Military Review

Megaprojects of the Soviet Union: a dam across the Bering Strait

101

One of the variants of the dam across the Bering Strait.


An idea for 24 billion rubles


Permafrost and extremely low temperatures have always been a big problem for our country. It is expensive and not entirely comfortable to live in Eastern Siberia and the Far East - people at all times reluctantly moved there.

At the same time, maintaining the country's territorial integrity with a low population density is becoming a big problem. Controlling the situation in the north-east of the USSR and Russia has always required large resources.

Now the problem of low temperatures in the giant region of the country is gradually being solved by global warming. Over time, the duration of navigation on the Northern Sea Route increases, winters become milder, and summers are longer.

But in the 60s of the last century, this was still very far away, and individual enthusiasts were ready to act here and now.

One of the brightest converters of nature in the Soviet Union was engineer Pyotr Mikhailovich Borisov, who proposed a dam project across the Bering Strait in the late 50s.

In the Committee for Inventions and Discoveries under the Council of Ministers of the USSR, this idea was registered in 1957 under the name "Radical improvement of the climate of the polar and temperate latitudes of the globe."

In 1970, to popularize the project, the book "Can a Man Change the Climate" was published, which received all the necessary approvals from the USSR Academy of Sciences. The popular science publication provides theoretical justifications for the construction of a mega-structure in a narrow part of the Bering Strait.

The whole logic of the project is built around a simple thesis - first to scare, and then to offer salvation. Borisov, together with the academicians, decided to scare the readers with the imminent onset of a new ice age, which was supposed to actually paralyze most of the USSR by the 80s-90s of the last century. Permafrost should have reached at least the Urals. Now, in an age of panic struggle against global warming, the ideas of Soviet scientists seem to be especially naive.


A little about what Pyotr Borisov decided to fight with.

And these are neither more nor less cold masses of water that stop the Gulf Stream just beyond Scandinavia. Water comes from the Pacific Ocean just through the Bering Strait and noticeably cools Russian Eastern Siberia and the Far East. That is why it is logical to block the strait in its narrowest 74-kilometer part to a depth of 50-60 meters and thereby block the transfer of cold water to the Arctic.

But that's not all.

The plans included a system for pumping cold water from the north to the south with the help of powerful pumps from the dam. Pumping water from the Chukchi Sea to the Bering Sea required, according to the most conservative estimates, at least 25 million kilowatts of energy annually.

For comparison: the Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric power station at that time produced 6 million kilowatts, the Bratsk hydroelectric power station - 4 million, and the Nizhnelenskaya hydroelectric power station - 20 million.However, the last hydroelectric power station, located at the source of the Lena, remained in the project - no worthy consumers were found for electricity.

An important point of the Soviet megaproject was close cooperation with the United States and Canada - after all, the thermal reclamation of the Arctic was supposed to improve the climate in these countries.

Pyotr Borisov proposed to split the costs and dispatch to the USSR no more than 40% of the funding, that is, about 8-10 billion rubles.

In addition to the dam itself, the author of the project has planned a lot of infrastructure projects.

On the eastern and western shores of the strait, two cities with 50 thousand inhabitants each, two ports and a cascade of nuclear power plants were to appear to power those very pumps.

As an option, we considered the construction of several thermal power plants operating on local coal. In case of successful implementation of the latter idea, the region was waiting for a real apocalypse - smog from dozens of thermal power plants would obscure the sky for decades. And, of course, the dam included a double-track railway and a freeway connecting Eurasia and North America.

Megaprojects of the Soviet Union: a dam across the Bering Strait
Cross section of the dam. Sketch from the book "Can a Man Change the Climate"

We should also dwell on the structure of the dam itself.

Pumping water from the northern to the southern pool would inevitably lead to the accumulation of Arctic pack ice with a thickness of 5 to 10 meters, which, over time, would simply demolish the multibillion-dollar structure. For this, the author provided fairings on the upper part of the dam, along which the ice masses simply rolled to the southern pool.

But what about the railroad and motorway in question?

Borisov believed that the ice should eventually end, and then the streamlined part of the dam could be rebuilt for transport arteries.

The Lucky Planet


To understand the situation in which such ideas of a radical change in nature developed, it is worth realizing in what reality people lived at that time.

Science and technology ruled the world - man flew into space, nuclear energy was harnessed, powerful hydroelectric power plants block the channels of giant rivers. The contemporaries of the scientific and technological revolution had a distinct feeling that from now on everything is possible and the forces of nature in a person's pocket.

In support of this thesis, the author quotes the words of the Russian oceanographer Stepan Makarov in his book:

“They say that the hummocks of the Arctic Ocean are invincible. This is a mistake: we can overcome the hummocks, only human superstition is invincible. "

Therefore, the project of Peter Borisov, with a successful coincidence of circumstances, could be implemented, albeit at the cost of unprecedented costs.

What would this lead to?

Here we can only talk about the likely scenario of the development of events, but it is not at all rosy.

First, consider the opinion of Peter Borisov himself, who assumed the return of the Arctic climate by 1,5 million years ago.

Quote from the book of the engineer:

“The tundra off the coast of the Arctic Basin will disappear - only a narrow rim will remain at the Greenland Ice Sheet. In its place, forests will settle: coniferous - closer to the Pacific Ocean, deciduous - closer to the Atlantic. Broad-leaved species penetrate to the northwest of Kamchatka. Deciduous forests will also occupy Eastern Siberia, replacing coniferous taiga. Due to the mild warm climate, Atlantic species of tree species, including hornbeam and beech, penetrate into Western Siberia, to Tobolsk and to the adjacent southern regions. The aridity of the deserts of Central Asia will decrease. In the territories of our Central Asian deserts, it will drop to such a level that the revival of the steppes will become possible. Subtropical crops can be grown in the Black Sea region and in the lower interfluve of the Don and Volga. The climate of Western Europe will become warmer and more stable ”.

Borisov's forecasts also included the Sahara, which was supposed to turn into a semi-desert. Moreover, the first climatic effects from the dam would have occurred already 2–4 years after construction.


But, besides the oranges in the Russian middle zone, the dam in the Bering Strait brought with it a lot of risks.

