.

Such a successful career was interrupted after the royalist uprising of 18 Früctidore V year (September 4, 1797), when the army began to dismiss "unreliable elements". Monsey was also dismissed, although Carnot and Pishegru tried to intercede for him.

He returned to the service in September 1799. By that time, his friend Pichegru had already been arrested, but Bonaparte, who became First Consul, believed that

"Moncey is honest even in his most secret thoughts."

On November 30, 1799, Moncey was appointed commander of the XII military district, but on December 3 he was transferred to Lyon (XIX military district). And on March 24, 1800, he became deputy to Jean-Victor Moreau, who commanded the Army of the Rhine (Armee du Rhin).

But he did not stay here for long, since already in April he was appointed commander of the corps of the Helvetic army, and in May he became deputy commander of the Reserve Army, having received an order to defend Lombardy from the Austrian troops.

In June 1800, he occupied the Valtelina valley lying north of Bergamo (now located on the border with Switzerland), on July 5 he received command of the left-flank units of the Italian army of Bonaparte. Napoleon led his troops through the St. Bernard Pass, Moncey's troops moved through St. Gotthard.

Joining with Bonaparte, Moncey took part in the battle of Marengo.

After Napoleon departed for France, the Italian army was led by General Brun. The fighting soon resumed, and in December 1800, in the battle of Monzambano (as part of the battle of Pozzolo), a horse was killed near Moncei.

Moncey was later sent towards Trento - to connect with MacDonald. According to Brun's plan, their troops were to cut off the Loudon corps from the main enemy army.

But Moncey was deceived by the Austrians: he believed that a truce had already been concluded. Angry Brun ordered him to surrender command to Davout, but he agreed to take under his command only cavalry units.

Finally, on June 2, 1801, Monsey was appointed commander of the French forces in the Cisalpine Republic. But here he was "sat down" by Murat, who took over as commander on July 27, 1801 (and what can you do with the husband of Bonaparte's sister?).

Chief of the gendarmes


Moncey returned to France, where on December 3, 1801 he was appointed inspector general of the newly created gendarmerie units by Napoleon. He held this position later - under the Bourbons.


Le General de division Moncey en uniforme d'Inspecteur general de la Gendarmerie

Elite squadrons of gendarmes guarded the palaces at Malmaison and the Tuileries, Napoleon's marching headquarters. They also ensured the safety of important guests (for example, the Pope during his visit to France - for the coronation of Bonaparte).

After the battles, they took under the protection of high-ranking prisoners and the most valuable trophies. So, on May 17, 1807, Monsey personally supervised the ceremony of transferring the swords of King Frederick II (the Great) from the Tuileries to the Invalides.

However, now the more familiar gendarmes appeared in this corps, who also performed the role of military police.

During the battles, they were behind the formation of troops, returning the panicked soldiers back, separated from the wounded simulators. After the battle, they defended the trophies from marauders, did not allow lynching and reprisals against prisoners of war. They also investigated criminal offenses that occurred in the army during campaigns.

In peacetime, they assisted local authorities in recruiting, suppressed riots.

There are also gendarmes in modern France, their units are part of the armed forces and are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. Along with police functions, gendarmes perform tasks related to the protection of strategic facilities and the armed defense of the country.

In this regard, they are similar to the Russian internal troops, which since April 5, 2016 have become known as the National Guard, which has caused considerable confusion in the minds of people who are accustomed to considering soldiers and officers of famous military units as guardsmen.

Bonaparte highly appreciated Monsey's activities in the not very noticeable and not very prestigious post of inspector general of the new gendarmerie, and in 1803 he presented him with the Ballion castle. Monsey was invited here to hunt, and when he was about to return home, it was announced that he is currently at home. After that, the formal transfer of property rights was carried out.

Marshal Moncey


After the coronation of Bonaparte in 1804, the 50-year-old Moncey received the title of Marshal of the Empire. In the list, his surname was in third place - immediately after the names of Berthier and Murat.


Jacques-Luc Barbier-Walbonne. Le marechal Moncey

In December 1807, Moncey, unexpectedly for many, returned to the army, leading one of the corps intended for the invasion of Spain (it was the Observatory Corps of the Ocean Coast). He probably received this appointment in memory of a successful campaign in this country in 1794-1795.

In July 1808, Monsey also received the title of Duc de Conegliano.


Hugel. Bon-Adrien Moncey, duc de Conegliano

This year, at the head of the III Corps of the Spanish Army, Moncey took part in the sieges of Valencia, Cartagena and Saragossa. And on November 23, being subordinate to Lannu, he fought in the battle of Tudela.

This time the marshal did not achieve much success in Spain, however, acting in an extremely difficult situation, he won several victories, and Napier wrote later:

“Moncey, although he was an old man, was energetic, active and determined.”

Please note: Moncey, whom Napier calls the old man, was only 54 years old at this time.

On January 2, 1809, Monsey was replaced by General Junot, but Napoleon continued to trust this marshal.

In the spring of 1809, when the war with Austria began, going to the troops, the emperor declared in front of everyone that he would be calmer if Moncey remained in Paris.

On September 5 of the same year, Moncey was appointed commander of the French troops in Flanders, and a year later he became commander of the reserve 3rd division of the National Guard, stationed in Belgium.

In 1812, we see Moncey in the position of inspector of the National Guard units of the XII, XIII, XIV and XV military districts. By the way, he turned out to be one of the few old comrades-in-arms of Napoleon who dared to object to the war with Russia.

Moncey did not take part in the campaigns of 1812-1813.

It was not until January 1814 that he was appointed Chief of Staff of the National Guard.

And again, as in 1809, Napoleon, before leaving for the army, addressed Moncey separately during his farewell to the officers of the National Guard, when he entrusted them with the protection of the Empress Marie Louise and his three-year-old son.

Barriere de Clichy


During the Battle of Paris (March 30, 1814), Moncey, at the head of several thousand soldiers, occupied the heights of Belleville and Batignolles, defended the outpost of Clichy (Barriere de Clichy). He placed artillery on the Square of the Star, and arranged his headquarters in one of the local restaurants (it was called "At Papa Lathuille's").


Horace Vernet. Le marechal Moncey a la barriere de Clichy, 1820. History retained the name of Moncey's favorite stallion, on which he portrayed Marshal Vernet - Rosseler

The troops at Moncey were not very combat-ready: already quite elderly volunteers of the 2nd legion of the National Guard, students of the Polytechnic School and soldiers who were being treated in Parisian hospitals. Nevertheless, it was precisely here that the army of the anti-Napoleonic coalition did not advance a single step. And in other places, soldiers of the French regular army also retreated. Currently, Place de Clichy is part of Paris, in 1870 a monument to the marshal was erected here.


Place Clichy

Riot of the marshals


After the capitulation of the capital, signed by Marmont, Monsey transferred command of the National Guard to the Duke of Montmorency. He himself, having united under his command the soldiers of the line regiments who were left without commanders, went to the emperor at Fontainebleau.

Soon news came that the Senate had removed the emperor from power and Talleyrand was already forming a new government. And the marshals, who were next to Napoleon, demanded that he renounce the throne. All attempts by the emperor to bring the situation under control were in vain.

He signed the act of renunciation, and, expressing the general opinion of the marshals, Moncey told him:

"You saved France! Please accept my tribute of admiration and gratitude!”

At the service of the Bourbons


Like many other marshals who agreed to recognize the authority of Louis XVIII, Moncey received from him the title of peer of France.

However, after Napoleon returned to the Tuileries, he joined him, although the "Hundred Days" did not play an active role in the subsequent events.

After the final abdication of Bonaparte, it was Moncey who was appointed chairman of the tribunal (Conseil de guerre - literally “Council of War”), which was supposed to judge Ney. In addition to him, Augereau, Massena and Mortier were introduced to the tribunal.

As a result, Augereau "went to bed" (before his death, he regretted this simulation, as he believed that they had to insist on their right to judge Ney and save him). Massena recused himself on the grounds that he was an enemy of Ney, and therefore could not be objective (although his objectivity was not required by the Bourbons at that time). Mortier bluntly refused, saying that he was ready to resign.

