Military Review

How the Japanese defeated the Americans in the Philippines

56
How the Japanese defeated the Americans in the Philippines
Japanese Marines watch the shelling of Manila


The operation to seize the Philippines, then owned by the United States, began on December 8, 1941. Already on January 2, 1942, Japanese troops captured the capital of the country, Manila.

Continuing the offensive, the Japanese blocked the main forces of the US-Philippine army on Corregidor Island. On May 6-8, 1942, US and Filipino forces under the command of General Jonathan Wainwright surrendered. The Philippines came under the rule of the Land of the Rising Sun. More than 100 Americans and Filipinos were captured. The defeat of the Allied forces led to the occupation of the Philippines, which lasted two and a half years.

USA "Victory Program"


In the second half of 1941, given the growing threat of war with Japan, the United States stepped up preparations for war. An economic defense council and a department for the supply of raw materials for the military industry were created. The military budget is being increased, military factories are being built, and a strict limit is imposed on the use of metals and other strategic materials by civilian industries. Output increases significantly weapons and military equipment. In August, a law was passed to increase the term of military service from 12 to 18 months.

After the Japanese occupied Indochina, the United States further intensified its preparations for war. So, in July 1941 alone, 1500 aircraft were produced, 3 times more than in July 1940. In 1941, the country produced 1,3 thousand medium and heavy tanks, although in 1939-1940. they were not released at all. By the end of the summer of 1941, about 960 combat and auxiliary ships of various classes were under construction in the United States.

By the beginning of the war, the personnel of the American army had been increased to 1,6 million people. The ground forces had 37 divisions (including 5 tank and 2 cavalry), over 40 air regiments. But most of the divisions were at the deployment stage, had little experience and were poorly trained. The fleet at the beginning of December 1941 consisted of about 940 ships, including 17 battleships, 8 aircraft carriers, 37 cruisers, 170 destroyers and more than 110 submarines. But the fleet was divided into two theaters - the Atlantic and the Pacific. In September 1941, at the direction of President Roosevelt, the headquarters of the ground and naval forces developed a plan ("Victory Program"), which provided for an increase in the size of the army to 8,8 million people, to have 215 divisions in the ground forces, and 60 thousand aircraft in the air force.

The problem was that Washington and London, having great superiority in military-economic and scientific-technical potential over Japan, believed that they still had time. Back in August 1941, the top leadership of Japan decided to first launch an offensive in the south. And Roosevelt wrote to Churchill on October 15 that the Japanese would head north. Thus, the United States and Britain will have at least a two-month respite in the Far East. Churchill thought the same. On November 5, when the Japanese headquarters issued orders to complete preparations for the attack on American and British possessions, the chiefs of staff of the army and fleet The United States, General Marshall and Admiral Stark, presented to Roosevelt a memorandum in which they proposed to postpone the war by diplomatic means to the last. It was only later that the Americans and the British realized that Japan had escaped the trap set (Why Japan attacked the United States), and will not attack Russia. Therefore, the United States and Britain did not have time to take emergency measures to strengthen the defense of their bases and possessions in the Asia-Pacific region (APR).

In addition, Germany was considered the main enemy and it was planned to concentrate the main efforts on the European theater. Britain considered its main task to be the defense of its possessions in Southeast and South Asia, especially Singapore, and the provision of sea communications. The United States also planned to defend its possessions, sea communications, support the British and defend the "Malay Barrier" - the Malacca Peninsula, Sumatra, Java and the island chain from Java to Australia. To ensure the sea communications of the United States to the Philippines and Singapore, it was planned to seize positions in the Marshall Islands and in the Caroline Islands zone, to disrupt the enemy's communication routes. The main role in containing Japan will be played by the Air Force, Navy and part of the ground forces.


Japanese soldiers fire a 70mm Type 92 cannon in the jungle of the Bataan Peninsula

Allied forces


In general, the armed forces of the United States, Britain and Holland in the Pacific Ocean had great power. In particular, they had more ground forces than the Japanese, who were bound by the war in China and held a large grouping against the USSR and reserves in the mother country. The Allies had 22 divisions (11 British, 9 American and 2 Dutch, not counting auxiliary forces) against 11 Japanese. The allies had some advantage in battleships (11 versus 10), submarine fleet.

The Japanese had a significant advantage in aircraft carriers (10 versus 3), in terms of the number of aircraft based on them (575 versus 220), as well as base and army aviation (about 1700 aircraft versus 1300). In addition, the training of the flight personnel of the British Air Force was weak, most of the machines were outdated and inferior in performance characteristics to Japanese aircraft.

Also, part of the allied forces consisted of Malay, Indonesian, Filipino and other formations that had just been formed or were just being created. Their combat experience, training and weapons were significantly weaker than the Japanese.

