Military Review

New domestic mortars

The simplicity of the device and the use of a mortar in combination with good fighting qualities quickly provided this type weapons wide use. More than a hundred years have passed since the appearance of mortars. During this time, they retained their popularity and continued to improve. Now the development of new mortar systems continues in several countries, including Russia, where the Nizhny Novgorod Central Research Institute Burevestnik is developing this area.

Work on the improvement of old mortars and the creation of new ones relate mainly to two directions of the battalion link - weapons of caliber 82 and 120 millimeters. First of all, it is worth noting the modernization of the 2C12 “Sledge” complex with the 2C12А index. Adopted in 1981 year, the 2C12 system consists of a mortar 2B11, a wheel travel and a towing vehicle. The mortar itself has undergone major changes. The main element of the modernization of the mortar 2B11 - a new base plate and its interface system with the barrel. Previously, the trunk could only swing in the same plane. Thanks to the use of a new base plate with a hinge, the updated mortar can also be induced horizontally. This allows you to transfer fire to another target without turning the heavy base plate. In addition, 2B11 received a number of new tools and features. The updated shooting mechanism can be quickly and simply removed, the analysis of the mortar is not required. At the special additional rack of the gun carriage there is a knot for mounting the sight, thanks to which it is possible to direct the entire battery using only one aiming device. In addition, the set of updated “Sanya” includes devices that allow you to quickly and easily perform the alignment of the sight, as well as firing at night.

New domestic mortars
120-mm mortar 2B11

The transport car on the Urals 43206-0651 chassis

Wheel drive 2Л81

In order to maintain maximum unification with the original 2C12 complex, the modernization did not affect the main part of its units. For this reason, the range and accuracy of shooting remained at the same level. As before, “Sleds” can shoot ordinary mines at a distance of up to 7100 meters. When using the guided KM-8 “Edge”, the range of target destruction increases to nine kilometers. In the course of the modernization, the 2C12А received a new towing vehicle. Now it is a truck "Ural-43206" or tractor MT-LB. Transportation of the mortar with a wheel course can be carried out either by simple towing, or in the back of a truck or on the roof of a tracked vehicle. For loading transport vehicles are equipped with a quick-detachable ramp of a tray design and a winch. The updated composition of the equipment of the complex provides a faster transfer of the complex from the marching state to the combat state and vice versa, including by means of reduced calculation.

Another project to upgrade the old mortar is called 2B24 and is a further development of the 2B14-1 “Tray” project. 82-mm gun due to its size and weight can be transported unassembled by the calculation of four people. The design of the 2B24 mainly differs from its predecessor in the barrel length. This innovation has significantly increased the maximum firing range, now it is equal to six kilometers. Mortar 2B24 can shoot all available mines caliber 82 millimeter. In addition, during its development, a high-explosive mine mine of increased power 3-O-26 was created. Like the mortar of the 2C12А complex, 2Б24 has a new joint of the trunk and baseplate mating, which allows shelling of targets in any direction, only turning the barrel and rearranging the carriage supports. The permissible rate of fire of the gun increased to more than twenty rounds per minute. To ensure an acceptable temperature regime of the trunk and to avoid its deformation, there is a finning-radiator on the breech.

Mortar 2B14 "Tray"

Being wearable, the 2B24 mortar can be disassembled into three main units, which are packed into packs. One fighter at the same time carries the barrel, the second carries a baseplate, and the third carries a two-legged carriage and a sight. The fourth number of the calculation is a special backpack-pack for ammunition. Without any changes in the design, the 2B24 mortar can be converted from portable to self-propelled. To do this, using a special mounting kit, the mortar is installed in the troop compartment of an armored tractor MT-LB. Such a complex was named 2K32 "Virgo". It is noteworthy that the 2FXNNXX-510 mounting kit allows you to quickly remove the mortar from it and use it in a wearable version. Ammunition of the 2K2 combat vehicle is 32 mines.

