Military Review

The birth of the Soviet missile defense system. This was not the case under Stalin.


Soviet Game of Thrones

In the same way, the Khrushchev era had its main scarecrows: the US nuclear submarine fleet and ballistic missiles.

These challenges had to be answered, in 1953 the development of a missile defense system started, in 1955 the first Soviet hydrogen bomb was tested, and a couple of years later the first Soviet R-7 ICBM was launched and the first Leninsky Komsomol nuclear submarine was put into operation.

By 1961, a missile defense prototype had been created, and delighted like a child, Khrushchev began to threaten the Americans, initiating the Berlin and Caribbean crises.

After their successful resolution, the Yankees realize that the USSR has reached a technological level at which war becomes suicidal, and from that moment on, plans to attack the Union itself were never seriously considered.

Both countries have moved into proxy wars from Nicaragua to Laos, and their own doctrines have turned into containment policies.

Khrushchev fulfilled his role - he saved the USSR from the horror of total war that had weighed on since Operation Dropshot, but it turned out sideways for him.

Immediately after the beginning of the first détente in relations with the United States, top party officials lose their fear completely. Khrushchev did not suit the partocrats very much - violent, rude, aggressive, always confused by reforms and reshuffles, not all of which were successful.

By the end of Khrushchev's reign, his main projects - from the development of virgin lands to the housing construction program - stalled, the people began to grumble. And how everyone got tired of his beloved Lysenko, because of which (and in general an absolutely childish understanding of science) Khrushchev lost the support of academicians.

As a result, the Politburo decided that it was enough to overstrain on the construction of mythical communism and endure the rudeness of the leader, it's time to live for your own pleasure.

In 1964, Khrushchev was summoned to Moscow, where it was popularly explained to him that he, it turns out, was tired and was leaving.

The era of Brezhnev came - the legendary stagnation, for almost 20 years, during which the USSR slowly decayed, in order to turn into a living corpse by the 1980s.

It was during this period that a kind of game of thrones flourished in high politics - a sluggish struggle between various ruling clans.

The clans accompanied the USSR at all stages of its existence, but flourished most of all in the era of stagnation.

They were formed according to three main features - geographical (Leningrad, Moscow, Donetsk, Dnepropetrovsk), national (Georgian, Armenian, Uzbek, Azerbaijani) and administrative (clans of the KGB, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the USSR Academy of Sciences, various ministries).

The most interesting for us are the dismantling of various Soviet ministries. As we remember, Khrushchev reformed the Academy, distributing research institutes, laboratories and research centers to all ministries and allowing them to be combined at his own discretion.

As a result, high-tech ministries such as the MEP and the MRP have become, in fact, monstrous and ugly corporations in the Soviet style.

In a traditional economy, the arbitrariness of production is limited to feedback from consumers through the market. Naturally, there are no distortions, however, in general, the scheme has been working successfully since the time of Adam Smith.

No less natural is the fact that under socialism this scheme is impossible. The whole essence of a planned economy is that the consumer is stupid, and without the help of the state that controls everything in the world, he will not figure out exactly what and in what quantities he needs, including toilet paper.

As a result, a separate parasitic layer of party officials arises between the corporation (that is, the ministry) and consumers (for example, the army), who order, accept and pay for the product, but do not use it themselves.

A little later, we will return to this topic when we discuss how the military tried to sell the A-1973T missile defense system in 35 (do not confuse it with the A-35M, very little is known about the T project in general).

There, the generals and colonels literally shoved away with their boots from the military-industrial complex officials (cleverly getting hold of the Decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR), who, without even asking their opinion, already climbed to allocate money and managed to thump several million into the unknown before the scandal reached the level when at a meeting at 4 -m GU MO his chief is Colonel General aviation G. F. Baidukov yelled at the representatives of the party:

You don't know how to work. Beria needs you with a stick!

According to the memoirs of Colonel N. D. Drozdov (deputy head of the 5th department of NII-2 of the USSR Ministry of Defense, member of the military subcommittee of the factory commission for testing the A-35 missile defense system), after such a demarche, the representatives of the Council of Ministers were left speechless, and then the meeting was quietly curtailed on a minor note, the A-35T project was rejected.

And how many such projects were successfully pushed through and continued until the collapse of the Union for decades?

ABM became especially famous for this, because the money was spinning there, as we mentioned in the first article, bоmore than the Union allocated to the rest of the military-industrial complex combined, and the veil of wild secrecy made it possible to turn anything at all without the slightest control.

Take, for example, the insane Terra-3 project, which, long before all those Reagan Star Wars, was supposed to shoot down satellites and missiles with lasers. It began in the mid-1960s, in fact, shortly after the discovery of the laser technology itself, but by the early 1970s it became clear that Terra-3 would never work.

Do you think the project was cancelled?

Yeah, now, you don't know the USSR well.

The project managers became hostages of bureaucratic procedures and the scientific and industrial base that served itself and by that time had already developed according to its own logic - the fact is that since the start of work on the project, an increasing number of institutions and structures have been involved in it, each of which was interested in continuing the project in one form or another, since it provided them with a stable workload and employment for their staff, and, as P.V. Zarubin notes, this whole flywheel continued to spin and could not be stopped at once. For a long time, neither scientists, nor designers, nor military customers dared to recognize directly the impracticability of the task at hand at the existing level of material and technical base.
An important factor was the aspect of family ties, since in 1978 the post of general designer, and then director of the head institution for the work on the Terra-3 project, was taken by N. D. Ustinov, the son of the head of the entire military-industrial complex, USSR Minister of Defense Marshal Ustinov.
But the work had been going on for more than ten years, and the creation of a laser missile defense system seemed to be postponed further and further. Despite the fact that the Terra-3 program was in crisis, it continued to be financed, a special enterprise was created for its needs, the production base developed, dozens of enterprises and institutions worked directly or indirectly in its interests.
In the meantime, the sense of dead-end work gradually moved beyond the circle of developers and spread to the management.

As a result, on the "Terra" alone, the military-industrial complex sawed tens of millions of rubles until the collapse of the USSR.

By the way, the vice-president of the USSR Academy of Sciences E. P. Velikhov himself was the scientific director of "Terra".

At the same time, even inside the ministries, no one was embarrassed to use money for a huge number of parallel and useless projects.

In 1984, the exhibition "Computers in the Soviet Army" was held in Moscow.
Naturally, I came.
More than 200 types of computers were presented there, not counting small splashes.
And what is 200 computers?
These are 200 operating systems, 200 sets of spare parts and equipment…
I spoke several times in the defense department of the Central Committee of the CPSU in Moscow: "Let's make one car." “Andrey, don’t interfere,” they answered me politely but firmly. There was "Bronya" - the base telephone station of the Soviet army. It has three different cars. One for switching, the other for network management, the third for working with the operator. With different command systems, with different operating systems, three sets of officers need to be served.
A thousand numbers in all - a small station!
Three computers - where does it fit?
And when I tried to swear, they told me again: don’t interfere.”

- recalled the head of the Department of System Programming of Mathematics at St. Petersburg State University, Professor, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences. A. N. Terekhov in 2019.

A single system, you say?

Displaced, you say, and killed all domestic ingenious independent computer developments?

No, haven't heard of this one.

Another difference between the classical economy and the Soviet one was that employees could leave any corporation and try their luck in their business.

This is how all US microelectronics was born - first, the "treacherous eight" fled to Fairchild Semiconductor from their boss Shockley (a despot in the best traditions of Soviet ministers), then Fairchild literally exploded, giving birth to Intel, AMD and about a dozen smaller companies.

There was nowhere to escape from the Soviet ministry - formally, one could only go to another research institute, under the control of another similar tyrant in the same system and work according to the same rules.

And yes, when they say that this did not happen under Stalin, here the Stalinists turn out to be partially right: this really did not happen under him.

The fact is that after the war, Stalin was rigidly held by the horror of the quite possible potential destruction of the entire USSR.

In the United States, a huge number of people from the highest echelons of power looked with sympathy at Curtis LeMay, who offered to go ahead and bomb the Union in the Stone Age until he got his own bomb.

Firstly, the world obviously did not like Stalin's expansion - having captured half of Europe, he continued to muddy the waters in the Middle East (Iranian crisis, an attempt to revise the Montreux Convention a little in his favor, etc.). It was obvious that Stalin would not stop with kindness.

