Military Review

The peasant kingdom of Nestor Makhno

111
The peasant kingdom of Nestor Makhno

Revolutionary



On July 25, 1934, an emigrant carpenter named Nestor Ivanovich Makhno died of bone tuberculosis in a Paris hospital. The deceased was 45 years old, three days later he was cremated and buried in the Père Lachaise cemetery. This is how it ended история the builder of communism in a separate Gulyaypole district of the Yekaterinoslav province and the history of Utopia in the territory of Little Russia.

Opinions about him are different, for example, this:

“The most famous is the myth of the Makhnovist freemen. But what kind of freedom, if Makhno's counterintelligence worked harder than the Whites and Reds combined? There is also a myth that the Makhnovists were ideological anarchists. However, it is not. Makhno kept the visiting urban anarchists with him as a screen, but actually relied on the peasant leaders, former non-commissioned officers from the fronts of the First World War, thinking in terms of community. They tried to establish a dictatorship of the village over the city, but in the twentieth century, such ideas had absolutely no prospect. This was the road to the uniform Middle Ages, and no one would have allowed such a gap to form, living off agriculture, robbing cities and attacking trains. Although, of course, at a certain stage, the Makhnovist fighters, who knew the local conditions well and received horses and fodder from their relatives, were very successful. "

And it's hard to argue - in the twentieth century, the village is doomed to fight the city. But one must understand - in those years, 13% of the population lived in the vastness of the former Russian Empire in cities, more than 50% of the inhabitants were illiterate, and the collapse of not only the imperial power, but also those bonds that kept the empire united, required new ideas and new leaders.

And Nestor Ivanovich with his biography came in just the way. Time required a peasant leader, and he appeared exactly in those places where they still remembered the Cossack freemen.

And Makhno was born in Gulyaypole, in 1888, in a poor peasant family and was left without a father early. All education - a two-year public school, then work, there was no one to support and train the future leader.

It is not surprising that an intelligent young man already at the age of 17 joins the circle of anarcho-communists. There were a lot of them then, revolutionary movements, and different, but the anarchists took on their simplicity of ideas and actions. Especially in the peasant region of the period of the First Russian Revolution, where all the contradictions collected over the centuries climbed to the top.

At first, the young anarchist was only scolded, the time was such that keeping weapons it went on for a trifle, but the murder of an official of the military administration became a point, and as a result, Nestor Ivanovich was sentenced to death. The court, by the way, as a result treated humanely and "Stolypin's tie" (gallows) was replaced by life hard labor. At that time, luck, in 1908 more than 800 people were executed in Russia.

And the hard labor itself benefited the young anarchist, he sat with political ones, was able to learn, replenish the baggage of political knowledge and become, finally, not an enthusiastic young man without knowledge in his head and advocating all good against bad, but a revolutionary.

And in 1917, February released everyone, including Makhno.

Leader


After leaving prison, Nestor Makhno immediately left Moscow and went to his native Gulyaypole, where he staged a revolution.

He left his small homeland - a youth and a radical, returned - an honored revolutionary. The dispersal of the Zemstvo, the redistribution of land, the creation of the Black Guard and the absolute rejection of half-measures - this is all Makhno in 1917.

And the people followed him, for the anarchist, willy-nilly, was building a state. Let it be a kind, albeit a peasant state, but a state. Against the background of the epic mess in Little Russia, where there were temporary, white, red, yellow-blakitny and just gangs, Gulyaypole looked like a kind of oasis.

In January, Makhno became the head of the Revolutionary Committee, but the arrival of the Germans forced him to dissolve the Black Guard and leave for the RSFSR. However, for a short while, after talking with fellow party members and meeting with Lenin, Makhno forms something like a program in a letter to like-minded people:

“Together we will deal with the destruction of the slave system in order to enter ourselves and lead our other brothers on the path of the new system. We will organize it on the basis of a free public, the content of which will allow the entire population that does not exploit the labor of others, freely and independently of the state and its officials, even the Reds, to build their entire social and social life completely independently in their own localities, in their midst ... Long live our peasant and workers' association! Long live our auxiliary forces - the disinterested working intelligentsia! Long live the Ukrainian social revolution! Yours, Nestor Ivanovich. "

And against the reds, and against the whites, or rather, against the dictatorship of the city over the village and makes his way to his homeland. And the posts of the invaders and Warta Skoropadsky burst into flames, the dashing horsemen were elusive, the peasants protected and fed them, receiving in return protection and part of the trophies.

Soon, Makhno's army grew to 6 people, and he became an iconic figure, a symbol of resistance: what to the Germans, and what to the hetmanate. Makhno himself did not particularly share them. At the same time, he acquires associates, like Theodosius Shchus, a sailor of the Black Sea fleet.

Arshinov's work remains:

As a rule, these partisan detachments, consisting of 20-50-100 horsemen, well-armed peasants, made a quick, unexpected raid on a landowner's estate, on state guards, killed all the enemies of the peasants and disappeared.

And glory. Meanwhile, Germany fell, the Germans left, and Petliura came to Kiev, who began to take control of the Yekaterinoslav region. And Makhno, together with the Bolsheviks, crushes the Petliurists and takes Yekaterinoslav, his troops become part of the 3rd Army of the Red Army, but could an anarchist be part of the army, telling his fellow countrymen:

“To die or to win — this is what the peasantry of Ukraine is facing at this historical moment. But we cannot all die, there are too many of us, we are humanity; therefore we will win. But we will not win so that, following the example of past years, we pass our destiny to the new bosses, but then, in order to take it into our own hands and build our life with our will, our truth. "

Of course not.

