Military Review

The invention of the anchor

22
The invention of the anchor
Admiralty anchor with a wooden stem, photo: wikimedia.org


Human civilization has come a long way in its development, and throughout this path people were drawn to water. At first, primitive people went out into rivers and lakes on primitive boats hollowed out of a tree trunk or on reed rafts. Over time, they set out to conquer the seas and oceans. Already in these first attempts at nascent navigation, it became obvious that a device was needed that would allow the ship to be kept in the middle of a fast river or far from the sea shore.

The first anchors were made of stone


Scientists believe that the first shipping appeared six thousand years ago or even earlier. At about the same time, apparently, the first anchor appeared, which was the most ordinary stone. The stone was tied to a rope, which could be woven from vines or from the sinews of dead wild animals. For hundreds of years, such a primitive device remained the only one available to the first navigators.

In addition to stones, primitive people could use leather bags or wicker baskets, which were also stuffed with various stones; the bags themselves could also be tied to various plant cables. Such primitive anchors had many shortcomings. They could slip out of the loop of the cable, and baskets, which were stuffed with stones for weight, were often torn.

Despite this, due to the simplest design, such anchors were actively used all over the world. Stone anchors, among other things, were used in Ancient Egypt, as mentioned by the ancient Greek historian Herodotus in his writings. He pointed out that while sailing on the Nile, the Egyptians used anchor stones to reduce the speed of the vessel by throwing them from the stern.


Stone anchor discovered in Israel, estimated to be 3400 years old, photo: imj.org.il

Over time, the anchor has improved. Initially, a hollowed-out rim was added to its design, which simplified the fastening of the cable. Then a hole appeared in the stone itself, into which the cable was threaded. Already at the beginning of the III millennium BC. e. stone anchors appeared, in which holes were punched in the lower part. Scientists speculate that these holes could have been used for wood inserts that burrowed into the ground, holding the ship in place. That is, already in those years, anchors could acquire a structural element, which would later be called a horn.

Stone anchors were actively used by all sailors of antiquity - the citizens of Phenicia, Babylon, Carthage, Rome and Greece. Homer's famous work "The Odyssey" indicates that the anchor on the ship "Argo" was also made of stone. The simplest anchor can still be found on small fishing boats and boats, especially in areas where there is a rocky or flat bottom and an anchor with paws is simply not needed.

Wooden anchors


It is believed that already in the III millennium BC. e in the region of Southeast Asia, an anchor could be invented, in its appearance close to modern - it was a two-horned anchor with a rod and a crossbar. Its inventors could have been the ancestors of the Chinese or the Malays. In the Mediterranean, anchors of this design appeared much later; it is believed that they ended up here in the region of the VIII century BC. e.

For many years such anchors were made of solid wood species that sink in water. Wooden anchors also proved to be as tenacious as possible. The simplicity of the design and the availability of wood contributed to their distribution around the world. Such anchors are still preserved on small Chinese and Malay junks, which can be found, for example, off the coast of Singapore or Hong Kong.


Ancient Roman wooden anchor found in Italy in the early 1930s, photo: museumanapa.ru

If initially the stock on a wooden anchor was also made of heavy wood or stone, then starting from about the XNUMXth century BC. e. they began to cast it from lead. The heavy and massive stock helped the anchor to press closer to the seabed and allowed the horn to penetrate deeper into the ground. In modern anchors, the role of the downforce is largely taken over by a massive steel chain.

The design of the first two-horned wooden anchors turned out to be so effective and at the same time simple that it is still used in the design of anchors, called the Admiralty. An anchor of this design, once at the bottom, rested on the bases of the horns and on one of the ends of the rod. Such an anchor position was unstable, and as soon as a thrust appeared on the rope, the anchor turned over on its own at the end of one of the horns, starting to sink into the ground.

The appearance of the iron anchor


Researchers believe that anchors in the form in which we imagine them began to appear in the XNUMXth century BC. e. At the same time, there are still disputes regarding the name and nationality of the inventor. For example, the ancient Greek writer Pausanias (XNUMXnd century AD) claimed that the first two-horned iron anchor was made by order of the Phrygian king Midas (XNUMXth century BC).