And Moncey sent a letter to the king, which said, in part:

“My honor belongs to me, and no power of the people can take it away from me ... Can I speak for the fate of Marshal Ney? Sir, may I ask Your Majesty, where were all these accusers when Ney walked through so many battlefields? Did they follow him and blame for twenty-five years of dangers and deeds? Oh! If Russia and the allies cannot forgive the victor at Moscow, can France forget the hero of the Berezina?”

Louis XVIII responded to Moncey by dismissal from all posts and an order for a three-month arrest at Fort de Ham.

The marshal went to prison in good faith, but the Prussian commandant of the fort did not let him go there, who humiliated Louis, giving Monsey his protection in the territory formally controlled by the king.

Louis, who arrived in the convoy of the occupying troops, was forced to endure, and Moncey "served his sentence" in a nearby hotel. After that, he went to his castle.

In 1816, the authorities first returned the title of duke to him, and then the title of marshal.

In March 1819, Monsey again became a member of the House of Peers.

In April 1820, he was appointed to the post of commander of the IX Military District, in this position he remained until November 1830.

And in 1823, Monsey unexpectedly found himself again in Spain - at the head of the IV Army Corps. This time, the French invaded this country to suppress the revolution and return power to the insignificant king Fernando VII.

By the way, two more Napoleonic marshals participated in that war - Oudinot and Suchet, as well as the well-known in Russia Jacques Alexander Lowe Lauriston (who shortly before received the rank of marshal).


General Loriston, former governor of Venice, hero of Vagram, French ambassador to Denmark and Russia next to Napoleon in V. Vereshchagin's painting "Peace at all costs"

Corps Moncey operated mainly in the territory of Catalonia: from Figueres to Tarragona. Marshal at that time was already 70 years old. After this campaign, among other awards, he received the Russian Order of St. Vladimir, I degree.

As the oldest marshal of France, Monsey, with the constable drawn sword, stood next to Charles X (the last French king of the Bourbon dynasty) during his coronation.

It is curious that, according to Marmont, it looked as if the stern Moncey was escorting Charles.

During the July Revolution of 1830, which led to the final fall of the Bourbons in France, Moncey remained neutral.

And on December 17, 1833, the new king, Louis Philippe, appointed the old marshal to the honorary, but not burdensome, position of governor of the Paris Invalides.

It was under his leadership in December 1840 that the ceremony of reburial of the remains of Napoleon took place (Marshals Oudinot, Soult and Pears were also present, but Marmont and Victor preferred to avoid it).


Arnout et V. Adam. Marque du Cortege funebre de Napoleon dans le Champs Elysees a Paris, le 15 December 1840

Monsey himself was buried in the House of Invalids, who died at the age of 87 on April 20, 1842.
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  1. Lech from Android.
    Lech from Android. 14 January 2022 05: 47
    +12
    Monsay lived his life well... there was something to remember in his old age.
    I thank the author for a fascinating article about this. smile gendarme.
    In Russia, the word gendarme is a synonym for a strangler of freedom and a satrap ... be careful with the popularization of gendarmes.
    1. Russian jacket
      Russian jacket 14 January 2022 07: 31
      +7
      And I would be interested to read a truthful article about Count Benckendorff and his service. hi
    2. LisKat2
      LisKat2 14 January 2022 18: 16
      +2
      "a synonym for a strangler" was once a book for me: "The Daily Life of Russian Gendarmes". I liked it, probably, and you would be interested
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 14 January 2022 19: 19
        +1
        The book is really good. I read it with interest, it describes the history of the security service of top officials
  2. Cure72
    Cure72 14 January 2022 07: 15
    +7
    The article is great as always!
    I look forward to no less interesting comments.
  3. depressant
    depressant 14 January 2022 07: 33
    +17
    The greatness of the soul is measured by descendants in height, from where they fall voluntarily, leaving honor on top. “Walked-tripped-fell” does not count. As the historian Delderfield said, in the future they will remember Monsey "... for a single letter. This letter will give more than a whole biography to understand his human essence."
    Monsey's letter to Louis XVIII refusing to judge Ney is truly impressive.
  4. know
    know 14 January 2022 08: 15
    0
    Gendarmerie d'élite de la Garde impériale vers 1812:



    Modern French gendarmes, led by the nobleman Louis Germain David de Funes de Galars:


    As they say, the French have sunk
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 14 January 2022 08: 40
      +12
      As they say, the French have sunk

      These are not French, it is you who have sunk. Before ignorance.
      Gendarmerie de France, Gendarmerie d'élite de la Garde impériale and Gendarmerie nationale have nothing in common.
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 14 January 2022 10: 44
        +14
        Lyrical digression about my favorite character. The word "gendarme" in Russia comes from the "Gatchinsky Hamlet".
        The Gatchina troops of the heir Pavel Petrovich also included the Gendarmerie Regiment (1 squadron). It was formed from part of the composition of the Life Cuirassier His Highness the Heir to the Tsesarevich and Grand Duke Pavel Petrovich of the regiment, of which Pavel was the chief; The Tsarevich even had a very serious quarrel with Potemkin when he got into regimental affairs. Naturally, in a fierce dispute, mother sided with her favorite ...
        So, the Gatchina gendarmes did not carry out any political or security functions, in fact, they were cuirassiers.
        During the accession of Paul at the end of 1796, they were transferred to the Horse Guards, namely, from the Gendarme and Dragoon regiments of the Gatchina troops, 3 headquarters officers, 20 chief officers and 119 lower ranks entered the Horse Guards.
        In the picture: Officer and cuirassier of the Life Guards Horse Regiment 1798-1801. Breastplates, by the way, were under Paul. Just black.

        After that, the word "gendarme" leaves Russian history for a decade and a half, and is reborn after the wars with Napoleon.
        In 1815, the Life Guards Gendarme Squadron was formed - part of the guard, akin to cuirassiers.


        But in the same 1815, the Gendarme Regiment (former Borisoglebsky Dragoon) was also formed - this is already a military-police unit.

        Other military-police formations of gendarmes were also formed. And this word acquires the greatest "fame" already under A.Kh. Benckendorff as political police.

        A frame from the film "The Monk and the Demon", Benckendorff (performed by Sergei Barkovsky) - on the left, in a characteristic form:
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 14 January 2022 11: 13
          +6
          The author never figured out which gendarmes his hero commanded.
          Lyrical digression about

          An interesting point - of all the authors of the site who write articles, only Valery has a group of aggressive fans.
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 14 January 2022 11: 27
            +9
            The author never figured out which gendarmes his hero commanded.

            To be honest, Viktor Nikolayevich, while I was writing a commentary, for the first time for myself, I somehow figured out with domestic gendarmes. request
            I only remember that in Russia this concept came from Pavel Petrovich - precisely from the Gatchina people. soldier
            Have you heard about the Decembrist Lutsky? He became a "Decembrist" by chance. Being a non-commissioned officer of the Life Guards of the Grenadier Regiment (which even came to the square with only two officers!), His comrades severely beat with rifle butts a mounted gendarme serving at the monument to Peter. Like it or not, a certain part of our people does not like the police! wassat In general, the dispersed bastard also thundered to Siberia. True, there this passionary also did not calm down, he got excited (including trying to run away), for which he was flogged several times, and by no means affectionately. negative And yet he lived up to the amnesty.

            In general, the Decembrist is such a "Dekabrist". wink friendly hairpin, sir Viktor Nikolaevich! drinks



            And in the French gendarmes, I am a complete zero! recourse Alas for me, alas, the dark forest! hi
            1. astra wild2
              astra wild2 14 January 2022 13: 41
              +4
              Viktor Nikolaevich, dear: "Dekabrist", good health to you this year. Offend less: Valeria and Vyacheslav Olegovich, they are good authors, but sometimes they make mistakes, and you immediately fly in the ointment.
            2. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master 14 January 2022 16: 57
              +3
              Quote: Pane Kohanku
              And in the French gendarmes

              With this to Anton. smile XV century, Charles VII the Winner, Ordinance companies ...
              Maybe he will explain to us who the gendarmes were: the king's personal guard, or simply combat officers - commanders of ordinance lances in the companies, or both at the same time ... Personally, I did not have an unambiguous impression.
          2. astra wild2
            astra wild2 14 January 2022 13: 45
            +5
            "a group of aggressive fans" - I'm not aggressive, but kind
  5. Undecim
    Undecim 14 January 2022 08: 16
    +7
    It all ended with the fact that in 1769 (at the age of 15), attributing an extra year to himself, he enlisted in the Condé infantry regiment (Regiment de Conde-infanterie).