And in the spring of 1919, Makhno fell out with Trotsky and began his war against the Whites. So he began that he soon became the commander of the united Revolutionary-Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine.

And he acted successfully. The steppe in which he beat the hetmans and the Austrians became fatal for the Denikinites. The eagles of Nestor Ivanovich did not give battles, ambushes, swoops, partisan tactics, interruption of communications, these are all Makhnovists.

And in the fall of 1919, Nestor Makhno began to build an independent Gulyaypole Republic, without the dictatorship of the proletariat, but with free councils. Wrangel tried to persuade him to his side, but it did not work, he executed his envoys, but he helped with the red, sending 2 fighters led by Karetnik to the assault on Perekop. The detachment already in the Crimea, after the victory, came into conflict with the Reds.

But violent anarchism could not get along with any state, in principle, with the dreams that were expressed by Bulgakov:

... that eternal, long-awaited peasant reform is needed:
- All the land to the peasants.
- Each of them has 100 dessiatines.
- That there were no landowners and spirit.
- And so that for every 100 dessiatines, faithful stamped paper with a seal - into an eternal, hereditary possession, from grandfather to father, from father to son, to grandson, and so on.
- So that no punks from the City would come to demand bread. Peasant bread, we won’t give it to anyone, that we won’t eat it, we will bury it in the ground.
- To bring kerosene from the City.

But the Bolsheviks came in earnest and for a long time, and the support of the Makhnovists was melting away, people were tired of the war by 1920, since 1914 it was around, and gradually it came to the peasant's head that what kind of power was better than a further war to no avail and no end.

On August 28, 1921, 78 people, led by Makhno, broke through to Romania, this is all that remained of his army, which had lost the support and faith of the population in success.

Then there was emigration, Makhno did not carry off the bagulov with good and beggar, working either as a carpenter, or as a trader by sewing slippers. And death from tuberculosis.

Could he have won?

No, and again no, even in the Middle Ages, peasant wars ended in failure, a village cannot survive without a city. Especially in the era of the industry.

Was dad a scoundrel and a power-hungry man?

Again, no, he was a romantic, one of the last romantics of the era that gave birth to the revolution itself. And, probably, the last leader of the peasant war in world history, it was with his army that attempts to build the same peasant kingdom that they had dreamed of for a good millennium, no less than the Kingdom of God, ended with his army.

Nevertheless, the amount of dirt poured on the Makhnovists is striking, and both the red and the white were the same.

Nestor Ivanovich was accused of everything: from Jewish pogroms to polygamy. At the same time, the order in Gulyaypole was iron, and Makhno did not approve of banditry and arbitrariness.

Repressions - yes, there were, but no more than other sides of that war. And it is necessary to remember such personalities, with or without sympathy - another conversation. Not the worst of those who were born at that time and the Ukrainian land, for sure.
Author:
111 comments
Ad

Subscribe to our Telegram channel, regularly additional information about the special operation in Ukraine, a large amount of information, videos, something that does not fall on the site: https://t.me/topwar_official

Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. rocket757
    rocket757 20 December 2021 18: 15
    +12
    Not for whites, not for reds ... by itself.
    No system likes such, they destroy without options.
  2. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 20 December 2021 18: 15
    +4
    In the civil war, in Russia ...
    I wonder what kind of civil war it was and under what prince it was? I personally know about the civil war in Russia ...
    And, in general, it is better to watch the series "Nine Lives of Nestor Makhno".
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 20 December 2021 18: 32
      +11
      Igor, hello!
      I remember another series - "The Adjutant of His Excellency." Father Angel performed by Papanov was surprisingly colorful. good


      They say that some students even wrote a collective letter to the studio: "If you are filming Papanov in the series, then do not" kill "him in the first episode." smile
      1. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 20 December 2021 18: 36
        +6
        There were many such fathers. Both large and small.
        But Makhno is, of course, a Magnitude! Nugget! You can shoot more than one series about this.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 20 December 2021 19: 41
          +4
          There were many such fathers.


          But not all were given as much as nine million rubles! wink

        2. tihonmarine
          tihonmarine 20 December 2021 22: 10
          +1
          Quote: Leader of the Redskins
          But Makhno is, of course, a Magnitude! Nugget!
          he was a romantic, one of the last romantics of the era that gave birth to the revolution itself.There are no such people now and cannot be, he was the son of that era.
      2. Korsar4
        Korsar4 20 December 2021 18: 49
        +1
        "- Again the funny ones got caught" (c).
      3. vladcub
        vladcub 20 December 2021 19: 32
        0
        Kostya, greetings. I myself remembered: "Adjutant", perhaps the scriptwriters meant Nestor Ivanovich himself. It reminds me very much
    2. ivan2022
      ivan2022 20 December 2021 21: 41
      +1
      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      In the civil war, in Russia ...
      I wonder what kind of civil war it was and under what prince it was? I personally know about the civil war in Russia ...
      And, in general, it is better to watch the series "Nine Lives of Nestor Makhno".

