Military Review

Day of the capture of the Turkish fortress Izmail by Russian troops

39



Today, December 24, our country celebrates the Day of Military Glory of Russia, dedicated to the capture of the Turkish fortress of Izmail by Russian troops.

It should be noted that this historical the event took place on December 11, 1790. New style is December 22nd, which might cause some confusion.

The thing is that in the version of the RF law of 1995 "On the days of military glory" memorable dates that refer to events that occurred before the appearance of the Gregorian calendar are calculated by adding 13 days to the dates of the Julian calendar. However, the aforementioned difference between the old and new calendars "formed" only by the XX century, and in the XVIII, when the event happened, it would have been 11 days. That is, historically it would be more correct to say that the capture of Ishmael took place on December 22, and not on the 24th.

But let us return to the event itself, which can certainly be called a "classic of military art."

The assault on the Izmail fortress became a key event in the Russian-Turkish war of 1787-1791, which ended in a devastating defeat for the Turks.

In August 1787, Turkey, which could not come to terms with defeat in 1774, declared war on our country. Almost from the very beginning, the course of the confrontation was extremely successful for the Russian army.

After capturing several strategic points and establishing full control over the Black Sea, Russia reached the Turkish fortress Izmail, the capture of which would open the Balkan direction.

It is worth noting that the Ottomans prepared well for the upcoming war. Izmail, thanks to the efforts of German and French engineers, turned into an impregnable citadel: an 8-meter rampart with bastions, as well as a ditch 12 meters wide and 10 meters deep in some places filled with water seemed at first glance an insurmountable obstacle.

In early December 1790, a 31-strong Russian army with more than 500 guns was concentrated near Izmail. In addition, through the efforts of our river flotilla the fortress was blocked from the Danube side. The siege was led by General-in-Chief Alexander Suvorov, who arrived at the scene on December 13.

The ingenious maneuver of the Russian commanders consisted in the imitation of preparations for a long siege in the immediate vicinity of the fortress. At the same time, a few kilometers from Izmail, Russian soldiers were preparing to take the fortress, practicing an offensive on improvised ramparts, like those that surrounded the Turkish citadel.

On December 17, Suvorov sent an ultimatum demanding the surrender of the fortress to the commander of the Turkish troops. The Turks, who were confident in the inaccessibility of Ishmael and were preparing for a long siege, received a negative response.

Early in the morning, after light, on December 20, the assault on the Turkish fortress began. For 2 days, Izmail was attacked from about 600 guns. The direct capture of the citadel began on December 22 at 5.30 am and ended with a crushing defeat for the troops of Aydozli-Mehmet Pasha by 16 hours.

According to some reports, the Turks lost about 26 thousand people killed and 9 thousand soldiers were captured. The Russian army lost about 4 thousand people and about 6 thousand were injured.
Author:
Photos used:
culture.ru
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  1. Flooding
    Flooding 24 December 2021 09: 33
    +8
    In honor of this great victory 190 years ago, a freshly laid street in the small town of Chisinau was named Izmailskaya.
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich 24 December 2021 11: 56
      +6
      Quote: Flood
      In honor of this great victory 190 years ago, a freshly laid street in the small town of Chisinau was named Izmailskaya.

      And until now, the name has survived - one of the very, very few: in 100 years, FIVE waves of renaming of streets in Chisinau have passed.

      A hymn is dedicated to the capture of Ishmael "Thunder of victory, resound!" considered the unofficial anthem of the Russian Empire.
      1. Flooding
        Flooding 24 December 2021 12: 37
        +4
        Quote: Olgovich
        And until now, the name has survived - one of the very, very few: in 100 years, FIVE waves of renaming of streets in Chisinau have passed.

        unfortunately, most of the city's residents, even the indigenous townspeople, do not know the history of the street's name.
        and they mistakenly call it Izmailovskaya.
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 25 December 2021 10: 27
          +1
          Quote: Flood
          unfortunately, most of the city's residents, even the indigenous townspeople, do not know the history of the street's name.

          yes they know, but it was customary to historically call Izmailovskaya-like, so it's easier to pronounce.