    The author was slightly mistaken. He enlisted in another regiment - Régiment de Conti.
    1. depressant
      depressant 14 January 2022 08: 35
      +6
      Good morning, Victor Nikolaevich!
      Obviously you mean Prince Conti's infantry regiment?
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 14 January 2022 10: 43
        +5
        Obviously you mean Prince Conti's infantry regiment?

        To be precise, in 1769 the regiment was called régiment de La Marche-Prince and commanded by Roger Valentin de Clarac. The regiment received the name régiment de Conti in 1776.
        1. Okolotochny
          Okolotochny 14 January 2022 14: 17
          +4
          What is Conde, what is Conti - sort of like "Princes of the Blood"?
  6. Olgovich
    Olgovich 14 January 2022 08: 28
    -3
    Oh! If Russia and the allies cannot forgive the victor under Moscow, can France forget the hero of the Berezina? "

    Oh! How much false, inflated pathos! Some "winners" among the marshals turned out to be, but it is not clear how they, after countless victories ... near Paris in 1814, ended up.

    And in 1823, Monsey unexpectedly found himself again in Spain - at the head of the IV Army Corps. This time, the French invaded this country to suppress the revolution and return power to the insignificant king Fernando VII.

    In that war, by the way, two more Napoleonic marshals took part - Oudinot and Suchet, as well as Jacques Alexander Lowe Lauriston, well-known in Russia.
    what a disgrace: the generals-republicans, who previously carried around "Freedom, equality, brotherhood", are restoring .... obscurantist monarchy.

    And what were their "principles" and pathos worth? Zilch....
    1. depressant
      depressant 14 January 2022 09: 06
      +6
      Olgovich, you have raised a very interesting question, and I have my own, similar, over which I am also pondering.
      The Renaissance paved the way for the transition from feudalism to capitalism through "Freedom, Equality, Brotherhood", but the image of the future has not yet formed in the minds of those who took it up. These were people who thought in terms of their royalist times. Hence the coronation of Napoleon at the suggestion of Carnot, to which even the Pope came. And Napoleon's distribution of titles of nobility to his loyal people. The image of capitalism as a political and economic system has not yet matured, and people were forced to follow the usual way of realizing their ambitions, which they formed in childhood and adolescence. Hence the possibility of restoring royal power.
      We wanted the best, it turned out as best we could. Almost according to Chernomyrdin. The generation that has taken on the task of remaking society is tired, ideals have blurred.
      1. VLR
        14 January 2022 09: 27
        +8
        The Cure, not Carnot, officially put forward the proposal for the coronation of Bonaparte, in the last article I wrote about this. Looks like autocorrect worked for you?
        1. depressant
          depressant 14 January 2022 10: 09
          +5
          Valery, forgive me for God's sake! ))) Of course, Cure! Contemporaries still made fun of it.
          Been sleepy since morning. With Cure in mind, Carnot wrote, and I suppose the Cure is shaking his finger at me from the other world! wassat )))
      2. Olgovich
        Olgovich 14 January 2022 09: 57
        +2
        Quote: depressant
        "Freedom, equality, fraternity", but the image of the future has not yet formed in the minds of those who undertook it. These were people who thought in terms of their royalist time. Hence the coronation of Napoleon at the suggestion of Carnot, to which even the Pope came. And the distribution of noble titles by Napoleon to his faithful people

        Hello, Lyudmila hi
        The first republic, which arose as a result of the revolution, abolished all noble ranks and privileges - in full accordance with the slogan "Freedom, equality, brotherhood."

        What are the royalist traditions of ... Republicans?

        The guys had no principles, yes: Career is everything, methods are nothing
    2. Senior seaman
      Senior seaman 14 January 2022 09: 56
      +6
      Quote: Olgovich
      Republicans who previously carried around "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"

      And in return, those who requisitioned money and works of art ... in this sense, they did not change their principles at all!
      1. LisKat2
        LisKat2 14 January 2022 18: 05
        +1
        "have not changed their principles" of enrichment at the expense of others?
        1. Senior seaman
          Senior seaman 14 January 2022 19: 32
          0
          Exactly. Some odious historians insist that Revolutionary France carried freedom on its bayonets, driving mossy monarchs from their thrones. But what then did they do in Switzerland, where the monarchy never existed?
          In addition, it all ended with the fact that Bonaparte's relatives attached their asses to the vacated thrones.
  7. Daniil Konovalenko
    Daniil Konovalenko 14 January 2022 09: 12
    +7
    After the final abdication of Bonaparte, it was Monsey who was appointed president of the tribunal (Conseil de guerre - literally "Council of War"), which was to judge Ney.
    As someone noted from historians: "If all the marshals protested against this act, as Monsey did, perhaps Ney would not have been shot." But most of the marshals remained silent. Only two people came out openly in defense of Ney: Monsey and the "iron" Davout, for which they paid with royal disgrace.
    1. depressant
      depressant 14 January 2022 09: 36
      +6
      Well, Moncey's fall from grace didn't last very long, did it? But
      Tall, with a regal posture, sedate and even majestic features - this is how the leader of the victorious army was remembered by those around him in those happy days for him. But everyone who knew Moncey closer, first of all, appreciated in him a noble heart and strict concepts of honor.

      Serious moral gain, isn't it?
  8. depressant
    depressant 14 January 2022 10: 04
    +5
    At the age of 36, Monsay was still a lieutenant and, believing that his career would no longer work out, giving up on everything, he decided to settle down - he got married. His chosen one was 28-year-old Charlotte Remilier. There was no passionate love from either side, but Jeannot and Charlotte's family life was successful. The couple lived together for more than fifty years and died in one year.
    The family had three children - two girls and a boy, Bon Marie. Moncey placed special hopes on him. And indeed, teenager Bon Marie at the age of 12 will stop as a page of Emperor Napoleon. At the age of 19, he was a Knight of the Legion of Honor. At 21, Bon Marie Moncey, Count of Canegliano, is already a hussar colonel! And ... in 1817, a tragic death as a result of a hunting accident. I imagine the grief of Marshal Moncey ... His current descendants are descended from his two daughters.
  9. depressant
    depressant 14 January 2022 10: 31
    +6
    But in detail the story of how Napoleon gave Moncey a luxurious castle. Apparently abandoned by the former royalist owners. In the vicinity of the castle, the First Consul specially organized a hunt, to which Moncey was also invited.

    When the satisfied hunters returned to the castle with rich trophies, Moncey began to pack for the return trip. Seeing his preparations, one of the adjutants of the First Consul asked:
    - My general, if you like it here, why don't you stay?
    "I don't want to be your boarder," replied Moncey.
    But you are not staying with me.
    - In that case, from whom?
    - You are at home.
    - That's very nice, but I can't abuse your friendly disposition.
    The general clearly took the last words of the interlocutor as a figurative turn, emphasizing his courtesy. However, they should be taken literally.
    - I have the honor to repeat to you, my general, that you are at home. This estate is offered to you by the First Consul, who sent me to give you possession of it.
    Moncey was amazed and moved at the same time. The attention and friendly disposition shown to him by the head of state was so imprinted in Moncey's soul that he remembered it all his life.
  10. Undecim
    Undecim 14 January 2022 11: 10
    +5
    Moncey returned to France, where on December 3, 1801 he was appointed inspector general of the newly created gendarmerie units by Napoleon. He held this position later - under the Bourbons.