Allied troops were dispersed over vast areas, their interaction was not worked out, there was no single command. The allies underestimated the capabilities of the Japanese, especially their ability to simultaneously develop offensives in several strategic directions at once. The Japanese had the opportunity to be the first to inflict a crushing blow on the enemy, which significantly undermined the enemy's combat potential.


Filipino and American troops on the Bataan Peninsula

Defense of the Philippines


After the Spanish-American War of 1898, the Spanish colony of the Philippines became a dependent territory of the United States. In 1935, the islands received autonomy status within the United States. The Philippines were supposed to gain complete independence in a few years, so they had their own government and army.

On August 15, 1941, General Marshall approved a plan to strengthen the defense of the Philippines. Troops, weapons, aircraft, tanks (two battalions), artillery and air defense systems began to be transferred to the islands. The construction of fortifications on the island of Luzon began. The air force in the Philippines planned to be reinforced with 4 regiments of heavy bombers (272 aircraft) and 2 groups of fighters (130 aircraft). A combined squadron from Hawaii arrived in September. In October - November, a batch of B-17 long-range bombers was deployed. It was believed that in the event of war, bombers would be able to interfere with the actions of the Japanese fleet and troop transports south of Formosa, and replace large forces of the fleet.

The strengthening of the defense of the Philippines was planned to be completed by February 1942. By the end of winter, transfer another 20 thousand American soldiers and complete the formation of 10 Philippine divisions. By the beginning of the war with Japan, the army group of General Douglas MacArthur included up to two American divisions (Philippine division, infantry, cavalry and two artillery regiments and units of the National Guard), 4 Philippine divisions (several more divisions were in the stage of formation), 277 aircraft ... The total number of the US-Philippine army group is about 150 thousand people (including 31 thousand Americans). The personnel, especially among the Filipinos, were poorly trained. There were no serious defensive structures on the islands, or they were under construction. Only on Luzon was the Bataan Peninsula fortified and there was a fortress on Corregidor Island, located at the entrance to Manila Bay. The arrival of bombers and especially fighters was slow. The air defense was weak.

The US Asian Fleet was based in the Philippines under the command of Rear Admiral Thomas Hart. There are 45 warships in total. They included the Houston heavy cruiser, the Marblehead and Boyes light cruisers, the Langley and Childs air carriers, 12 destroyers, and 28 submarines.


Generals Wainwright and MacArthur (right). January 1941

Japanese invasion forces


The Philippines was one of the primary targets of the Japanese Empire. The capture of the Philippine Islands was primarily a military-strategic task. It was necessary to prevent the use of the islands by American troops and navy. Secure your communications between the Japanese islands and areas in the south, seize a foothold for the development of an offensive in the Dutch East Indies and against Australia. Also, the Japanese were interested in the natural resources of the islands.

The Japanese command planned to launch a series of surprise air strikes against air and naval bases, gain air and sea supremacy, land troops in the north and southeast of Luzon Island, defeat the enemy grouping, and capture the capital of the Philippines, Manila. At the same time, land amphibious forces in the south of the Philippine Islands to assist the main forces and capture the naval bases.

The task of capturing the Philippines was to be solved by the 14th Japanese army under the command of Lieutenant General Masaharu Homma (129 thousand people), the 5th air unit of Lieutenant General Hideyoshi Obata (based on Formosa-Taiwan, 200 machines), 11th air force of the base sea aviation (300 aircraft). At sea, the operation was supported by the Philippine Fleet Operational Formation from the 3rd Fleet under the command of Vice Admiral Takahashi (an aircraft carrier and 3 aircraft, 10 cruisers, 29 destroyers, about 100 transports and auxiliary vessels). In the first echelon, the 16th Division (based on the Ryukyu Islands and in Palau) and the 48th Infantry Division (Formosa), which were to capture the island of Luzon, were advancing. The 65th brigade was assigned the task of garrison service.


Japanese invasion of the Philippines

Fall of Manila


In the early days of the war, the Japanese Air Force, which was based on the island of Taiwan, carried out massive raids on Philippine airfields and Cavite naval bases on the island. Luzon and Davao in Mindanao. Japanese aircraft destroyed half of the bombers and more than a third of the fighters. The Americans transferred the surviving 17 B-17 bombers, about 70 fighters and naval aircraft to the southern regions. That is, the Japanese won air supremacy at the very beginning of the invasion. American plans to thwart an air attack on the Philippines were thwarted. The Japanese created favorable conditions for the landing of amphibious forces. In addition, the Americans, even before the start of the war, took large surface ships of the Asian fleet to the south, and then to Dutch India. There are several gunboats and boats left on Luzon.

Thus, the American command did not dare to use the fleet against the enemy, especially in the conditions of enemy air superiority. The submarines were unable to do anything. The Japanese achieved complete superiority in the air and at sea.

The Japanese, not meeting opposition from the American Air Force and Navy, on December 10, 1941, landed an advanced force on Luzon. They quickly captured the Aparri and Vigan areas with naval support. The aircraft of the 5th air group are immediately transferred to the airfields located here. At the same time, in the south of the island of Luzon, in Legazpi Bay, another Japanese landing party is landing.