Secondly, many very influential people in American politics and science, such as von Neumann, were fierce ideological anti-communists.

If you say why not bomb [the Soviets] tomorrow, I say, why not today. If you say today at five o'clock, I say why not one o'clock.

This is perhaps the best quote of a brilliant scientist, describing all his love for communism (although, perhaps, it is only attributed to him, since it was published after his death).

It is not surprising that in such conditions the development of nuclear weapons and anti-aircraft missile systems were a matter of life and death for Stalin, it is no wonder that he made peace with scientists and gave them the anniversary of the Academy, removed all ideological oppression (“there will be no theory of relativity and quantum physics - there will be no bomb!”) And dispersed “ red professors.

However, to those who fundamentally did not want to make weapons, Stalin was harsh.

Kapitsa refused (the only one of the top Soviet physicists) to participate in a nuclear project, after which he was immediately kicked out of all posts and practically sent into exile.

One of a dozen plans to defeat the USSR that appeared in 1945-1950. Lauris Norstad to Leslie Groves, Atomic Bomb Production (15 September 1945), Correspondence (Top Secret) of the Manhattan Engineer District, 1942–1946, microfilm publication M1109 (Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1980)

In 1948, Curtis LeMay became head of the US Air Force Strategic Command and began to develop plans for the physical destruction of the Union.

LeMay was a genius, a maniac, and a military sociopath who spent ten years leading the world to a full-fledged nuclear war. During his command, more than 25 tough provocations were initiated with the invasion of the airspace of the USSR, and it often came to a full-fledged air battle.

Colonel Harold Austin recalled how LeMay told him before flying out in May 1954:

Well, maybe if we do this overflight right, we can get World War III started.

Then the pilot took it as a joke, but many years later, after Lemay's resignation, Austin met with him again and he said:

Well, we'd have been a hell of a lot better off if we'd got World War III started in those days.

In 1962, Lemay, being the chief of staff of the Air Force, demanded an immediate invasion of Cuba, no matter what it turned out to be, up to an exchange of nuclear strikes with the USSR.

In general, it is no coincidence that he is considered one of the possible prototypes of the half-witted patriot, sociopath and paranoid General Potroshilling from Stanley Kubrick's film "Dr.

Soviet ...

...and American propaganda mostly from the 1950s

As we can see, the development of Soviet science and technology (naturally, primarily military technology) under Stalin and Khrushchev was dictated by vital necessity.

In fact, the fifties were a time of terrible paranoia (first US Secretary of Defense James Forrestal, before leaving the window of the 16th floor, repeated in delirium "The Russians are coming, the Russians are coming. They are everywhere. I saw Russian soldiers!"), when the world many times teetered on a knife edge and nearly tumbled into a natural Fallout.

Without Soviet computers, the nuclear (more precisely, thermonuclear) triad and air defense / missile defense systems, which were either created or were just beginning to be created by the 1960s, the third world could become absolutely real.

For pedants, we note that, in addition to the bomb, the means of its delivery were also important.

In 1945, no country in the world had bombers comparable to the American B-29s, and there might not have been any further, but fate presented Stalin with a royal gift.

In 1944, as many as 4 Superfortresses turned out to be on the territory of the USSR, reaching the border after the bombing of Japan.

The planes were literally dismantled to the last screw, carefully measured and studied, and in the shortest possible time their Tu-4 clone appeared (in the process they almost went crazy from the need to adjust everything to the metric system and from the monstrous complexity of the unique onboard weapons - remotely controlled Sperry turrets , which we already wrote about in the article about cybernetics).

Such exercises were carried out in American schools throughout the 1950s and contributed to the growth of panic


What has changed with the advent of Brezhnev?

Yes, in general, everyone - both the USSR and the USA.

In the same year, when Brezhnev ousted Khrushchev, another well-known maniac died - MacArthur, who called for the destruction of China with nuclear weapons during the Korean War, and at the same time Lemey was finally kicked out of retirement, and von Neumann died of cancer back in 1957. Gone is the last generation of people who sincerely dreamed of war with all their hearts (moreover, the Americans here many times surpassed the Soviets in dreams).

In the same year, Kosygin's reform began, coinciding with the discovery of the seventh largest oil field in the world - Samotlor. Petrodollars poured into the country. Even under Khrushchev, as the Volga-Ural oil and gas province was developed in the 1950s, oil export figures began to grow. In 1955, oil production was 70,8 million tons, and by 1965 it was already 241,7 million tons.

In the late 1950s, a fundamental restructuring of the structure of Soviet oil exports also took place: if before 1960 the supply of petroleum products prevailed, then after that it was already crude oil.

After the energy crisis of 1973, the USSR rapidly increased the volume of oil exports to Western countries, which, unlike their allies in the socialist camp, paid in freely convertible currency.

From 1970 to 1980, this figure increased by 1,5 times - from 44 to 63,6 million tons. Five years later, it reached 80,7 million tons. And all this against the backdrop of rapidly rising oil prices.

The volume of foreign exchange earnings of the USSR from oil exports is amazing. If in 1970 the revenue of the USSR was 1,05 billion dollars, then in 1975 it was already 3,72 billion dollars, and by 1980 it had increased to 15,74 billion dollars.

On both sides of the ocean, everyone played enough in the war and realized that it was much more profitable to trade.

As a result, from the mid-1960s, all military developments of the USSR began to slip (we will talk about this in more detail in the final part, dedicated specifically to the fate of the A-35/135).

Together with them, computer developments also begin to slip.

Stalin was terrified of the possible destruction of the country (and his power), Khrushchev was afraid, by the time of Brezhnev only fears remained.

That is why 1972 was a turning point, both for Soviet supercomputers and for their most important application - the missile defense system.

At this time, the Americans decided to stop cutting budgets at home, too, and offered to tie up with threats to each other already officially.

The USSR gladly agreed, and since 1971, in fact, even a formally working result has ceased to be required from our corporations-ministries. From now on, it was possible to safely share goodies - scientific degrees, titles, awards and prizes (as well as cottages and cars) without any need to do at least something real.

As we remember, the ministries acquired their research institutes, design bureaus and laboratories as early as 1961, as a result of which numerous scientists also joined the battle for sawing in the Soviet way.

1965-1991 is the time when (in two steps) the main scientific and technical scam of the USSR (and the most expensive one) took place - an attempt to create a working missile defense system (and not a prototype, like System A) and computers for it.

At the first stage (1965–1975), the Ministry of Radio Industry fought with the Ministry of Defense for funding developments under the MKSK Argun (A-351) project. On the part of the Moscow Region, Kisunko and his group spoke, on the part of the Ministry of Radio Industry - Mints, Raspletin and Kalmykov.

ABM is missiles plus radars, plus computers. Design bureaus for missiles at the Ministry of Defense, of course, were found, not even one, at the very least they also organized for radars, but there was an ambush from the computer.

The Moscow Region, having once short-sightedly dispersed Kitov's team, planted an excellent pig on itself - there was no one to assemble a computer for missile defense, they did not have a single specialized research institute left.

As a result, it was necessary to bow to the Ministry of Economic Development or ... to the Ministry of Radio Industry itself!

It's easy to guess how it all ended.

In 1971, the Ministry of Radio Industry created (taking advantage of the freedom recklessly granted by Khrushchev) TsNPO Vympel, monopoly responsible for all R&D in the framework of air defense / missile defense in the country, Deputy Minister Kalmykova V. I. Markov became its director.

Immediately, he, as a deputy minister, orders the director of the TsNPO to stop allocating funds for 5E53 Yuditsky, and himself, as a director, conscientiously fulfills his order (the SVTs belonged to the MEP, not the MRP, Kalmykov could not command it, but could simply cut off their funding by withdrawing order for the development of computers).

It was even easier with Kartsev, he was in the structure of the MRP, as a result, he was simply removed from the board and put in a corner, where his brilliant developments gathered dust until his death.

Let's see who could take on the PRO supercomputer. There was Burtsev, who, together with the entire ITMiVT, since 1961 belonged with giblets ... to the Ministry of Radio Industry.

As a result of this intrigue, the Ministry of Defense, as they say, arrived - their developer Kisunko was left without a super-computer, flunked all the deadlines, A-351 was canceled, A-35 did not really work, and in 1975 Kisunko was expelled from all posts, and the development of missile defense by the forces of the Ministry of Defense completely stopped.

