Military Review

Everyday zampotekh: tanks on maneuvers "Ocean-70"

41

From deputy chief technical officer to platoon commander



In April-May 1970, large-scale strategic exercises of the Navy were held in the USSR, in which the forces of all four fleets participated, and not only ships with submarines, but also a large number of coastal troops and sea aviation... They were dedicated, as was customary at that time, to a significant date, which in that year was the 100th anniversary of the birth of V.I. Lenin.

It so happened that our combat third separate tank the battalion was attracted to participate in the strategic maneuvers "Ocean".

Unfortunately, due to the remoteness of the events, as more than 50 years have passed, I will not be able to reconstruct them in detail. Perhaps someone from the participants will read this material, supplement or correct me. I would be grateful and glad.

The exercises lasted for an unusually long time, about 10 days. Our battalion operated in approximately the following sequence. The personnel were alerted, loaded T-55 tanks on trailers, transported to the strait and then on ferries to the island of Hiiumaa.

On the island we march under our own power, then by ferries - through the strait to the island of Saremaa, again march, pontoon, then by sea - to the coast of Latvia. Further, going ashore, victorious participation in the seizure of the bridgehead, then a march, it seems, to the station Limbazhi, there loading onto a railway echelon and return to the point of permanent deployment.


Despite the fact that the "Ocean" for our floating battalion passed quite smoothly, it was not without incident.

When the unit was alerted, our first company missed one platoon commander, by the way, my neighbor, and it was decided by the leadership that I, in addition to performing the duties of the company’s deputy chief, took command of the 3rd platoon.

The platoon commander was an unmarried guy, apparently out on a spree somewhere. We did not wait for him, went to the indicated area, where after a while the MAZ-537 truck tractors arrived. I remember that a battalion of these tractors was stationed somewhere in the Kaliningrad region.

As they say, there is a silver lining (or maybe a silver lining, from which side to look), and the problem of my location was automatically solved - in the tank of the platoon commander, in the place of the tank commander. And this means - to perform all actions in the crew on an equal basis with the rest of its members. That did not exclude the necessary actions to control the technical condition of the entire company. Therefore, my tank during the movement was usually at the end of the column.

On tanks across the islands


My, so far small, experience of service during the "Ocean" maneuvers was enriched with new practical knowledge and skills. And this experience did not always correspond to what I was taught at the school.

Perhaps the most memorable impression is associated with the above-mentioned MAZ-537 tractors.

The car is quite famous, therefore, speaking about its characteristics, I will be extremely brief. The carrying capacity of the trawl is about 50 tons. The engine is the Barnaul diesel D-12A-525A, similar to the engine of the T-34 tank, with a capacity of 525 hp. With. The tractor was developed at the Minsk Automobile Plant, but later it was serially produced in Kurgan, without changing the MAZ brand. The cockpit, apart from the driver, easily accommodated all four members of the tank crew.

Since I was a member of the crew at the time of the exercises, I fully experienced all the delights of loading and unloading a tank on and off the trawl.

The fact is that the folding ramps, along which the car was loaded and unloaded, were very heavy! Four crew members, and often the driver helped, could barely cope with this iron structure when it was necessary to raise it 90 degrees after loading. As they say, hands and back are still remembered!

I was also surprised to find that the drivers of these tractors operate them like ordinary cars, completely disregarding the features inherent in diesel engines: they started poorly heated engines, and the operating temperature was kept within 50-60 degrees, which is not enough.

As a result, most of those tractors that transported us simply shamelessly ate oil and smoked black smoke, not developing full power.

Here it is necessary to remind (the tankers of those years will not allow a lie) that each tank had an MT-16p tank with a 20-liter supply of oil. So, during the MAZ exercises, our inviolable oil reserve was completely devastated. I had to constantly add to the lubrication systems of gluttonous cars.

After the exercises, for a long time, by hook or by crook, the techies, together with the head of the fuel and lubricants service, wrote off this rather valuable oil, which, by the way, was once developed specifically for engines of the B-2 series.


MAZ-537

We transferred our T-55 Minsk tractors along the highways to the coast of the Baltic Sea, and then by ferries we crossed to the island of Hiiu.

We made a march across this island to the strait, through which we again crossed by ferries to Saaremaa, the largest of the Estonian islands. The movement of the amphibious tank battalion in the course of the "Ocean" was accompanied by frequent long stops, sometimes for several hours.

This was also the case in Saaremaa.

At this point, I consider it necessary to make some deviation from the direct theme of my story and draw attention to the ethnic composition of the company.