      In Russia, I don’t remember, but Troubles, why not Civil? And the author is mistaken about Makhno. Makhno is an anarchist, since he was against the state in general, and not against the city. Don't make a fool of him. The author believes that anarchists are a kind of bandits. No, they are for full democracy with no appointed posts at all. Communists recognize this form of self-government in principle, but only as a result of the withering away of the state itself.
      1. Konnick
        Konnick 20 December 2021 22: 08
        +3
        The author believes that anarchists are a kind of bandits. No, they are for full democracy with no appointed posts at all. Communists recognize this form of self-government in principle, but only as a result of the withering away of the state itself.

        That's right, according to Lenin's definition, the state is an apparatus of violence of one class against another. Anarchy is the highest form of democracy.
      2. tihonmarine
        tihonmarine 20 December 2021 22: 29
        +3
        Quote: ivan2022
        e should make him look like a fool. The author believes that anarchists are a kind of bandits.

        The name of Kropotkin was never crossed out in the USSR, and there was even a training ship in St. Petersburg "Kropotkin", and even a sailor Zheleznyak. Even Vladimir Ilyich himself respected Prince Kropotkin, and from the anarchist militants he trusted only Zheleznyak.
        Although it is impossible for the Bolsheviks to coexist with the anarchists. Anarchists have always argued that the path to socialism lies not through the organization of the masses in a political party with the aim of seizing power in the state, but through the class, non-party, militant self-organization of the masses, which the Bolsheviks did not recognize.
        1. your1970
          your1970 20 December 2021 23: 38
          +3
          Quote: tihonmarine
          there was even a training ship in SPB "Kropotkin"

          In Moscow - metro Kropotkinskaya
          1. tihonmarine
            tihonmarine 21 December 2021 00: 05
            +2
            Quote: your1970
            In Moscow - metro Kropotkinskaya

            Well, even now, when everyone has been forgotten, but the name of Kropotkin remains. (Interestingly, the girls are dancing, after all, he is a prince).
          2. Pilot
            Pilot 21 December 2021 06: 04
            +4
            There is even the city of Kropotkin, in the Krasnodar Territory.
        2. Keer
          Keer 22 December 2021 04: 22
          0
          The name of Kropotkin was never crossed out in the USSR, and there was even a training ship in St. Petersburg "Kropotkin", and even a sailor Zheleznyak. Even Vladimir Ilyich himself respected Prince Kropotkin, and from the anarchist militants he trusted
          Kropotkin was old, wise, perceived reality quite good-naturedly, by age, and died quickly enough himself. He did not have to be shot, and he was included in the historical companions. He could no longer object from the other world. However, it is significant that while he was alive, he gently refused the intrusive help of the Bolshevik government ...
  3. Fat
    Fat 20 December 2021 18: 19
    +7
    Thanks Roman
    1. depressant
      depressant 20 December 2021 19: 17
      +8
      I sincerely join in gratitude to the distinguished Author. I liked the article, written with sympathy for the hero of the story - a kind article about difficult times.
  4. polpot
    polpot 20 December 2021 18: 23
    +8
    Thank you, unfortunately very little, Makhno deserves a series of articles, a very interesting personality.
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 20 December 2021 20: 17
      +1
      I agree: Makhno is too colorful to fit everything in one article.
      What do you think: which of our historians could write better? I bet on Valery, but he is carried away by Napoleon's marshals
  5. Korsar4
    Korsar4 20 December 2021 18: 26
    +8
    Where is Yekaterinburg and where is Makhno?
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 20 December 2021 18: 44
      +7
      Yeah, I noticed too. There are, of course, typos, but here it is not even "an eye cuts", but "like a sickle" in the testicles
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 20 December 2021 18: 47
        +4
        The internal alarm clock protests when reading. History cannot be taken away from geography. And even with the realization that the eye is blurring, it is necessary to look through.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 20 December 2021 19: 59
          +2
          You can't tear off history from geography
          Well, I'm ripping off. I just live in such a place ...
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 20 December 2021 20: 32
            +2
            “But our northern summer,
            Southern winters caricature,
            Flickers and no: this is known,
            Although we do not want to confess ”(c).
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 20 December 2021 20: 41
              +2
              "Slippery streets,
              "Foreign cars" "kiss"
              Broken "wings"
              Accidental love "(C)
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 20 December 2021 20: 46
                +2
                “At the edge of the end of the earth, where the sky is clear
                It seems like it even goes beyond the cordon,
                There was a terrible building on the mountain,
                From a distance reminiscent of the UN "(c).
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 20 December 2021 20: 52
                  +3
                  "Distorted by microfilm,
                  GUM has become a small hut,
                  And it's indecent to remember
                  What was the Moscow Art Theater "(C)
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 20 December 2021 21: 07
                    +3
                    “Here the city is prim, dull,
                    Here speeches are ice, hearts are granite;
                    There’s no sweetheart,
                    Neither muses, nor Presnya, nor harit "(c).
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 20 December 2021 21: 15
                      +3
                      "Here I became wiser,
                      And with the "city of rains"
                      We are smeared with one world "(C)
                      1. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 20 December 2021 21: 39
                        +2
                        “Because I believe in hundreds of people,
                        Those who talked about Moscow without any fancy.
                        Because among the empty rumors
                        There is the Arbat and there is the Donskoy Monastery "(c).
                      2. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 20 December 2021 21: 49
                        +3
                        From there.
                        "If it fell to me to be a Petersburg citizen,
                        Moscow will never become native "(C)
                    2. AUL
                      AUL 21 December 2021 08: 17
                      +3
                      Quote: Korsar4
                      “Here the city is prim, dull,