So the second stage came - 1975-1991, when the MCI had an absolute monopoly for its own pleasure by mastering the unimaginable, monstrous (as we remember, one Elbrus project was equal to three nuclear submarines, and besides Elbrus, there were so many things ... ) budgets for the creation of their personally proprietary A-135 system and computers for it.

In order to have a larger budget, all other developments were put into consumption.

In 1974, Lebedev, the main icon of Soviet informatics, died, and, taking advantage of this, Burtsev nailed all the projects of his scientific "brother", the second Lebedev's student Melnikov, and squeezed him out of the MCI into the MEP.

When in 1984 the death among party gerontocrats begins (Ustinov, Andropov die, followed by Chernenko), it becomes clear that in a few years the country will end, and everything will finally slide into a monstrous cut of the last budgets.

Even the Armenians joined the celebration of life, rolling out the development of their original matrix supercomputer, and in general there were 15 such projects in the late USSR, and the most intelligent of them were either strictly local and did not affect anything (MARS and Kronos, Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences) , or were covered up (Glushkov's macropipeline), or degenerated into budget sinks (LIAP's recursive machine).

And what fun was going on at that time at the Academy ...

The mathematician Pontryagin recalls:

Melnikov was known as an outstanding designer of electronic computers. Before the 1976 elections, he worked at the Institute of Fine Mechanics and Computer Technology and had a complex and difficult relationship with the director of the institute, Burtsev, who harassed him in every possible way.
Vacancies in computer technology were to be provided by the Department of Mechanics and Control Problems. This Department would have chosen Melnikov. However, he was not even nominated there.
And his oppressor - the director of the institute - Burtsev was nominated.
I thought it was extremely unfair and harmful.
From the employees of the Burtsev Institute, it was known that our computer technology was in a hopelessly backward position.
Yes, I knew it myself. It can be corrected only by the works of Melnikov.
For many years, Burtsev has been promising his superiors a certain giant (a computer), but the designers do not see the end of this work and fear that they will not see it at all.
"Hack and cheat, cheat and cheat" - they say from year to year. One designer, telling this to Alexandra Ignatievna and me, wept.
If Burtsev had been chosen, but Melnikov had not, then, as one of the famous mathematicians said, Burtsev would have rubbed Melnikov like a snot.
Alexandra Ignatievna and I hardly slept for several nights, and I decided to at least make a scandal before the elections about the outrage that was taking place.
Traditionally, on the eve of the election, the President arranges tea for each Section. And in a not very official setting, all nominated candidates are discussed.
I decided to use this tea on our Branch.
When the candidacies of corresponding members were discussed, and the corresponding members left, and only academicians remained, I said that we, members of the Department of Mathematics, as a whole do not often meet with the President, and therefore I want to raise a question here that is not directly related to our Branch, but very important, in my opinion.
Disgrace happens - our best specialist in computer technology, V. A. Melnikov, is not among those nominated for election. Something needs to be done to give him the opportunity to run.
President A.P. Aleksandrov answered me that nothing could be done, that Melnikov's election would have to be postponed for two years.
For my part, I proposed to postpone the election of candidates for computer technology, which is so necessary for the country, for two months in order to figure out who we are choosing for the Academy!
I began to insist and declared that if the Presidium did nothing, or rather did not want to do it, it would become an indelible stain on it.
Vice President Ovchinnikov attacked me.
I stated that I would not limit myself to considering this issue here, but would raise it at the General Meeting of the Academy and go even further.
I was supported by Keldysh and some other academicians of our Department. The whole discussion was in the highest emotional intensity. I was furious! All members of the Presidium, it seems, too.
The president, perhaps fearing a serious scandal, suddenly said: “All right, we will allow Melnikov to run for elections. Let him submit the documents.
Then I turned to the President and told him: “Anatoly Petrovich, hold a vote so that Melnikov is nominated by our assembly. Now, here!”
This was done, and Melnikov received the unanimous support of all the assembled academicians of our Department. So in the future he was considered put forward by this meeting.
Faddeev promised me, but Prokhorov's position was unclear. At the elections themselves, Yu. V. Prokhorov made some strange confused speech in which he declared that he would vote for Novikov only when he saw that it was his vote that was missing. In fact, he voted immediately.
In addition, I was worried about the fate of Melnikov.
For some reason, I was not at the meeting of the expert commission, but I was told that Tikhonov and Dorodnitsyn opposed Melnikov there.
The position of these two academicians in this case aroused in me a feeling of hostility. It would seem that they should worry about our computer technology: Dorodnitsyn is the director of the Computing Center of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Tikhonov is the director of the Institute of Applied Mathematics of the USSR Academy of Sciences. But at the President's tea, where I was, Dorodnitsyn was absent, and Tikhonov spoke out against Melnikov, allegedly for formal reasons, pointing out that we have no places in computer science, and Melnikov is not an applied mathematician, so he can only be elected as pure mathematics. In addition, he pointed out that there were already many promises in computing to make machines that were not being fulfilled.
In response to Tikhonov, I said that we should not be guided by formal considerations, and our main goal is the good of the cause! Of course, Melnikov will undoubtedly be useful for the cause! As for unfulfilled promises, they were given not by Melnikov, but by Burtsev. He did not fulfill his promises, he only promised.
Long before the elections, it was not clear whether Academician Glushkov would be able to take part in the vote. He was seriously ill and was in Kiev. Before the elections, he was transferred to a Moscow hospital on the grounds that he could get more help here.
In fact, in order to make his participation in the elections possible.
In the end, by decision of the Presidium, which acted on the basis of medical considerations transmitted from the hospital, it was recognized that Glushkov could not vote. And at the very beginning of the meeting of our Department, dedicated to the election of academicians, Dorodnitsyn suddenly announced that Glushkov had been illegally removed from the elections. Dorodnitsyn asks the Department to instruct him to go to Glushkov in the hospital with a bulletin. Dorodnitsyn insisted on this very much.
In this regard, Academician-Secretary Bogolyubov had to hold difficult negotiations regarding Glushkov's health. The answer from the hospital was the same: Glushkov cannot participate in the elections, as he is in an unconscious state, in agony.
Glushkov's participation in the elections could prevent the election of Melnikov and Novikov! To fail Novikov and Melnikov was the main goal of Dorodnitsyn and Tikhonov!
The monstrous intention of Dorodnitsyn to use the voice of the dying Glushkov and other methods of his behavior in these elections led to the fact that Alexandra Ignatievna and Dorodnitsyn had a very unpleasant collision in the corridor. But she doesn't want me to describe it.
Other elections, I think, were no less difficult, but I have already forgotten about it.

Sardanashvili recalls:

The building of the “academic vertical” gave rise to a tough organizational struggle in Soviet science.
Departments, laboratories, institutes were created for academicians, places were allocated. Therefore, the stakes were high - the loser became marginalized.
The methods of struggle were the dirtiest: intrigues, denunciations, going to the Central Committee, disruption of business trips and publications, delays in dissertations, and even "politics", although in those years they managed without arrests and executions. Often, the organizational struggle was given an anti-Semitic or, conversely, Synonist orientation.
Many stories can be cited.
Why, for example, was the State Optical Institute (GOI) named after S. I. Vavilov?
Its founder in 1918 and its supervisor until 1932 was D.S. Rozhdestvensky. But D.S. Rozhdestvensky had an acute conflict with A.F. Ioffe, so much so that Rozhdestvensky only once crossed the threshold of the Leningrad Institute of Physics and Technology, when Niels Bohr spoke there.
And Rozhdestvensky "left", and S. I. Vavilov, who permanently lived in Moscow, became the scientific director of the Leningrad GOI.
But in 1950, at the height of the struggle against "cosmopolitanism", they "ate" A.F. Ioffe himself. He was removed from the post of director and even removed from the Academic Council of the LPTI, which he had created and headed for many years, and A.P. Komar from FIAN was appointed director of the LPTI.
Elections to the Academy of Sciences were also in fact a farce: everything was discussed in advance among “friends” and in the department of science of the Central Committee of the CPSU. For example, it would not be an exaggeration to say that all Soviet theoretical physics came out of the theoretical department and the scientific seminar of Ya. I. Frenkel in the pre-war Leningrad Physicotechnical Institute.
Back in 1929 Ya. I. Frenkel was elected a corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences. However, he was always outside the groups, and never became an academician.
Once, at the next elections to the USSR Academy of Sciences, there was a big embarrassment.
A.F. Ioffe presented his candidacy in very flattering terms, and according to the results of the secret ballot, there was not a single “yes” ballot, including from Ioffe himself.
In itself, the number of academicians and corresponding members of the Union Academy of Sciences was not very large - up to 2 thousand for all time in all areas, but many of them combined several posts and were not only in academic, but also in university, and in industry sciences. They headed departments and laboratories, headed research institutes and scientific centers, and were members of various councils, commissions and editorial boards. If he is an academician in a completely different field of science, he is still the scientific elite. Elitism extended to the scientific environment of the academician, and to everything that had the adjective "academic".
Such academic snobbery is remarkably manifested in the letter of V. A. Fok, where he is sincerely indignant: “It seems to me that, according to Comrade. Kaftanov, there are two approximately scientifically equivalent groups of physicists: “university” and “academic”.
But snobbery was the most innocent thing. It is worse if an academician “starts up” in one or another scientific direction. Everyone who disagreed scientifically with him turned into marginals - not necessarily at his personal will, but simply automatically - from the point of view of the scientific community.
At times, whole areas of science were monopolized in this way.