The fact is that about a third of it was represented by Baltic soldiers - Lithuanians, Latvians and Estonians, and there were also Russians living in the Baltics among them. Lithuanians spoke Russian the purest of all, practically without an accent, a little worse - Latvians, and badly, with a strong accent - Estonians.

I think the censorship of the site will spare me if I give an eloquent example from life.

By the way, he served as a loader on my tank, an Estonian by the name of Kayo, such a tall man, a bit laggy. So, he had an aluminum spoon on which he wrote: "Ishi, shuka, meat!"

But, joking aside, most of the Baltic guys served diligently and conscientiously, without causing any special complaints. The rest of the soldiers were Russians, Belarusians, Ukrainians, and only a few were from the Caucasus.

And I don't remember at all meeting people from Central Asia.

During my service in the Baltics, no conflicts on ethnic grounds happened, which cannot be said about the Far Eastern garrisons with their uneasy interethnic relations.

Estonian beer


On my tank, with which fate brought me together during the training, the crew consisted of a Ukrainian driver, a Lithuanian gunner, and an Estonian Kaio, a loader.

We stand once again during the march to Saremaa, and Kayo suddenly turns to me with the following words:

“Comrade Lieutenant! Local Estonians brew homemade beer according to a special recipe, they don't open it to anyone, and their beer is famous throughout Estonia. Come on, I'll quickly run to this farm, I'll try to get some. An Estonian should not refuse an Estonian. "

After some doubts, curiosity won out in me, and I, having entered into a "hazing relationship" with a subordinate, resolved.

Inspired by the trust shown, Caio gathered all four tank drinking cisterns by the straps and quickly ran to the farm, which was not far from the road. Most of all I was afraid that the column would start moving before he returned. But everything was resolved safely. Kayo arrived with full tanks of homemade Estonian beer and a large package of homemade Estonian delicacies!

The delicacies were divided equally for everyone, and I immediately put the beer tanks in my troubled suitcase. It was only upon arrival from the exercises that I tasted this beer with my fellow lieutenants, for which I thanked Kayo. A tank drinking cistern held, as far as my memory serves, about 1,5 liters.

By the end of the exercise, all the crew members became friends, and I felt a good attitude towards myself from the company soldiers until the end of their service in the battalion.

But back to the main story line.

On the island of Saaremaa, we hung pontoons, which I talked about in detail in previous parts, and made a sea march to the Latvian coast, to the Saulkrasti region.

I felt on myself how difficult it is to manage a driver-mechanic afloat when he does not see the "road". Constantly, almost without pauses, the commands: "Right", "Straight", "Left!" And that, poor fellow, was constantly forced to pull the tight steering levers.

The ashore went "in a regular mode", without any special incidents. They attacked the "enemy", of course, they won with a crushing score. At the same time, they made some noise - they fired blanks from machine guns and cannons. After this action, they boarded the train and went to the place of permanent deployment, in Klooga.

Frankly speaking, I did not have much work in my direct specialty during the Ocean exercises. As a deputy engineer, I walked around the tanks at the stands and before the float to make sure they were in good working order, and, if necessary, provided assistance to the crews. But I don’t remember that there were any serious breakdowns during these exercises.

The main attention, as always, was paid to checking the readiness of tanks to float. A preliminary so-called "lock" was made for the absence of leaks, acts of readiness for float were drawn up, where everyone who took part in the preparation of the machine and who controlled the work was signed.

And only then the deputy. the commander for naval training gave a written permission to sail. By the way, that time previously mentioned "CapTri" Chumakov for a long time did not give permission to enter the water, almost a day, because the sea waves exceeded the permissible limits.


All participants in the Ocean exercises were awarded with beautiful commemorative medals, representing the image of a naval flag with the inscription "To the participant in the Ocean exercises."

But we, according to the status of our ground, were given a limited number of these signs. It was enough only for the battalion command and staff officers.

And we, the "black bone", apparently, as a kind of moral compensation, were awarded jubilee medals in honor of the centenary of V. I. Lenin. A completely unequal replacement, I must say.