                      Katana floats on the river
                      From the village of Kukushima.
                      Bon voyage, noble steel!
                  2. AUL
                    AUL 20 December 2021 23: 03
                    +4
                    Quote: 3x3zsave
                    And it's indecent to remember
                    What was the Moscow Art Theater "(C)

                    How to tell him to the bottom
                    that we do not live to die,
                    to touch a miracle with your lips
                    kiss and stream?
                    The happiness of living is inexplicable!
                    Who has not lived - why argue with them?
                    Is it possible, just what for? (C)
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 20 December 2021 23: 13
                      +3
                      Bravo, colleague, for supporting the Game!
                      "Who's walking around here ?!
                      Nefig! Nefig !! Nefig !!! "(C)
                  3. AUL
                    AUL 21 December 2021 08: 22
                    0
                    Quote: 3x3zsave
                    And it's indecent to remember
                    What was the Moscow Art Theater "(C)

                    I want failure, failure! Put it out!
                    So that the audience raged, tore the cashier to pieces,
                    So that panties in the fitting room,
                    rewinding everything,
                    The bellowing premiere slapped me on the cheeks!
                2. AUL
                  AUL 21 December 2021 08: 09
                  +2
                  In Leningrad, the city at the Five Corners
                  got Sanya Sokolov in the face.
                  He sang non-musical, scandalized.
                  Well, in general, it is correct that they gave! (C)
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 21 December 2021 09: 23
                    +2
                    “In addition, in the Colosseum, the goons are three-day, and, besides, you still have no guarantee that you will not get a bunch of grapes in the face in the Colosseum from the first young man who gets in from the Teatralny proezd” (c).
      2. Terenin
        Terenin 20 December 2021 19: 05
        +1
        Quote: 3x3zsave
        but here it does not even "cut the eye", but "like a sickle" on the testicles

        Yes, really, article in style
        the last romantics of the era
        especially expressions such as winked
        Meanwhile Germany fell,
      3. Undecim
        Undecim 20 December 2021 19: 16
        +2
        There are errors in the article. for instance "murder of a military government official"
        Anton Karachentsev, in whose murder Makhno participated, was a police officer. But on the whole, the article is positive.
        1. Mihaylov
          Mihaylov 20 December 2021 19: 50
          +3
          Quote: Undecim
          But on the whole, the article is positive.

          Viktor Nikolaevich, have you been hacked? wassat
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 20 December 2021 20: 00
            +2
            Nobody broke me. Of course, there are no revelations or discoveries in the article. And there are mistakes. But the author's positive message is worth noting.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 20 December 2021 20: 33
              +2
              Yes. The positive message is that Kotovsky, Vinnitsky and Makhno started out the same way?
              1. Undecim
                Undecim 20 December 2021 20: 42
                +6
                The positive message is

                The fact that the duty vat of slop was not splashed. This is already positive.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 20 December 2021 20: 43
                  +2
                  They're still pouring in, it's not over yet ...
                  1. Undecim
                    Undecim 20 December 2021 20: 44
                    +3
                    I mean the author. And commentators are already a matter of chance.
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 20 December 2021 20: 59
                      +2
                      In my opinion, the author poured oil, which with an overwhelming admixture of kerosene.
                      1. Undecim
                        Undecim 20 December 2021 21: 21
                        0
                        Oil, even with kerosene, is still better than slop.
                      2. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 20 December 2021 21: 31
                        +2
                        Don't read the topvar before dinner, you won't want to give it to the enemy!
                      3. Undecim
                        Undecim 20 December 2021 21: 55
                        0
                        I'm only after dinner.
                      4. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 20 December 2021 22: 05
                        +1
                        And I, it happens, before breakfast ... That gastroenterologists strongly do not recommend.
          2. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 20 December 2021 20: 04
            +4
            I also have the same impression, however, Sergei, how can we judge the opinion of the Makhnovist's grandson? (Sorry, Viktor Nikolaevich, but you have never hidden this)?
          3. depressant
            depressant 20 December 2021 20: 05
            +4
            Viktor Nikolaevich, have you been hacked? ...

            I think Viktor Nikolayevich is pleased to see in Nestor Ivanovich the stable clarity of the peasant consciousness, rejecting the ideological constructions of the period of the beginning of the industrialization of capitalism.
            Such as Nikolai Vasilievich saw wassat )))
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 20 December 2021 20: 13
              +5
              Lyudmila Yakovlevna, you must agree, it is always interesting to read what they write not just about a fellow countryman, but about a person who lived in the neighborhood.
              1. depressant
                depressant 20 December 2021 20: 20
                +3
                it is interesting to read what they write not just about a fellow countryman, but about a person who lived in the neighborhood.

                Are you seriously? I envy!)))
                If one great man lived nearby, the second and the third will be taken - the earth, you see, is like that. And this is me already without humor.
                1. Undecim
                  Undecim 20 December 2021 20: 31
                  +3
                  Are you seriously?

                  Yes seriously. Their courtyard was empty for a long time. Recently built up.
                  1. depressant
                    depressant 20 December 2021 20: 33
                    +3
                    Recently built up.