So, now you are aware of the academic and political situation in the country for 1970-1971 - the beginning of the development of Elbrus, the completion of the A-35 and the beginning of the A-135.

Bonus question - how did serious people cope, who needed computing power not for showing off and sawing, but for making money?

Ministry of Oil, for example, or geologists?

Moreover, they earned the USSR 90% of the budget.

And they coped very simply - they persuaded CoCom and from the mid-1960s they bought American supercomputers, naturally and brazenly!

As it turned out, according to recent studies, at least seven (!) CDC Cyber ​​were imported into the USSR, each costing more than 5 million rubles bought for gold (even Sakhalin geologists had one), and a couple of top Burroughs.

In the 1980s, when the detente ended due to the stupid Afghan adventure, geologists did not give a damn about dismantling and sawing the stupid MEP and MRP and quietly turned to the third, hidden player - the Ministry of Instrument Engineering, which in a couple of years rolled out to them a chic massively parallel supercomputer PS -2000 (and later PS-3000), with a performance of three Elbrus.

These machines were developed for geological exploration and remained exclusive to the Ministry of Railways for oil and gas workers, working until the mid-1990s.

In the next part, we will move on to the Elbrus circuitry and architecture, and then talk about its role in the A-135 missile defense system.

To be continued ...
Photos used:

Subscribe to our Telegram channel, regularly additional information about the special operation in Ukraine, a large amount of information, videos, something that does not fall on the site:

Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. bya965
    bya965 17 January 2022 06: 00
    How much hatred for everything Soviet, Russian.
    Here on business and without juggling
    Two tragedies of Soviet cybernetics. Part 1.
    Two tragedies of Soviet cybernetics. Part 2.
    Two tragedies of Soviet cybernetics. Part 3.
    Two tragedies of Soviet cybernetics. Part 4.
    Two tragedies of Soviet cybernetics. Part 5.
    1. Aerodrome
      Aerodrome 17 January 2022 06: 12
      Quote: bya965
      How much hatred for everything Soviet, Russian.

      yeah ... but we also use the Soviet backlog ...
  2. doktorkurgan
    doktorkurgan 17 January 2022 07: 32
    ... delighted as a child, Khrushchev begins to threaten the Americans by initiating the Berlin and Caribbean crises.

    Are the American INF "Jupiter" in Turkey and Italy and "Thor" in the UK as a reason for the reciprocal deployment of the R-12 in Cuba are not considered in principle?
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 17 January 2022 08: 21
      Khrushchev begins to threaten the Americans by initiating the Berlin and Caribbean crises.

      The author believes that the Americans have nothing to do with these crises, did Khrushch Kukuruzny personally want a world war? However, he (the author) is in his role.
      1. AUL
        AUL 17 January 2022 09: 24

        The era of Brezhnev came - the legendary stagnation, for almost 20 years, during which the USSR slowly decayed, in order to turn into a living corpse by the 1980s.
        No comment ...
        "History teaches us only that it teaches nothing!" sad
      2. parkhachev alexander
        parkhachev alexander 17 January 2022 09: 39
        quite the opposite - they actively mention some American generals who wanted to fight ....
      3. DialogN
        DialogN 17 January 2022 17: 01
        As I understand it, the author believes that only with the creation of the missile defense system did Khrushch have the opportunity to adequately respond to the Amer's desire to place Jupiters in Italy and Turkey.
        Without a missile defense system behind him, Khrushch would not have dared to do this.
        Do you think otherwise?

        And yet, about the Berlin crisis of 1961.
        Not too many GDRites then fled to West Berlin, they fled before and on a no lesser scale.
        Just until 1961, Khrushch did not dare to take decisive action on this matter.
        1. Hexenmeister
          Hexenmeister 17 January 2022 17: 34
          Without a missile defense system behind him, Khrushch would not have dared to do this ... It's just that until 1961 Khrushch did not dare to take decisive action on this matter.
          But here the author thinks differently:
          1965-1991 is the time when (in two steps) the main scientific and technical scam of the USSR (and the most expensive one) took place - an attempt to create a working missile defense system (and not a prototype, like System A) and computers for it.
          , therefore, if it was a scam, that is, there was something, but it was not really working, does Khrushchev think or did the Americans not know about it? So where is the truth about her actual level of readiness?
          1. DialogN
            DialogN 18 January 2022 17: 55
            >if it was a scam
            Hard to say. But Moscow's local A-35 missile defense system, made at enormous expense by 1974, turned out to be exactly "like a scam" as a result.
            The salvo of just ONE Amer submarine completely overloaded the system in terms of interception capabilities!
            1. Hexenmeister
              Hexenmeister 18 January 2022 21: 12
              What's the scam? That they created a system that, in fact, no one believed in the possibility of creating, "as with an outfit in a shell"? They made mistakes, tried many options, yes, and spent a lot of money, and when they did something, it suddenly turned out to be "you can overload"! Maybe if everyone on this project would have been geniuses, they would have done it faster and better and cheaper, but "who was", they did, and all sorts stuck ... In general, the classic chain "confusion and vacillation - punishment of the innocent - rewarding uninvolved"...
              1. DialogN
                DialogN 20 January 2022 15: 44
                > Wrong, tried many options, yes, and spent a lot of money
                The scam is that no one honestly said at a certain stage of development that the task simply has no solution with the assigned parameters.
                And the leadership did not have competencies due to illiteracy.
                A third-party examination of the project was blocked by its secrecy.
                Everyone was silent and continued to spend money on development for many more years.

                Approximately the same situation was in the US with Reagan's "Star Wars" program (SDI). It's also a missile defense scam. But the amers were a little more fortunate, they stopped funding their scam with Reagan's re-election in 1989 and the collapse of the USSR.
                1. Hexenmeister
                  Hexenmeister 20 January 2022 16: 38
                  Scam ... the task with the assigned parameters simply has no solution
                  You have an interesting movie. At first everyone said that this was impossible, they showed that it was possible, everyone immediately became "understanding specialists", and the conditions changed, it turned out that at that time the task of repelling a massive attack with multiple warheads could not be solved, that is, "initial The data has skyrocketed. Here, yes, instead of consistently solving the problem on the basis of what has been achieved and by the people who have achieved this, “undercover administrative games” begin. By the way, and now who can solve this problem in full?? Technique develops consistently, and it is impossible to immediately get a solution that is essentially epochal without going through certain stages, and even in conditions of constantly improving means of attack for the better!
    2. DialogN
      DialogN 17 January 2022 17: 04
      Considered of course.
      But the Americans were rude many times before, just without missile defense behind Khrushch's back he did not dare to adequately respond to their rudeness.
  3. The comment was deleted.
  4. steelmaker
    steelmaker 17 January 2022 09: 35
    Bad article!!!
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Iskazi
      Iskazi 17 January 2022 19: 29
      of course, filthy, taking skeletons out of closets is not the most pleasant thing to do ..., and there are spots in the sun ...., it always hurts to part with illusions.
  5. parkhachev alexander
    parkhachev alexander 17 January 2022 09: 38
    the problem of the union was that they didn’t find their own titan and didn’t tell the cretins and morons from the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers that imperialism cannot be defeated without electronics, that without a computer in every house, at every factory, everywhere there will be no scientific breakthrough as there will be no breakthrough without freedom not only in their heads!
    1. Konstantin Pekhlivanov
      Konstantin Pekhlivanov 17 January 2022 14: 53
      It looks like the truth. But this would be a radical reform of socialism, no one seriously allowed this and did not consider it. You even thought of self-government! This would mean that the Central Committee and the Council of Ministers had to become not the centers of the usual admin. systems, but something like coordinating centers. And the new Marx would have to come up with "Cybercapital in Cybercommunism". They say that Stalin himself at the end of his life sentenced - "Without theory, we die."
    2. tolancop
      tolancop 18 January 2022 14: 36
      Quote: Alexander Parkhachev
      the problem of the union was that they didn’t find their own titan and didn’t tell the cretins and morons from the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers that imperialism cannot be defeated without electronics, that without a computer in every house, at every factory, everywhere there will be no scientific breakthrough as there will be no breakthrough without freedom not only in their heads!

