It seems to be a little strange to talk on the pages of "Voennoye Obozreniye" about even non-military vessels of commercial fleet... However, not so long ago there appeared an article about passenger steamers, where it was very appropriate to mention that cruise liners not only entertained tourists, but on occasion could transport an entire division across the ocean.
Honestly, this inspired me to talk about an unusual ship that brought to life a whole subclass of its own kind.
In addition, you can remember that there is such a term as the transport security of the state. There is even such a law, and transport ships are one of the constituent parts of this very security. It is not for nothing that our overseas partners apply the term merchant navy to this fleet - that is, although it is a commercial one, it is still navy.
Today our heroes will be:
- Danish company AP Moller-Maersk Group, which is known in the shipping world under the simplified name Maersk. In fact, Maersk is the world's largest container ship operator. Every sailor knows of steamers of a characteristic blue color with the Maersk Line inscription on board. In 2020, the company owned and operated more than 700 vessels with a total capacity of 4 TEU (I will explain a little later what this is);
- a container ship named Emma Maersk, which laid (in my opinion) the beginning of such a phenomenon as the Ultra Large Container Ship.
A bit of theory and history
Now a little theory and stories.
Container ships emerged as specialized cargo ships in the 1950s and proved to be a very convenient means of transporting goods on a door-to-door basis.
The containers themselves did not have a common standard at first, and for twenty years they had a variety of sizes until this became a problem.
And if there is a problem, then it must be solved - and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) rallied with strength and introduced standards. Containers for sea shipping began to have a standard design, and container ships began to be built to these dimensions.
Something like this:
The picture was taken at the entrance to the Panama Canal.
The steamer barely moves, almost not disturbing the sea surface. It is he who is waiting for me, they are taking me to him by boat. Now we will go around it, there will be a ladder hanging from the starboard side, I will rise, and the next 4 months of life will pass there.
The capacity of this instance is 5 TEU.
It’s about these TEUs and about the race for them, and will be discussed.
To begin with, what is this TEU and why should you chase after it?
This term just arose as a result of standardization and it means twenty-foot equivalent unit. One TEU, shall we say, hints at the capacity of a standard shipping container 20 feet long, 8,5 feet high and 8 feet wide. It is for such dimensions that container ships are designed, and their capacity is precisely measured in TEU.
True, 20-foot containers soon became too small, and extended versions of 40 and 45 feet were launched into use. Their height has also increased slightly, but the width remains the same. And the term TEU remained. Accordingly, one 40-foot container is equal to two TEU.
Why are you trying to increase the container capacity?
And the reason is very simple.
The more containers you carry, the cheaper the transportation of one container is, which is very attractive for cargo owners.
And if so, then all decent shipowners began to try to get hold of large container ships in their fleet. The shipbuilders, of course, readily responded to the requests of the ship owners and began to build larger and larger container ships.
By 2005, the size approached 10 TEU.
And here the race stopped.
Up to this point, the increase in container capacity went along a very simple path - the length and breadth of the vessel grew, as well as the number of containers that could be taken on deck. It was not uncommon to see container ships with 7 tiers of containers, because of which the wheelhouse protruded only slightly.
Further increase in size required significant changes in the design of the vessel.
Development was carried out, but opinions differed on exactly how to build.
Some shipbuilders believed that the ULCS (Ultra Large Container Ship, as such monsters were called in advance) could no longer be built according to the traditional scheme - that is, with the superstructure slightly shifted aft from the middle of the ship and with the engine room located directly below it.
There was also debate on the composition of the power plant of such a ship: it was assumed that it should consist of two engines with a capacity of 50–55 thousand liters. With. each, otherwise there is no way to reach the required speed of 25 knots.
At that time, it was believed that a self-respecting container ship of this size must navigate the seas at exactly that speed, otherwise everyone would look at it as a misunderstanding.
Who could have guessed that several years would pass and the mood in the shipping world would radically change?
Accordingly, it was proposed to shift the superstructure of such a vessel to the bow, and the engine room to the stern. At the same time, this improved the view from the bridge and reduced the length of the propeller shaft, which was also important, because it was supposed to transfer enormous power to the propeller.
Well, in passing, as something insignificant, it was mentioned that the crews would be in more comfortable conditions, since the source of noise and vibration would be removed from the living quarters by almost 200 meters.