    Unfortunately, the author did not understand some issues. In 1801, Napoleon created the Gendarmerie d'élite de la Garde impériale, an elite gendarmerie of the Imperial Guard, commanded by Anne Jean Marie René Savary, Duke of Rovigo.
    And the Gendarmerie nationale, the National Gendarmerie, of which Moncey was inspector general, is the maréchaussée, renamed in 1791, that has existed in France since the Middle Ages.
    1. VLR
      14 January 2022 11: 33
      +6
      Sorry. but according to French sources, the gendarme units were not renamed in 1791, but created anew.
      Under the kings, bodyguards of high-ranking officials were called gendarmes; after the revolution, gendarmes became similar to the former "military marshals" who kept order in the troops. This is in 1791. Plus, Napoleon in 1801 created elite units of gendarmes, which in 1802 were included in the consular guard. Indeed, these gendarmes were commanded, first by Savary, then by Durosnel and Dotancourt. And Monse was not the commander of specific units (at least the linear, at least the elite gendarmerie), but the inspector general of all gendarme units. It was he who led the ceremonies in which the elite units of the gendarmes were received, for example, the ceremony of transferring the sword of Frederick the Great to the Les Invalides,
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 14 January 2022 11: 45
        +6
        Sorry. but according to French sources, the gendarme units were not renamed in 1791, but created anew.

        Yes, you are right, I was a bit sloppy. It meant that when the name for the gendarmerie created in 1791 was chosen, the National Assembly considered the old name Maréchaussee to be associated with the old regime and chose a new name - the National Gendarmerie.
        And the d'élite de la Garde impériale created by Napoleon was part of the Imperial Guard and had nothing to do with the National Gendarmerie.
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 14 January 2022 11: 51
          +8
          Gendarmerie d'élite de la Garde impériale

          So these are elite bodyguards? Like our cavalry guards - a unit of especially close guards cuirassiers?
          1. VLR
            14 January 2022 12: 02
            +7
            Yes, the French royal gendarmes are the personal guards of princes of the blood and other dignitaries. The elite units of Napoleon's gendarmes guarded the imperial residences, headquarters, and accompanied the emperor. they also guarded high-ranking guests (the same Pope) and important captives, were responsible for especially valuable trophies.
            And the linear units of Bonaparte's gendarmes maintained order in the troops and military districts, providing assistance to the civil administration if necessary.
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 14 January 2022 13: 04
              +7
              And the linear units of Bonaparte's gendarmes maintained order in the troops and military districts, providing assistance to the civil administration if necessary.

              Well, by analogy - as the difference between our cavalry guards - and our own Gendarme Regiment with gendarmerie teams. Understood! yes Thank you, Valery! drinks
              Judging by the fact that the gendarmerie army units (not to be confused with the guards semi-squadron!) We formed in 1815, the screws began to tighten ...
              Paradoxes of history... Pavel the First pissed off Catherine's noblemen, including the decimated guards, for which he entered the mass consciousness as the most important royal tyrant and tyrant... (yes, the memoirs on which textbooks are written are written by offended nobles!).
              "Grandma's favorite" bent the ALL army after the wars with Napoleon, also put some of the peasants (military settlements) in a very interesting pose, and remained the king, relatively neutral and even handsome ... request
              1. VLR
                14 January 2022 13: 13
                +7
                Paul I was not afraid to take responsibility for himself. But Alexander I was not called a Byzantine for nothing: he told the nobles what they wanted to hear. They say, "it will be, everything is like with my grandmother," that is, a mess, and the opportunity to serve in the guard without going to the barracks, and without even coming to St. Petersburg. About liberal reforms. About "European values". Etc. And he threw off the "dirty" and unpleasant work on others, primarily on Arakcheev. And there was a rumor: they say the king is kind, enlightened, humane, but Arakcheev with his satraps is fierce, he took all the power for himself and bullies people. And the tsar-father knows nothing and does not know.
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 14 January 2022 13: 36
                  +7
                  Paul I was not afraid to take responsibility for himself.

                  Not just afraid! You could say he did just that. He did, slowly flying off the coils, to the point that many of his decrees are clearly precedent. This must be admitted, without in the least belittling other, worthy, personality traits of the emperor.
                  I read Vigel last night. He interestingly wrote his youthful memories in his memoirs, they say, upon Paul's arrival in Moscow, generosity rained down like from a cornucopia...
                  About liberal reforms. About "European values". Etc. And he threw off the "dirty" and unpleasant work on others, primarily on Arakcheev.

                  It is quite possible, but I am a little "floating" to Alexandra. The fact that he was cunning is understandable. Since childhood, he skillfully maneuvered between his granny and the dissatisfied behavior of this very granny daddy, and received buns and love from both.
                2. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 14 January 2022 14: 18
                  +3
                  Paul I was not afraid to take responsibility for himself.

                  I have a question for you, as an expert, Valery. From memoirs to memoirs from noblemen (the same Turgenev tried, and, EMNIP, Golovkin), it is said about the ban under Paul on "round hats". As far as I understand, after all ... it was ..

                  Proposal to the council of the deanery of Count Buxgevden, St. Petersburg military governor.
                  August 9th day, 1797.

                  And confirmation of the order on January 13 of this year not to wear round hats to anyone, except for those who wear Russian dress and foreign and Russian sailors, although these latter do not have German dress.
                  1. VLR
                    14 January 2022 14: 27
                    +5
                    There are many myths about Paul, about his strange prohibitions and tyranny. Moreover, some, even often quoted, are not confirmed anywhere in the documents. Someone told an anecdote, the second wrote it down, the third quoted it, the fourth presented it as a historical fact, and the fifth included it in the textbook.
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 14 January 2022 14: 36
                      +5
                      That's right, you are absolutely right.
                      But the "proposal" I have quoted is confirmed by Russkaya Starina, Volume 2, 1870, p. 516.
                      While I was looking for decrees for a comment (they can not be found!), Here, I downloaded a squeeze from this issue. At the same time, I found a scanned copy of the decree on the issue of coins of a new sample of 1797 - higher fineness, higher weight.
              2. CHEREDA73
                CHEREDA73 14 January 2022 14: 25
                +3
                Paradoxes of history... Pavel the First pissed off Catherine's noblemen, including the decimated guards, for which he entered the mass consciousness as the most important royal tyrant and tyrant... (yes, the memoirs on which textbooks are written are written by offended nobles!).

                Nikolai, I never sympathize with the "discouraged guard" and "Catherine's noblemen", but you are very sympathetic to Pavel, your main character. Paul should have understood that he is not in a vacuum, but in a society that has certain interests and aspirations. To neglect them is not something that should not be, but it was extremely dangerous.
                And to leave some alliances and enter into others, relying only on their desires, not taking into account the economy, trade, etc. - isn't this tyranny?
                Under modern conditions, such a ruler would have been dismissed, and then Paul paid with his life.
  11. CHEREDA73
    CHEREDA73 14 January 2022 11: 21
    +5
    Valery, thanks!
    I haven't even heard of Monse. The more interesting it was to read the article. And not only the article, but also comments, where there are many interesting additions.
  12. depressant
    depressant 14 January 2022 11: 25
    +6
    One of the highlights of this whole story.
    Not yet a marshal (he became one in 1808), Moncey was involved in the grand coronation ceremony of Napoleon on December 2, 1804. Moncey was instructed to carry a basket trimmed with purple velvet with gold lace, intended for the mantle of the Empress Josephine, and Murat was instructed to carry her crown.
    The very same ceremony of the coronation of Napoleon was really grandiose!
    In 1804, many buildings in Paris were still damaged as a result of revolutionary battles. They were hastily repaired under the direction of the architects Percier and Montaigne, and where they failed, they were decorated as best they could.
    The coronation feast was to be held in the style of Caesar. Because Notre Dame was decorated in the style of the empire. But preparations were going on all over Paris! The windows of the rich were curtained with banners and carpets, in the windows of the poor one could see decorated sheets - the Parisians could not deny themselves a holiday! The coronation, as already mentioned, took place in Notre Dame Cathedral, and it was there that the incident happened - for the Pope wassat )))

    The Pope appeared in Notre Dame Cathedral to the hymn "Tu es Petrus". At the time of the coronation, as soon as Pius VII said: “They are receiving the imperial crown ...”, Napoleon suddenly turned around, gestured to the Pope that he himself knew what to do next: he himself put on the “crown of Charlemagne”, then replaced it with a golden laurel wreath. Then he crowned Josephine, who knelt before him.
    Pius VII, limited in his actions, had no choice but to announce to everyone in Latin: "Emperor forever!"
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 14 January 2022 11: 55
      +7
      Pius VII, limited in his actions, had no choice but to announce to everyone in Latin: "Emperor forever!"