      Brad wrote. Electronics in the USSR developed. Both industrial and household. Of course, they lagged behind the bourgeois, especially in the quality and availability of the element base.
  6. Region-25.rus
    Region-25.rus 17 January 2022 10: 02
    By 1961, a missile defense prototype had been created, and delighted like a child, Khrushchev began to threaten the Americans, initiating the Berlin and Caribbean crises.
    with all my disrespect for Khrushchev ... the author! Did the Khrushchev initiate the Caribbean Crisis? fool That is, it was necessary to put up with the deployment of missiles with nuclear charges in Turkey?
    1. DialogN
      DialogN 17 January 2022 17: 21
      > Ie, it was necessary to come to terms with the deployment of nuclear missiles in Turkey?

      Well, probably in the opinion of the Politburo, who filmed Khrushch in 1964 - yes!
      He was then accused of adventurism, that he several times put the country on the brink of war.

      "The Berlin question - your position caused damage ... The Cuban crisis - an adventure, juggling with the fate of the people"
      (c) Shelepin
      1. Essex62
        Essex62 18 January 2022 10: 59
        The real reasons why Nikitka was given a knee in the ass, of course, were not voiced to him. The corn man suffered the wrong way, fell out of reality. But the missiles in Cuba are the most powerful and correct move. It was necessary to go to the end and change the geopolitical alignment in the world for many years to come. Defeat is not peace. For no reason, the Masons did not dare to spend the rest of their lives in a bunker.
        1. DialogN
          DialogN 18 January 2022 17: 27
          > The real reasons why Nikitka was given a knee in the ass, of course, were not voiced to him.
          Yes, after all, in your opinion, they usually lied at the meetings of the Politburo, didn’t they?
          In your opinion: communists = lies? Anti-communist?
          > But the missiles in Cuba are the most powerful and correct move.
          In what? The fact that it was necessary to provoke the amers' aggression against Cuba?
          And somehow we could protect it ONLY with a nuclear strike, but conventionally we did not have sufficient fleet forces.
          > No way would the Freemasons dare to spend the rest of their lives in a bunker.
          And suddenly all the same would dare? It was time for us to spit, of course? Well, what should we ruin our country for the sake of an "island of freedom" in another hemisphere!
          We would have bravely struck at the United States, they would have attacked us, and in 20-30 years the Chinese would have come here, who in 1961 watched the Caribbean crisis with obvious gloating.
          1. Essex62
            Essex62 19 January 2022 10: 30
            No, I'm a communist. And the task of the communists is to root out the bourgeois. At least, to limit its influence throughout the planet.
            We could protect Cuba, and the Cuban revolution itself was very toothy. The puppeteers would not dare to fight directly with us. The reason is known - of course they are ready to put tens of millions of lives of the rabble living on the land of the Indians, but they absolutely deny the personal threat.
            1. DialogN
              DialogN 19 January 2022 21: 20
              > No, I'm a communist. And the task of the communists is to root out the bourgeois. At least, to limit its influence throughout the planet.
              And let's check your "communist beliefs"?
              Just one question.
              If you are approached by Cuban / Korean communists with a proposal to organize an anti-capitalist uprising in the Russian Federation to win the cause of socialism throughout the world - will you agree?

              Or will nationalism in you defeat communism?
              1. Essex62
                Essex62 20 January 2022 09: 39
                Stupid question, stupid and provocative assumption. What's with the Cubans and Koreans? This is our internal business. It will ripen like more than a hundred years ago, it will. Either constitutionally, or like last time. The doctrine of Comrade Stalin, about building socialism in a separate country, then everywhere, but gradually, is relevant. In our case, the revival of socialism, within the Russian Federation-RB, is the eastern part of the outskirts.
                1. DialogN
                  DialogN 20 January 2022 15: 30
                  > Stupid question, stupid and provocative assumption.
                  It's a perfectly reasonable assumption in my opinion.
                  The Communists of the world are always brothers and are fighting for the same cause?
                  Fraternal communist help is the norm for them?
                  > Either constitutionally, or like last time.
                  If you remember the basics of Marxism, victory is impossible by peaceful means. Only through revolution and civil war.
                  But this can be avoided if the socialist country helps from the outside - as, for example, after the war, the USSR "helped" to establish socialism in the countries of Eastern Europe without revolutions.
                  So you have little choice as a communist - either a bloody revolution with a civil war, or agree to accept help from another socialist country, helping it to suppress the resistance of the capitalists of its country.
                  1. Essex62
                    Essex62 21 January 2022 02: 54
                    It was not possible then, before the creation and successful long-term functioning of the socialist system. In our country, even the Soviet people are not measured yet, and the system has not been completely destroyed. The Kremlin brigade of wrestlers uses its elements to the fullest. Capitalism is something to build, the classical Western type, did not work. Incl. in a certain situation, when at least a serious socialist, not to mention a communist, appears at the very top, he is quite capable of "doing things." The security forces and other state bodies are obliged to obey the lawful executive power. Another thing is that it is technically difficult to push such a person onto a Kremlin stool.
                    1. DialogN
                      DialogN 21 January 2022 22: 15
                      > when you appear at the very top, even a serious socialist, not to mention the communist "do things del" he is quite capable.
                      No, not capable. The structure cannot be changed.
                      The socialists came to power in different capitalist countries repeatedly. For example in Greece. So what? But nothing!
                      And even the communists came to power peacefully - in Moldova, for example (where the Soviet people are in bulk!). And the president there was a communist, and the majority in parliament were communists, and they put communists in all key posts. And no socialism happened there anyway!
                      No, Marx and Lenin were right, without the introduction of the dictatorship of the proletariat (that is, the seizure and retention of power by force), the transition to socialism is impossible!
                      1. Essex62
                        Essex62 22 January 2022 11: 21
                        So this is where you have to start. Here they are absolutely right. Which communists were in power in Moldova? Like our Communist Party? Have they made at least one movement towards the elimination of the power of capital? Why is the seizure by force, if you are already in power, you abolish by law private ownership of the means of production and relying on the security forces, who are obliged to follow orders and the working class, you change the social system. Naturally, all structures will have to be pre-cleaned. Well, if the labeled one succeeded, why not Alaverdi?
                      2. DialogN
                        DialogN 22 January 2022 17: 19
                        > Which communists in Moldova were in power?

                        Sorry, but there were simply no "other communists" in Moldova.
                        And we have the same situation in Russia, except for the Communist Party of the Russian Federation - only marginal non-systemic ones, who are systematically persecuted, imprisoned and squeezed out.

                        > legally abolish private ownership of the means of production

                        Total nationalization simply will not work, this will immediately start a civil war. Therefore, in Moldova it was not possible to turn to socialism.
                        And the "siloviki" will not help you and you will not be able to rely on them, the vast majority in the top and middle management of the "siloviki" have relatives of large entrepreneurs, and what if he goes to nationalize his own business?

                        > Well, if the labeled turned out, why not Alaverdy?