Others stated that the traditional architecture had not yet exhausted itself and that they even had ready-made projects, but only there were no orders.
And then thunder struck.
Rumors began to circulate that Maersk was building something big at its own shipyard in Odense. And later, photographs appeared, and it became clear that the rumors were true.
While the controversy was going on, the designers of Maersk spit on everyone and went the traditional way.
In the end, this is what happened:
The vessel was launched with great fanfare.
Yes, it is understandable, not every day and not even every decade such an event happens.
It is also understandable that Maersk Line wants to talk about "Emma" only in enthusiastic tones. Everything that concerns her, they had the prefix "most-most". The longest ship, the most powerful engine, the heaviest anchor, the largest propeller ...
The new giant entered service in September 2006.
Isn't it beautiful and somewhere even elegant?
Dimensions of a newborn: length - 397 m, width - 56 m, draft in full load - 16 m. Capacity ...
Here is a little more about this, since there is some intrigue here.
With regard to capacity, the world shipping and ship-owning community has been enthusiastically building assumptions on this topic for several years.
Maersk has officially announced that it is 11 TEU.
The public allowed itself not to believe - the size of the vessel assumed that 14 containers would easily enter it - an unprecedented figure at that time. And it is quite possible that more!
The Maersk's container capacity determination system gave room for thought and calculation.
When calculating, they proceed from the fact that all containers loaded on board will be evenly and equally loaded, and the weight of the cargo in each will be exactly 14 tons.
In general, this is standard maritime practice.
And if you look at the characteristics of container ships for interest, you will see a double figure: maximum TEU capacity and container capacity at 14 t. The first is usually 35–40% larger than the second.
The container ship on which I am currently working has the following figures: maximum TEU capacity = 8 250 and container capacity at 14 t = 6 805. This is due to the fact that in real life a variety of containers are loaded onto the ship, both empty and loaded , and even overloaded, and it is rather difficult to take into account all this.
Maximum capacity rather characterizes the volume of cargo space measured in containers: if all of them are empty, then 8 can be crammed, and if they all weigh 250 tons, then only 14, since the maximum carrying capacity will be chosen.
At the moment we are carrying 6 270 TEU, but the carrying capacity has already been selected at 95%.
And Maersk stubbornly continues to assume that all containers on his the ships will weigh a standard 14 tons. Well, they have such a tradition, what can you do.
In general, all and sundry began to divide and multiply, and it turned out that the real maximum TEU capacity should be close to 15 TEU. It was very impressive.
By the way, later Maersk admitted that the calculations were close to the truth - the real figure is 15 512 containers.
Further from the "most-most" - the most powerful (so far) in the world main engine SULZER 14RT-96C-flex, made in Korea at the Doosan plant under license from Sulzer.
It stands for simple: 14 cylinders with a diameter of 96 cm, and the flex prefix means that the common rail system is used here. Such an engine does not have a camshaft and individual high-pressure fuel pumps, and is stuffed with electronics cleaner than a spacecraft.
At the same time, it is much more economical in comparison with the 96C series and reacts more flexibly to work with reduced power - this property later turned out to be very useful. Its power is 80 kW, and he and his seven brothers for a long time, and most likely forever, will remain the most powerful power plant of a sea vessel, consisting of one engine.
Here it is still at a factory in Korea, assembled and ready for battle:
But that's not all.
Calculations have shown that the required speed of 25 knots at full load will still not be achieved, despite the enormous power.
Apparently, the hull lines were shaped to maximize the carrying capacity - but the streamlining suffered at the same time. Therefore, two Siemens electric motors of 9 kW each were built into the propeller shaft line.
This also makes the "Emma" a unique vessel, which is certainly not the case anywhere else. Rather, shaft generators of just such a design are quite common, but so that electric motors are built into the propeller shaft for the specific purpose of increasing the power transmitted to the propeller - I have never heard this before.
Look at the 120 meter long line of the propeller shaft. And somewhere in the distance one of these electric motors is slightly visible:
Here it is closer.
Where to get electricity from?
There is a power plant on board, consisting of 5 diesel generators of 4 kW each with a voltage of 100 kV and a turbine generator with a capacity of 6,6 kW.
Let's dwell on the turbine generator in more detail.