                    But not a museum?
                    1. Undecim
                      Undecim 20 December 2021 20: 39
                      +4
                      No, not a museum. The local museum of local lore was built much earlier, in the century before last.
                      1. depressant
                        depressant 20 December 2021 20: 44
                        +2
                        The local history museum was built much earlier.

                        How I love these buildings! How the soul warms up and blossoms from them. And how the box-like distance drives it into a box ...
                        Ancient architecture?
                      2. Undecim
                        Undecim 20 December 2021 20: 48
                        +2
                        No, not old. The construction was completed in 1901. It was the bank of the Mutual Credit Society.
                      3. depressant
                        depressant 20 December 2021 20: 53
                        +1
                        The construction was completed in 1901. It was the bank of the Mutual Credit Society.

                        Is it in Gulyaypole? But Gulyaypole is a small town and such a luxurious bank building?
                      4. Undecim
                        Undecim 20 December 2021 21: 02
                        +4
                        For that time - not so small, about 16 population. Two factories of agricultural machinery. One and today, Krieger, is still working. There is an idea to create a museum in the preserved building of the plant management.
                        By the way, today the population is about the same.
                      5. depressant
                        depressant 20 December 2021 21: 19
                        +1
                        By the way, today the population is about the same.

                        I scoffed and came to the conclusion that the beautiful old buildings of banks and factories were, apparently, such an advertisement. Especially bank buildings. Attraction of clients. It is now on expensive land that a box has been built; the higher, the more impressive. And then they also influenced beauty. Because the wealthy strata of the population in the 19th century were accustomed to it - baroque, classicism, empire ...
                2. Undecim
                  Undecim 20 December 2021 21: 04
                  +4
                  If there was one great person nearby, both the second and the third

                  You know, Leonid Aronovich Yukhvid was also born in Gulyaypole.
                  1. depressant
                    depressant 20 December 2021 21: 23
                    +2
                    Leonid Aronovich Yukhvid was also born in Gulyaypole.

                    "Wedding in Malinovka" !!!! )))
                    This means that I was not mistaken in my assumption.
      4. Fat
        Fat 20 December 2021 20: 54
        +1
        Ekatiriborg is not at all a rare and far from identical name of the city. Therefore, it passes. Here Roman is in his own right.
    2. Catfish
      Catfish 20 December 2021 18: 47
      +1
      Good evening, Sergey. smile

      As the saying goes: "Where is the river, and where is the estate." request
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 20 December 2021 19: 40
        +2
        Good evening, Constantine!

        And a variation of this phrase came to my mind. From "A Billion Years Before the End of the World."
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 20 December 2021 19: 42
          +2
          And what kind of variation I don’t remember.
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 20 December 2021 19: 55
            +1
            "Where is the estate, and where is the water" (c).
          2. depressant
            depressant 20 December 2021 20: 12
            +2
            I don’t remember something.

            This, apparently, is where the hero of the narrative came with a search and exhortation "tonton macoute". When I read the book, there was no internet. How these "tonton macoutes" strained me! But I understood that it was not good wassat )))
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 20 December 2021 20: 57
              +2
              ... I was strained by these "tonton macoutes"!


              Is it? And Captain Concasser seemed to me a very charming young man, albeit from the film. But the ending of the film does not correspond to the book finale at all.


              And, by the way, back to "Parabellum", well, you can't get away from it. request
              1. depressant
                depressant 20 December 2021 21: 35
                +2
                But the ending of the film does not correspond to the book finale at all.

                Kostya, what film do you mean? Based on the Strugatskys' book "A Billion Years Before the End of the World," a warning film was made about the possible collapse of the USSR, that horror would follow. This is the film "Days of the Eclipse", now trampled by all Sokurov. But the shot doesn't look like it.
                And I would also like to clarify about the Tontons Macoutes. People similar to them came to the physicist Malyanov and, posing as special officers, began to blackmail him, hinting that the scientific discovery that he had just made should not be given a go.
                But back to the shot. I don’t recognize)))
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 20 December 2021 22: 26
                  +1
                  I mean the movie "Comedians", based on the novel of the same name by Graham Greene.
                  And the gallant captain in the top photo was just the commander of these very "Togon-macoutes", the personal guard of Papasha Doc.