To be continued ...
Author:
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  1. kytx
    kytx 24 December 2021 05: 30
    +7
    How is the "lock" made?
    1. Fedorov Fedor
      Fedorov Fedor 24 December 2021 17: 25
      +9
      A tank with suspended pontoons enters the water to the depth of "float", stops, and the members of the commission together with the crew visually determine if there are any leaks on the bottom through seals, plugs and hatches, of which there is a decent amount in the bottom. Unfortunately, I don't remember the time limit. The work of the water-pumping means (pumps) was also checked.
      ,
      1. kytx
        kytx 24 December 2021 18: 11
        +5
        Thank. Clear.
      2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 24 December 2021 20: 31
        +3
        Dear Author, thank you for continuing the cycle!
        Regards, Vlad!
  2. Gato
    Gato 24 December 2021 06: 15
    +14
    When the unit was alerted, our first company was missing one platoon leader

    It happened so ... But more often in a week, or even earlier, it was announced that on that date, at exactly 4 o'clock, a sudden alarm would take place. Especially if with access to a reserve area, especially for exercises.
    Those who are absent will be caught, and whatever is left of them will be severely punished. The absence of CV on alarm is an emergency and a reason for stripping stars, and not only from the patient.
    1. Fedorov Fedor
      Fedorov Fedor 24 December 2021 17: 28
      +9
      Imagine not being ripped off! But, he definitely had a hiccup, because I "remembered" him more than once during the exercises.
      1. Vladimir Mashkov
        Vladimir Mashkov 24 December 2021 19: 00
        +5
        Thank you, Fedor Uvarovich, for another interesting story! You write well and understandably, I read with interest. good hi
      2. Gato
        Gato 25 December 2021 01: 56
        +3
        Imagine not being ripped off!

        I can't even imagine what kind of excuse he came up with request
        1. Normal ok
          Normal ok 25 December 2021 02: 26
          +3
          The main commandment: it doesn't matter what you did, it is important how you got rid of it))
    2. Normal ok
      Normal ok 25 December 2021 02: 24
      +3
      Quote: Gato
      When the unit was alerted, our first company was missing one platoon leader

      It happened so ... But more often in a week, or even earlier, it was announced that on that date, at exactly 4 o'clock, a sudden alarm would take place. Especially if with access to a reserve area, especially for exercises.
      Those who are absent will be caught, and whatever is left of them will be severely punished. The absence of CV on alarm is an emergency and a reason for stripping stars, and not only from the patient.

      Evidence of this)) all "sudden alarms" were prepared for several days.
  3. Crowe
    Crowe 24 December 2021 06: 41
    +29
    It was enough only for the battalion command and staff officers.
    Well, that's as usual ..
    The tanks are coming - the political officer is great!
    The tanks are standing - zamtekhu pets!
    Thanks to the author for an interesting cycle of stories - although I am not a tanker, I always read with pleasure!
    1. The leader of the Redskins
      The leader of the Redskins 24 December 2021 09: 38
      +10
      I subscribe to your words. I always read articles about the service with interest. I digress from the political hysteria of other sections.
      1. Normal ok
        Normal ok 25 December 2021 02: 29
        +4
        Once I saw how by "sudden alarm" at a well-known training ground (albeit in the fog), the headquarters of the OTRK Brigade got lost. You should have seen the face of the chief of staff then))
  4. faiver
    faiver 24 December 2021 07: 46
    +4
    Thanks to the author for the interesting reading.

    People, and can someone tell the thread from which ship the landing is taking place in the title photo? hi
    1. ban
      ban 24 December 2021 08: 14
      +4
      From the landing))
      KFOR seems to
      1. faiver
        faiver 24 December 2021 08: 26
        +6
        From the landing))
        - thanks, Cap laughing laughing
    2. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 24 December 2021 11: 48
      +3
      Quote: faiver
      People, and can someone tell the thread from which ship the landing is taking place in the title photo?

      It is necessary to dig which of the landing ships participated in the "Brotherhood in Arms" exercise in 1970 - because this is a TASS photo from these exercises.
      1. faiver
        faiver 24 December 2021 12: 06
        +5
        which of the landing ships participated in the exercises "Brotherhood in Arms" 1970
        - yes, to hell with it with the name, I can't determine the type, judging by the 57mm bow twin, it seems like it should be a KFOR type 188, but by the outlines of the side it looks like a Polish KFOR type 770, in the background there are two anti-aircraft guns sparky 25mm-ok, so I'm lost what it is ... request
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 24 December 2021 12: 26
          +12
          This is a German - SDK project 47 "Robbe".