On December 22-24, the main forces of the 14th Army landed in Lingaen Bay and in the Lamon area, which developed an offensive against Manila. Earlier, the Japanese had landed troops on the islands of Mindanao and Holo. They were supported by the Air Force and the Navy.

The American-Filipino troops, left without the support of aviation and navy, were unable to resist the Japanese landings. On December 23rd, General MacArthur orders the withdrawal of troops to the Bataan Peninsula. The Japanese continued their offensive and occupied Manila on January 2, 1942. In 25 days of the operation, the Japanese army completed its main tasks.


Japanese artillery fires 105 mm Type 92 cannons at American positions on Bataan.


Japanese tank type 97 "Chi-Ha" on the captured island of Corregidor


Japanese soldiers celebrate victory in the Battle of Corregidor. They stand in front of a 12-inch coastal gun of the American battery.

Surrender


On the Bataan Peninsula, the allied forces (12,5 thousand Americans and 67 thousand Filipinos, together with refugees - 100 thousand), taking advantage of the favorable conditions of the terrain, were able to hold out for three months. In addition, the main strike force of the invasion, the Japanese 48th Division, was replaced by the much less efficient 65th Brigade. The Japanese 5th Air Group, together with the 48th Division, was transferred to Dutch India, which weakened the Japanese grouping on Luzon. This allowed the Allies to repel Japanese attacks in January and February. The Japanese command postponed the decisive assault until spring.

The allies suffered from a lack of food and disease, it was impossible to help them. They also ran out of ammunition and medicines. Therefore, the command of the Philippine group, represented by General MacArthur, was evacuated to Mindanao, then to Australia. MacArthur handed over command to Major General John Wainwright. On March 28, 1942, after air and artillery preparation, the Japanese attacked again. On April 3, the Allied defenses were broken. On April 8, the commander of the US-Philippine forces on Bataan, the chief of artillery, General Edward King, agreed to surrender. On April 9, the allied forces laid down their arms. 75 thousand people were captured. The Japanese treated the prisoners extremely cruelly, many military and civilians were killed, died of heat and exhaustion during the transition to concentration camps (Bataan death march).


General E. King discusses the terms of the surrender of American troops on Bataan with Colonel Nakayama of the Japanese army


Japanese soldiers celebrate victory in the Battle of Bataan


Captured Americans and Filipinos before the Bataan Death March. The prisoners were forced to walk more than 90 km from Bataan to Tarlak along broken roads. Exhausted and exhausted people were deprived of rest and drink, many died or were killed during this transition

The last major seat of American resistance in the Philippines was the Corregidor fortress. The island of Corregidor, turned into a fortress during the First World War, blocked the entrance to Manila Bay. It housed two coastal defense regiments, an anti-aircraft artillery regiment, a marine regiment and the remnants of units that were able to evacuate from Bataan. Here were located the Malinta tunnels, which were built for storing ammunition, and were used to house the headquarters of the allied army, the Philippine leadership, diplomats who fled from Manila were also located here.

In December 1941 - April 1942, the Japanese Air Force bombed the island, it was shelled by artillery. Since March, the wreck was blocked, communication with the outside world was maintained only with the help of submarines. Submarines brought in supplies and mail, evacuated high-ranking military personnel and diplomats, and took out important documents and valuables. After the surrender of the Americans on the Bataan Peninsula, the Japanese concentrated their forces on the capture of Corregidor.


Japanese soldiers land on Corregidor Island


A Japanese soldier fires a flamethrower at an American fortification on Corregidor Island. May 1942


American and Filipino soldiers surrender to Japanese forces on Corregidor Island

On May 1, 1942, a powerful artillery bombardment of the fortress began. The Japanese finally suppressed the enemy's artillery, and on the night of May 5-6, they landed an assault force of 2 battalions and captured a bridgehead in the northeastern part of the island. The Japanese reinforced the landing with artillery and tanks. The Americans were driven back to their bunkers. On May 6, General Wainwright offered surrender. Japanese commander Homma insisted that all American forces in the Philippines surrender. Wainwright accepted these terms. On May 8, he sent a telegram to all American troops ordering them to lay down their arms. On Corregidor 12 thousand people surrendered (about 2 thousand more were killed and wounded).

Part of the American-Filipino troops did not lay down their arms and resisted (partisan) until the summer of 1942. Thus, the Japanese troops carried out a major operation to capture the vast archipelago. The decisive role was played by the conquest of air and sea supremacy, which led to the success of the landed amphibious forces. The weak pre-war training of the American-Philippine army also affected, which could not organize a serious opposition to the enemy, effectively use the available aircraft, did not prepare fortified areas with supplies of everything necessary, partisan bases in vast forests and swamps. Plus the inaction of the Asian fleet. The Japanese skillfully used landings: first, to capture individual areas with airfields and bases located there, then they carried out the transfer of the main forces and aviation. Troops simultaneously landed in several places on Luzon Island and on other islands, which led to the dispersal of enemy forces.