                  "A billion years before the end of the world", of course, I read it. I also saw the film, it did not make an impression on me, nothing remained of the Strugatskys. I don’t remember any mention of the Strugatsk “tontons” either, but in essence they are the Haitian counterintelligence service, but rather the Gestapo.
    3. vladcub
      vladcub 20 December 2021 19: 28
      +2
      He himself told the author about this.
      It may become that Makhno has not even heard of Yekaterinburg, after all, education is education.
    4. Anna Golubeva
      Anna Golubeva 7 February 2022 12: 39
      +1
      Yekaterinodar! Modern Krasnodar.
  6. Andrey Moskvin
    Andrey Moskvin 20 December 2021 18: 28
    +3
    Good article. Without pathos and lyrics. It was read simply, easily, and quickly.
  7. tovarich-andrey.62goncharov
    tovarich-andrey.62goncharov 20 December 2021 19: 10
    +6
    takes Yekaterinburg - Yekaterinoslav, probably?
  8. depressant
    depressant 20 December 2021 19: 14
    +7
    It is worth adding that, having come to Romania, Makhno put the local authorities in a difficult position: what to do with him?
    Not wanting to keep Makhno with him and at the same time not wanting to extradite him to Russia, the Romanian authorities helped him escape to Poland. There Makhno was immediately arrested on suspicion of preparing an uprising in Galicia. However, the investigation showed that this was not so, and soon he was acquitted and released. Offended by Poland, Makhno went to Germany. True or not, but in Germany, Cheka officers allegedly tried to kidnap him. In any case, something forced Makhno to move to France. It was there, having settled near Paris in 1925 and actively cooperating with the French anarchist press, the famous revolutionary earned his living as a carpenter and sewing house slippers. He died there, never realizing that in the 20th century no community of people can live outside of bureaucratic supervision, that is, falling out of the structure of state power of a higher order.
    1. Fat
      Fat 20 December 2021 21: 01
      +1
      You are always on your own. And I am especially grateful to you. Without you, razudis shoulder, wave your hand, baby talk.))))
  9. Cowbra
    Cowbra 20 December 2021 19: 18
    +4
    The article is from the heart, and the soul of the old, "baptized" punk is dancing, hello.
    From the current on the shoals, I will ride hoovesAm simple, the author. This is what Fedosiy is. which Shchus? Zvidkela is from, and maybut not walk that field?, And what kind of Madame Marusya Nikiforov, and by the way, first provided Makhno's detachments? Well, how badly from the command - removed - was not it? Communist Belash ... Well, I'll tell you one more. author - Makhno can be blamed or extolled. But Nestor Ivanovich Mikhnenko is not a name, he forbade to be called by his name in Spain. He is an anarchist, a man of freedom
    1. Gato
      Gato 20 December 2021 20: 36
      +1
      The article is from the heart, and the soul of the old, "baptized" punk is dancing, hello.

      Especially for you personally from me a couple of pictures drinks

      1. Catfish
        Catfish 20 December 2021 21: 01
        0
        Sergei hi if you do not mind, I will add a little. smile

      2. Cowbra
        Cowbra 20 December 2021 21: 30
        +1
        Shpasib, where are the three volumes and the bark?))))
        Well, at least anapa
      3. Cowbra
        Cowbra 22 December 2021 18: 09
        0

        By the way, the singer is pretty ... not a good person. For example, he was in Chechnya, and not at all on our side, but what is characteristic - life eventually turned to him the side he deserves ... And by the way, his favorite topics of Vlad, his beloved - drove them underneath))) How not to shake the chuom in front of the monument - and Nestor did not share your ideas. Yes, and he did not know any Ukrainian language, and he could not know what he had already written about in Paris - there was no "Ukrainian language" in Zaporozhye, and "returning from hard labor, he was forced to distort his native language so that he himself was ashamed" (p. )
  10. Leopold Belokobylsky.
    Leopold Belokobylsky. 20 December 2021 19: 23
    +7
    I happened to live in the native places of Nestor Makhno. As a result of communication with his fellow villagers, the story "Nestor Makhno. 1918. Sonya" was born. It was even published in the international literary anthology "Sunday". By the way, in the above text about Makhno there is this: "And Makhno, together with the Bolsheviks, smashes the Petliurists and takes Yekaterinburg." This is, of course, a mistake. Yekaterinburg is the Middle Urals. Makhno has never been there. Rather, it will be Yekaterinoslav.
    1. Cowbra
      Cowbra 20 December 2021 20: 01
      +4
      Quote: Leopold Belokobylsky.
      I happened to live in the native places of Nestor Makhno

      Maybe you’ll tell me why the current vlada of such Makhno does not remember with might and main?
      1. Gato
        Gato 20 December 2021 20: 27
        +5
        Maybe you’ll tell me why the current vlada of such Makhno does not remember with might and main?

        The current "owner" of Makhno is like a cart in a flower bed - she considers herself the ideological heir of the Directory or ZUNR.
        1. Cowbra
          Cowbra 20 December 2021 21: 41
          +2
          Makhno to himself - he even took whites. well, to the lowest level. But self-styled - oops. "I looked and gave out - at a birch. Exactly everything."
        2. Cowbra
          Cowbra 21 December 2021 21: 21
          0

          well, like so, in the heat of the moment)
    2. Cowbra
      Cowbra 20 December 2021 21: 43
      +2
      Well, yes, wow from Tavria to E-burg in any way. and Katerinoslav took
  11. vladcub
    vladcub 20 December 2021 19: 25
    +4
    "Makhno, together with the Bolsheviks, crushed the Petlbrovites and takes Yekaterinburg" author, you screwed up because of lack of care: you confused Yekaterinoslav, Dnepropetrovsk, with Yekaterinburg.
    Makhno was not in Yekaterinburg, perhaps he did not know where he was
  12. depressant
    depressant 20 December 2021 19: 33
    +2
    Historians agree why Makhno, in any case and in any alignment of forces, could not have built a single peasant country. For example, here is what the historian Tsvetkov says:

    "Makhno's free councils could exist only in the absence of strong power. But this is impossible. Regardless of who won - White or Red, a strong centralized state would arise. The idea of ​​local peasant self-government, brought to the point of absurdity by the Makhnovists, was doomed."