Although an electronically controlled main engine is more economical than a conventional engine, the law of large numbers must not be forgotten. It is economical in terms of specific fuel consumption - the value of “grams per horsepower per hour” is 5–8% less than that of a conventional engine of a traditional design. However, if we multiply grams by kilowatts and by hours, then we get not a small daily consumption - about 330 tons per day at full speed.
Now let's multiply tons by dollars. Let's say the cost of a ton of heavy fuel in Singapore is now $ 620 ... Wow, almost 200 thousand dollar bills fly into the pipe a day!
And hot gases from the combustion of those same tons of fuel are emitted into the pipe. And hot gas flying at high speed is energy.
Those who build and design such engines have known for a long time that the efficiency of such a colossus can be obtained a little more than 50%, and this is just wonderful, designers and technologists have been moving towards this figure for more than 100 years! And in the next 50 years, it is unlikely that much more will be achieved. There is a struggle for every percentage.
Naturally, the idea arose long ago - why not use the energy of the burnt gases?
The idea came to life in the form of the so-called. "Waste boiler" - a boiler in which the energy of the exhaust gases of the main engine is used to produce steam.
It was believed that if the main engine had a power of more than 10 kW, then such a boiler would be able to get enough steam to turn the turbine generator. Thus, on the move, the ship could be supplied with electricity without wasting excess fuel, and diesel generators could be started only in the port.
On container ships, however, such a system did not become widespread, since they had very large electricity needs. After all, they began to transport not only ordinary containers, but also refrigerated ones, and each such refinery pulls up to 7 kW from the ship's network.
But time passed, the design idea continued to work, new ideas, materials and technologies appeared.
So Sulzer came up with the WHS - Waste Heat Recovery system, which they claimed would recycle up to 12% of the energy contained in the combustible fuel.
Maersk got interested in the case and tested the idea.
In 2005, the same shipyard in Odense launched the 10 TEU Gudrun Maersk. There was a 500RT-12C-flex engine, similar to the one that was supposed to be installed on the Emma, only in a 96-cylinder version.
Its capacity was 68 kW, and the WHS system supplied steam to a 000 kW turbine generator.
Tests have shown that the system works as promised by Sulzer.
This is how it looks in hardware:
Great power can be obtained due to the fact that the generator is turned and turned by two turbines at once: steam and gas. The steam turbine is supplied with steam from a specially designed recovery boiler with a high steam capacity, and the gas turbine is supplied with energy from the exhaust gases of the main engine.
The same system was installed on Emma.
At the same time, this gave the owners the opportunity to assert that the "Emma" is almost the most environmentally friendly ship in the world, since the exhaust gases are emitted into the chimney for a reason, but do useful work along the way.
However, by that time it had already become fashionable to fight for the environment, so let's leave this statement without comment ...
However, Maersk sometimes replays in its advertising.
For example, Maersk claims that Emma's crew is only 13 people.
Well, here I will allow myself to doubt.
The number of "13 people" is most likely indicated in the so-called Minimum Safe Manning - a document issued by the maritime administration of the state whose flag the ship is carrying. And this only means that the Danish Maritime Authority believes and admits that 13 people can ensure the safe operation, navigation and other life of the vessel.
In 2009, I arrived on a steamer, which had been at anchor in the Philippine bay for almost a year, in the company of the same poor fellows.
The flag was there for Liberia, and according to Liberian rules, only 7 people were enough to bring the ship to the nearest port.
Well, yes, we reached Manila in every possible way, where another 15 people settled in.
So let's leave this statement (or misconception) on their conscience, and let's estimate.
Captain. Even if he is on watch on the bridge, it means that two more assistants (senior and 2nd) are needed to ensure a normal round-the-clock watch "4 through 8".
The requirements of SOLAS (Safety of Life at Sea) cannot be bypassed in any way, which means that at least 4 more sailors are needed to provide the lookout watch.
A cook is needed - the crew will not cook their own food!
And you need a steward - he not only sets the table and washes the dishes, but also performs all sorts of "household chores", for example, washing clothes.
And now we get 9 people.
This means that there are only four left for the entire machine team, of which at least two people are the senior mechanic and the 2nd mechanic.
There are two minders left. I highly doubt they can handle servicing whatever is fancy there.
True, Maersk claims that their navigators have double-acting diplomas, navigator / mechanic, which means they can perform work in the MCO.