So it is not clear why the scientists who reviewed the work of the engineer did not point out the fundamental errors to the author.

For example, the fact that simultaneously with the thermal reclamation of the Arctic, Japan, Polynesia and the Russian Primorye would inevitably cool. After such tricks, the Gulf Stream could permanently freeze at the border of the Northern Urals, and this would cause a new ice age in Europe.

The temperature would also drop in the Arctic, ice approached the northern coast of the USSR and blocked the deltas of the country's largest rivers. High water in this scenario would have flooded half of the east.

But even if the Gulf Stream extended into the depths of the Arctic, the consequences for the Soviet Union would not be the most straightforward. As a result, permafrost is melting everywhere, gigantic waterlogged areas are turning into swamps, from which previously bound methane comes out in millions of tons.

By the way, now something similar is happening with the Russian Far North and the Far East.

As it turned out, the answer to the thesis in the title of the book "Can a Man Change the Climate" turned out to be in the affirmative. Only for this, the Pyotr Borisov dam was not needed.
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  1. Far B
    Far B 9 January 2022 06: 18
    +6
    Permafrost and extremely low temperatures have always been a big problem in our country.
    Wow. And these factors somehow do not really bother Canada (I will not talk about the Norgs and Denmark, otherwise they will say that the scales are incomparable). In fact, this is not really a problem - rather, an excuse for the hands of drivers who have not only hands - even a head grows from a known place.
    It is expensive and not entirely comfortable to live in Eastern Siberia and the Far East - people at all times reluctantly moved there.
    Is it expensive and not entirely comfortable to live ??? And who did it ?!
    And the fact that people at all times reluctantly moved to Siberia and the Far East is utter nonsense. There has always been increased wages - both under the anpirator tsars and under the USSR. So people were driving for themselves - just look at the rate of population growth. But after the Liberal Democrats came to power in 1991, when the "northern" and "Far Eastern" were completely cut, the people fled from here.
    At the same time, maintaining the territorial integrity of the country with a low population density is becoming a big problem.
    To solve which, most likely, the current authorities do not want and cannot. Stupid programs like "Far Eastern Hectare", "Free Port of Vladivostok", etc. are about nothing, they only once again emphasize the inability of the current "elite" to run the state. So, under this power, "the problem of preserving the country's territorial integrity" will persist (at best), or even grow.
    As for the dam itself, it would be an exaggeration to call it a project. This "megaproject" did not develop beyond the idea stage, drying up as a drop on his underpants. By the way, the idea of ​​blocking the Shelekhov Bay in the Sea of ​​Okhotsk (in the field of energy), or connecting Sakhalin with the mainland (in the field of climate), looks much more profitable and promising, but even there it did not go further than talk.
    1. yuriy55
      yuriy55 9 January 2022 06: 43
      +8
      Quote: Dalny V
      about nothing, they only once again emphasize the inability of the current "elite" to rule the state.

      Yes, what kind of "elite" is there?
      Stink, stones, luxury, poverty. Debauchery. The villains who robbed the people gathered, they recruited soldiers and judges to guard their orgy, and they feast.

      For the fourth decade, every time they shrug their shoulders and try to justify the emerging accidents, absurdities and catastrophes with the legacy of the past and evil intrigues, forgetting to point out that in 2021 alone the capital of this group of "one-time officials and not officials at all" increased by $ 101 000 ... No.
      1. vlad106
        vlad106 10 January 2022 19: 34
        -1
        Quote: yuriy55
        Stink, stones, luxury, poverty.


        Megaprojects of the Soviet Union: a dam across the Bering Strait ...[/ I]
        also
        [i] "... The plans included a system of pumping cold water from the northern to the southern pool with the help of powerful pumps of the dam. Pumping water from the Chukchi Sea to the Bering Sea ..."


        What kind of tukhachefshchina with some Chubaischina?
        This is how many "rationalizers" were sitting in design bureaus and typesetting ideas for cutting the budget of the country?
    2. Dart2027
      Dart2027 9 January 2022 06: 52
      +15
      Quote: Dalny V
      And these factors somehow don't bother Canada.

      Look at how populated most of Canada is.
      Quote: Dalny V
      And the fact that people at all times reluctantly moved to Siberia and the Far East is utter nonsense. There has always been increased wages - both under the anpirator tsars and under the USSR.

      That is, people had to be lured there with a lot of money, and as soon as they stopped doing it, those who wanted to run out.
      1. Far B
        Far B 9 January 2022 07: 03
        +6
        Look at how populated most of Canada is
        The thought did not understand. In Canada, as in Russia, there is a rather densely populated part, and there is a sparsely populated part - which occupies most of the country's territory. Which one should I be looking at? And what, excuse me, was your thought?
        That is, people had to be lured there with a lot of money, and as they stopped doing it, those who wanted to end up.
        And what is wrong? The same States were settled according to the same principle - people rushed to where they could raise money. Perhaps only Australia and Sakhalin at one time were forcibly settled laughing
        1. just exp
          just exp 9 January 2022 08: 13
          0
          try to develop your thought beyond the first comment and you will understand what your opponent is talking about not to you, but to Yuri.
        2. Dart2027
          Dart2027 9 January 2022 08: 34
          +9
          Quote: Dalny V
          Which one should I be looking at? And what, excuse me, was your thought?

          The idea is that the population of Canada is concentrated in the most favorable climatic zones for life, and no one wants to go to Siberia there, they come there only to work and go back. We have the same.
          Quote: Dalny V
          And what is wrong?
          The fact that people moved not because they wanted, but to earn money, and then tried to go back to where it was warmer. This was also the case in the USSR.
        3. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 9 January 2022 11: 38
          +9
          Quote: Dalny V
          In Canada, as in Russia, there is a rather densely populated part, and there is a sparsely populated part - which occupies most of the country's territory.

          So.
          Quote: Dalny V
          And these factors somehow don't bother Canada.

          And here you are right. In general, they do not particularly strive to settle and equip these territories. Who is right - Canada or the USSR, striving to master inconvenient territories, everyone decides for himself.
          1. ViacheslavS
            ViacheslavS 10 January 2022 16: 30
            -4
            Who is right - Canada or the USSR, striving to master inconvenient territories, everyone decides for himself.