The American command, in order to fend off the enemy's success, had to urgently create a powerful military foothold in Australia, strengthen the defenses of the islands in the southwestern Pacific, Hawaii and Alaska.


Street view of Manila shortly after the surrender of American troops


Japanese troops during a parade in Manila. Japanese artillery tractors Type 92 5-t Prime Mover "I-Ke" tow 105mm Type 92 Cannon cannons. On horseback is the commander of the 14th Army, Japanese Lieutenant General Masaharu Homma. The Japanese military victory parade took place after the besieged US-Philippine army surrendered in Bataan. May 18, 1942 (


Japanese troops during a parade in Manila. In the foreground, a formation of Japanese trucks with personnel in bodies.
Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/, http://waralbum.ru/
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  1. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 10 January 2022 04: 42
    +6
    In general, MacArthur showed himself to be a master of self-promotion, but not a military leader. And so throughout the war.
    In 1941, 1,3 thousand medium and heavy tanks were produced in the country.
    What kind of heavy weights ?!
    1. Lech from Android.
      Lech from Android. 10 January 2022 05: 01
      +4
      The main thing is to get away in time ... which MacArthur brilliantly did ... passing the laurels of surrender to Wainwright.
      I read about the Bathaan death march ... the prisoners got the full program from the samurai ... but it was not necessary to surrender ... to fight to the last bullet and a soldier ... anyway, they will kill in captivity.
      1. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 10 January 2022 05: 19
        +6
        Quote: Lech from Android.
        but it was not necessary to surrender

        The Red Army had enough surrenders and "death marches" both in 41 and 42, but unlike the allies we had the Brest Fortress and Leningrad and the defense of Moscow.
        1. Lech from Android.
          Lech from Android. 10 January 2022 05: 36
          +4
          Yes ... Uman pit alone is worth something.
      2. Ashes of Claes
        Ashes of Claes 10 January 2022 09: 31
        +3
        Quote: Lech from Android.
        handing over the laurels of surrender to Wainwright.

        Gee ... "Thin" (drove Wainwright) then recouped) After our army pulled him out of Japanese kichi in Manchuria, he surrendered from Tomoyuki in the Philippines. Winner, what ...
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 10 January 2022 10: 02
          +3
          he accepted the capitulation from Tomoyuki in the Philippines.

          This was after Missouri. And before that, he was among those who accepted the surrender on board the battleship. Along with him was another loser, Percival.
          Here the two of them are standing behind MacArthur - "Skinny" is closer, Percival is on.


          Then both of them flew to accept Yamashita's surrender. I wonder how wide his eyes were - after all, Yamashita personally accepted the surrender of Singapore by Percival ... belay
          1. Ashes of Claes
            Ashes of Claes 10 January 2022 10: 56
            +2
            As for the surrender on Bataan, there are a number of questions) It is clear that Homma sent Nakayama (by the way, he drove up to cadillac)) as his representative, but without clear instructions, expecting the surrender of all the Philippines from Thin, and not partial from King. Nakayama at first asked King stupidly (all round-eyed generals are alike, probably)) - Are you going to be Wainwright? - No ... - And where is Wainwright ... well, like, like the dialogue in "Operation Y" - "and where is granny?" - "I'm for her." Well, after the altercations and clarification of King's status, Nakayama, in the best traditions of military etiquette, demanded from King "Your sword!", To which he mumbled - "I left it in Manila .."
            The ceremonial Nakayama hesitated slightly and accepted a pistol from King instead of a saber.
            After the war, as you know, a wave of flowery memoirs poured out, with which American (and all others) generals treated the ego and inferiority complexes, and so King wrote with snotty pathos that at that moment he felt like General Lee before meeting with Grant in Appomatox ... ..In short, the facepalm from Colonel Everett Williams in the famous photo))
      3. monster
        monster 10 January 2022 14: 12
        0
        That's for sure. Japanese are not afraid of death. And they deservedly despise everyone who is in treason.
        1. Ryazan87
          Ryazan87 10 January 2022 18: 18
          +8
          And they deservedly received carpet bombing and a couple of atomic bombs to boot. To normalize the psyche. Enough for a long time.
          1. The comment was deleted.
          2. Kamos8
            Kamos8 21 January 2022 05: 28
            0
            What was wrong with their psyches? What was wrong with the Japanese here?
      4. Alf
        Alf 10 January 2022 19: 24
        +2
        Quote: Lech from Android.
        I read about the Bathaan death march ... got the prisoners in full from the samurai ...