      Napoleon wanted to “consecrate” his coronation by the personal presence of Pope Pius VII. Historians have dug through the archives to find similar examples in the past. Napoleon himself did not tolerate historians, believing that only Caesars could judge Caesars (for the French, he believed, it is enough to remember that the whole history of France began with 18 Brumaire). But I had to plunge into the darkness of ancient Europe in order to extract from there King Pepin the Short, who was as real for the French as Tsar Peas is for us Russians. Pepin became a godsend for Napoleon, for in 754 he took the crown from the hands of Pope Stephen III.
      “Pius should be,” Napoleon punished. “If he doesn’t come, I will shake him out of Rome like a pig from a sack.”
      Dad has arrived. Paris was preparing for an unheard-of farce of history.
      <......>
      The coronation took place on December 2. Pope Pius VII and the newly-minted "Pipin the Short" at ten o'clock in the morning left the Tuileries for the cathedral. It was very cold, the marshals and dignitaries were carrying frozen regalia, the imperial power - the scepter, sword and crown of Charlemagne, and the poor dad was so cold that he probably cursed the story of Stephen III, who had the stupidity to hand the crown to the robber Pepin the Short ...


      (V.S. Pikul, "To Each His Own").
      1. depressant
        depressant 14 January 2022 12: 03
        +5
        Historians "had to plunge into the darkness of ancient Europe in order to extract from there King Pepin the Short, who was as real for the French as Tsar Pea is for us Russians."
        Nikolay, thanks! Have fun from the heart good wassat ))))
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 14 January 2022 12: 43
          +5
          Nikolay, thanks! Have fun from the heart

          It was funny for me to read it too, Lyudmila Yakovlevna! yes
        2. Undecim
          Undecim 14 January 2022 13: 14
          +7
          "I had to plunge into the darkness of ancient Europe in order to extract from there King Pepin the Short, who was as real to the French as Tsar Peas is to us Russians."

          This phrase is just very unfortunate from the point of view of characterizing its author as a historian.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 14 January 2022 17: 39
            +4
            Strongly agree!
        3. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 14 January 2022 17: 34
          +6
          It is worth remembering that Pepin the Short is as real to the French as Vladimir Yasno Solnyshko is to us. Founder of the Carolingian dynasty, whose beginnings were continued by his son, Charlemagne.
          1. CHEREDA73
            CHEREDA73 14 January 2022 17: 52
            +1
            It is worth remembering that Pepin the Short is as real to the French as Vladimir Yasno Solnyshko is to us. Founder of the Carolingian dynasty, whose endeavors were continued by his son, Charlemagne

            Hello Anton! Glad to hear you.
            Of course, these are all real characters, this is understandable.
            Being a real character did not prevent Prince Vladimir Svyatoslavich from becoming the hero of a whole epic epic hi
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 14 January 2022 18: 02
              +3
              Being a real character did not prevent Prince Vladimir Svyatoslavich from becoming the hero of a whole epic epic
              And the hero is by no means positive.
              Hello, Eugene!
              1. CHEREDA73
                CHEREDA73 14 January 2022 18: 08
                +2
                Yes, not without it wink
                I mean, "Red Sun" is also in some way already "King Pea". drinks
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 14 January 2022 18: 18
                  +3
                  Here, Eugene, there is a cognitive dissonance...
                  For, I feel, in the next couple of years, retelling jokes "about Little Johnny" will become a criminal act in the Russian Federation.
                  1. CHEREDA73
                    CHEREDA73 14 January 2022 18: 22
                    +2
                    Yeah, "here it is, Mikhalych" laughing
                    Well, it's easy for me wink
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 14 January 2022 18: 46
                      +3
                      Well, actually, and I do not strain until the "devastation in the closets" overtook. Sorry, two years in the army instilled a love for a warm water closet, and I meet all social upheavals with the slogan: "Where am I going to shit?"
                      1. depressant
                        depressant 14 January 2022 19: 45
                        +2
                        “Of course, the sanctions are serious, –
                        hedgehog replied to his naked ass." (c)
      2. Liam
        Liam 14 January 2022 12: 08
        +3
        Quote: Pane Kohanku
        V.S. Pikul, "To each his own")

        hi
        Pikul was a complete layman in history. Napoleon needed the presence of the Pope to reproduce the coronation of Charlemagne, who served as an example and imitated him.
        But as a real megalomaniac, which he was, he considered himself cooler than Karl and therefore decided that it was the Pope who should come to Paris, and not he to Rome and put the crown on his head himself, and not from the hands of the Pope. He removed the intermediary between himself and God)
        1. CHEREDA73
          CHEREDA73 14 January 2022 12: 39
          +6
          Pikul in history was a complete layman

          It is easy to scatter unflattering epithets, knowing that it will not arrive.
          This is not an indicator of high morality.
          There is already one "Olezhek" here who called Valentin Savvich a "pop historian" and are you there too?
          Before you can say anything about a person, you need to get to know him more deeply.
          You, as I understand it, know nothing about Pikul and his methods of work and his library. If they knew, they would be more careful in epithets.
          1. Liam
            Liam 14 January 2022 13: 00
            +3
            Quote: CHEREDA73
            knowing it won't come.
            This is not an indicator of high morality.

            I am shocked of course ... to the core. And one can say frightened by the prospect of such imminent dangers for me. My moral foundations trembled menacingly after such grave accusations. Touched, in general ....


            Quote: CHEREDA73
            you know nothing about Pikul and his methods of work and his library

            Pikul is not even a folk historian, but a writer. And his level as a historian is A. Dumas (senior). That is, a layman.
            layman - quasi-specialist, non-professional, half-educated, non-specialist, amateur
            1. CHEREDA73
              CHEREDA73 14 January 2022 13: 03
              +5
              For it is said: "do not throw pearls before swine" ...
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 14 January 2022 14: 26
                +5
                Eugene, hi. hi
                A pig is a useful animal, for example, fried.
                And what's the point of Romanian? request laughing
                1. CHEREDA73
                  CHEREDA73 14 January 2022 14: 38
                  +3
                  Yep, that's understandable...
                  I'll know.
              2. Okolotochny
                Okolotochny 14 January 2022 14: 26
                +9
                Colleague, hi don't take it to heart. There is such a group on the site, lovers of "40 varieties of sausage." Those who "hooked up", but who "know the history of Russia best of all." This individual also declares that Suvorov's Swiss campaign through the Alps is his defeat.
                1. CHEREDA73
                  CHEREDA73 14 January 2022 14: 36
                  +4
                  Thank you for your support!
                  It is very easy to kick a dead lion that cannot respond.
                  And putting Dumas and Pikul on the same board is generally beyond the bounds.
                  It is clear that it is impossible to study history from art books. But Pikul awakens interest in the topic and you start reading something else, some encyclopedic articles, other sources ... Then a picture clearly emerges in your head.
                  And Valentin Savvich Pikul is exactly what a historian is. It is a pity that Antonina Ilyinichna (the wife and first assistant of Valentin Savvich) is not here. She would have put everything on the shelves, not like me.
                  1. Ryazan87
                    Ryazan87 14 January 2022 18: 06
                    +3
                    Valentin Savvich Pikul is precisely that historian.

                    Have mercy, what a historian he is. The pen had a lively, in the Soviet period it made an impression. I worked with memoirs, yes: in fact, the key technique is to assemble a compilation of several memoirs, flourish with artistic inventions and hello) "Pen and sword" is ready. Or there "Favorite" what. At the then level, it seemed like a revelation (he did indeed have some access to interesting things and "permissions"). But then, you know, Yulian Semyonov is also a historian.
                    1. CHEREDA73
                      CHEREDA73 14 January 2022 18: 27
                      0
                      Nikita, hello!
                      Here, believe me - HISTORIAN.
                      I didn't come up with this. Pikul's activity was illuminated like an x-ray by the official Soviet historical science. And there were such "generals from history" that they petitioned for Pikul to be awarded an academic title "on the basis of the totality of his work." So historian...
                      1. Undecim
                        Undecim 14 January 2022 22: 42
                        +5
                        Here, believe me - HISTORIAN.