            From a rational point of view of law, Canada from the ideological-populist USSR, the extensive settlement of the northern territories, not only is not rational in terms of resources, but also cruel to the people themselves, living in a climate where 8 months of winter is not very good for health compared to warmer places.
            From a rational point of view of law, Canada with the ideological-populist USSR, the widespread settlement of the northern territories is not only not rational in terms of resources, it is also cruel to the people themselves, living in a climate where 8 months of winter is not very good for health compared to more warm places.
        4. SovAr238A
          SovAr238A 9 January 2022 17: 15
          +2
          Quote: Far In
          Look at how populated most of Canada is
          The thought did not understand. In Canada, as in Russia, there is a rather densely populated part, and there is a sparsely populated part - which occupies most of the country's territory. Which one should I be looking at? And what, excuse me, was your thought?
          That is, people had to be lured there with a lot of money, and as they stopped doing it, those who wanted to end up.
          And what is wrong? The same States were settled according to the same principle - people rushed to where they could raise money. Perhaps only Australia and Sakhalin at one time were forcibly settled laughing


          In Alaska, for example, people live without higher wages ...
          This is a fact.

          Here you have created an enterprise, brought (lured with huge allowances) people.
          Huge plant
          To him a nuclear power plant.
          To her people.
          And now, figuratively, the cost of your products is 100 rubles per kilogram.
          And for the Chinese (Indonesians, Indians) on the floor, the products will cost 30 rubles per kilogram.
          Attention, the question.
          Why did all this have to be done?
          1. Servisinzhener
            Servisinzhener 13 January 2022 16: 01
            0
            Yes, they do. With a population density of 5 people per square kilometer. And they also live in Florida, only the population density there is 60 times higher. )))
            1. SovAr238A
              SovAr238A 13 January 2022 16: 04
              +2
              Quote: Servisinzhener
              Yes, they do. With a population density of 5 people per square kilometer. And they also live in Florida, only the population density there is 60 times higher. )))


              And in New York, the population density is even higher.
              And life there is more expensive than in Alaska.
              Ага.
      2. yuriy55
        yuriy55 9 January 2022 08: 08
        +14
        Quote: Dart2027
        That is, people had to be lured there with a lot of money, and as soon as they stopped doing it, those who wanted to run out.

        Under socialism, a different goal was pursued. The main idea of ​​creating three "zones" with allowances, "polar" and other additional vacations was to attract YOUNG PERSONNEL (full of energy, strength and health) to the development of not ideal (difficult) climatic zones. And all this was only in connection with the vital necessity. Look how many friend countries were at the beginning of the formation of the USSR.
        Tell me, skeptic of socialist pragmatism, for what purpose today, more than 10% of the population of Russia is gathered in the overcrowded enclave of the capital (only according to Rosstat data)? For what beautiful eyes, unfavorable climate, harmful and dangerous work there was secretly introduced a "Moscow bonus" to salaries and pensions? Tell me, will people stay there to work if they are paid in the same way as in the regions?
        I don’t think that encouraging speculation is an effective method of combating overpopulation in megacities. Or do you think that 0,005% of the country's area should be inhabited in this way? And will clean air on the remaining 99,995% benefit the development of the demographic economy?
        1. Dart2027
          Dart2027 9 January 2022 08: 40
          +2
          Quote: yuriy55
          The main idea of ​​creating three "zones" with allowances, "polar" and other additional vacations was to attract YOUNG PERSONNEL (full of energy, strength and health) to the development of not ideal (difficult) climatic zones.

          I know. The point is that no one aspired to go there, only to make money, and then everyone who could go back. This is nothing new or exceptional. Take superpopulated China - where the majority of the population is concentrated in half of the territory and even the local Communist Party cannot settle them evenly.
          https://миркарт.рф/%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%82%D1%8B?id=318
          1. yuriy55
            yuriy55 9 January 2022 10: 08
            +5
            Quote: Dart2027
            I know. The point is that no one aspired to go there, only to earn money, and then everyone who could go back.

            How did you start to master the Kuzbass coal? Suggest or do you know why on st. In the spring of the regional center there was a stand with the results of socialist competition with the miners of Donbass. Imagine, people even came from the Kuban.
            There is a saying: "Love is evil - you will love a goat too."
            And here, in addition to love, there was a sense of duty and responsibility. My father came from the Ryazan region (my brother called), and all his life he lived and worked in Siberia. And he was buried with his mother in the city cemetery ...
            And some of them had nowhere to return after the war. Especially where relatives and friends died ...
            1. Dart2027
              Dart2027 9 January 2022 11: 25
              -1
              Quote: yuriy55
              And here, in addition to love, there was a sense of duty and responsibility.
              Sometimes it happens. But the fact is that people will always strive to live in a more favorable climate.
              1. yuriy55
                yuriy55 9 January 2022 11: 36
                +8
                Quote: Dart2027
                But the fact is that people will always strive to live in a more favorable climate.

                Even penguins breed chicks in Antarctica. And they could have found a warmer place.
                The fish is looking for where it is deeper, and the person is looking for where it is better.

                Consumer slogan. Those who have a hut (country house, palace) on the edge. Those to whom the war is a mother.
                We were taught to think about the Motherland before, and then about ourselves. In addition, we took into account: it is not a place that paints a person, but a person a place. Including the place of residence.
                Take the same Jews. How they equip their country and how they live there is a lot of work. In Libya, Muammar Gaddafi did not choose for a long time, but took and made an underground water conduit - he irrigated arid places. And he developed the economy for the citizens of his country ...
                There will always be an abomination that will fan a fire out of nothing, and then the citizens sit and bite their elbows, remembering their former life.
                1. Dart2027
                  Dart2027 9 January 2022 12: 52
                  -2
                  Quote: yuriy55
                  Take the same Jews. How they equip their country and how they live there is a lot of work. In Libya, Muammar Gaddafi did not choose for a long time, but took and made an underground water conduit - he irrigated arid places. And he developed the economy for the citizens of his country ...