      5. Kamos8
        Kamos8 21 January 2022 05: 37
        0
        The Bataan Death March was promoted as something terrible by the Americans themselves. Their boys were forced to walk 40 km a day. Oh God! It's just that the Japanese judged everyone, including spoiled Americans, by themselves and their army standards. The physical and psychological preparation of the Japanese soldiers of World War II was objectively the best among all participating countries. In this regard, only the elite SS units trained according to the Steiner-Montigny system could compare with their infantrymen. Therefore, for the Japanese army, daily marches of 40-50 kilometers were the norm. This was the basis of their blitzkrieg. But for spoiled Americans, these were unattainable standards. Now drive their inflated, fried marines off their armor, and make them go through a normal day march, so you will also be accused of a war crime)))
    2. Catfish
      Catfish 10 January 2022 06: 47
      +10
      The M6 heavy tank was developed since the 1940 of the year, in the 1942-1944 years the 40 tank models were manufactured, tests of the tank samples showed its futility, and in the 1944 year the work on the tank was stopped. M6 tanks did not take part in the hostilities.

      It is not clear why the author mentioned them at all, perhaps this is just a slip of the tongue, but light and medium tanks were meant.
      1. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 10 January 2022 07: 01
        +2
        Quote: Sea Cat
        The M6 ​​heavy tank has been in development since 1940, 1942 tank samples were manufactured in 1944-40
        THX!
      2. hohol95
        hohol95 10 January 2022 08: 09
        +3
        The author "described himself" ...
        I confused light and medium with medium and heavy.
        And then medium tanks in the Philippines were not noticed.
    3. Region-25.rus
      Region-25.rus 10 January 2022 11: 26
      +5
      In general, MacArthur showed himself to be a master of self-promotion, but not a military leader. And so throughout the war.
      and they didn’t put them up against the wall for such "art". And when for something like that in the Second World War, at least they were sent to the penal battalion, howls begin in the style - "Stalin shot his own."
      By the way, I read that the storming of the Philippines by the Americans was not planned then and not as it happened. MacArthur issued an ultimatum to Roosevelt - "Either I am returning to the Philippines (I said that I will return) or I am running for the presidency!" Well, then it turned out what happened. At the cost of not sickly such sacrifices among the soldiers. (again no howls about "soldiers for slaughter" are heard). In general, he "returned". But they were finally dismissed by prof. unusability only during the Korean War.
      1. Ashes of Claes
        Ashes of Claes 10 January 2022 17: 11
        -1
        Quote: Region-25.rus
        and they didn’t put them up against the wall for such "art". And when for something like that in the Second World War, at least they were sent to the penal battalion, so howling begins in the style - "Stalin shot his own."

        Generally incomprehensible passage - what did you want to say? That the Americans lacked the methods of educating Comrade Stalin?
        Quote: Region-25.rus
        At the cost of not sickly such sacrifices among the soldiers. (again no howls about "soldiers for slaughter" are heard).

        Why howl if we have a completely different "sacrificial" scale? For them, 13 thousand lives behind Leite and Luzon, perhaps a lot. This only makes our patriots smirk - "whether it is with us!"
        1. Region-25.rus
          Region-25.rus 10 January 2022 18: 17
          0
          What did you want to say?
          what he wanted - he said! Those to whom he addressed - read!
          why howl
          here are the howlers and ask
    4. The comment was deleted.
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 10 January 2022 12: 43
        -2
        In that operation, by the way, in addition to MacArthur and Ike, Patton also participated - his tanks supported the infantry, who destroyed the temporary camp of the demonstrators.

        I didn't know about tanks ... Democratically, Alexey ...
        Didn't the demonstrators have their own "hero with a string bag"? wassat
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 10 January 2022 14: 26
          +3
          Quote: Pan Kohanku
          I didn't know about tanks ... Democratically, Alexey ...
          Didn't the demonstrators have their own "hero with a string bag"? wassat

          Times are not the same.
          MacArthur brought order to Washington DC during the Bonus Army March with the utmost brutality. First, cavalry with sabers bald was sent to the protesters, and then - infantry chains with bayonets attached, supported by Patton's tanks. Plus, BOV was widely used - adamsite.
          Therefore, Ike tried to besiege the chief in his desire to show off in front of the public - it is not the business of the chief of staff of the army to advertise that the American army has actually launched hostilities against its own people, veterans of the last war.

          However, this is the 30th. Then it was considered the norm to shoot strikers from the "Tommy-Guns" - by private security companies, hired from the criminals who had served time.
          1. Ashes of Claes
            Ashes of Claes 10 January 2022 15: 13
            0
            Quote: Alexey RA
            However, this is the 30th. Then it was considered the norm to shoot strikers from the "Tommy-Guns" - by private security companies, hired from the criminals who had served time.

            Ford's vohra on March 7, 1932?)
            Quote: Alexey RA
            and then - infantry lines with attached bayonets, supported by Patton's tanks

            and cavalry.