    Well, we recently examined the Upper Paleolithic, and then the rudiments of the Neolithic, right? And we know that the emergence of cities was an inevitable stage in the development of civilization. So Makhno did not suggest returning to the Middle Ages, but somewhere much earlier.
  13. Spring fluff
    Spring fluff 20 December 2021 19: 47
    +1
    how beautifully the author wrote - the detachment came into conflict with the red. "Wrangel tried to persuade him to his side, but it did not work, he executed his envoys, but he helped the Reds by sending 2 fighters led by Karetnik to storm Perekop. The detachment already in Crimea, after the victory, came into conflict with the Reds."
    The Reds betrayed Makhno. His detachments under the command of Karetnikov stormed the Crimea, and the Reds then destroyed almost all of them.

    Каретников, Семён Никитич https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%B5%D1%82%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%B2,_%D0%A1%D0%B5%D0%BC%D1%91%D0%BD_%D0%9D%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%B8%D1%82%D0%B8%D1%87
    During the operation to occupy Crimea, he was appointed commander of the special Crimean group of forces of the Council of Revolutionary Insurgents of Ukraine (Makhnovists). On November 8, 1920, the RPAU Crimean corps crossed the Sivash and entered the Lithuanian peninsula in the rear of P.N. Wrangel's Perekop fortifications. On November 9, in a battle near Lake Bezymyannoe, Karetnik's Crimean corps defeated the five-thousandth cavalry corps of General I.G. Barbovich.

    On November 23, 1920, the headquarters of the Crimean group was handed an order by M. V. Frunze No. 00149 / psh, which stated: “All parts of the former rebel army in Crimea should be immediately included in the 4th army, whose Revolutionary Military Council is entrusted with their reorganization ... "This general meeting of the commanders and the headquarters of the group refused, arguing that in peacetime the Crimean corps is subordinate to the headquarters in Gulyaypole, and that this order violates paragraph 1 of the military agreement. In response to this, on November 24, S. Karetnik was summoned to the Frunze headquarters and early. headquarters of the Crimean group P. Gavrilenko. They hesitated for a long time, and then decided to go, taking precautions and leaving in their place A. S. Marchenko and E. Taranovsky. Upon arrival in Melitopol, they were arrested and on November 28, 1920, shot by the command of the combined division of cadets. [2]
    https://gazetacrimea.ru/news/vchera-souzniki-24398/
    Makhnovists were caught in the Crimea. Exit from the peninsula was cut off. The rebel command was taken by the head of the cavalry Marchenko. Its parts withdrew from the positions of Evpatoria and began to move north. Some red units, not wanting to fight against comrades, whom they respected for courage and fortitude, not only parted before them, but also switched to their side. So, on November 28, a group of Red Army soldiers from the 155th division, their comrades-in-arms on crossing Sivash and battles on the Lithuanian peninsula joined the Makhnovists. But on the shoulders of the rebels hung Latvian units and red cadets. There was no mercy on them from anyone.

    Already at the exit from the Crimea, the legendary 1st Cavalry Army, patiently waiting for them, dealt a terrible blow to the Makhnovists. Only a detachment of 250 people made their way from the Crimea.
    1. Cheerock
      Cheerock 20 December 2021 23: 16
      +4
      How modern it is to pull something out of history and give it out as the whole of history. Said "A", say "B". Tell us, then, about Makhno's first mutiny against the Red Army in the winter of 1920.
      This general meeting of the commanders and the headquarters of the group refused, arguing that in peacetime the Crimean corps is subordinate to the headquarters in Gulyaypole, and that this order violates paragraph 1 of the military agreement.

      First, read the agreements. There are two of them: military-political and military. According to these agreements, the Makhnovists were recognized as a political organization, they were given access to printing houses and free campaigning for the elections in December 1920. The Makhnovists themselves were equated with the Red Army fighters, and their families were equated with the families of the Red Army fighters in all rights. The preamble to agreements and agreements implies that after the end of hostilities, anarchist detachments cease to exist as separate armed formations. By the way, here is paragraph 1 of the notorious "military" agreement:
      Terms of the preliminary agreement on the military question
      between the Soviet government of the Ukrainian Republic
      and the Revolutionary Insurgent Army of Ukraine (Makhnovists)

      1) The Makhnovist revolutionary army is part of the armed
      forces of the Republic as a partisan, operationally obey
      the high command of the Red Army, retains the established
      earlier routine, without going through the basics and started regular parts
      The Red Army.
      Now the hostilities are over, the Ukrainian SSR invites the Makhnovists to officially join the Red Army (or to disband), the Makhnovists refuse, motivating this with some kind of peaceful time, which is not spelled out in the agreements at all. That is, on the territory of the Ukrainian SSR, it is assumed that an illegal armed formation of several thousand fighters is not subordinate to anyone and already this year has raised a revolt against the Ukrainian SSR. So what was left for Frunze? By the way, strictly speaking, "stabbing in the back" is stabbing in the back unexpectedly and without warning. Here, first there was an order, then disobedience to the order, and only after that - everything that happened next.
      But in general, your narrative is clear and follows the discourse of the last 30 years.
  14. depressant
    depressant 20 December 2021 19: 55
    +4
    The name of any significant person is surrounded by legends. Nestor Ivanovich's supporters were sure that neither the blade nor the bullet would take him, that two dozen horses were killed under him, and he himself was never wounded.
    In fact it is not.
    From the personal records of Makhno it follows that during the war he was wounded 12 times, and in one of the last battles a bullet entered the back of his head and left his right cheek. It seemed that Makhno could not survive from such a wound. The newspapers were quick to report that the army commander had died. However, the doctors did everything possible, Makhno recovered, but after that he left for Romania together with his closest supporters.
  15. Waterways 672
    Waterways 672 20 December 2021 20: 07
    +3
    They tell you that we are red fighters. And who are you all here anyway?
    Who are they? We are a rebel army. Defenders of the oppressed peasantry, okay?
    Rebel! They would say simply - the Makhnovists.
    "Two comrades served."