                  So there are no other options. Libya is Libya, and Israel is Israel, small countries that are in the same climatic zone.
                  Quote: yuriy55
                  Even penguins breed chicks in Antarctica. And they could have found a warmer place.

                  Where they will die safely from the heat.
                  Quote: yuriy55
                  We were taught to think about the Motherland before, and then about ourselves.

                  As at any other time.
                2. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 9 January 2022 15: 10
                  +10
                  Even penguins breed chicks in Antarctica. And they could have found a warmer place.
                  We could not, Yuri, the food chain does not allow.
                3. cat Rusich
                  cat Rusich 9 January 2022 23: 25
                  +1
                  Quote: yuriy55
                  Quote: Dart2027
                  But the fact is that people will always strive to live in a more favorable climate.

                  Even penguins breed chicks in Antarctica. And they could have found a warmer place.
                  .
                  And then there are swallows, cranes, ducks, rooks ... - As winter approaches, they fly to the South.
                  Crows, sparrows, jackdaws, pigeons spend the winter with us ...
                  hi
                4. ViacheslavS
                  ViacheslavS 10 January 2022 16: 18
                  +1
                  Even penguins breed chicks in Antarctica. And they could have found a warmer place.


                  No, they couldn't, the penguins didn't get so far out of a good life, they couldn't / didn't want to compete in more favorable climatic territories.
                5. Flank
                  Flank 11 January 2022 11: 12
                  -1
                  Quote: yuriy55
                  Take the same Jews. How they equip their country and how they live there is a lot of work.

                  Take away the US patronage over Israel and all these Jews will go back to Europe, elbowing each other. Israel is a very, very subsidized country.
                6. your1970
                  your1970 15 January 2022 21: 56
                  0
                  Quote: yuriy55
                  Take the same Jews. How they equip their country and how they live there is a lot of work.

                  But they did not want to equip the Jewish Autonomous Region
          2. Sergej1972
            Sergej1972 9 January 2022 13: 54
            +3
            If we take the average population density in the PRC, then it is much lower in comparison with dozens of countries in the world. But the settlement is extremely uneven.
        2. Grits
          Grits 10 January 2022 11: 47
          +3
          Quote: yuriy55
          For what beautiful eyes, unfavorable climate, harmful and dangerous work there was secretly introduced a "Moscow bonus" to salaries and pensions? Tell me, will people stay there to work if they are paid in the same way as in the regions?

          Personally, I would, on the contrary, have introduced a kind of "Moscow tax". Which would go to workers of the North and Far East. And the development of territories would go faster and the number of traffic jams in Moscow would decrease
    3. Olgovich
      Olgovich 9 January 2022 09: 24
      +8
      Quote: Dalny V
      Permafrost and extremely low temperatures have always been a big problem for our country
      Wow. A To Canada these factors somehow not too stressful

      naturally, do not bother: -Canadians in those conditions simply do not live: all their life and activities are practically focused on the southout of these factors.

      All the northernmost is Russia: 90% of the world's settlements north of 70 latitude are Russian, all major cities in the world beyond the Arctic Circle are Russian (except for Tromso), northernmost city with a population of over 20 - Dudinka. The northernmost city with a population of over 000 is Norilsk; a city with a population of over 1 million - St. Petersburg. The northernmost agglomeration with a population of over 10 million is Moscow. The largest city and port in the Arctic Circle is Murmansk.
      anpirators that under the USSR. So people were driving for themselves - just look at the rate of population growth.
      And let's see: population growth in Primorye under Emperor Nicholas 2 -500%, for the same 22 years after the VOR, the increase in only ...45%, after another 22 years, an increase in total of 30%
      Water comes from the Pacific Ocean just through the Bering Strait and noticeably cools Russian Eastern Siberia and the Far East. That is why it is logical to block the strait in its narrowest 74-kilometer part to a depth of 50-60 meters and thereby block the transfer of cold water to the Arctic.

      But that's not all.

      The plans included a pumping system for cold waters from the northern pool to the southern with the help of powerful pumps of the dam.


      Some nonsense: if a dam blocked the flow of cold water into the Arctic Ocean (to keep it warm), then why pump out warm water from it, so as to ... cool it?

      But built for strategic purposes Ivashev dam much more interesting: this is the world's first in the practice of railway construction, the most unique filter dam, built according to the project of the Russian engineer Vasily Ivashev in 1915
      1. Uncle lee
        Uncle lee 9 January 2022 11: 09
        +2
        dam across the Bering Strait
        The magazine "Technology-youth" for 19..year ... And pictures from there ...
    4. A009
      A009 9 January 2022 22: 35
      -1
      What is your solution to the demographic problem? Apparently you know how to decide. And at least you already live in the Far East.
      I have already discussed this with someone. The mantra about the quality of life does not work. It is in the developed countries (Japan is a classic example and the whole of Europe, without migrants) the least increase. The largest in poverty-stricken Africa and Asia. But I digress. You know how to raise demographics in the Far East. And you will enlighten us now
      1. yuriy55
        yuriy55 10 January 2022 16: 24
        +2
        Quote: A009
        What is your solution to the demographic problem?

        For a start, you will learn how to address the person from whom you want to receive an answer. We need a change in the system and social policy. It is capitalism that ultimately turns humans into a living robot of a narrow specialization. Spiritual development, family values ​​are closed under capitalism in a chest. Only with their help can the concept of the family be revived. Conscience, shame, purity simply appear there ...
        1. Flank
          Flank 11 January 2022 11: 19
          -2
          Quote: yuriy55
          Spiritual development, family values

          And to return spiritual development, that is, religion, is possible only by toughening the life of the entire population. And not by 10%, but by the level of physical survival. Or even slightly lower.
        2. IS-80_RVGK2
          IS-80_RVGK2 12 January 2022 18: 54
          -2
          Under communism, society is seriously transformed. And the institution of the family is likely to die out.
      2. IS-80_RVGK2
        IS-80_RVGK2 12 January 2022 18: 52
        0
        Quote: A009
        The mantra about the quality of life does not work. It is in the developed countries (Japan is a classic example and the whole of Europe, without migrants) the least increase. The largest in poverty-stricken Africa and Asia.