          Izmailovskaya street is in Minsk, Moscow, Khaprkovo, etc.
          1. Flooding
            Flooding 25 December 2021 12: 36
            +1
            Quote: Olgovich
            Izmailovskaya street is in Minsk, Moscow, Khaprkovo, etc.

            but they have nothing to do with Ishmael

            Quote: Olgovich
            yes they know, but it was customary to historically call Izmailovskaya-like

            if
            more than once I had to conduct an educational program
            "what do you mean, but we didn't know"
            modern Chisinau residents are not interested in the history of the city
            1. Olgovich
              Olgovich 25 December 2021 14: 45
              +3
              Quote: Flood
              but they have nothing to do with Ishmael

              But they are related to the popularity of the name "Izmailovskaya"
              Quote: Flood
              if
              more than once I had to conduct an educational program
              "what do you mean, but we didn't know"

              I call her that myself, although I know the story
              Quote: Flood
              modern Chisinau residents are not interested in the history of the city

              they do not know anything at all, as well as the fact that modern "octavians of gogi" had wonderful names at birth: Irinopolskaya, Aleksandrovskaya, Kolodeznaya, Meshchanskaya, etc.
              1. Flooding
                Flooding 25 December 2021 14: 48
                +1
                Have a nice weekend countryman wink
                1. Olgovich
                  Olgovich 25 December 2021 15: 33
                  +2
                  Quote: Flood
                  Have a nice weekend countryman

                  Health and good luck! hi
  2. Finches
    Finches 24 December 2021 09: 38
    +5
    Rather, the Danube will flow backwards, and the sky will fall to the ground, than Ishmael will surrender! - almost all modern politicians of the USA and the EU, and even more so of Ukraine, beloved about themselves, responding to the peace-loving proposals of Russia! laughing History teaches nothing, poor people!
    1. Zoldat_A
      Zoldat_A 24 December 2021 10: 28
      +2
      Quote: Finches
      History teaches nothing, poor people!

      Everyone who will start fighting with Russia thinks the same thing: "THEY, who were before me, did everything wrong. That is why they were defeated. And I will be lucky - I am so handsome, smart, strong and not boastful!"

      It only ends the same every time.

      What kind of historical memory in the West is it really possible to talk about? If they do not remember at close range how 30 years ago they promised Humpbacked Dog not to pull dirty paws to the east - who will remember Ishmael, the Cossacks in Paris or the Victory Banner in Berlin? "It was so long ago, now the world has changed ..." This has changed for them. And Russia has not forgotten how to install the Victory Banner over ANY capital of the world.
    2. aszzz888
      aszzz888 24 December 2021 10: 34
      0

      Zyablitsev (Eugene)
      Today, 09: 38
      Rather, the Danube will flow backwards, and the sky will fall to earth, than Ishmael will surrender! - almost all modern politicians of the USA and the EU, and even more so of Ukraine, beloved about themselves, responding to the peace-loving proposals of Russia! laughing History teaches nothing, poor!
      The adversary does not like it, minus. Evgeniy, hi
  3. Kaufman
    Kaufman 24 December 2021 09: 43
    -5
    by whom and where is this holiday celebrated?
    1. 76SSSR
      76SSSR 24 December 2021 10: 07
      +4
      Quote: kaufman
      by whom and where is this holiday celebrated?

      Today, December 24, our country celebrates the Day of Military Glory of Russia, dedicated to the capture of the Turkish fortress of Izmail by Russian troops.
      1. Kaufman
        Kaufman 24 December 2021 11: 58
        -5
        Ah, I see ... Russian Empire-RSFSR-USSR-CIS-Russian Federation, how many states have already changed and forms of government, and somehow we selectively celebrate))
        1. 76SSSR
          76SSSR 25 December 2021 04: 19
          0
          Quote: kaufman
          Oh, I see...

          Glad to have clarified the obvious.
          Quote: kaufman
          states have changed and forms of government

          You are "chechako", but at least have some fun)
          1. Kaufman
            Kaufman 27 December 2021 07: 08
            0
            Well this is great! Good emotions.
    2. Kayala
      Kayala 24 December 2021 10: 23
      +1
      What do you care about our victories and holidays?
      1. Hypertension
        Hypertension 24 December 2021 10: 46
        +4
        Quote: Kayala
        head skakuas

        Speaking of skakuas ... On Wikipedia in Russian, German, English, Italian, Azerbaijani, Turkish (!), Greek and Bulgarian, the loss of Russians is 4000. (1879 killed and 2703 wounded).
        And only in the Ukrainian and Polish, the number of losses from the Russian troops is written about 10000 people. Jackals!
        1. Liam
          Liam 24 December 2021 11: 22
          -8
          Quote: Hyperion
          Turkish (!)