                        He would not have “succeeded” if there had not been a huge layer of the Soviet bureaucracy, vitally interested in turning their right to dispose of property into a right of possession.
                        It was the bureaucracy that directed and actually carried out the reforms, and stupid Gorby was their toy. He was "raped" and simply thrown away as soon as they no longer needed him.
                        Moreover, they managed to push all the blame on the poor fool! Although it's easy to just look at what Gorbachev was left with and what was left, for example, the former general director of Kogalymneftegaz Alikperov?
                      3. Essex62
                        Essex62 23 January 2022 11: 01
                        Before VOSR, the Bolsheviks were also imprisoned. However, it didn't help.
                        There will be no GV, these will simply run to London, Tel Aviv, Florida. To the kids, bills and real estate.
                        Those whose relatives have big business are not much cleaned out. And cadres, as you know, decide everything. Officers of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the National Guard, tea is not nobles, with class consciousness. Further, I hope it is clear.
                        Do you think that the recruited traitor is not guilty of the collapse of the country, although he purposefully, using the centralization of power and fulfilling the task of the world bourgeoisie, cleared out everyone who did not accept capitalism? Of course, the bureaucracy participated in the process, but it was the Cossack who was mishandled that launched the process, without his actions, nothing would have happened to eliminate the resistance.
                      4. DialogN
                        DialogN 23 January 2022 19: 14
                        > there will be no GW
                        Sorry, this sounds naive. Everywhere after the socialist revolution there was (if there was no strong external support), but now for some reason there will be an exception?
                        Is it because you want to believe it? Oh well!
                        > but it was the Cossack mishandled who launched the process
                        So Gorbachev was brought to the top by the bureaucracy! Who brought him to the post of general secretary? Did the CIA and MI6 write his promotional characteristics for his entire career? And if he didn’t suit the bureaucracy after 1985 in some way, the bureaucracy would have removed him, as they removed Khrushchev.
                      5. Essex62
                        Essex62 24 January 2022 11: 31
                        Those. Are you sure that in the Russian Federation there are enough people who are ready to shed their own and others' blood for capitalism? Oh well.
                      6. DialogN
                        DialogN 25 January 2022 00: 29
                        I am absolutely sure that Russia is full of people who simply will not let them take away their business, which they themselves made from scratch.
                        And this is a wonderful recent example of a peasant (small businessman) in mytishchi, who for 12 hours (!) fired back from the special forces of the Russian Guard and the FSB, who came to arrest him. He died, but did not give up.

                        The Abramovichs will run away, but the Petrovichs will take up arms...
                      7. Essex62
                        Essex62 25 January 2022 11: 21
                        And why, excuse me, kill the goose that lays the golden eggs. Who will take something away from a farmer, a hairdresser or a baker. In Stalin's USSR, cooperative artel property prospered greatly. And it makes no sense to take away housing. The term is changed to personal property while maintaining the possibility of buying - selling - renting. Do you remember the cooperative apartments in the Union? And the lease was not forbidden with the conclusion of the corresponding contract. Ordinary citizens will not be affected by this "dispossession" in any way. Why would he fight with the people's power? Socialism must be modernized, at least according to the Stalinist model. What Nikita built and developed Lenya's path to nowhere. And of course, Soviet power, based on the worker. A real proletarian and peasant, and not a bukharika - a lazy person who defends their interests.
                      8. DialogN
                        DialogN 25 January 2022 19: 56
                        > In the USSR, Stalin's cooperative artel property flourished very much.

                        Yes, I have heard this story.
                        It's funny that it is broadcast by those who never lived under Stalin.
                        I studied the question myself carefully and now I know that this is just a fairy tale. Artels and cooperatives received all funds and resources only through state distribution (there was no free market!) And they really could not dispose of anything (including the salary fund!) Without instructions from Soviet and party bodies.
                        It's like a cooperative apartment under the USSR - supposedly they could buy it "freely", but only first stand in line for it too, and you still won't get a size larger than certain norms. Well, you can’t easily sell “your” apartment, you need to get the consent of the meeting of members of the cooperative. Etc.
                      9. Essex62
                        Essex62 26 January 2022 02: 23
                        And how did you want? There is no private property under socialism. Small enterprises, such as a bakery or a car service, are owned by a team of workers. The one who created it, on an equal footing with everyone, for a salary, and a limited tariff scale, works hard and does not warm his belly in the Canary Islands, while laborers grumble at him. Otherwise, it is no longer socialism.
                        Whoever grabs the gun, let him blame himself. There won’t be many of them. The backbone doesn’t have enough mass support, why would a hired worker harness himself for him? The Soviet government will strangle such people quickly. GV, the last century, had two opposing worldviews of huge masses of people. Now all the socialists, at least without exception.
                        But the bourgeois will not allow a group of people capable of changing the social system to legitimately come to power. Including there is nothing to discuss. hi
                      10. DialogN
                        DialogN 26 January 2022 22: 19
                        > But legitimately come to power a group of people who can change the social order, the bourgeoisie will not allow. Including there is nothing to discuss.

                        Just something to eat!
                        What if it's illegal? If revolution?
                        A new Lenin from abroad (and perhaps even again in a sealed carriage), a new Stalin, who is now in prison again (most likely for extremism)?
                        Support? Join the Red Guard to smash the current "gold chasers" who will defend the existing system?
                      11. Essex62
                        Essex62 27 January 2022 00: 18
                        Are you provoking everything? I defended Soviet power in 93, with weapons in my hands. Draw conclusions. Your capitalism is against my soul, absolutely.
                        And there are no gold chasers, in the understanding of the last century. They are all from the people, and will be with the people.
                        And VOSR should not be presented as an esport from behind a hillock. They got the backbones of a Russian peasant, so he knocked them off, without any help.
                      12. DialogN
                        DialogN 27 January 2022 15: 23
                        Thank you very much for your answer, now I am more calm - if all the supporters of socialism are even a little like you, we will not have any social revolution anywhere near.

                        Sorry to bother you. Good luck and health.
                      13. Essex62
                        Essex62 28 January 2022 01: 16
                        You are mistaken. Socialism, as the most just form of social organization, is not inevitable. Preferably bloodless. But you should not calm down, it’s better to prepare a mink in advance, where you will have to dive when they come to dispossess kulaks. Better yet, rush to spiritual mentors in advance. Capitalism, in Russia, is doomed.
  7. Nikolay Sayenko
    Nikolay Sayenko 17 January 2022 10: 07
    an attack on the USSR was not seriously considered ... yeah, they drew maps and laughed, rolled under the table with laughter! Is the planned economy bad? indecent bablos that (again) the capitalists neigh-can't. The article is rubbish, but, as they say, cuming apchik!
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 17 January 2022 17: 33
      Planned economy - good, queues for toilet paper, sandpaper-like))
      Market - bad, not a single drunk on bail will not be left at the workplace. sad
  8. Krasnodar
    Krasnodar 17 January 2022 11: 10
    An interesting, adequate series of articles, thanks to the author!
  9. Petio
    Petio 17 January 2022 11: 45
    Interesting and educational! But it will be interesting to compare with similar American missile defense developments
  10. tolancop
    tolancop 17 January 2022 13: 32
    About the missile defense system itself - at least in passing.
    Actually about computer technology in the USSR - a little bit.
    But about how it was BAD in the USSR - VERY MUCH !!! Detail! Savoring the details!!! The author is true to himself.
    I think the worst material of the cycle. Or will it get even worse?
  11. tolancop
    tolancop 17 January 2022 13: 45
    "... In the 1980s, when the detente ended due to the stupid Afghan adventure, geologists did not give a damn about dismantling and sawing the stupid MEP and MCI and quietly turned to the third, hidden player - the Ministry of Instrument Engineering, which in a couple of years rolled out to them a chic massive -parallel supercomputer PS-2000 (and later PS-3000), with a performance of three "Elbrus"...."
    I will not touch on the Afghan war. But the rest is interesting.
    According to the author, the Ministry of Instrument Engineering was able to create an excellent computer without noise and dust in a couple of years. Okay, accepted. But then a lot of questions arise:
    1. Where did the instrument makers find computer specialists if all their MCI and MEP were rotten.
    2. Did instrument makers work past party bureaucrats? Or did these party bureaucrats for some reason not interfere with the instrument operators? Why?
    3. And how did instrumentalists receive funding for the creation of computers? Cash in suitcases? And how did they report on what they were doing and what the people's money was used for?
    4. And so on and so forth ....
    Maybe not everything was so sad in our Fatherland, as the author is trying to convince? And the old principle works: let the talker (in the original a little differently) talk freely, be sure to lay out what he carefully tried to hide.
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 17 January 2022 17: 42
      I will not touch on the Afghan war. But the rest is interesting.