Of particular interest is the 82-millimeter mortar 2B25. First of all, attention is drawn to the dimensions of this tool. With a significant caliber unassembled, it fits into just one container. The calculation consists of two people, one of whom carries the mortar itself, and the second - ammunition to him. Despite its small size, 2B25 can fire at targets in the range from 100 to 1200 meters. However, the most interesting element of the complex is a new fragmentation mine 3BO35. The main innovation in its design - the original shank with a propelling charge. Inside the shank is not only charge, but also a cylindrical piston. Before the shot, the mine is placed in the mortar barrel, after which the firing mechanism ignites the propelling charge. Powder gases, expanding, push the piston out of the shank, which, in turn, rests against the tile of the firing mechanism and throws a mine out of the barrel. Having reached the extreme position, the piston gets stuck inside the shank and does not allow the powder gases to go outside, due to which the sound of the 2B25 shot is just a few soft loud pops and clicks.

Mortar 2B25

The silent mortar 2B25 was first presented last year at the MILEX-2011 exhibition in Minsk. Then it became known that the mass production of the mortar had already begun. There is information about the continuation of work to improve the mortar to increase the firing range. However, without any changes, the 2B25 mortar is the world's first serial silent mortar with a powder charge for throwing ammunition.

Despite the fact that all the main nuances of the mortar design have long been invented and "polished", the development of such systems is still ongoing. The development of this area is primarily concerned with measures to improve the range and firing accuracy, as well as to facilitate the design. Also a promising way to improve mortar systems is the creation and use of adjustable ammunition. As for special constructions like the silent 2B25, this is rather a special tool for special units, but not a weapon of a mass army. At the same time, since the start of the use of the mortar 2B25 (if any), not enough time has passed and it is impossible to draw conclusions about the prospects of the whole direction. Perhaps in the future mortars will be created, combining the fighting qualities of the updated 2B11 and silent 2B25, and such a weapon will be sent to the troops in large numbers. This is only a guess, and what the future mortar will look like will be possible to say only in a few years, when the experts of the Petrel Research Institute will show their new developments.

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  1. Baron Wrangell
    Baron Wrangell 20 September 2012 09: 42
    Interesting interesting!
    It’s like a mortar consists of three parts: a barrel, a base plate and a two-leg, and the principle of shooting does not change for decades. but it’s nice that this is being improved. Only here is the transportation of the 120 mm mortar in the back of the Urals, eo, in my opinion, we had GREAT GAZ-66 cars, and doors were arranged for disembarking and landing in the side walls! Since the mortar was fixed to the rear side, and jumping through it was uncomfortable. Also, the main set of ammunition is transported in the car, again they take up space (the boxes are visible in the photo). Although not a fact, the layout of the body of this machine is not known to me. And the wheel drive of the Nizhigulevskaya rubber, when I was still, all the wheels turned, there was a shortage, however, and lastly, there is no reloading protection mechanism on the 120 mm on the barrel that the soldiers stopped throwing a second mine into the barrel, or is there another safety measure on it !?
    1. Glenn witcher
      20 September 2012 10: 58
      In the photo, if you look closely, you can see that the "Ural" has an increased cabin, by four to five seats, and the body is short.
      1. Baron Wrangell
        Baron Wrangell 20 September 2012 11: 09
        Quote: Glenn Witcher
        In the photo, if you look closely, you can see that the "Ural" has an increased cabin, by four to five seats, and the body is short.

        Precisely, specially watched
        apparently that tractor, then of course oh! it will be convenient! Although the standard for preparing a mortar for firing will be higher, it is calculated to get out of the cab, uncover the rear body, open the tailgate, unscrew the mortar, lower the lags and roll it out, remove it from the wheel drive! it will be too much! although again not a fact, I judge by my mortars,
        1. Glenn witcher
          20 September 2012 12: 32
          In theory, the regulations should be relevant. Yes, and a truck without armor. At that distance from the front edge, turn around and work from there.
          I, frankly, more confused way of transportation on Motoliga:
          1. Baron Wrangell
            Baron Wrangell 20 September 2012 13: 06
            Quote: Glenn Witcher
            I, frankly, more confused way of transportation on Motoliga:

            finally we had GTSM under 120mm, so we took down the disassembled, all three parts separately, however, getting it from there, full item!
          2. Lieutenant colonel
            Lieutenant colonel 21 September 2012 02: 02
            The idea with MT-LB is excellent, but not implemented to its logical conclusion. The Americans have a mortar based on the M-113 - a cool thing. The mortar is installed in the reserved space; two hatches for firing directly from the armored personnel carrier are arranged in the roof. And armor and maneuverability. Of course, a mortar in the back of the Urals is good, it was even better in the back of Shishigi (without irony, the G-66 could be more convenient to disguise, although more than one BC could be loaded into the Urals, and the calculation was more convenient). The MT-LB self-propelled mortar looks very attractive. And if you take into account how much MT-LB we have in stock, it’s generally beauty, and the machine itself is unpretentious and if you keep its buoyancy, it's just class.
            1. Klisha
              Klisha 14 May 2013 11: 59
              Your wish is granted.
  2. rennim
    rennim 20 September 2012 09: 55
    Mortar has always been an indispensable means of supporting infantry. Thank you to the Russian inventors of the Russian-Japanese war.
  3. Joker
    Joker 20 September 2012 11: 25
    The soldiers in the photo are certainly gorgeous laughing Can someone tell me please, do we have light mortars that one fighter can carry with him and when to shoot from him?
    1. Lieutenant colonel
      Lieutenant colonel 21 September 2012 02: 03
      Lightweight 2B14 - landing option, there is nothing easier.
  4. gosha1970
    gosha1970 20 September 2012 11: 31
    When will our wars look worthy? I'm talking about the uniform.
    1. NickitaDembelnulsa
      NickitaDembelnulsa 20 September 2012 13: 06
      If it were my will, I would return the chevrons like Soviet ones, and change the camouflage pattern, for each district my own. but if you think about the military and this does not look bad. Although I have always firmly believed that a military man is a man with shoulder straps on his shoulders!
    2. Hon
      Hon 20 September 2012 13: 44
      The main thing is the new armor, still helmets and berets are normal (comfortable high-quality, strong) and not the bullshit in which our soldiers are shod.
  5. Hey
    Hey 20 September 2012 12: 17
    I would have pulled the UAZ 120 mm mortar.
    Is it interesting he can shoot foreign mines?
    1. Lieutenant colonel
      Lieutenant colonel 21 September 2012 02: 06
      There was such an option, they ran in the Far East, something I didn’t like (we can assume that the number of PSU per mortar)
  6. Bugor
    Bugor 20 September 2012 12: 34
    I don't understand why it is still impossible to transport light mortars on our "Niva"? After all, the machine is specially designed for company commanders. Cross-country ability - ATSTSKAYA, capacity (in the long-wheelbase version) - I quote from one of the owners: "the mother-in-law, brother, godfather were sitting in the back seat. There was a carpet under our feet (we were driving from the dacha) and a dead drunk father-in-law. There was still room for a parrot in a cage and a couple cats ".
    Would a mortar with a calculation and mines not fit?
    And about the 66th - yes, this is a song, not a car. I worked with my brother (surveyor) in the Gorky region. Year 87, probably, or 88. A drunk driver drove our car into a swamp. THREE DAYS we tried to find a tractor driver in neighboring villages who would agree to pull us out. Thanks to the representative from the village council of the Bypass.
    1. LION
      LION 20 September 2012 23: 03
      NO. UAZ is our everything. Engine UMP and ZMZ. And madam stuffing box. I wanted to burn it (UAZ) when I served ........ Something surged. I drank too much. I remembered. I'm crying. He needs a diesel engine. The soldiers will have nerves in order.
  7. Professor
    Professor 20 September 2012 12: 44
    All the improvements mentioned are certainly necessary, but what about the LMS? Crowding? request
  8. Bugor
    Bugor 20 September 2012 13: 24
    That's dear Professor appeared ...
    But does mortar need precision?
    1. yanus
      yanus 20 September 2012 14: 14
      Quote: Bugor
      So the dear Professor appeared ...
      But does mortar need precision?

      Of course, in every mine of the seeker with a thermal imager. And be sure to "fire-forget".))))
      1. Professor
        Professor 20 September 2012 14: 41
        Of course, in every mine of the seeker with a thermal imager. And be sure to "fire-forget".))))