          What do you mean ... the Turks will be very surprised at your statements. For some reason, they believe that the Russian losses are 15.000

          Ancak sonradan kale Ruslar'ın eline geçti (15 Rebîülâhir 1205/22 Aralık 1790). Ruslar kale içindeki askerler yanında sivil halkı da kılıçtan geçirdi; Tuna'ya atlayanlar dışında 22.700 ceset tesbit edildi; toplam kayıplar 30.000'e ulaşıyordu. 9000 hıristiyan esir Rusya'ya götürüldü, Rus kayıpları ise 15.000 dolayındaydı (İA, V / 2, s. 1109)
          Here
          Quote: Hyperion
          Jackals!
          1. Hypertension
            Hypertension 24 December 2021 14: 53
            +4
            Quote: Liam
            and that you ... the Turks will be very surprised at your statements.

            I don't know where you looked, but I wrote about Turkish Wikipedia, and there:
            Osmanlı kuvvetleri toplamda 26000 kayıp verdi, garnizonun tamamı öldürüldü, yaralandı veya esir alındı. Rus kuvvetlerinin 4330 yaralısından 1815'i öldü.


            https://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/İzmail_Kuşatması
            1. Liam
              Liam 24 December 2021 15: 25
              -4
              Does nothing bother you in this page? For example, the complete absence of any Turkish sources? In general, the lack of any information on the topic. That this is practically
              a blank page is a translation into Turkish, does not mean that it reflects the Turkish version of events. Read something serious from Turkish sources about the topic
              1. Hypertension
                Hypertension 24 December 2021 15: 48
                +5
                Why would I delve into Turkish sources? It is clear that in them they tried to smooth over the crushing defeat. The fact is that even in the pop Wikipedia, the Turks and their Azerbaijanis friends did not do this. And the Ukrainians and Poles did. Guided by their rabid Russophobia. Moreover, in the Ukrainian version, 12 thousand Ukrainian Cossacks fought on the side of Suvorov (in the Russian version 1 thousand). But the Sumerians didn’t even spare their Cossacks, if only the “Muscovites” could get them.
                1. Liam
                  Liam 24 December 2021 16: 47
                  -4
                  Quote: Hyperion
                  It is clear that they tried to smooth out the crushing defeat in them.

                  Your Excellency, how many Turks should you indicate as killed? "
                  "Why should you feel sorry for them, bastard, write more!"


                  Can't remember whose words?

                  Quote: Hyperion
                  And the Ukrainians and Poles did. Guided by their rabid Russophobia. Moreover, in the Ukrainian version,

                  It is clear, I thought you were interested in history as a sinful thing. It turned out that I was wrong, you are just another website victim of Ukrainophobia.
                  1. Hypertension
                    Hypertension 24 December 2021 21: 34
                    +3
                    Quote: Liam
                    Can't remember whose words?

                    You still have not entered the meaning of my comment. It is no secret that the opposing sides underestimate their losses, while the enemy's losses are exaggerated. The fact is that Ukrainians write their own history, which is different even from the West. And everything is anti-Russian.
                    Quote: Liam
                    I thought it was a sinful thing you were interested in history.

                    History interests. But in this case, I am most interested in anti-Russian propaganda.
                    Quote: Liam
                    You are just another website victim of ukrainophobia

                    The victims and disseminators of Ukrainophobia are, first of all, the part of Ukrainians who cannot eat - just to make a mess of Russia in some way and curry favor with the West.
      2. Kaufman
        Kaufman 24 December 2021 11: 59
        -5
        like some kind of set of words - and so many pluses ... that's how captain's shoulder straps can be earned)))
    3. aybolyt678
      aybolyt678 24 December 2021 10: 38
      0
      Quote: kaufman
      by whom and where is this holiday celebrated?

      have you forgotten WHAT? in your question. - and what I have to answer you ... you can't fool your soul with beer drinks
    4. alystan
      alystan 24 December 2021 17: 29
      +2
      human purchase,
      at least the same Turks mark this date in a peculiar way, "mourning" their defeats.
  4. Crowe
    Crowe 24 December 2021 09: 57
    +12
    Children flinch from explosions
    And the women in the chador cry
    The soldiers are praying in the mosque
    Dogs bark in the yard.
    The reconnaissance has already passed
    Destroy a fortress of stones
    Artillery preparation goes on all night
    Out of two dozen batteries.

    Now we will show the enemy forces
    Join the bayonets, but hurry,
    I am also here near Ishmael!
    Among the Livonian huntsmen.