      And no, you don't have to touch it. The author has already succeeded in his liberal striptease. The article came out late. She would have gone to Ogonyok to Korotich, but the magazine had already died, and the former editor-in-chief had retired, still 85 years old, it’s time to think about the eternal.
  12. motorized rifle
    motorized rifle 17 January 2022 14: 21
    Naturally, there are no distortions, however, in general, the scheme has been working successfully since the time of Adam Smith.

    Somehow, sarcastically, she prompted from E. O .:

    Branil Homer, Theocritus;
    But I read Adam Smith
    And he was a deep economy,
    That is, he knew how to judge,
    As the state grows rich,
    And what lives, and why
    He does not need gold,
    When a simple product has.

    Anti-Soviet work disguised as a history of creation ... that's just what? In fact, apart from juggling names and surnames, there is nothing!
    If the author is trying to pretend to be impartial, then the mere desire attributed to Khrushchev (and indirectly to the entire USSR), the desire to start a war, is a fiasco! Neither practically, nor logically, nor historically, this is NOT CONFIRMED! By what logic can the leadership of a country that suffered huge losses 20 years ago think about a nuclear war?
    The subsequent reasoning of the author: "they say they fought and realized that it is better to trade", the same is about nothing. They didn’t fight, but they realized that it wouldn’t work to bomb the USSR somewhere, so they quieted down for a while, and time, by the way, is already running out.
  13. Konstantin Pekhlivanov
    Konstantin Pekhlivanov 17 January 2022 14: 45
    Bonus question - how did serious people cope, who needed computing power not for showing off and sawing, but for making money?

    And they coped very simply - they persuaded CoCom and from the mid-1960s they bought American supercomputers, naturally and brazenly!
    That's all. Practice is the criterion of truth.
  14. Protos
    Protos 17 January 2022 15: 17
    Where did you find the author?! Reincarnated from naphthalene the corpse of a liberal sample of the 90s?
    A set of liberal myths, fakes and outright nonsense with pictures where the tags indicate the 90s lol
    1. Iskazi
      Iskazi 17 January 2022 16: 26
      In some ways, the naphthalene liberals were right ..., here the question is not anti-Sovietism, but in the clan-nomenklatura system that defeated Soviet Power ..., the author reproduced the REAL state of affairs at that time ..., in other industries it was the same, to unfortunately.
      1. nemoXX
        nemoXX 19 January 2022 08: 39
        The clan-nomenklatura system and "Soviet" power - 2 heads of one serpent! There is no other socialism, including the mythical "with a human face". This is not envisaged even by the classics of Marxism.
        1. Iskazi
          Iskazi 20 January 2022 02: 30
          Soviet power and party nomenklatura are not the same thing ..., Soviet Power can be without the Communists, it is just a form of local self-government, a kind of democracy, Nomenklatura without a leader and guide - really does not happen ..., a Bolshevik interpretation of Marxism - very doubtful, but what happened, it happened ...
    2. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 17 January 2022 17: 33
      Where did you find the author?! Reincarnated from naphthalene the corpse of a liberal sample of the 90s?
      A set of liberal myths, fakes and outright nonsense with pictures where the tags indicate the 90s
      This is not the 90s. This is an article from the late 80s from Ogonyok, very similar.
  15. Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 17 January 2022 16: 24
    In the traditional economy, the arbitrariness of production is limited to feedback from consumers through the market.

    In the "traditional economy" the goal of military production is maximum profit for private corporations.
    And so these corporations govern society - the result is the complete and unlimited arbitrariness of "production" (private corporations) over the interests of consumers (armed forces). Insanely expensive and inefficient products (battleships, aircraft carriers, Valkyrie, B-2, F-111, and so on) grow out of this, and in the first place of illuminations the Grail of the American and similar military-industrial complex - in the past missile defense systems (Nike, Safeguard, Sentinel, Patriot , Iron Dome) and future missile defense systems ("Star Dome", "Death Star" and the like).
  16. Falcon5555
    Falcon5555 17 January 2022 17: 30
    a chic massively parallel supercomputer PS-2000 (and later PS-3000), with a performance of three Elbrus.
    Did not know! belay Judging by today's Internet, this was done in Severodonetsk, in the Lugansk region, but outside the Luhansk People's Republic. Judging by their website, this enterprise is still working and continues to develop some kind of computer control systems! Bravo!
    Why is the author silent about the CM series machines? There were many different cars for different command systems, they were produced in different places and in different CMEA countries, some of these lines are just optimized for control, i.e. very reliable and with interruptions?
    1. Ua3qhp
      Ua3qhp 17 January 2022 19: 58
      Why is the author silent about the CM series machines?
      But the author is not interested, there were a lot of them, they really worked and some still work, perhaps. In my opinion, it was on the DEC architecture that the bet was made for the mass segment of machines, and in terms of speed they lost the EU series, if they did, then not much.
    2. galyam
      galyam 18 January 2022 11: 01
      Why is he silent? "To work on it, the MUMPS (Massachusetts General Hospital Multiprogramming System) programming system was chosen, later standardized in ISO (ISO11756: 1991), and then became popular in our country in the form of the DIAMS system on SM-4 minicomputers." From the topic "Toward Cybercommunism"
      1. Falcon5555
        Falcon5555 18 January 2022 12: 44
        Yes thank you. The only mention of only one of these machines in a strange context, along with some unknown "hospital" OS, although the RSX-4M or our RTOS clone was usually installed on the SM-11.
      2. bya965
        bya965 18 January 2022 12: 51
        Quality standards were developed in the Soviet Union, more precisely in Saratov, at the enterprises of the electronic industry working for the war. Then from this went the standard in the West ISO-9000. And here they replaced it with a "quality mark", here the party nomenclature did its best, because it was losing control.

        You need to know history and know that the West did not doze off directly or indirectly all the time harmed our Russian state. Otherwise, they were kirdyk for a long time, or rather, they would have become Russian. And it all began with the feast of the Protection of the Holy Mother of God. Since the 9th century.
  17. DialogN
    DialogN 17 January 2022 17: 53
    An interesting passage at the end - suddenly about the "beautiful" PS-2000. Performance with three "Elbrus"!
    I just forgot to mention that such performance was achieved on a strictly defined type of tasks, and the highly specialized PS-2000 processors themselves were actually completely controlled by a SM computer.
    In fact, this is a vector coprocessor for a SM computer, which had to be programmed in MICROCODE (pure assembler).

    And there is a suspicion that the author is somehow connected with the MRP and specifically with the IPU.
    This suspicion is increased by the fact that Trapeznikov is not mentioned anywhere.
  18. Knell wardenheart
    Knell wardenheart 17 January 2022 17: 55
  19. Protos
    Protos 17 January 2022 20: 04
    Quote: Krasnodar
    Planned economy - good, queues for toilet paper, sandpaper-like))
    Market - bad, not a single drunk on bail will not be left at the workplace.

    Did you personally paste over the paper with sandpaper and take drunks in your hands?
    If sho pipifax from recycled materials, which was sold in the USSR, is now sold in Europe twice as expensive as mildly aromatic, more Green Ready lol
  20. Protos
    Protos 17 January 2022 20: 11
    Quote: Iskazi
    something about which the naphthalene liberals were right ..., here the question is not anti-Sovietism, but in the clan-nomenklatura system that defeated Soviet Power ..., the author reproduced the REAL state of affairs at that time ..., in other industries it was the same, Unfortunately.

    Do not reproduce the nonsense of the author about clan-volatility !!! There were various schools of system programming and hardware developed by various research institutes.
    Competition between projects was used as an opportunity to select the best projects.
    I'm not talking about the fact that the naftaliner skilfully drove past the SM systems!
  21. Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 18 January 2022 17: 09
    removed all ideological oppression (“there will be no theory of relativity and quantum physics - there will be no bomb!”) and dispersed the “red professors”.

    Hitler removed the "ideological oppression" and when in Nazi Germany they began to study the theory of relativity in schools, then Otto Hahn, thanks to the theory of relativity, discovered the fission of uranium.
    In the same way, Stalin removed the "ideological oppression", dispersed the red professors (for example, Kurchatov, Flerov, and so on), and thanks to the theory of relativity in the USSR, anti-communist professors developed a bomb for him.
    The author is a good joker.
  22. Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 18 January 2022 17: 18
    Take, for example, the insane Terra-3 project, which, long before all those Reagan Star Wars, was supposed to shoot down satellites and missiles with lasers.