                        Well, I don’t believe it, especially since it’s in capital letters. Popularizer of history - maybe.
                      2. CHEREDA73
                        CHEREDA73 14 January 2022 22: 59
                        +1
                        Hello, Viktor Nikolaevich.
                        Yuri Aleksandrovich Limonov considered Valentin Savvich Pikul to be his equal. And Limonov is a significant figure.
                        I also recommend Antonina Pikul's book "Valentin Pikul", especially the chapter "the writer's creative laboratory". Perhaps, being interested, you will find more materials yourself and change your mind.
                      3. Undecim
                        Undecim 14 January 2022 23: 07
                        +2
                        Hello! At my age, changing your mind is bad form.
                      4. CHEREDA73
                        CHEREDA73 14 January 2022 23: 24
                        0
                        Somehow even strange from you to hear such a wording.
                      5. Undecim
                        Undecim 14 January 2022 23: 28
                        +1
                        Why strange? Am I seen to change my mind frequently?
                      6. CHEREDA73
                        CHEREDA73 15 January 2022 00: 00
                        0
                        No, Viktor Nikolaevich, that's not the point...
                        It’s just that you, without reading the materials, immediately issue a verdict. This is a biased approach. And since I have already formed an opinion about you, this seems strange to me.
                      7. Undecim
                        Undecim 15 January 2022 00: 24
                        +2
                        It’s just that you, without reading the materials, immediately issue a verdict.

                        I do not claim to be judgmental in this matter. I am familiar with the materials, but they do not affect my humble opinion.
                      8. CHEREDA73
                        CHEREDA73 15 January 2022 00: 28
                        +2
                        Of course, this is your right.
                        The position of Yuri Alexandrovich Limonov is closer to me.
                2. CHEREDA73
                  CHEREDA73 14 January 2022 14: 42
                  +5
                  This individual also declares that Suvorov's Swiss campaign through the Alps is his defeat.

                  Well, yes! Of course, "defeat" ... No wonder Massena said that he would give all his victories for one Swiss campaign of Suvorov ...
                  In those tragic circumstances, Suvorov and our troops "jumped over their heads" and even the enemy appreciated this.
                  1. Ryazan87
                    Ryazan87 14 January 2022 18: 08
                    +2
                    Suvorov showed himself superbly, avoiding the defeat of his army in completely impossible conditions. At the same time, the Swiss campaign was unsuccessful for the Russians in terms of military results. One defeat near Zurich is worth something. However, there is a complex of reasons, and more of a political nature.
                  2. Liam
                    Liam 16 January 2022 01: 22
                    0
                    Quote: CHEREDA73
                    No wonder Massena said that he would give all his victories for one Swiss campaign of Suvorov ...

                    Such fundamental historical knowledge can only be possessed by a Persian who studies history according to the works of such a great historian as Pikul .... luminaries, so to speak ..
                    1. CHEREDA73
                      CHEREDA73 16 January 2022 10: 47
                      +1
                      Pikul does not mention this...
                      Take it easy.
                      1. Liam
                        Liam 16 January 2022 11: 08
                        0
                        But for such fakes it is very easy to calculate laymen .When a Persian with a smart look utters these nonsense, at his cultural level, you can safely put an end to it. His level of knowledge in history is Dumas and Pikul
                      2. CHEREDA73
                        CHEREDA73 16 January 2022 11: 18
                        +2
                        If we are talking about me, then I am, yes, a layman in history. I'm not ashamed to admit it. I am an expert in another industry.
                        By the way, I don't know why, but you omit my phrase that "you can't study history from art books."
                        No need to insult the Persians. It seems to me that you do not know anything about them, at least about modern ones.
                      3. Liam
                        Liam 16 January 2022 12: 09
                        0
                        Quote: CHEREDA73
                        If we are talking about me, then I am, yes, a layman in history

                        In this our opinions coincide, which is already a step forward.
                        By the way .. how would you characterize a person who, being a layman in some matter and realizing this, undertakes to write pretentious nonsense about Massena's non-existent statements or about the merits of the writer as a historian and allows himself mentoring tactlessness in relation to users whose knowledge is incomparably higher in matter. gratitude for the support of the same ignoramuses like him in the worst manifestations of the herd instinct
                      4. CHEREDA73
                        CHEREDA73 16 January 2022 12: 18
                        +3
                        in relation to users whose knowledge is incomparably higher in matter

                        I see no evidence of your "height". You have zero publications, nowhere to draw conclusions. So, I ask you - in the Authors. Then you will talk from other positions. Until then, alas...
                      5. Liam
                        Liam 16 January 2022 12: 40
                        0
                        Quote: CHEREDA73
                        I see no evidence of your "height"

                        No wonder ... for this you need to have a certain level of knowledge yourself, and you and I seem to have reached a consensus that you don’t have the necessary knowledge and write mostly nonsense as part of the so-called friendly communication in the History section. If you remove the fig leaf from the verbal husk - Doing mostly pointless flooding.
                        Quote: CHEREDA73
                        So, I ask you - to the Authors

                        Superficial You are still Persian. According to your knowledge, only those one and a half people who write articles in the History section have knowledge here?
                      6. CHEREDA73
                        CHEREDA73 16 January 2022 12: 50
                        +2
                        Dear Liam!
                        You haven't answered anything in detail.
                        But you have provocations everywhere. From which I conclude that you need a pick, and not a clarification of the truth. I just don't need this pickup.
                        Please, demonstrate your knowledge as an Author. We'll appreciate if it's worth it. Believe me, I have no prejudice against you.
                        I think we can end there.
                    2. CHEREDA73
                      CHEREDA73 16 January 2022 11: 08
                      0
                      And one more thing: Limonov made his conclusions about Pikul as a historian not on the basis of reading Pikul's novels, but on a different basis.
            2. LisKat2
              LisKat2 14 January 2022 15: 40
              +2
              Liam, allow a woman to intercede for A. Dumas. Thanks to the "layman" I began to be interested in stories. On vacation, after the 3rd grade, for the first time I watched: "The Musketeers" with Boyarsky. I liked it and began to read Dumas.
              Now I'm interested in history. I dare to hope that I know the history and not bad. At work, I know best. Of course, I do not know the history in full, but at least a little, but I heard about a lot
              1. Undecim
                Undecim 14 January 2022 23: 05
                +1
                I dare to hope that I know the history and not bad.

                Lasciate ogni speranza, voi ch'entrate
        2. Okolotochny
          Okolotochny 14 January 2022 14: 22
          +6
          Pikul in history was a complete layman.

          Oh how? And you are a master. Oh well.
      3. Liam
        Liam 14 January 2022 12: 33
        +2
        Quote: Pane Kohanku
        Pepin became a godsend for Napoleon, for in 754 he took the crown from the hands of Pope Stephen III.

        Pepin became king of France in 751, 3 years before meeting the pope.
      4. Mihaylov
        Mihaylov 14 January 2022 14: 06
        +5
        Quote: Pane Kohanku
        It was very cold, the marshals and dignitaries carried frozen regalia, the imperial power - the scepter, sword and crown of Charlemagne, and poor dad was so cold ...

        That's interesting, a strong frost in Paris is how many degrees below zero? or higher? wassat
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 14 January 2022 14: 40
          +3
          That's interesting, a strong frost in Paris is how many degrees below zero? or higher?