Well, let's imagine that the chief mate was keeping watch on the bridge from 4 to 8 o'clock. After breakfast, he goes to do his immediate business on the deck - for example, checks the fastening of containers, which he is obliged to do every day. It will take him some time, at least until lunchtime. After dinner, he can go to turn the nuts in the engine room with renewed vigor. After that, he will just have time to go to the shower, and there will be another watch on the bridge from 16 to 20.
Something hard to believe.
Although one can guess, here are the footage from the video for Discovery Channel - Mighty Ships, which shows the flight of "Emma" from Singapore to Europe.
The crew gathered for lunch.
Eight people are sitting at one table, but at least two more did not get into the frame - you see, there are plates on the edge of the table, and one of them is full?
There are 11 people at the second table, with the cook and the steward remaining behind the scenes - they are shown in the film.
And someone else must be on watch on the bridge, because the action takes place in the ocean.
In total, we get at least 23 people - this is no longer the truth.
And in general, not everything was so rosy.
The troubles began during the construction process.
The unfinished Emma was badly damaged by fire. Due to careless welding work, the entire superstructure burned out:
As a result of the fire and subsequent firefighting, all the equipment that they managed to install was destroyed.
After that, the superstructure was simply cut off and a new one was ordered, and the crumpled one was scrapped. The delay in leaving the factory was 6 weeks.
During her first year of service, Emma (like her subsequent three sisters) experienced problems with propeller shaft bearings.
It was apparently not so easy to transfer 109 thousand horses along a shaft 120 meters long, which, moreover, is subject to vibration and bending.
I personally saw her in Hong Kong, fully unloaded at the pier. The pilot let slip that, due to problems with bearings, it was temporarily removed from the line, and a team of factory specialists is now working there.
True, when a week later we went to Hong Kong again, she was gone, and on the second series of ships (a total of 8 ships were built) the problem had already been resolved.
And the biggest blow to "Emma", or rather to the concept of the giant ship from which she was born, was dealt by the world economy.
Namely: the economic crisis of 2008 and the sharp jump in fuel prices that followed.
In 2006, the year Emma was launched, the maximum price of IFO380 marine fuel was 360 dl per ton, and in July 2008 it was already 760 dollars! The jump is more than doubled.
According to the established rules, fuel is paid by the charterer of the vessel, not the owner, and many cannot afford it. Container ships, with their powerful propulsion systems designed for high speeds, were the first victims.
Shipowners were often forced to take ships out of service and put them in the so-called. lay-up for an indefinite period. Countries such as Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, the Philippines have even begun to develop an unusual type of business - to offer convenient anchorages for such ships. It was considered good luck to charter the ship simply at cost.
I myself worked on such a steamer in 2008, it earned $ 5000 per day and spent exactly the same amount. We were told to forget about supply bids. They only sent things without which it was impossible to go on the flight.
Since then, prices have fallen, but not much, and have not returned to their previous figures.
Fuel was already the biggest expense item, and now it has become completely unbearable for many.
And then shipowners and charterers jointly came up with the concept of slow steaming - the operation of ships at a reduced speed.
Thanks to the tricky dependence "speed is proportional to the power in the third degree", it becomes possible to reduce the power of the main by half, while the speed will drop only by 20%. The engines, however, do not feel very well in this load range, so the manufacturers - Sulzer, MAN and others - had to meet halfway and develop a number of measures.
I will not dwell on this in detail, this is a very broad topic ...
So "Emma" and her sisters had to moderate their appetites.
In the timetable, which is now available on the Maersk website, you can see that from the port of Jebel Ali (Emirates) to the port of Ningbo (China) "Emma" should reach in 15 days. At 5 miles, this gives us an average speed of 547 knots, which means these giants are now walking at about 15% of their maximum speed.
Thanks to the above relationship, it can be seen that Emma now uses 35% of her 108 thousand horsepower.
This is good for the environment and for saving, but the question arises - how, with such a low power, does its exhaust gas energy recovery plant work?
After all, the ship's owners advertised it as reducing fuel consumption and significantly (several times!) Reducing the emission of harmful gases into the atmosphere.
Fuel consumption has indeed dropped, but for a completely different reason.
These same gases have also declined, and it is possible that they are no longer sufficient to operate the WHS system that Maersk was so proud of. This means that money invested in additional equipment is not returned ... Well, okay, this is not our money.