The Roman writer Pliny the Younger (62-114 years old) claimed that the designer of the iron ship's anchor was a Greek named Evlampius. At the same time, Pliny attributed the invention of the iron anchor, the horns of which had paws at their ends, to the ancient inhabitants of Etruria.


Russian names of parts of the anchor (in this case - Admiralty), image: wikimedia.org

Another piece of evidence that has survived to this day was left by the ancient Greek historian and geographer Strabo (64 BC). According to him, the first inventor of the iron anchor with a stock was the Greek scientist Anacharisis, who was of Scythian origin and back in the XNUMXth century BC. e. moved to Greece. One way or another, in many sources today you can find information that it was the ancient Greeks who gave us anchors of the form and type to which we are accustomed.

This is in some way connected with the origin of the word. The ancient Greeks called the anchor with the word "ankura". The root of this word "ankh" means in translation into Russian "hook" or "curve". Thus, "ankura" in Russian could be translated as having curvature or curvature. Later, the ancient Greek word "ankura" migrated to other languages ​​of Europe, retaining the common root "ankh". For example, in German, Danish and Norwegian languages ​​the word anchor sounds and is written as "anker".

At the same time, do not forget that the iron anchor in the ancient world was a piece and very expensive product. The iron anchor will become a common item for blacksmiths, along with the sword, ax and plow, much later. It is believed that iron anchors began to receive any significant distribution only in the XNUMXnd century BC. e., and they will become a truly massive invention only in the Middle Ages.

For a long time, the spread of the iron anchor was hindered by its very high cost. Until the 120nd century BC. e. iron was very expensive and was valued on a par with silver, its cost could be XNUMX times more expensive than copper. Therefore, only wealthy shipowners could afford to forge an iron anchor. It is no coincidence that the anchor acquired a sacred meaning at the same time.


Ancient Roman wooden anchor with a lead stem, photo: wikimedia.org

In ancient Greece, anchors made by craftsmen were first carried to the temple of Zeus, where due honors were erected for this invention. For greater faith in the reliability of the anchor in the ancient world, its design was often decorated with symbols of the ancient gods, such as Poseidon. The sailors of the ancient world were convinced of the usefulness of this device on their own skin. It often saved their lives, preventing the ship from breaking on the rocks, so the sailors considered the image of the anchor itself a symbol of hope.

In ancient Roman art, the anchor became one of the symbols of returning home after long voyages and wanderings around the world. According to one version, in the era of the spread of Christianity in the world among many peoples who lived on the shores of the Mediterranean and the seas closest to it, the anchor was a symbol of hope, salvation and steadfastness. At the same time, the upper part of the anchor with the stock could resemble the image of a cross to the first Christians.
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  1. Grossvater
    Grossvater 27 December 2021 06: 36
    +10
    I recommend, if anyone is interested: Skryagin, "The Book of Anchors". In the tyrnet there is.
    1. Bar1
      Bar1 27 December 2021 14: 00
      0
      -anchor - ya_kor / root
      -anker- an / anti cor / root
      Ie both words are Russian
      and mean root, this is so clear because the ship, when it stops and is anchored, is exactly rooted.
      -ship- box
      All in Russian
    2. balabol
      balabol 27 December 2021 17: 20
      +2
      They are absolutely right.
      It is difficult to write better than Lev Skryagin.
      History, types of anchors and their technical features, manufacturing technology, features of ship equipment, up to a description of the application. With informative fullness, it is easy to read and exciting. The interested reader will find all this in Skryagin.
      A small example:
      "In Russia since the time of Peter the Great, every battleship was supplied with five anchors. The largest and heaviest, usually the right camp, was called the plecht. The second largest, the left camp was the daglix, the third was the bay. on the left side of the ship. The fourth anchor bore the name of the mooring. It was a spare anchor, and it was stored in the hold behind the mainmast. The spindle of this anchor was attached to the beam, and the legs were buried in stone ballast. The mooring rod so that it did not interfere with loading into the hold. , laid flat on the bottom flooring. The fifth anchor by weight was called that; it was fastened in a marching manner, like the bays, but on the right cheekbone of the ship behind the plecht. In addition to these five anchors, on Russian sailing ships there could be several verps, the heaviest of which called a stop anchor. "
  2. A. Privalov
    A. Privalov 27 December 2021 07: 51
    +16
    It is no coincidence that the anchor acquired a sacred meaning at the same time.