          Greetings, Sergey! yes You have to ask those who were there! drinks
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 14 January 2022 14: 50
            +4
            Hi, Nikolay! smile
            Or ask those who retreated from Moscow in October 1912, but this is a problem ... request
            1. LisKat2
              LisKat2 14 January 2022 18: 28
              +2
              "in October 1912" no one in Russia retreated, but in 1812 it was
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 14 January 2022 19: 03
                +3
                Well, I have an obvious typo, no one except you paid attention.
                Do I, too, cling to you because of every little thing?
                1. CHEREDA73
                  CHEREDA73 14 January 2022 19: 13
                  +3
                  Nothing, it was clear to everyone else hi
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 14 January 2022 19: 24
                    +2
                    Thank you, Zhenya. smile
                    I’m not against criticism if it’s serious about the case. drinks
          2. Mihaylov
            Mihaylov 14 January 2022 15: 00
            +3
            Quote: Pane Kohanku
            Greetings, Sergey! yes It is necessary to ask those who were there

            On December 2, 2021 in Paris it was +5, in December 2018 it was +2. I didn’t find any data about 15, but something about “a very severe frost”, which even regalia froze - “I am tormented by vague doubts” hi
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 14 January 2022 15: 03
              +2
              I didn’t find any data about 1804, but something about “a very severe frost”, which even regalia froze - “I am tormented by vague doubts”

              So the Pope came from the very city of Rome! And it's even hotter there! bully Here, apparently, acclimatization, sir! request
            2. CHEREDA73
              CHEREDA73 14 January 2022 19: 14
              +2
              The scientist Ampère was there and recorded the weather.
              1. The comment was deleted.
            3. CHEREDA73
              CHEREDA73 14 January 2022 19: 46
              +1
              Zabarinsky Petr
              André Marie Ampere
            4. Bolt cutter
              Bolt cutter 14 January 2022 21: 09
              +2
              December 2, 2021 in Paris it was +5
              In 1879 it was - 26 in January - the Seine was frozen 40 centimeters. In 1804 it was not so hard - there were no records - but the Seine was covered with ice and it was about -10 on some days.
              Even 20 years ago, snow on Christmas Day in Paris was commonplace.
          3. CHEREDA73
            CHEREDA73 14 January 2022 19: 11
            +2
            I asked...
            I did not find an accurate weather report, but there is a letter from Ampere to his beloved, where he mentions, among other things, the weather on the day of Napoleon's coronation.
            I couldn't copy it, but he writes that "the day before yesterday it was cold and icy, but today (the day of the coronation) it got a little warmer."
        2. Undecim
          Undecim 16 January 2022 15: 43
          +2
          That's interesting, a strong frost in Paris is how many degrees below zero? or higher?

          The severity of the weather (according to the wind-cold index) is the same in Paris and Musohransk. The temperature minimum in Paris is minus 24 degrees in December 1879. 754 - the end of the climatic pessimum of the early Middle Ages, the climate was much worse than today.
  13. ycuce234-san
    ycuce234-san 14 January 2022 12: 16
    +3
    The estate qualification was to blame for student misadventures in the legal field of Moncey - in France and England it was official, and in Germany it was unofficial in the form of powerful pressure from collectives (“guter altpreußischer Ersatz”, “erwünschte Kreise”). Therefore, with such fierce persistence, the parents stuffed the child into lawyers.
    But where he should have been sent, so to a foreign land, the well-being of the family allowed - he probably had the opportunity to unlearn at such an institution as the Nikolaev Engineering Academy, which Mendeleev of ignoble blood then entered and, if I’m not mistaken, then Russian military doctors of that era had a very conditional class barrier and already had a world-class military medical academy.
    1. VLR
      14 January 2022 19: 46
      +1
      Well, the Nikolaev Academy in Russia was still far away. There, just the heyday of serfdom was - Catherine's "Golden Age" of the Russian nobility with the complete lack of rights of the main population of the country.
      1. ycuce234-san
        ycuce234-san 14 January 2022 22: 05
        +1
        He entered in 1769 and I made a little mistake in the university.
        But he could still get a Russian military education, since there were a lot of educational institutions in the empire.

        In 1701, the School of Mathematical and Navigational Sciences was founded in Moscow in the building of the former Sukharev Tower. In the same 1701, the Artillery School was opened; in 1708 - Medical School; in 1712 - Engineering School. In 1715, the senior classes of the School of Mathematical and Navigational Sciences were transferred to St. Petersburg and transformed into the Naval Academy (now the Higher Naval Academy).
        Under Anna Ioannovna (1730-1740), the children of soldiers studied at garrison schools.
        At metallurgical plants in the Urals and in the Olonets region, the government organized the first mining schools that trained mining specialists.
        The foundations were laid for the development of a system of closed estate schools that had developed by the middle of the XNUMXth century.
        In 1732, the Corps of Cadets or the Land Gentry (noble) Corps was established. After graduating from this educational institution, noble children received officer ranks.
        Under Anna Ioannovna, the Naval, Artillery and Page Corps were established.
        Under Elizabeth (1741-1762), military schools were reorganized. In 1744, a decree was issued to expand the network of primary schools. The first gymnasiums were opened: in Moscow (1755) and in Kazan (1758). In 1755, on the initiative of the favorite of the Empress, I. I. Shuvalov, Moscow University was founded, and in 1757, the Academy of Arts.
        In the second half of the XNUMXth century, two trends in education can be traced: the expansion of the network of educational institutions and the strengthening of the principle of class.
        That is, on the one hand, the period of his youth fell to the maximum, to the peak, of the class qualification for education in the world in general, on the other hand, military education in the Republic of Ingushetia was, it seems, more accessible. For example, in those days there was such a specific profession as a battle painter, marine painter - people of art often went with regiments to the battlefields and battle canvases were preserved from them.
  14. depressant
    depressant 14 January 2022 12: 37
    +4
    Moncey's actions in Spain ... Compared to the actions of other younger marshals in this theater of operations, they are no worse, and maybe even better. With a small force, he managed to inflict several defeats on the Spaniards.
    Napier, commander of the 50th, Royal, regiment, wounded during the battle of Corunna, left to die on the battlefield by his own, rescued by the French drummer Guibert, of course, taken prisoner:
    "Marshal Moncey, whose troops numbered 8 and never exceeded 10, continued to move and fight without interruption for a month. During this period, he overcame two of the steepest mountain passes in the world, crossed several large and difficult rivers, brought war into the streets of Valencia and, deceived about help from Catalonia, led his division out of a difficult situation, defeating his opponents in five battles, killing and wounding them in numbers equal to his own strength, making a 300-mile march through a hostile and densely populated country without any - any serious losses, without desertion from the Spanish battalions that were part of his troops and, more importantly, he increased these battalions with defectors from the ranks of the enemy ... Moncey, although he was an old man, was energetic, active and decisive "...

    Later, according to enthusiastic French authors, the Spaniards, paying tribute to the honesty, justice and humanity shown by Moncey on their territory, saw off his small cortege with cries of welcome:
    "Long live Marshal Moncey!"
    Of course, such episodes are unlikely to have taken place, given the unprecedented brutality shown by both sides in this war. However, the image of such a Moncey was already complex among the French public, and the legend was to their liking. Because Moncey personally was like that.
  15. depressant
    depressant 14 January 2022 13: 00
    +6
    1814 Napoleon's army had already suffered a catastrophe in Russia. The war crossed the Rhine line and took fire on the territory of France. Moncey is appointed Chief of Staff of the National Guard.