And in February 2013, "Emma" underwent a new test.
Probably everyone remembers the clogging of the Suez Canal, and what kind of commotion it caused?
But for sure no one (well, almost no one) knows that in 2013, "Emma" nearly sank at the entrance to the Suez Canal from the Mediterranean Sea.
This could have caused a similar incident, with much worse consequences.
It's hard to believe what happened: the propeller blade of one of the thrusters came off, which made such a hole in the hull that water flowed in at a speed of 1,5 m3 / sec. The accident developed extremely quickly. The timeline can be seen from a picture taken from the Maersk campaign magazine:
At 21:33, an alarm was triggered about the flow of water into the engine room, at 22:40 the main engine stopped, and at 23:45 the ship was left without electricity.
By this time, "Emma" with the help of tugs almost got to the berth of the container terminal.
Digression. A bow thruster is, simply put, a sealed tube across the ship's hull that houses a variable pitch propeller driven by an electric motor. The propeller sucks water from one side of the vessel and pushes it out from the other side, creating a powerful lateral moment, which is very helpful when maneuvering, and changing the propeller pitch allows you to adjust the force and direction of the stop. There are four such devices on the Emma: two in the bow and two in the stern.
Already at the "Emma" pier they sat down safely, and the water level in the MCO was equal to the water level overboard. The result is 16 meters.
While "Emma" was at the pier, all the cargo was removed from her and the hole was temporarily welded, as a result, she surfaced. Then in tow, she went to Palermo.
Moreover, the water from the engine room has not yet been pumped out, otherwise, when combined with oxygen, all structures and mechanisms would quickly begin to rust. The pumping out of water and the simultaneous processing of the mechanisms took more than a month.
The Emma returned to service in mid-July, which should be considered a very good result.
As expected, Maersk Line used this extraordinary event to their advantage - like these are the heroic people we work with.
Of course, we must pay tribute to the crew and especially to the captain, who managed to remove the wounded ship from the caravan route and moor it when it was practically out of control.
However, questions arise.
The propeller shaft compartment, where the thrusters pass, must be separated from the engine room by a watertight bulkhead, and therefore it is not entirely clear how the water flooded not only this compartment, but also the engine room.
Was the hole really that big?
Or, at the time of the accident, the watertight door was not closed, and then this is a mistake of the crew?
Or a watertight bulkhead is even permeable, and then it is a mistake of designers and builders.
And who are the designers?
Fairplay Solution Magazine says the ship was designed by Maersk Line in partnership with Maersk Ship Design and Odense Steel Shipyard, all of which are divisions of AP Moller.
I have a report on this incident, but now we are talking about something completely different.
The arrival of the Emma worked like a pistol shot for shipowners and shipbuilders, and the ULCS container ships tumbled from the shipyards one by one.
The statistics classify container ships in this class with a capacity of more than 10 TEU, although there are no official criteria.
If you delve into the network, you can find that at the beginning of 2019 there were about 600 such ships. True, they do not look so elegant at all.
The design of "Emma" remained unique, and no one else in the world dared to repeat its design.
The centrally located superstructure and engine room did not inspire anyone else, and a typical representative of the new generation of container ships looks like this:
The length of this particular specimen, on which I also managed to work, is 366 meters, width - 52 meters and capacity - 13 800 TEU.
It still has a powerful engine and is rated for a top speed of 27 knots. However, like absolutely all container ships at this time, they operate at reduced power, saving fuel.
I think its owners had time to regret many times that they did not find their bearings in time and did not order a weaker engine. But what can you do ... It is not yet possible to look into the future.
The dimensions will allow him to take advantage of the new, expanded version of the Panama Canal, which was dug by the restless Panamanians.
But "Emma" cannot use the channel, but this does not bother its owners.
It is very likely that at least one consequence of the appearance of "Emma" had a devastating effect.
By the time it appeared, rumors had been circulating for several years that the well-known engine-building company MAN-B & W was close to producing a marine engine with a cylinder diameter of 108 cm.
It is quite possible that they were hoping to get the order from AP Moller, as the 12-cylinder version of their new engine would more than cover Emma's power needs.
However, it did not work out ...