    True, the old sailors told me that if the anchor surfaced, then this is a bad omen.

    By the way, in the top photo, according to the latest research, it is not an ancient anchor, but an ancient number from the wardrobe. Such a person will not get lost, his absent-minded visitor will not take home. See how the cloakroom attendant is happy?
    1. Corsair71 (Anatoly)
      Corsair71 (Anatoly) 14 January 2022 14: 08
      0
      How do you like this information?))).
      ,,, ...During the Second World War, Soviet specialists developed the design shown in fig. 165. The design of the anchor is reinforced concrete hollow. The spindle has two screw holes. When they are closed, the anchor can float. After the boat has towed it to the laying site, the plugs are unscrewed. An anchor filled with water sinks to the ground with its paw down. The rod does not allow him to tip over on his side.

      At the end of the operation, the diver connects the air compressor hose to the lower hole. Then, by changing the direction of thrust, the anchor horn is broken out of the ground and air is pumped. The anchor pops up, the hose is disconnected and both holes are screwed with plugs. The anchor is ready to be towed again."

      Book about anchors, Skryagin
      1. A. Privalov
        A. Privalov 14 January 2022 17: 58
        +2
        Quote: Corsair71 (Anatoly)
        How do you like this information?))).
        ,,, ...During the Second World War, Soviet specialists developed the design shown in fig. 165. The design of the anchor is reinforced concrete hollow. The spindle has two screw holes. When they are closed, the anchor can float. After the boat has towed it to the laying site, the plugs are unscrewed. An anchor filled with water sinks to the ground with its paw down. The rod does not allow him to tip over on his side.

        At the end of the operation, the diver connects the air compressor hose to the lower hole. Then, by changing the direction of thrust, the anchor horn is broken out of the ground and air is pumped. The anchor pops up, the hose is disconnected and both holes are screwed with plugs. The anchor is ready to be towed again."

        Book about anchors, Skryagin

        It was about this anchor that the old sailors told me.
        When he surfaced, he overturned the same boat, and the overlapping air hoses almost drowned the three sailors in it.
        It was after this incident that the pop-up anchor began to be considered a bad omen. hi
        1. Corsair71 (Anatoly)
          Corsair71 (Anatoly) 14 January 2022 21: 28
          +1
          Now it is clear. I thought the bike was about wood. ))
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich 27 December 2021 07: 59
    +9
    article, in fact, about one type of anchor - two-horned

    But a great many of them were invented: rodless multi-horns, an anchor-mushroom, an anchor with a float, anchor-bell, anchor-plow, etc.
  4. Brylevsky
    Brylevsky 27 December 2021 09: 19
    +8
    The ship (or ship) holds in place not only the anchor, as such. It is held by the "anchor - chain" system. The more the anchor chain is etched into the water, the higher the damping property of this system. Even on good ground, an anchor with good holding properties, but with insufficiently etched anchor chain, can "creep" when the weather conditions deteriorate. In general, the total holding force of the anchor-chain system is calculated using a clever formula with various coefficients obtained through field tests. The usual depth of anchoring is 15 - 25 meters, and the length of the anchor chain etched into the water is counted in bows. In meters it is considered by river workers and military men. There is almost always one spare anchor on the ship, in case the main anchor is lost. Anchors break off on ships quite often.
    1. Coward
      Coward 27 December 2021 13: 38
      +2
      Earlier, when in the RS rules, depending on the characteristics of the supply, there was a requirement to have a spare anchor, bracket and anchor collar on board, they were transported. Then the requirements began to be mitigated, and now there is no mandatory stock at all, meaning both the anchor device and spare parts for the main engine and VDG, and only the recommended one does not carry spare anchors on many ships.
      1. Brylevsky
        Brylevsky 27 December 2021 14: 26
        +6
        ... requirements began to be softened, and now there is no mandatory stock at all