    Disabling a satellite with a laser is a crazy idea! The author is no doubt a joker.
  23. Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 18 January 2022 17: 35
    This is perhaps the best quote of a brilliant scientist

    The US leaders turned out to be somewhat smarter than the "brilliant scientist" and dropped the first atomic bomb on Japan, and not on the USSR. The forced union of the USSR and Japan could end very badly for the United States and its satellites to Europe and Asia
  24. Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 18 January 2022 17: 49
    Bonus question - how did serious people cope, who needed computing power not for showing off and sawing, but for making money?
    Ministry of Oil, for example, or geologists?
    And they coped very simply - they persuaded CoCom and from the mid-1960s they bought American supercomputers, naturally and brazenly!

    Without American supercomputers, there could be no oil, no gas, and no geology in the USSR. Tyumen pumped oil only thanks to overseas computers.
    A big cut of money than American computers for the Soviet Ministry of Oil is hard to come up with.
  25. The comment was deleted.
  26. The comment was deleted.
  27. Bratkov Oleg
    Bratkov Oleg 22 January 2022 22: 37
    the author is very wrong. It was with Khrushchev that the destruction of the USSR began, just from a warm place promising help and bonuses from the capitalists, Khrushchev was pushed aside by Brezhnev. But it was Khrushchev who began the senseless projects of plowing pastures, that is, developing virgin lands, depriving livestock of food, and forcing them to cultivate low-yield lands. After the war, under Stalin, the USSR did not buy grain from the United States. He began to buy it, thanks to the wise policy of the leadership in the USSR, which consisted of liberals - [censored site] who began the destruction of socialism. Deliberately slowing down the development of the economy, creating chaos and shortages ....
    And in 2013 and 2014, China made more cement than the US has ever made. In China, all apartments are issued free of charge, for the population. It is clear that it is not free, it is with the money of the state, which was received by levying taxes on "socialist" and "capitalist" enterprises, but there are no queues of 10-15 years to receive an apartment, which were in the USSR. There, a separate family immediately receives a separate housing. And in the USSR it could have been exactly the same if it were not for the [censorship] sitting in the Central Committee of the CPSU. By the way, there, in China, you can’t just have extra living space, but you understand that on a national scale, the desires of individual owners are insignificant. Do you want to have several apartments and rent them out? So these are hotels, register as the owner of hotels, pay tax, and provide state-established amenities for those living in hotels ... But why is the CCP in power there. And communism is not at all what it was in the USSR. Learn from the Chinese.
    ABM in the USSR was created thanks to Stalin and Beria, but Khrushchev and Brezhnev have nothing to do with this. They spoiled as best they could, and as much as they could, but they didn’t have the opportunity to spoil much, otherwise they would have been thrown out of the Kremlin, how ... they would have been thrown out.
    Yes, they were masters of politics, power, to stay in the chair and complete the program to destroy the USSR, you need a good talent. And, unfortunately, the USSR could not get rid of this rot in its head, could not put the message of the Central Committee of the CPSU against the wall. Even now, without the slightest remorse, looking into the eyes of the members of the Central Committee of the CPSU, their families, their grandchildren and children, I would put pressure on the trigger of a machine gun, and would not think about stupid ideas that the children are not to blame. They are all rotten, vile, anti-people evil.
    Unfortunately, history has already taken a turn, time has passed, opportunities have been missed, and perhaps forever. The overthrow of the Putin group will simply lead to the genocide of the Russian population. But I don't really support this idea. It seems like the National Communist Party of Russia is banned, like ISIS? Are they offering to shoot the oligarchs for stealing? And what's wrong with that, why ban them?
  28. DED_peer_DED
    DED_peer_DED 17 February 2022 12: 33
    In a traditional economy, the arbitrariness of production is limited to feedback from consumers through the market. Naturally, there are no distortions, however, in general, the scheme has been working successfully since the time of Adam Smith.

    Yeah. Works in neo-colonial states, built on the principle of "Eat up everyone who is not you."
    Today, this "pryntsyp", some "writers" pass off (supposedly) for the competition of "free democratic markets" and sigh that the USSR could not be "competitive".
    There is no "feedback" in the "traditional economy". This is baloney.
    In modern capitalist countries (Russia is one of them, but it is not a colonial power), consumption is formed by supranational mega-corporations, and not vice versa, as this author believes.
    It is enough to remember and understand some "projects" and "fashion" for this or that, which arose not according to the requirements of consumers, but invented and lowered by corporations down to the consumer (but not vice versa).
    Offhand and on trifles, 3D TVs, tablets ... But, it's so momentary, trifles.
    The entire consumer society is based on the imposition by corporations of their point of view on consumers, the formation of consumption, but not vice versa. On the contrary, a person can think either not far away, or one who is in "connection" with corporations, financial, temporary, ideological, spiritual bonds.
    At the moment, we all see the beginning of the reformatting of the "consumer society theory".
    And it's not just like that, in the course of life.
    Those in power are waiting for the arrival of their messiah, the demon.
    Everything has changed and making money by corporations is changing to another toy.
    It is urgent (within half a human life) to change the consumer society to a fear society.
    Sharply reduce consumption, sharply reduce the population, introduce the "Golden Billion" as the main principle of the existence of the modern world.
    The rest of the people should not consume, should not be healthy, should not multiply, should not know and understand anything, think. Only servants and a few "consonants" should be left to live. Someone should clean the toilets, shouldn't the "gold" do it?
    1. DED_peer_DED
      DED_peer_DED 17 February 2022 14: 47
      Here it is, "the bright future of democracy."
      Green European Future

      On the topic of the green transition, what awaits those who like to go to rallies and wave flags there: "So, every European who respects the so-called" green agenda "by 2050 must learn to emit no more than 2,9 tons of CO₂ into the atmosphere per year (such a norm established by the Paris Agreement.) To do this, he will have to comply with strict rules.

      In the field of nutrition and hygiene:

      - take a shower no more than 3 times a week, the duration of each of these procedures should not exceed 8 minutes;

      - turn on the washing machine no more than 2 times a week and no more than 1 hour;

      - eat chicken meat 2 times a week for 100 grams, which in terms of a year is 10,4 kg;

      - reduce cheese consumption - no more than 1 time per week, and only 25 grams (1,3 kg per year);

      - but coffee will have to be abandoned completely and forever.

      In the field of physical education, sports and entertainment:

      - classes on the treadmill in the gym are allowed no more than 3 times a week for 30 minutes each;

      - watching TV or using the Internet - 2 hours a day;

      - computer/video games will be prohibited. According to various sources, one PC emits 452 kg of CO₂ every year when playing high-intensity rpg shooters and other tank games. Using the PS4 Pro console does not fundamentally solve the problem, because in this case 163 kg of carbon dioxide is released (by one user, of course).

      New clothes:

      - during the year, everyone is allowed to purchase 2 pairs of jeans and 3 shirts.


      - no more than 1 air flight per year in economy class;

      - the total distance traveled per year on electric transport - no more than 5 km.

      The Treeprint team also advises humanity to stop eating red meat (lamb, beef and pork) altogether. Switching from meat to plant-based diets will have a beneficial effect on the atmosphere: for example, eating a vegetarian bolognese instead of steak fries (beef and potatoes) will lead to a 94% reduction in emissions. And white tea is 87% better for the environment than latte. You will also have to give up beer and stronger drinks. - цинк
  29. Amalgam Z
    Amalgam Z 30 March 2022 14: 37
    Superficial googling on PS-2000 will show that they started working in the 72nd, rolled out to the 79th, that is, where does Afghan come from, that’s the author’s sick fantasy and confusion in dates, causes and consequences. The supercomputer project with high parallelism received support and attention from the "nasty" Academy! I put out something like 150 megaflops, an assembly of ten racks was all 1.5 gigaflops in the 80s. That is, at the level of Cray the saint of the same times. And they made quite a lot of them, all on the domestic element base, domestic projects, not "pulled" chips. There were plans to transfer the scheme from the placer from the 60s-70s to modern VLSI, then there would have been a monster in general, but then Tagged came out.