        You just do not understand how demography is connected with the growth of productive forces and why it is with an improvement in the quality of life that the demographic situation will change.
    5. Grits
      Grits 10 January 2022 11: 43
      0
      Quote: Dalny V
      or the connection of Sakhalin with the mainland (in the field of climate)

      this project solves two important tasks. Not only climatic (blocking the cold current in the Sea of ​​Japan and growing tangerines in Primorye), but also transport. Sakhalin would cease to be an island. The economic benefits of this are obvious.
    6. mister-red
      mister-red 14 January 2022 23: 39
      0
      Permafrost and extremely low temperatures have always been a big problem in our country.
      Wow. And these factors somehow do not really bother Canada (I will not talk about the Norgs and Denmark, otherwise they will say that the scales are incomparable). In fact, this is not really a problem - rather, an excuse for the hands of drivers who have not only hands - even a head grows from a known place.

      About Denmark made me laugh, its northern part is located at the latitude of Moscow. Plus the Gulf Stream - what kind of permafrost is there, comrade? Right now the temperature in Copenhagen is 2 degrees, in Moscow -1, Ulan-Ude minus 26 - this city stands on permafrost. And this is the South of Siberia, if anything, to the Arctic Ocean 2500 km. But there is also Magadan, Yakutsk, etc.
      Norway - its north is the latitude of Murmansk. And again the Gulf Stream. Well, in some places there is permafrost, only houses are not built on stilts, neither in Murmansk, nor in Norway.
      As for Canada, there are practically no large settlements in the permafrost zone. If any are known, please let me know. Villages for a couple of hundred people do not count.
      PS If you skipped geography at school, you can always refresh and deepen your knowledge, especially before commenting on something. )
  2. Genry
    Genry 9 January 2022 06: 19
    +2
    A delusional article about a delusional book. smile
  3. yuriy55
    yuriy55 9 January 2022 06: 34
    +14
    That's how it is all the time. We were more worried about global problems: outer space and the cosmopolitan worldview. Because of this, hands simply did not reach earthly problems. We dreamed of broad-leaved species in the tundra and did not pay attention to the state of the Siberian and Far Eastern taiga at all.
    Who came up with the idea to build a pulp and paper mill on the shores of Lake Baikal? Since the fifties of the last century, the problem of the purity of the unique reservoir has been raised periodically and has been completed in the newest period of history, when waste of life is simply poured into the lake, and the problems of Lake Baikal have already interested UNESCO.
    Since that time (even earlier) the problem of the Aral Sea has arisen. Where is it now? His remains remained in a foreign country.
    While the entire progressive world is building high-speed roads to connect all remote corners with the center, we are equipping the European part of Russia, wondering how miserable the rest of the gas-free, roadless, water-free, non-electrified, “out of the access zone” part of the country is. ..
    What could really be considered was the diversion of part of the discharge of Siberian rivers to the south ... But with the collapse of the USSR, this problem disappeared by itself ...
    1. Free wind
      Free wind 9 January 2022 07: 11
      +10
      But who in Astrakhan came up with the idea to build the ACCC? There is no forest closer than 2000 km.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 9 January 2022 09: 20
        +4
        The Astrakhan pulp and paper mill was originally planned to use local reeds.
        1. Gray Wolf_30
          Gray Wolf_30 9 January 2022 10: 37
          +1
          I read somewhere that they planned to make paper from reeds, which were simply overgrown throughout the Volga-Akhtuba floodplain, but when they began to mow reeds on an industrial scale, something went wrong, the bioresources did not like it am and they began to disappear, then they began to work on imported raw materials, trains with timber constantly went to Astrakhan.
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 9 January 2022 11: 34
            +3
            Yes. Tariffs then were very sparing.
    2. faiver
      faiver 9 January 2022 07: 48
      -3
      gas-free, roadless, water-free, non-electrified, “out of reach” part of the country ...
      - your economic geography is very bad, and we have gas, and water supply, and electricity, the roads are worse - I admit, but not catastrophic ... hi
      1. yuriy55
        yuriy55 9 January 2022 09: 40
        +3
        Quote: faiver
        I admit, but not disastrous

        Name the place of your "non-catastrophic" residence and we will speculate together ...
        I studied economic geography more than fifty years ago ... I forgot something ...
        1. faiver
          faiver 9 January 2022 10: 18
          0
          Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) - 3 mln. sq. km, 17% of the territory of the Russian Federation ... hi
          1. yuriy55
            yuriy55 9 January 2022 14: 48
            +4
            This is where, due to greed and "we need to faster" in 2017, the Mir diamond mine was flooded together with eight workers, bringing in 10 rubles in losses?
            How are the diamonds there now?
            1. faiver
              faiver 9 January 2022 15: 01
              0
              well, for greed, you go to Moscow ...
              1. yuriy55
                yuriy55 9 January 2022 15: 10
                +3
                Quote: faiver
                well, for greed, you go to Moscow ...

                There, that Moscow!
                I don’t go there anymore!
                laughing
      2. Grits
        Grits 10 January 2022 11: 56
        +3
        Quote: faiver
        and we have gas, and water supply, and electricity

        There is. True, all this must be brought to the houses. The entire Far East is not supplied with gas at all. But Ukraine lives beautifully on the Soviet legacy of gasified houses and on Russian gas. And we have gas, it seems, but it doesn’t seem to exist.
    3. Korsar4
      Korsar4 9 January 2022 09: 08
      +6
      The rationale for the construction of the Baikal PPM was the production of high-quality cord pulp, including that used in the defense industry. A year later, the plant learned to do without it.
      1. yuriy55
        yuriy55 9 January 2022 09: 44
        +10
        Quote: Korsar4
        Justification for the construction of the Baikal PPM

        I know what and what was justified ... by thoughtless and headless figures ... And most often, by decisions of stupid party officials, whom pundits warned, but all to no avail ...
        Do you think there was no mess in the USSR? Apparently the abundance of public funds corrupts as well as their shortage.
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 9 January 2022 09: 56
          +3
          The last phrase is interesting. But who managed to find the golden mean?
          1. yuriy55
            yuriy55 9 January 2022 10: 11
            +6
            Quote: Korsar4
            The last phrase is interesting. But who managed to find the golden mean?