          Source: http://navyworld.narod.ru/LandungsbootDDR.htm
          1. faiver
            faiver 24 December 2021 12: 31
            +5
            woooot, that's what I'm looking at good
            Thank you hi
    3. The comment was deleted.
  5. Mikhail Sidorov
    Mikhail Sidorov 24 December 2021 08: 03
    +21
    Thanks to the author for the continuation. My dad served in the 3rd tank battalion in 1970-72 in a floating carrier company in Klooge. He reads articles with interest on my phone, today I’ll carry him to let him stir up memories.
    1. Fedorov Fedor
      Fedorov Fedor 24 December 2021 17: 31
      +5
      Does your dad remember the surname of the deputy chief of this company?
      1. Mikhail Sidorov
        Mikhail Sidorov 25 December 2021 10: 51
        +3
        Unfortunately, he doesn't remember. Here's whom he remembers: the battalion commander Major Romanenko, in about 1971 Major Ruzlev became the battalion commander. Battalion Chief of Staff Captain Zaslavets. Deputy on naval training of captri Chumakov. Zampolit Shaposhnikov. Comrades of floating crafts st. l-t Parkhomenko. Com. 1 platoon of the floatation company of lt Kotka then he was replaced by lt Shershnev. 2 platoons of lt Gusev. 3 platoons of lt Mulashev.
        1. Fedorov Fedor
          Fedorov Fedor 25 December 2021 13: 32
          +4
          Thanks for the information! As soon as someone recalls forgotten surnames, people themselves are remembered. I remembered everyone!
        2. Elena T
          Elena T 11 February 2022 17: 43
          0
          I am the daughter of Capt. 3 Chumakov I.F. Zampotekh could then be Nikulin V.P., later he was transferred to serve in Keila. They were very close friends with dad until the last days.
  6. DmSol
    DmSol 24 December 2021 08: 25
    +7
    Chet remembered: "how many Ukrainians do you have in your company?"
    - "yes, almost 60 percent"
    - "Ohoho, well, how are we going to steal Kuznetsov with such a l / s?"
  7. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 24 December 2021 08: 49
    +8
    Very interesting. Respect to the author. I look forward to continuing.
  8. Waterways 672
    Waterways 672 24 December 2021 09: 45
    +4
    The second photo is not clear, but the radar antenna cap is visible, most likely on the CM-2-1 tower. This means that this is the stern of the destroyer of Project 56, which is the last to go in wake formation.
  9. Catfish
    Catfish 24 December 2021 10: 42
    +9
    All participants in the "Ocean" exercises were awarded with beautiful commemorative medals,

    Found two versions of this sign.

    1. Fedorov Fedor
      Fedorov Fedor 24 December 2021 17: 32
      +7
      The one on top.
  10. Tests
    Tests 24 December 2021 11: 27
    +8
    That's for sure: dark homemade beer from the island of Saaremaa is the best beer that was made in the Estonian SSR. The water gave an extraordinary taste!
    "... as a kind of moral compensation, they presented jubilee medals in honor of the centenary of V. I. Lenin. A completely unequal replacement, I must say." Here the respected author is wrong. Medals for the 100th anniversary of Lenin - state awards, that "For military valor", that "For valiant labor", respectively - veteran benefits. The sign for "Ocean" does not give benefits.
    1. Fedorov Fedor
      Fedorov Fedor 24 December 2021 17: 40
      +11
      It's not about benefits. The medals of the VIL centenary were given in all parts of the immense USSR, to many distinguished servicemen, not necessarily only to the participants in the Ocean exercises. It turned out that I, for example, could not confirm with anything in the future that I was a participant.
  11. ccsr
    ccsr 24 December 2021 11: 57
    +10
    Fedorov F.U., retired colonel
    Perhaps the most memorable impression is associated with the above-mentioned MAZ-537 tractors.
    The car is quite famous, therefore, speaking about its characteristics, I will be extremely brief. The carrying capacity of the trawl is about 50 tons. The engine is the Barnaul diesel D-12A-525A, similar to the engine of the T-34 tank, with a capacity of 525 hp. With. The tractor was developed at the Minsk Automobile Plant, but later it was serially produced in Kurgan, without changing the MAZ brand. The cockpit, apart from the driver, easily accommodated all four members of the tank crew.