    Further, in the words of the historian Hadley.
    Napoleon gathered the officers of the National Guard at the Tuileries Palace and went out to them with his young son, accompanied by Empress Marie Louise. The three-year-old kid, who is also the King of Rome, was dressed in the uniform of the National Guard. Napoleon, holding his son in his arms, spoke: "Gentlemen, I must go to the army. I entrust to you those whom I consider the dearest in the world - my wife and son. Do not allow political differences to arise between you ... I do not hide from you that during the struggle, the enemy may approach Paris ... Before he approaches (to Paris), I will be on their flanks and destroy those who dare to invade our country. After that, he took the child and approached Moncey. "This is your future monarch," he said to the old marshal. Moncey was moved, his lips trembled, and tears appeared in his eyes. Meanwhile, the emperor walked with his son in front of the line of officers of the National Guard. The hall resounded with shouts: "Long live the Emperor! Long live the Roman King!"
    A few days later, leaving Paris, Nspoleon went to the army. And he never saw his wife or son again.
    1. LisKat2
      LisKat2 14 January 2022 15: 10
      +4
      "I entrust to you those whom I consider the most dear" in December 1825, Nicholas 1, turning to the soldiers: of the guards sapper battalion, said almost the same: "soldiers, I give you the most precious thing - my heir"
  16. astra wild2
    astra wild2 14 January 2022 13: 18
    +5
    Valery, colleagues, good afternoon. Haven't seen you for a long time.
    Valery, I have known you for a long time, even from your series about impostors and Peter Ulrich. By old friendship, tell me what you will have "delicious" next? Marshals You are already finishing, and after? I would like to read something related to the topic in order to be prepared
    1. VLR
      14 January 2022 13: 36
      +7
      We must first finish with the marshals. Then there will be two articles about the Polish legions of the French Republic and Bonaparte. And then, perhaps, something from the era of Ivan the Terrible.
      1. astra wild2
        astra wild2 14 January 2022 14: 01
        +3
        Valery, you are lovely: I missed Russia
      2. LisKat2
        LisKat2 14 January 2022 17: 21
        +2
        "According to the era of Ivan the Terrible" Valery, we are not delighted with Ivan the Terrible with a ratchet, but here many people like him. Stand up for us?
  17. astra wild2
    astra wild2 14 January 2022 13: 30
    +4
    "from April 5, 2016, they began to be called" National Guard "Valery, a small clarification: "Russian Guard", and not "National Guard"
    1. VLR
      14 January 2022 13: 37
      +7
      Look: there they call it that, and that way: as synonyms. And the full official name is:
      Federal Service of the National Guard Troops of the Russian Federation
  18. depressant
    depressant 14 January 2022 14: 38
    +1
    The duality of the Napoleonic era as a transition between feudalism and capitalism gave rise to a lot of curiosities, one of which happened to Moncey. In 1808, Napoleon sent Moncey to the Iberian Peninsula in order not only to overthrow King Charles IV from the throne, but also to prevent his son Ferdinand VII from ascending the throne, and already in 1819 Moncey was sent to Spain to restore Ferdinand VII to the throne.
    70-year-old Monsey did it, for which he received a bunch of awards, including the Russian Order of St. Vladimir I degree.
    Such are the grimaces of history.
  19. LisKat2
    LisKat2 14 January 2022 14: 58
    +2
    I wish you all good health. Valery, last time I didn’t see you during the day and my husband took the phone.
    And today I can talk to you.
    “separated from the wounded simulants "they performed the functions of the NKVD and SMERSH.
    I don’t really like the military theme, but recently I listened to audio books: “Svyaznoy”, “Letter train of the Generalissimo” and about the topic.
    Probably, these books will appeal to many regulars of the site.
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 14 January 2022 15: 07
      +2
      Valery, last time I didn’t see you during the day and my husband took the phone.

      The husband obviously knew about Valery, that's why he took away the phone ... tongue
      I wish you all good health.

      Fox cat, hello! love Okay, let's chat today!
      1. depressant
        depressant 14 January 2022 16: 30
        +3
        Dreams, dreams, where is your sweetness? Dreams gone, left... wassat )))
      2. LisKat2
        LisKat2 14 January 2022 16: 59
        +2
        I have nothing to do with cats. So you are slightly mistaken.
        Vitalya Vyacheslav Olegovich "seduced" with a weapon
  20. CHEREDA73
    CHEREDA73 14 January 2022 15: 39
    +4
    Quote: Pane Kohanku
    I didn’t find any data about 1804, but something about “a very severe frost”, which even regalia froze - “I am tormented by vague doubts”

    So the Pope came from the very city of Rome! And it's even hotter there! Here, apparently, acclimatization, sir!

    This is what ...
    But I remember that Valentin Savvich had a wonderful artistic description of the action of the main characters at night, where "the full moon shone" (I think it's "Favorite"). So after all, someone was not too lazy and calculated that on the mentioned date the moon was in a different phase ... what
  21. LisKat2
    LisKat2 14 January 2022 16: 00
    +3
    He stood next to CarloX "actually, Louis 18 was smarter and more noble than his brother Charles. The latter behaved as if it were: 1714.
    Louis Philippe d'Orleans is also from the Bourbon dynasty, it seems that he is the cousin of Charles X
  22. astra wild2
    astra wild2 14 January 2022 16: 49
    +2
    "already 28 years old" for that time "old woman". Then they got married early, for example, Field Marshal Sheremetyev married a 14-year-old girl, and he was 60. And she managed to become a mother to his adult children.
    And now there are cases when women are in no hurry to get married. A friend decided to live for herself. She has: a car, a true friend: a 3 year old dog and a little daughter. They don't need anything else
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 14 January 2022 17: 25
      +3
      Anna Olenina got married at 32.
      1. depressant
        depressant 14 January 2022 17: 52
        +2
        So Charlotte married Moncey at the age of 28. A deliberate marriage, they say, is strong. Maybe true, maybe not.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 14 January 2022 17: 58
          +2
          A deliberate marriage is said to be strong.
          "She fell in love with him for money,
          And he is her, for the attitude towards them "(C)
          1. depressant
            depressant 14 January 2022 18: 10
            +1
            Saving is not harmful, it would be something to save! Only it is impossible to buy the mind wassat )))
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 14 January 2022 19: 34
              +2
              Intelligence comes with maturity. In youth, everyone is ruled by emotions nurtured by species biology.
              1. depressant
                depressant 14 January 2022 19: 53
                +3
                Aha wassat )))
                "- I'm an accomplished man, I'm just a macho! - really, mom?" (WITH)
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 14 January 2022 19: 58
                  +2
                  I would laugh too...
                  1. depressant
                    depressant 14 January 2022 20: 08
                    +2
                    "A smile can solve a problem,
                    silence - avoid it. "(C)
                    Anton is very sad today. Another covid depression?
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 14 January 2022 20: 19
                      +2
                      Why not? Radio station "Evil Pierrot", always with you, mon ami!
                      1. depressant
                        depressant 14 January 2022 21: 09
                        +2
                        An hour of fun, fun, as they say, time until the rooster pecks on the crown of the head! )))
              2. Bolt cutter
                Bolt cutter 14 January 2022 19: 55
                +3
                Intelligence comes with maturity
                Not always and not for everyone.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 14 January 2022 20: 05
                  +2
                  Yes, sometimes. One of these myself.
                  "And weirdos, there are still such,
                  Breathe in this mixture
                  And they are not waiting for rewards, not for repentance,
                  Their heart hits the beat
                  The same uneven breathing "(C)
                2. depressant
                  depressant 14 January 2022 20: 15
                  +3
                  "Mistakes must be made first,
                  so that there is time to fix it." (c)
                  1. Bolt cutter
                    Bolt cutter 14 January 2022 20: 16
                    +3
                    It is better to regret what you have done than what you have not done (translation of an English phrase).
                    1. depressant
                      depressant 14 January 2022 20: 40
                      +3
                      And you know what will happen?
                      Yes, luck smiles on the brave, then to laugh at the hurried.
                      1. Bolt cutter
                        Bolt cutter 14 January 2022 20: 59
                        +2
                        luck favors the brave
                        Who does not risk, he does not drink chifir wassat
                      2. depressant
                        depressant 14 January 2022 21: 12
                        +2
                        I will be banal. "What is our life? Game!"
                      3. depressant
                        depressant 14 January 2022 21: 06
                        +2
                        Well, I wrote! What does it mean to be distracted and not
                        corrected
                        wassat ))))
  23. CHEREDA73
    CHEREDA73 14 January 2022 18: 14
    +2
    Quote: Ryazanets87
    At the same time, the Swiss campaign was unsuccessful for the Russians in terms of military results.

    Quite right! Unsuccessful. But the reasons are on the surface. And if it were not for the genius of Alexander Vasilyevich, then in those conditions there would be Zurich-2.
  24. LisKat2
    LisKat2 14 January 2022 18: 22
    +2
    Quote: Russian quilted jacket
    And I would be interested to read a truthful article about Count Benckendorff and his service. hi

    I read that the Decembrists generally spoke positively about him, and his sister was a Russian intelligence officer.
  25. LisKat2
    LisKat2 14 January 2022 18: 30
    0
    Best wishes. See you