            Roosevelt calls MacArthur "potential Mussolini" after "Battle of Anacostia"
            1. Alexey RA
              Alexey RA 11 January 2022 12: 46
              0
              Quote: Ashes of Klaas
              Ford's vohra on March 7, 1932?)

              She, darling. Together with the cops. Saints nineties thirties. smile
  2. Free wind
    Free wind 10 January 2022 07: 02
    +6
    Horror, of course, but the Japanese ate Americans.
    1. Region-25.rus
      Region-25.rus 10 January 2022 11: 43
      +4
      the Japanese ate the Americans.

      Do not confuse the ritual eating of the liver of a defeated enemy - "kimotori" with literal eating. This was done not by everyone, but by especially stubborn ones. It was believed that the power of the defeated enemy thus goes to the winner (dikaris-s-s).
      "If you eat your enemy's liver!
      Raw, with warm blood!
      That alien to pity you will conquer the whole world "(I do not remember the author).
      py-sy
      I do not condone war crimes, I just clarify if that.
    2. Alex013
      Alex013 10 January 2022 17: 41
      +2
      Well, the Japanese themselves ate a lot too. In New Guinea, locals)
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich 10 January 2022 07: 39
    +1
    The striker always has the advantage, which cost the US heavy losses.

    But these losses in no way canceled the inevitability of Japan's defeat in the final: having a war with huge China, a huge army against the USSR, starting a war against the obviously stronger economically powers - the USA and England - was a deliberately losing adventure.
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 10 January 2022 08: 06
      +3
      Not everything was clear with Britain!
      She pulled the front in North Africa "with a creak".
      And then the Far East was "on fire."
      It was in vain to wait for help from the metropolis.
      Only the fleet. And he was required in the Atlantic and Mediterranean.
      And the Australians had to "invent" their own submachine guns and jump into the design of tanks!
      In India, the size of the army was urgently increased!
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 10 January 2022 10: 04
        0
        Quote: hohol95
        australians
        In India

        Quite right: England then was not only the British Isles, but also huge India, Pakistan, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Australia, New Zealand, Brunei, etc.

        Together with the metropolis and the United States, it is an irresistible force for the Japanese.
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 10 January 2022 10: 40
          0
          Forgotten Canada !!!
          I still agree on manpower and production of small arms.
          But the production of tanks, aircraft and artillery was concentrated in the metropolis!
          And above it there was "a lot of dripping" and there was no unnecessary equipment!
          The Americans helped.
          And then not right away!
          "Matilda" went to New Zealand and Australia after the British military in Africa "disappointed" in them.
          Until the end of the war, the Japanese troops had nothing to "puzzle" the "Queen of the battlefield" with!
          Unlike their Germanic allies.
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 10 January 2022 11: 49
            -3
            Quote: hohol95
            Forgotten Canada !!!

            no, I wrote: "Etc., etc." In addition, Canada has been officially independent since 1931 and is not a colony of India.
            Quote: hohol95
            But the production of tanks, aircraft and artillery was concentrated in the metropolis!

            the Japanese have the same
            1. hohol95
              hohol95 10 January 2022 14: 43
              0
              It was closer to transport the Japanese!
      2. Ashes of Claes
        Ashes of Claes 10 January 2022 15: 34
        -1
        Quote: hohol95
        And the Australians had to "invent" their own submachine guns and jump into the design of tanks!

        Well, not that tanks, rather, in the design of their own tank troops from other people's tanks) And what, at first, from the American tank industry (if not counting the tanks "generalists"). With the stewarts and baptism of fire in N. Guinea was accepted. And in Africa - generally Italian trophies after "Compass")
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 10 January 2022 17: 22
          0
          So you don't take into account the creation and construction of Sentinel tanks?
          Like the Canadian Rem tank.
          1. Ashes of Claes
            Ashes of Claes 10 January 2022 18: 12
            -1
            Quote: hohol95
            So you don't take into account the creation and construction of Sentinel tanks?

            ))
            Not...
        2. hohol95
          hohol95 10 January 2022 17: 28
          +1
          65 or 68 Australian Sentinels pale against the background of 737 American tanks and 200 British Matildas.
          But its development began when not a single tank had yet been sent to Australia.
          And the fear of the Japanese aomy was growing!
          1. Ashes of Claes
            Ashes of Claes 10 January 2022 18: 17
            -1
            Quote: hohol95
            And the fear of the Japanese aomy was growing!

            the metropolis did not have enough tanks for Australia, yes, but initially it was not fear of the Japanese that forced the Australians to scratch their turnips, but the need to supply their units in the B. East. Well, and then came the paranoia "yellows are coming!" And as soon as it got better, the "own tank" program was successfully curtailed as unnecessary. So, Sentinel and Thunderbolt are about nothing)
            1. hohol95
              hohol95 10 January 2022 21: 03
              0
              Relieved then relieved ...
              In what it was lucky!
              I do not agree with your conclusions.
              The Australians, in the complete absence of developments in the production of armored vehicles, were able to create a project and begin industrial production of the tank!
              The Germans themselves in the 30s did much worse!
              And the fact that the Australians threw into battle only the American "Stuarts" and the British "Matildas" (leaving the "Grands / Lee" in reserve) does not diminish the merits of those who created from "nothing" the tank industry of Australia!
              How many industrially developed countries were able to create an acceptable tank model from the first try?
              Many are still trying, but they have little that comes out !!!
              1. Ashes of Claes
                Ashes of Claes 10 January 2022 21: 30
                -1
                Quote: hohol95
                does not diminish the merits of those who created from "nothing" the tank industry of Australia!