            Found ... Any money needs a head. Recently I looked at materials about the UAE ... A striking example ... What's wrong with the example of Singapore?
            1. Andrey VOV
              Andrey VOV 9 January 2022 23: 58
              0
              UAE is an example of what?
    4. Sergej1972
      Sergej1972 9 January 2022 13: 57
      +2
      High-speed roads mainly connect major cities with each other.
      1. yuriy55
        yuriy55 9 January 2022 15: 48
        +4
        Quote: Sergej1972
        High-speed roads mainly connect major cities with each other.

        For some reason, in Russia this applies to two cities ... for 20 years we have been listening to some fairy tales ... This is how they build in China:

        By 2025 they plan to build 38 km of HIGH SPEED ROADS !!!
        1. gsev
          gsev 13 January 2022 06: 13
          +1
          Quote: yuriy55
          By 2025 they plan to build 38 km of HIGH SPEED ROADS !!!

          There are 10 times more Chinese than Russians. Therefore, on average, they should have only 10 times more. Apparently, the local rich do not have so much more yachts and the local rich man Mao does not visit Swiss resorts with a harem of escort girls more often than Mr. Prokhorov. Therefore, the PRC also has money for railways. By the way, a train about 10 years ago passed through Russia 3 times faster than through China.
    5. Elturisto
      Elturisto 9 January 2022 21: 27
      +2
      The pulp and paper mill was built there so that uncle SAM would not fry the USSR in the rays of democracy. To produce carbon from cellulose, ultrapure water is needed, and carbon was needed so that the SS-20 would throw another hundred kilotons into the citadel of democracy. As for the Aral Sea, the story is not entirely clear there, the Caspian for example fluctuates over the past 30 years back and forth by 2-3 m.
  4. Lech from Android.
    Lech from Android. 9 January 2022 08: 34
    +8
    Such projects as a grenade in the hands of a child ... pulled out the pin and then I wonder what will happen. what
  5. U-58
    U-58 9 January 2022 08: 41
    -1
    The harmfulness of the project has never been proven. Even in the material, everything is at the level of proposals. Yes, and why should the Gulf Stream "lock itself up" at the level of the Urals ???
    The project to slow down the current from Tihago Okiyan to Severny Poison and was aimed at extending the Gulf Stream to Pevek inclusive.
    The planet has experienced the melting of permafrost more than once or twice.
    Yes, a certain transition period could bring some surprises. But in the end, the overall warming would just be saturated with the additional moisture necessary for agriculture.
    So the criticism of the project is not scientific, because science is not substantiated.
    1. Lech from Android.
      Lech from Android. 9 January 2022 10: 13
      +6
      Human intervention in the balance of natural processes is always dangerous for their disruption ... this is like a domino effect ... it is not known how it will backfire on humanity itself.
    2. SovAr238A
      SovAr238A 9 January 2022 17: 21
      +3
      Quote: U-58
      The harmfulness of the project has never been proven. Even in the material, everything is at the level of proposals. Yes, and why should the Gulf Stream "lock itself up" at the level of the Urals ???
      The project to slow down the current from Tihago Okiyan to Severny Poison and was aimed at extending the Gulf Stream to Pevek inclusive.
      The planet has experienced the melting of permafrost more than once or twice.
      Yes, a certain transition period could bring some surprises. But in the end, the overall warming would just be saturated with the additional moisture necessary for agriculture.
      So the criticism of the project is not scientific, because science is not substantiated.

      You need to look at the map of currents ...
      All currents are interconnected.
      Even if they are located in different oceans.
  6. sepal81
    sepal81 9 January 2022 09: 01
    0
    Class! Thanks for the article, interesting.
  7. bar
    bar 9 January 2022 09: 07
    -2
    There was no need to sell Alaska, then it would make sense in these dams / bridges ...
    1. Serg Kam
      Serg Kam 9 January 2022 17: 22
      +1
      There was no need to sell Alaska, then it would make sense in these dams / bridges ...

      It’s interesting, how do you imagine her security? In the 18th century? Maintenance of garrisons on it? Connection with the metropolis?
      Kamchatka could not be guarded, what can we say about another continent ..
      1. bar
        bar 9 January 2022 18: 25
        -4
        Quote: SergKam
        It’s interesting, how do you imagine her security? In the 18th century?

        And in the 18th century, someone attempted to kill her? On the other hand, no one would drip saliva on the Northern Sea Route, and the Benigovo Sea would be our internal one, together with the strait and the Aleutian Islands. Expansion for our submarines. Eh, only dream ...
        1. Serg Kam
          Serg Kam 10 January 2022 00: 11
          +1
          And in the 18th century, someone attempted to kill her?

          In the 19th century, there were major wars for territories, just.
          And even the beginning of 20 - even more so.
          How was Kamchatka defended in 1854?
          Duc Kamchatka is much closer and no one planned to capture it.
  8. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 9 January 2022 09: 13
    +5
    There was also a project to divert the flow of northern rivers ... and the canal had to be "dug" with a chain of nuclear explosions ... and one was even made. Also a megaproject with unpredictable consequences!
    1. yuriy55
      yuriy55 9 January 2022 10: 27
      0
      Quote: Mountain Shooter
      and the channel had to be "dug" by a chain of nuclear explosions.

      Unlikely? It was enough to make a large-diameter water conduit to provide water, for example, to Kalmykia. The fact is that the runoff of Siberian rivers is huge and, apart from desalination of the Arctic Ocean, huge floods in spring and hydroelectric power plants standing on the rivers, little is known. Shipping is limited by the freeze-up period. Timber rafting ... Perhaps today it is not as necessary as before ..
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 9 January 2022 14: 40
        -1
        Unlikely? It was enough to make a large-diameter water conduit to provide water, for example, to Kalmykia.