Now shipowners are trying to surprise not with the power and speed of their new vessels, but with their efficiency and environmental friendliness. Large powers have become unpopular, and we will most likely never see such engines again.
The construction of the E-class series, as it was called (all sisterships had names beginning with E), turned out to be a swan song for the shipyard in Odense as well. It ceased to exist, repeating the fate of almost all European shipyards, which lost economic competition to the Koreans and Chinese.
And then the inevitable happened - "Emma" lost the title of the largest container ship in the world.
Maersk, however, built new ships, which for some time allowed him to return the title of self-most.
Meet Maersk McKinney Moller on sea trials in June 2013.
He was followed by no less than 19 brothers of the same size. Their cost, perhaps, was also "very-very": almost 200 million American bills each.
The construction of the new giants was entrusted to the Korean company Daewoo. Its length is exactly 400 m, its width is 59 m, and its draft is 15,5 m.
This time Maersk decided not to fool the public with their clever system of calculating container capacity and announced in advance that it would be 18 TEU.
Interestingly, Maersk stubbornly continues to ignore the possibility of its new vessels passing the new Panama Canal.
Even the new, extended version of the canal, which is planned to be launched in 2014, has locks only 55 meters wide.
As you can see, this time Maersk decided not to be smart and chose the hull architecture that became the standard for ULCS: the superstructure is shifted to the bow, and the engine room is located in the stern.
However, the zest in the new project is still present.
Maersk called the new concept of their ships Tripple-E, which, according to their idea, should mean Economy of scale, Energy efficient and Environmentally improved.
In the spirit of this concept, a new design was developed.
Effiency of scale: the shape of the body is more like a box shape, as stated in the ad, and therefore more containers were crammed in there.
Energy efficient: The energy efficiency of the combustible fuel has received a lot of attention.
Since the design speed of the vessel was modest 22 knots (moderation and economy is the motto of the present days), the required power of the main engine for such a speed was somewhere in the region of 65-70 thousand kW. Motors of this size are well established in the industry and finding the right size is not difficult.
However, Maersk again went his own way, different from the others.
The power plant was chosen, consisting of two engines and two propellers! Each with a capacity of 43 not even kilowatts, but horsepower!
This time MAN-B & W was chosen as the main engine manufacturer, they just entered the market with a new model of the G-type engine. Engines of this type are incredibly slow at full power - only 68 rpm (for comparison, the engine "Emma" is spinning at 122 rpm). This significantly increases the efficiency of the propeller, and therefore saves fuel.
Such a power plant, according to Maersk Line, is still the best.
They are the most economical and slowest, and two large-diameter propellers, combined with low revs, will save an additional 4% of power, which means that less nasty exhaust gases will be emitted into the atmosphere.
The specific consumption of the G-type engines is 168 g-kW / h, in other words, about 250 tons of fuel will burn at full speed per day - much less than that of Emma.
Overall, Maersk estimates that the new container ships will emit 20% less CO50 than Emma and XNUMX% less than conventional container ships currently operating on the Asia-Europe line.
The cost of transporting one container, even compared to the newly built ULCS, will be 35% less.
However, as far as ecology is concerned, any possible tricks to reduce harmful emissions for a long time, if not forever, were surpassed by the French CMA CGM, having built the CMA CGM Jacques Saadé container ship with a capacity of 23 TEU. Its main engine, type 000X12DF, manufactured by the Swiss company WinGD, runs on liquefied gas.
Gas is stored in tanks at a temperature of -163 ° C, and a full refuel lasts for 23 miles. It is planned to build 000 such vessels.
Well, the largest container ship, at the moment, is Ever Ace, built for the Taiwanese company Evergreen, it can take on board 23 standard containers. A series of 992 such vessels is being built at factories in China and Korea.
I think it will not be long, and very soon someone will surpass this size.
These are the passions in the shipping business, and it is a pity that we are strangers at this holiday.
If we ask the question of the Global merchant fleet to Yandex, Google and others, we get the following picture:
We are not even close here.
No Zvezda factories will help catch up with Korea, let alone China.
Of course, one is asking to compare the present times with the times of the USSR and cry about the fact that now everything is bad with us not only with the military fleet, but also with the merchant ...
But I don’t want to. Moreover, the USSR also received almost the entire merchant fleet from friends in the camp, so in this sense, nothing particularly had to be broken. So we will live with what we have.