        No, let's drive a truck of mines and we will beat on the areas until blue in the face, and there or we will be able to get or the enemy will send us to hell ...
        1. viruskvartirus
          viruskvartirus 22 September 2012 19: 39
          By the way, I wanted to ask about this thing .... http: //
          "The main purpose of the Gran 'complex is to combat single and group targets, both unarmored and armored, as well as engineering structures. The complex includes a shot with a 120-mm guided mine and a propellant charge, as well as a complex of automated fire control "Malachite", which provides high mobility, and also allows the use of a mine in difficult conditions of rough terrain, such as: narrow passages, high ridges of shelters and back slopes. The complex can be used both during the day and in poor visibility conditions or at night. firing from several guns, without interfering with each other For self-propelled artillery installations, it is possible to aim a projectile using a 1D22 laser rangefinder, without the use of KSAUO "Malachite".
          The main component of the complex is a 120-mm high-explosive fragmentation mine. The length of the mine is 1200 mm. With a total mass of 27 kg, the mass of the warhead is 11,2 kg, and of explosives - 5,3 kg. The mine is equipped with a 9E430 laser homing head. The mine provides the defeat of stationary and moving targets with the first shot, without additional zeroing. In addition, it is capable of hitting targets located at a distance of up to 300 meters from each other, without changing the pointing angles of the gun and the mode of operation of the mine itself. "
      2. Lieutenant colonel
        Lieutenant colonel 21 September 2012 02: 30
        During the Second World War, the Germans said (I read that only at the beginning of the war) our (German) pilots and your (Soviet) mortars need to be fed with fat, and your pilots (Soviet) and our mortars (German) need to be fed der ... m. As if not quite personally, I can agree with this statement. We need a learned calculation (about mortars and how it was in the USSR Armed Forces). I personally saw how one specialist almost sent a mine into the pipe into the indicated house (which cost me a box, which I will keep silent about). A reasonable question arises, is it really necessary to have mines "fired and forgotten" and even with the seeker for the specified mortars? Mortars of caliber 82 are intended for direct fire support of the defending (advancing) troops, as evidenced by the 2B14 range of fire. Therefore, at the forefront of the defense there is art. spotter who gives targeting for the firing battery. The mortar is designed to destroy the enemy's manpower (it is stupid to hit tanks with mines - although it is also possible, you can shoot at unarmored targets like a truck). The enemy adopted the concept of an offensive in a combined battle formation (tanks and infantry in armor of an object, dismounting in front of the front square in case of suppression of fire resources on the front edge). After dismounting the infantry on it, mortars will be used with the task of destroying as many objects of manpower as possible in a specific area of ​​the terrain - that is, an area. Why then use mines with seeker? For shooting at a single soldier? For mortars with a caliber of 120 mm, this may and is necessary (with these mines, objects such as BMPs, armored personnel carriers can be confidently hit) - 82 mm mortars is debatable. Plus, don't forget about the cost of min. This is my personal opinion - I will be glad to hear it and may agree with a reasonable other opinion.
  9. Forward
    Forward 20 September 2012 13: 36
    120 mm mortar is very good. New models are also inspiring! good
  10. plump
    plump 20 September 2012 14: 04
    The fact that the 82nd "noise" was removed is a class!
  11. sergant89
    sergant89 20 September 2012 16: 14
    Joker The soldiers in the photo are certainly gorgeous yes laughing laughing and the bronchiks are yellowing, probably rusting in the copter request
    1. Prohor
      Prohor 20 September 2012 23: 28
      Oh you, Anika the warrior! There was a prison for life through "A"! From the word "captenarmus" ....
  12. Bugor
    Bugor 20 September 2012 21: 19
    JanusI hope you were joking?
  13. Prohor
    Prohor 20 September 2012 21: 20
    It was smooth on paper, but forgot about the ravines!
    How many, say, in the troops of these mortars? Aye ?!
    2-3 exhibition samples, no more ... negative
    With whom do we argue on the bubble that it is?
  14. Vitmir
    Vitmir 24 September 2012 18: 07
    Meanwhile, our "incredible friends" have a high-precision 120-mm mortar shell on an armored personnel carrier
  15. I-16M
    I-16M 1 October 2012 17: 21
    "Gall" is an idiotic name. Even 2B25 hurts less hearing.