        The mining town of Karaganda is completely supplied with water from the Irtysh River, which flows several hundred kilometers from it. And no natural disasters. So they could well transfer part of the river flow to the Aral and Volga regions, there would be only advantages.
  9. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 9 January 2022 12: 01
    +3
    At that time, as far as I heard, such projects existed not only in the USSR. The Gulf Stream worried many, they say, it flows in the wrong direction and not like that, they say, it would be necessary to correct this mistake of nature. smile For example, to send it closer to the American shores so that the Canadian Arctic Archipelago can be turned into a flourishing zone, and Europe should freeze, who needs it, in general, overseas? smile
    Launching the Gulf Stream in the Baffin Sea, or at least through the Danish Strait - what's wrong? smile
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 9 January 2022 12: 15
      +3
      It was already. No human intervention.
      Michael! hi
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 9 January 2022 13: 07
        +4
        My respect, Anton.
        This is when Greenland was green? smile
        For a long time already read somewhere that there is a hypothesis about the global influence of the Gulf Stream on the climate in Europe. Slightly deviated to the west - get glaciation. Has deviated to the east - in Europe it is just paradise - everything grows, blooms and smells. smile
        Evil Americans in the 50s wanted to build a wall in the ocean near their shores to prevent the current from going into the Atlantic. It seems like they were going to use algae from the Sargasov Sea for this purpose. About the project itself, most likely nonsense, but the idea seemed to have been discussed. Maybe nonsense.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 9 January 2022 13: 16
          +2
          This is when Greenland was green?
          No, on the contrary, when it ceased to be green. The Little Ice Age is associated with a change in the course of the Gulf Stream.
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 9 January 2022 16: 51
            +3
            There is such a hypothesis. Personally, I can't take her seriously. Somehow she is not too graceful, superficial.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 9 January 2022 17: 06
              +4
              It is inelegant only in the framework of the fact that glaciologists cannot combine their "sum of knowledge" with bacteriologists.
              1. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master 9 January 2022 19: 48
                +2
                Apparently, something is not beating with them. Would have been united long ago.
        2. mister-red
          mister-red 15 January 2022 00: 03
          0
          This is when Greenland was green?

          In the first millennium. Well, not just the whole island was green and not only bananas, but even apples did not grow, but there was much less ice.
          And the forests were there 3 million years ago)
    2. Undecim
      Undecim 9 January 2022 13: 06
      +3
      At that time, as far as I heard, such projects existed not only in the USSR.

      The first project - 1870, American geologist Nathaniel Shaler proposed to direct the Kuroshio current through the Bering Strait to the Arctic Ocean.
      In 1912, American engineer and industrialist Carroll Riker proposed building a two-hundred-mile dam east of Cape Race so that the warm Gulf Stream would not be cooled by the cold Labrador Current.
      For some reason, if they write about such projects, it is always only in the USSR. Similar projects have been put forward in the United States, including the global turn of rivers.
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 9 January 2022 16: 48
        +2
        Even I, a sinner, ten years old, paid tribute to this wind. The guys and I developed a project on how to turn the Luga river so that it flows through our lake and does not flow through the city of Luga, because it is polluted there. smile
        Eh, youth, youth ... It's time for simple desires ...

        (c) S. Sorotokina, "Midshipmen, forward!"
        smile
        I think that even now there are a lot of such projectors who want to bless humanity with their global projects to remake this imperfect world. If you look, there will be found in our country, in the west and in the east, especially in China. smile
  10. Undecim
    Undecim 9 January 2022 12: 42
    +7
    So it is not clear why the scientists who reviewed the work of the engineer did not point out the fundamental errors to the author.

    Why didn't they? They indicated, moreover, not just anyone, but Dmitry Andrianovich Nogaytsev, a prominent Soviet scientist in the field of forecasting the hydrometeorological regime of the Arctic seas. Nogaytsev warned that the dam would be disastrous.
    By the way, the author did not mention another fact that would have dealt a serious blow to the environment - the method by which they planned to solve the most difficult task - to block the strait. It was proposed to detonate several dozen thermonuclear charges with a total power of almost 100 megatons.
    And one more interesting point. Before Borisov, at the beginning of the 320th century, a global project for heating the Arctic Ocean was put forward by the famous American scientist Charles Steinmetz. Only he proposed a completely opposite way - to expand the Bering Strait to XNUMX kilometers, "removing" the island of St. Lawrence, as well as part of Chukotka and Seward. This, according to Steinmetz, would open the way to the Arctic Ocean for the Kuroshio current.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 9 January 2022 13: 02
      +3
      Charles Proteus Steinmetz?
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 9 January 2022 13: 10
        +3
        Yes, he is. He only became Charles Proteus in America. And his real name is Karl Rudolph. He is German.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 9 January 2022 13: 21
          +2
          Very interesting. Was he as good at hydrology as he was in electrodynamics? Or was it a mad scientist escapade?
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 9 January 2022 13: 31
            +2
            Hard to say. Perhaps it was not his idea at all, but someone simply asked Steinmetz to voice it in the hope of his popularity and authority. There is practically no information about this, except for a few paragraphs in an article about Borisov's project in Galaxy Science Fiction magazine for June 1961.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 9 January 2022 13: 49
              +2
              Galaxy science fiction
              The most suitable publication for covering such projects.
  11. Sadok
    Sadok 9 January 2022 12: 54
    -1
    Over time, the duration of navigation on the Northern Sea Route increases

    Navigation on the NSR has been going on 24/7/365 for a long time
    1. Normal
      Normal 9 January 2022 12: 59
      +2
      Quote: Sadok
      Navigation on the NSR ....

      Already? A long time ago??
      I'm missing something.
      Could you share a link to the source of information?
  12. vvp2412
    vvp2412 9 January 2022 14: 44
    0
    First, consider the opinion of Peter Borisov himself, who assumed the return of the Arctic climate by 1,5 million years ago.