    With this tractor, I also had one story in the Western Group of Forces during the withdrawal of the group's troops. In the 3rd arr of the Special Forces, several models of Soviet-made cars and armored vehicles were used as mock-ups of NATO equipment, but camouflaged for foreign weapons. Our special forces practiced on them the methods of disabling them with a minimum amount of explosives, or with the help of MZP, in general, the usual exercises under the combat training program. And since they were among the first to be withdrawn from the group, the task was set to urgently clear the entire territory of the unit from this scrap metal. In order to take a couple of self-propelled guns from the training campus for cutting, it took exactly two such tractors, which I received in a company of heavy vehicles stationed south of Wünsdorf. After that, having completed an almost two-hundred-kilometer march, we arrived at Neutimen, and the arriving motorists began to prepare the loading of the standing armored vehicles onto trailers, with the participation of our soldiers. But then something completely unexpected happened for everyone. Either from a prolonged standing on concrete, or from the zeal of the special forces who put it out of action, but the self-propelled gun stood rooted to the spot, and no efforts of the winches, even half a meter, could move it - neither the caterpillars nor the rollers simply did not move. At first, the winch cable could not stand, and it burst, although safety measures were observed and no one was injured. A "war council" of representatives of different branches of the armed forces gathered and it was decided that a tractor with a powerful cable was needed to begin with. Fortunately for us, in the neighboring Rembat there was such a The brigade commander was on good terms with the commander of the orb, thanks to the famous guardhouse, our tractor relatively quickly brought him to the place of our loading. Everyone breathed a sigh of relief, but apparently early, and the second part of the Marlezon ballet began. Having smartly secured more powerful cables, the tractor pulled up, began to jerk in place from the tension, but the ACS did not budge. The result was the same sad - the next cable burst, after which the tractor driver sent everyone to a well-known address, in a polite manner, and said that it would be unpleasant for him, and therefore he could not do anything, because he did not have a more powerful cable, and neither was he in the brigade.
    In general, after my report to my leadership and to the armored service of the group, it was decided not to deal with this garbage anymore, to drive MAZs back to the company of heavy vehicles, and that's it. And in the armored service they themselves will decide what to do with these models and since they are responsible for such events, then they themselves will rule everything. To be honest, I took it with relief, because, frankly, I had no idea that such problems could arise when I applied to the group's armored service. I don’t know how the future fate of these models developed, but the brigade itself was withdrawn near Samara in May 1991, and they transferred the town to some of our units, which had been redeployed from the western regions of the group of forces. These are the memories you inspired me with your story about MAZ tractors for transporting armored vehicles.
  12. Aleks tv
    Aleks tv 24 December 2021 19: 04
    +3
    ... Here it is necessary to remind (the tankers of those years will not allow a lie) that each tank had an MT-16p tank with a 20-liter supply of oil.

    Good afternoon, Fedor.
    Thank you for the memories.
    hi
    No, we won't let you lie !!!
    Even we who are "not those years"!
    Мы ТAnkists - 16 Пoluchka.)))
    laughing
    It is still poured into naturally aspirated engines if there is no M16IHP-3.

    And now we carry the stock in an additional tank for 35 liters.
  13. Knell wardenheart
    Knell wardenheart 24 December 2021 19: 51
    +3
    Interesting to read! Thanks author)
  14. Kushka
    Kushka 24 December 2021 20: 49
    +3
    .Lithuanians spoke Russian the purest of all, practically without an accent, a little worse - Latvians, and badly, with a strong accent - Estonians.
    In our Baltic Fleet it was the other way around:
    (I got to the KFOR for a similar exercise "West .... I don't remember how long it was there, in the year 1973,
    the Marines just landed in Piggy)
    Lithuanians spoke poorly and poorly understood (or pretended to),
    there were no problems with Latvians and Estonians - educated guys,
    very executive and good specialists.
  15. Tests
    Tests 24 December 2021 20: 57
    +1
    Fedorov Fedor (Fedor), dear, I understand your position on the "Ocean" sign. I do not quite agree with her. The attitude towards everyone who has SERVED (my beloved repeatedly, repeatedly, systematically, in the form of a trade, the prosecutor's office and the courts do not take - some have a 100% pension, others have a life-long maintenance) of the Russian Federation shows in all its glory every year. A state award or a departmental award gives the right to receive the title "Veteran". At least a little, the title of "Veteran" compensates for what the Russian Federation has stolen and is stealing even today, in 2021 (including the President, the Federal Assembly and the Government) from those who SERVED under the USSR and the Russian Federation, really risking their health and life ...
    1. Fedorov Fedor
      Fedorov Fedor 25 December 2021 10: 59
      +2
      For 30 years I have worn this medal on a ceremonial tunic, and no one has ever suggested to me that it is preferential. You are the first. And I got "Veteran VS" on completely different grounds. And this title (or rather, the benefits associated with it) with the collapse of the USSR was canceled.
      1. Free wind
        Free wind 14 March 2022 12: 36
        0
        The Lenin medal is worn above other state awards. don't you know that.
  16. Leha667
    Leha667 24 December 2021 22: 36
    +3
    Great syllable and interesting plot!
    The cycle of your articles is read in one go! I am sincerely grateful for your work!
    I look forward to continuing))
    1. Fedorov Fedor
      Fedorov Fedor 26 December 2021 07: 11
      +1
      It is my son who edits me and my "syllable" rules,