                Well, about the "tank industry", you probably got excited)
                With all due respect to the design team)
                1. hohol95
                  hohol95 10 January 2022 22: 27
                  0
                  Not an industry so production!
                  But at the level of Poland and Hungary, the production of an Australian tank looks quite worthy !!!
                  1. Ashes of Claes
                    Ashes of Claes 11 January 2022 08: 35
                    -2
                    Quote: hohol95
                    But at the level of Poland and Hungary, the production of an Australian tank looks quite worthy !!!

                    Well, among the countries of the "third tank world" - perhaps it somehow looks. In comparison with Turan - generally a masterpiece) We will not talk about Poland - it ended in 1939. But, all own the tanks of the Italians, Magyars and Poles were not the product of a perfectionist, but at least they fought and were modernized, based on the requirements of the battle, and not slowly picking the nose at the drawers. And so the demonstration "we can, if we want, but not really necessary" - this is for fans of WoT (do not take it for a hairpin, I am indifferent to the fans of the game, as well as to the game itself)
                    1. hohol95
                      hohol95 11 January 2022 08: 59
                      0
                      The British "Covenanter" did not fight ...
                      It was immediately called a "tank for training units"!
                      And Poland has created one of the best descendants of the 6-ton Vickers!
                      The Swedes won, thanks to the Germans, for a long time "poking around at the drawers", and then bought a license from the Czechs!
                      We converted the Canadian Ram into armored personnel carriers and put them into battle!
                      In war, always "The road is a spoon for dinner, and there at least under the bench!"
                      We lived through a tense moment - it is possible to write off different "ersatz" and "early maturing" constructions into training or rear units !!!
                      1. Ashes of Claes
                        Ashes of Claes 11 January 2022 09: 37
                        -2
                        Quote: hohol95
                        The Swedes won, thanks to the Germans, for a long time "poking around at the drawers", and then bought a license from the Czechs!

                        Well, yes, and the Magyars bought an L-60 under the Toldi from the Swedes, and so on, and so on.
                        Quote: hohol95
                        In war, always "The road is a spoon for dinner, and there at least under the bench!"

                        Well, that's what I was talking about) But - a spoon, not the promise of a spoon.
                      2. hohol95
                        hohol95 11 January 2022 09: 42
                        0
                        So "Turan" is not a 100% Magyar development!
                        Again the Czechs "helped".
                        They themselves could only design the "Chabo" armored car.
  4. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 10 January 2022 09: 21
    +5
    Japanese Lieutenant General Masaharu Homma

    The most victorious Japanese generals - Homma Masaharu and Yamashita Tomoyuki (conqueror of Malaya and Singapore) - were hanged by the allies after the war.
    Homma (center) lands in the Philippines at Lingaen Bay, December 24, 1941.


    In the Philippines, the Japanese also used more archaic tanks - Type 89. From Wikipedia - "Type 89 in the attack on Manila in January 1942".
    1. Ashes of Claes
      Ashes of Claes 10 January 2022 10: 13
      0
      Quote: Pane Kohanku
      Most Victorious Japanese Generals - Homma Masaharu

      Well, actually, as you know, the YIA command had questions about Homme's competence)
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 10 January 2022 10: 18
        +2
        Well, actually, as you know, the YIA command had questions about Homme's competence)

        To be sure, the first assault on Bataan failed. But Mozheiko also indicated that at that moment an efficient division was taken away from Homma. request
        Interestingly, both Hommu and Yamashitu were removed from their high command posts shortly after their victories. what
    2. hohol95
      hohol95 10 January 2022 10: 16
      +1
      Otsu type 89.
      A descendant of the only British Medium Mk.C. sold abroad.
      And the world's first diesel tank.
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 10 January 2022 10: 31
        +3
        Medium Mk.C.

        Is this this one, Alexey?

        And the world's first diesel tank.

        I remember that the Japanese and "Ha-Go" with a diesel engine did ... For the first - I did not know, thanks! hi
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 10 January 2022 10: 54
          +3
          He is.
          Diesel "Mitsubishi" was delivered in 1935 or 1936. In 1936 they began to produce "Ha-Go".
          Already with a diesel engine.
  5. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 10 January 2022 11: 57
    +5
    By the beginning of the war with Japan, the army group of General Douglas MacArthur included up to two American divisions (Philippine division, infantry, cavalry and two artillery regiments and units of the National Guard), 4 Philippine divisions (several more divisions were in the stage of formation), 277 aircraft ...