        Perhaps you `re right. Right now I don't have the latest revision of the Register rules at hand, no, I can check ... But on those ships where I had to work, there was a spare anchor. As well as the spare blade of the propeller ... I know one joke, when the armored boatswain and the carpenter, on the instructions of the chief officer, made a spare anchor out of the emergency forest to replace the one lost in the area of ​​about. Iturup during a typhoon. Well, they did it ... painted it, hung it up in a regular place in the anchor niche. It was supposed to be a spare anchor, but they had already lost it earlier, but they were afraid to report it ... In general, they put it "in a regular place" and the crew changed safely, new people arrived who were not in the know. Everything was fine until it became necessary to anchor. It was a small fishing trawler, caught in the Kuril Islands and often waited out bad weather, anchored in the bays. And here is the command from the bridge: "Give up the right anchor!" ... the anchor, as it should, flew into the water with a crash ... the report of the boatswain from the tank: "The anchor came out! The anchor floated up ...". The captain was a bit short of the "kandrat" ...
        1. Coward
          Coward 27 December 2021 14: 57
          +4
          I freaked out myself when this year I found out that the stock is now not required, but recommended. Moreover, a familiar inspector gave this information to me when I asked him to remind him in which volume of the rules to say about spare parts and accessories.
          Well, this joke in the navy, probably every first heard. But you and I understand that the chain would drag the anchor to the bottom with its weight. wink
          By the way, you are correct that the chain / anchor system works. If my memory serves me, then the chains in the water should be 3-4 depths. The best vessel retention is then achieved.
          1. Motorist
            Motorist 27 December 2021 23: 56
            +1
            Quote: Coward
            I freaked out myself when I learned this year that the stock is now not required, but recommended.

            As far as I know - since the 15th year:

            1. Coward
              Coward 28 December 2021 00: 52
              +1
              It may well be from the 15th, but I found out about it this year. You know, when you think something is immutable, you don't keep track of it.
    2. Undecim
      Undecim 27 December 2021 14: 55
      +4
      In general, the total holding force of the anchor-chain system is calculated using a clever formula with various coefficients obtained through field tests. The usual depth of anchoring is 15 - 25 meters, and the length of the anchor chain etched into the water is counted in bows.

      When anchored, depths are classified as shallow, medium and large. Shallow depths are considered depths up to 20 m, medium - up to 50 m and large - over 50 m.


      Based on many years of experience, maritime practice recommends the following norms for the length of the anchor chain on the hawse under average relatively favorable weather and ground conditions:

      - when the ship is anchored at shallow depths -

      4 depths of anchorage, and in some cases (harbors) from

      6 to 10 depths;

      - when setting at medium depths - 3 anchorage depths;

      - when setting at great depths — 1,5-2 depths of the anchorage;

      - when staged in the worst conditions, these norms are insufficient, and anchor chains should be somewhat longer on the hawse.
  5. hwostatij
    hwostatij 27 December 2021 10: 42
    +2
    The anchor in the picture is not sharpened - disorder
  6. Catfish
    Catfish 27 December 2021 11: 01
    +5
    The main types of modern anchors.

    And it all started from this.))
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 27 December 2021 14: 06
      +8
      The main types of modern anchors.


      And it all started from this.))

      1. Catfish
        Catfish 27 December 2021 14: 16
        +7
        Beautifully answered! good smile drinks
  7. Illanatol
    Illanatol 27 December 2021 13: 33
    +2
    The ancient Greeks called the anchor with the word "ankura". The root of this word "ankh" means in translation into Russian "hook" or "curve". Thus, "ankura" in Russian could be translated as having curvature or curvature. Later, the ancient Greek word "ankura" migrated to other languages ​​of Europe, retaining the common root "ankh".


    The Greek word "ankura" looks like an ancient Egyptian "angk", that is, "cross". And the shape of the anchor looks like a similar cross, so this is no coincidence.
    It is not surprising that the anchors have acquired a sacred meaning.
  8. The comment was deleted.
  9. Vladimir Mashkov
    Vladimir Mashkov 27 December 2021 20: 19
    0
    The article is not bad, but not complete. It's great that experts in the comments complement and develop the topic.
    And a souvenir-memory of the Far East - a 22-centimeter Hall anchor with the inscription "Vladivostok" - is still on my table. And the 32-centimeter steering wheel from Sovgavan, bought in Lososin, hangs on the wall. smile
  10. bk0010
    bk0010 27 December 2021 20: 54
    +1
    The article is incomplete: there is not a word about the boatswain's vocabulary, which combines the anchor and parts of the human body!