    In the 15th century, there was still no ice in the Arctic. That is why Greenland is called that. On maps until the mid-16th century, the Arctic and Antarctic were not covered with ice. And in the North, people lived as they do now in the central part of Russia.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 9 January 2022 15: 26
      +6
      On maps until the middle of the 16th century, the Arctic and Antarctic were not covered with ice.
      Evono how! But Belinshausen and Lazarev haven't seen those cards !!!
      1. vvp2412
        vvp2412 9 January 2022 21: 31
        -2
        Logic is not your strong point!
        Most likely they saw them, like Barents, but what is the point in them? If there was no ice anywhere before, did it appear?
        According to your logic, if now there is no ice in some places of the Arctic, but 50 years ago there were, then it was 50 years ago that the photographs were faked? After all, now there is no ice. So it never happened?
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 9 January 2022 21: 49
          +3
          I'm sorry for you, colleague!
          In your commentary you wrote about the Anttartka maps of the XNUMXth century.
  13. smaug78
    smaug78 9 January 2022 14: 50
    0
    and what kind of mega-project of the USSR is this? Delirium of a maniac
  14. Xlor
    Xlor 9 January 2022 20: 24
    -1
    Quote: Trilobite Master
    I think that now there are a lot of such projectors who want to bless humanity with their global projects to remake this imperfect world.

    Do you want humanity in this "imperfect world" to run in loincloths and with stone axes?
  15. cat Rusich
    cat Rusich 9 January 2022 23: 43
    0
    You can also read a book "Upside down" author Jules Verne good
    And in the 19th century, people dreamed of remaking Nature.
    fool
  16. Nord11
    Nord11 10 January 2022 01: 01
    0
    Buildings in the same Vorkuta are already suffering from the thawing of permafrost. Due to soil shrinkage, cast-iron fecal pipes in five-story buildings began to crack and panels diverge. And this is just the beginning, it looks like ..
  17. Eule
    Eule 10 January 2022 13: 30
    +1
    The feeling is mixed. Yes, the author found a rare source and wrote about it. but the conclusions in different paragraphs are contradictory:
    Borisov believed that the ice should eventually end

    and then
    ice approached the northern coast of the USSR and blocked the deltas of the country's largest rivers.

    So what is a warm Arctic without ice, or vice versa?
    Obviously, the climate in the Russian Federation needs to be changed towards warming, at least by 4 - 6 degrees plus, towards the "Eocene Climatic Optimum". Otherwise, it will not be possible to achieve a reduction in production costs. Only in the Russian Federation there are compulsory payments to the Pension Fund, plus VAT, plus income. In other countries that consider themselves industrialized, taxes are lower. It is likely that it is impossible to reduce these levies without a change of government, and calls for this are prohibited. Consequently, the only way to lower the cost of production and make agriculture not risky, but confident, is to increase the average annual temperature.
    Most likely, such projects will have to return when the opinion of the West is no longer interesting. Just add the article "environmental activity" to the Criminal Code, with the punishment of expulsion from the country - and there will be no opposition to climate projects.
  18. vlad106
    vlad106 10 January 2022 20: 02
    0
    Quote: Aviator_

    The mining town of Karaganda is completely supplied with water from the Irtysh River, which flows several hundred kilometers from it. And no natural disasters. So they could well transfer part of the river flow to the Aral and Volga regions, there would be only advantages.

    Aha! "None" ... Irtysh has already shallowed specifically
  19. ivan2022
    ivan2022 10 January 2022 22: 02
    0
    "Soviet megaproject" is what the Ministry of Finance gives money for, and the State Planning Committee approves when and how to spend it. The title of the article absolutely does not correspond to the content. Moreover, the name uses vocabulary that did not exist in the USSR.

    "The plans were ..." - what other "plans"? In the personal plans of the engineer or in the plans of the State Planning Commission? .Got it ...
  20. Illanatol
    Illanatol 12 January 2022 09: 30
    +1
    Quote: ViacheslavS
    From a rational point of view of law, Canada from the ideological-populist USSR, the extensive settlement of the northern territories, not only is not rational in terms of resources, but also cruel towards the people themselves


    How many times was the population of Canada less than the population of the USSR? It was easier for them to provide resources to the population, almost half that of the Ukrainian SSR alone.
    And, alas, most of our natural resources are located just beyond the Urals.
    As for people, can they themselves be given a choice of where to live?
    If Siberia and the Far East are deprived of the population - how long will they remain ours?
    Or let others increase their wealth with the riches of Siberia. We are generous, we do not mind the "Kemsky volosts" laughing
  21. Illanatol
    Illanatol 12 January 2022 09: 38
    +1
    Quote: Trilobite Master
    There is such a hypothesis. Personally, I can't take her seriously. Somehow she is not too graceful, superficial.


    The main thing in hypotheses is not design, however.
    Well, yes, there was a time when it was warmer in Greenland and colder in Europe. The Thames froze, fairs were held on its ice. What's so incredible?
    And at present, the Gulf Stream has weakened, and this is how it is felt, the climate in Europe has become more continental: it is hot in summer, but winters are harsher.
    Of course, the Russians are again to blame: our rivers desalinate the Arctic Ocean, disrupting the link between the Gulf Stream and the Labrador Current.
    But seriously, the anthropogenic factor should not be overestimated. Our dear sun remains the main generator of climate change.
  22. mister-red
    mister-red 14 January 2022 23: 06
    0
    The whole logic of the project is built around a simple thesis - first to scare, and then to offer salvation. Borisov, together with the academicians, decided to scare the readers with the imminent onset of a new ice age, which was supposed to actually paralyze most of the USSR by the 80s-90s of the last century. Permafrost should have reached at least the Urals. Now, in an age of panic struggle against global warming, the ideas of Soviet scientists seem to be especially naive.

    Naive Soviet scientists who believed that there would be an ice age. So they were not mistaken, dear, he just adjusted the deadlines to fit his needs. And the fact that we live in the period before the start of the ice age has been known for a very long time. And the ice age begins with warming. Didn't you know? True, it will be ... but it is not known when it will be. Maybe in 50 years, maybe in 500
  23. ivan2022
    ivan2022 18 January 2022 21: 53
    0
    The whole country was plundered 30 years ago and nothing, the sky did not fall to earth;
    "We support and approve." ... And projects of dams and turns of rivers, even half a century later, cause real bouts of madness.
    In China, it's the other way around. The country was not plundered, but the rivers turn. And again, nothing to itself ... the sky does not fall to the ground. Who needs what, they get the same .....