    On the storming of Turkish bastions-
    To take the fortress for sure
    Let's go grenadiers
    From the Absheron regiment.
    And this sea is knee-deep
    Under a shower of bullets they storm the shaft
    Climbing stairs to walls
    Not respecting the interval.

    I will not disgrace the honor of the uniform!
    Chilly December morning
    I'm going to the attack of Ishmael
    Through a barrage of buckshot and fire.

    My column is storming the moat,
    We climb from the west wall
    Where the remains of the garrison are
    They are full of fierce rage towards us.
    About a third of the ammunition
    The citadel will fall on us
    Cannon fodder for breakfast
    They make shrapnel of us here.

    With the Tatar cavalry ranked
    Under the horse stomp at dawn
    Was thrown into battle at Ishmael
    A reserve built in a square.

    Fires are burning in the fortress-
    A fight broke out on the walls
    The janissaries crossed sabers,
    They are not the first time to fight to the death.
    From shoulder to ear to ear
    Cossacks cut them with a saber,
    Slit the belly of someone
    Guts crawled out.

    I got a bullet in the neck
    At the very fortress gates
    I am mortally wounded near Ishmael!
    But a passage was cut through.

    The infantry burst into the citadel
    Swearing with a three-layer mat
    It remains to open the gate
    So that the cavalry rush in.
    There's an earthquake all around
    The whole moat is strewn with corpses,
    The Ottoman Empire trembles
    Under the Russian onslaught of bayonets.

    The end of the sultans and emirs
    No wonder I shed my blood,
    May I be killed at Ishmael!
    The impregnable Ishmael fell.
    1. Dart
      Dart 24 December 2021 22: 56
      +3
      Wow! It penetrates no worse than Lermontov's "Borodino" ...
  5. Catfish
    Catfish 24 December 2021 10: 05
    +7
    The legendary ultimatum of the great A.V. Suvorov to the head of the fortress, the great serasker Aidosl Mehmed Pasha:
    “I arrived here with the troops. Twenty-four hours to think - and the will. My first shot is already bondage. The assault is death. "
    There was an assault, and there was a victory!
    Many years later, Suvorov repeatedly confessed about Ishmael in impulses of frankness: "It was possible to decide to storm such a fortress only once in a lifetime ..."

  6. Sergei Zabelin
    Sergei Zabelin 24 December 2021 10: 19
    +6
    Yes, Suvorov knew how to fight not by number but by skill
    1. 28st region
      28st region 24 December 2021 11: 01
      +9
      Kutuzov played an important role in the capture of Izmail. He commanded in the most difficult and dangerous direction. The assault was repulsed with heavy losses. What he reported to Suvorov. He replied that he had already sent a dispatch to St. Petersburg with a report that Ishmael had been taken and Kutuzov had been appointed his commandant. He brought out the reserve, attacked, took part of the wall and the gate. Thus, he ensured the successful completion of the assault.
      In general, I took it on poorly. Tellingly, Kutuzov himself led the troops to the assault.
      1. volodimer
        volodimer 24 December 2021 13: 45
        +3
        "Kutuzov was on the left wing but was my right hand" AV Suvorov.
        1. 28st region
          28st region 25 December 2021 03: 53
          +3
          Ishmael was taken by two wonderful generals.
  7. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 24 December 2021 11: 02
    +5
    Amazing! Troops numbering 30 thousand people attacked the enemy numbering 35 thousand sitting in the fortress. And smashing it completely in 10 hours! Organized and determined was a clear advantage.
  8. Antokha
    Antokha 24 December 2021 11: 21
    +3
    Special thanks to the author for the explanations about the differences in calendars in different centuries.
  9. Saffron
    Saffron 24 December 2021 12: 47
    +4
    Did you send congratulations to Erdogan? Although not worth it, it will choke on poison ...
    1. volodimer
      volodimer 24 December 2021 13: 48
      +3
      And let him choke, so that at the very thought of "Great Turan" it starts to stir up trouble. drinks
      Let him remember how everything usually ends for the Turks.
  10. alystan
    alystan 24 December 2021 16: 08
    +2
    Probably I was not the only one like that, but this is how I now remember my school history textbooks, which I just read. I remember very well what impression on me, actually still a child, the paragraphs with stories about Suvorov made, how he tempered his weak body from childhood, how he spent most of his free time with ordinary soldiers, about the preparation and capture of the fortress of Izmail, about his passage by Swiss troops Alps, and much more! And what a wonderful and realistic (for those times!) Film of the same name "Suvorov" was filmed in 1940!
    No wonder from one of the few Generalisimos in the world!