    Moreover, MacArthur had to gnaw out reinforcements almost with his teeth - the Metropolis was extremely reluctant to send forces to the Philippines. It is significant that there was only one American cadre division in all the Philippines (one regiment of which was also "local" - the National Guard from the Filipinos). At the same time, the much smaller Hawaii was defended by two infantry divisions at once. But MacArthur got nothing from the Hawaiian forces.
    However, this is not surprising. Suffice it to recall the American pre-war plans for the war on maintenance. According to them, the Philippines was planned to be left to fend for itself: the army was, of course, to conduct the defense, but in the event of the enemy's superiority, the Americans had to retreat to Bataan and, having entrenched themselves there, hold the defense until reinforcements arrived, simultaneously blocking the entrance to Manila Bay. As a first approximation, it seems to be normal ... if the army fought on its own. But for that it was tied to the fleet. And according to the plan of the US Navy, the Pacific Fleet had to wait for the achievement of superiority over the enemy and the readiness of the marines - and only after that go on the offensive. Prior to that, all the actions of the Navy were limited to submarine warfare and raids on secondary forward Japanese bases. The phrase from the pre-war naval WPO is indicative: "No reinforcements for the Asian fleet are foreseen".
    That is, even with the best development of events, the American army forces in the Philippines had to somehow hold out at least until the fall of 1942.

    However, there could be one more reason for the "drop" pre-war dispatch of forces to the Philippines - in Washington they could realistically assess MacArthur's military "talents" and therefore decided not to destroy their still few ground forces. smile
  6. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 10 January 2022 11: 57
    +11
    In the early days of the war, the Japanese Air Force, which was based on the island of Taiwan, carried out massive raids on Philippine airfields and Cavite naval bases on the island. Luzon and Davao in Mindanao. Japanese aircraft destroyed half of the bombers and more than a third of the fighters.

    The death of the US Army Air Force in the Philippines is entirely on the conscience of MacArthur and his staff. The air commander in the Philippines, already having data from Pearl Harbor and even Washington, spent several hours trying to contact MacArthur in order to obtain permission from his immediate superior to strike Japanese airfields. But the faithful slaves did not allow him to bother the master over trifles so early in the morning. All that the aviators could do was to raise the "fortresses" into the air so that the Japanese would not find them at the airfields (in theory this would have worked, but in practice the Japanese raid was delayed). And when MacArthur graciously deigned to allow the raid, the "fortresses" had to be planted and refueled. It was at this moment that the Japanese flew in, delayed with their departure due to adverse weather conditions.
    And if the Army Air Force had received permission immediately after receiving data from Pearl Harbor, then the situation would have developed in a mirror-like manner - the "fortresses" were calculated to enter Japanese airfields just when it was explained above them, and Japanese aircraft had to line up for takeoff.
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 10 January 2022 22: 30
      0
      So the Americans "exiled" Swedish aircraft Seversky R-35A to the Philippines. Confiscated for the needs of the US Air Force !!!
    2. d_averk
      d_averk 11 January 2022 20: 12
      0
      It is strange that there is no queue of those who want to shoot him, like Rozhdestvensky)
  7. d_averk
    d_averk 10 January 2022 20: 24
    0
    I have big doubts about
    "Washington and London, having great superiority in military-economic and scientific-technical potential over Japan, believed that they still had time. The top leadership of Japan, back in August 1941, decided to first launch an offensive in the south. And Roosevelt on October 15 wrote to Churchill that the Japanese would head north, thus giving the United States and England at least a two-month respite in the Far East, Churchill thought the same. of the headquarters of the US Army and Navy, General Marshall and Admiral Stark presented Roosevelt with a memorandum in which they proposed to postpone the war by diplomatic means until the last minute.

    In the book "Pearl Harbor, Mistake or Provocation" by Maslov and Zubkov, in my opinion, quite interestingly, a completely opposite point of view is justified - the United States systematically provoked Japan to attack the United States, and were almost ready for provocations (a couple of cruisers to be sunk), for this to happen, the only thing they did not expect was that everything would start on the scale of Pearl Harbor and they would almost lose their fleet.
  8. Sergey Tankist
    Sergey Tankist 10 January 2022 21: 02
    -1
    Interestingly, the Japanese horses are also slanted?
  9. cat Rusich
    cat Rusich 11 January 2022 20: 24
    0
    Recall 26th Cavalry Regiment recruited from local residents of "Mexican origin", and who served faithfully to the Spaniards, and then the United States.
    The cavalry attacked if necessary japanese tanks - really attacked.
    Just type in a search engine philippine cavalry - read about forgotten heroes ...
    soldier