    Leva Zadov is a colorful character, the head of counterintelligence at Makhno. In many ways, the biographies of Makhno and Zadov are similar. Both were liberated by the revolution. He was captured by the Chekists after the Civil War while trying to cross the border. According to one version, he wanted to take the treasury of the rebel army. Subsequently, he began to work for the Chekists. In the late 30s, according to another version, in 42, he was shot.
    1. Charlie
      Charlie 21 December 2021 10: 48
      +1
      So it was not that he began to work for the Chekists, but that he became a Chekist.
  16. vladcub
    vladcub 20 December 2021 20: 10
    +4
    Comrades, when I read the title, I immediately remembered the m / s "Walking in agony" (1977), remember when the sailor Chugai and some anarchist were arguing, and Makhno was thinking.
    Makhno often appeared in films, starting with: "Red Devils". I singled out for myself: "His Excellency's adjutant," remember the motto: "Hit the red ones until they turn white, beat the white ones until they turn red", in fact, this is what Makhno wanted.
    "Walking in agony", film adaptation of 1977, Makhno and the capture of Yekaterinoslavl are well shown
  17. zenion
    zenion 20 December 2021 20: 44
    +1
    But the most interesting of all was a film called: Yak Batko Makhno, showing through a window.
  18. Cowbra
    Cowbra 20 December 2021 21: 36
    +1
    Yes, the author is a rich topic. Develop!
  19. The comment was deleted.
  20. ivan2022
    ivan2022 20 December 2021 22: 01
    +3
    The author does not have the knowledge of primary sources. And an elementary instinct, which will tell you that Makhno was not a half-fool. In the mind of the author, like any modern man in the street "with a smartphone", everyone who lived before is - just half-fools.

    Makhno was not against the city, but against the State. That is, against an organization with appointed positions. In anarchy, all offices are elective. For example, how. in the Zaporizhzhya Sich.

    Another example of an anarchic structure, oddly enough, is the "party of a new type", the VKPB or the KPSS. There, according to the charter, all positions were elective and under reporting to meetings and congresses. The communists believed that after the self-withering away of the state, the ruling party would merge with society.
    1. Cowbra
      Cowbra 21 December 2021 19: 39
      0
      Makhno called himself an anarchocommunist. And another screw - that's just why you can call it NOT an anarchist. Well, what did he, pinned down from hard labor, TRY to do? That's the point. what if you don't dodge - it turns out a system, a violent power
  21. Kushka
    Kushka 20 December 2021 23: 00
    +1
    Popular rumor in the Uman region (yes, that one) is still
    says that when Makhno entered Uman, the "tail" of his army
    I was still in Dobrovelichkovka, which is more than 60 km.
    His wife was always there in full outfit with a saber,
    And Makhno's daily crossings were 100 km - not every
    a male cavalryman could ride like that.
    "Hit the reds until they turn white, hit the white ones until they turn red" -
    this slogan is also attributed to Makhno.
  22. CHEREDA73
    CHEREDA73 20 December 2021 23: 12
    +2
    Good evening everyone!
    I read it. Interesting. Thanks to the author!
    There can be no power vacuum. And if the state weakens, then such personalities as Nestor Ivanovich Makhno appear, on a larger or smaller scale, to fill this vacuum. They were a hundred years ago, they are now, they call them a buzzword - a field commander.
    And ataman Solovyov - "emperor of the taiga"? The same Makhno, only in Khakassia.
    Perhaps the author will find the strength in himself and, if he is interested, will make a whole "ataman" cycle, similar to the "marshal" that took place recently at VO.
  23. Pushkar
    Pushkar 20 December 2021 23: 14
    +6
    "Nestor Ivanovich was not accused of anything: from Jewish pogroms to polygamy. At the same time, the order in Gulyaypole was iron, and Makhno did not approve of banditry and arbitrariness." In 1918, during the Uman pogroms, a gang of Makhnovists led by "Maruska" (Maria Nikiforova) destroyed the entire family of my grandmother, ten people. The 15-year-old grandmother was saved by a miracle. However, it was MY grandmother, not YOURS, Mr. Ivanov. It was not for nothing that the Soviet government destroyed this "robbery".
  24. Vladimir Budnitsky
    Vladimir Budnitsky 21 December 2021 17: 47
    +1
    What Yekaterinburg Yekaterinoslav so soon it will be possible to write any city history dies like a science
  25. bk0010
    bk0010 21 December 2021 20: 53
    +3
    Could he have won?
    No, and again no, even in the Middle Ages, peasant wars ended in failure, a village cannot survive without a city. Especially in the era of the industry.
    This is not true. Polpotovskaya Kampuchea is an example of the victory of a village over a city. Only external intervention was able to crush the peasant revolution there (Vietnam endured them).
  26. 75 Sergey
    75 Sergey 22 December 2021 08: 18
    -1
    Again, the propaganda was lit, otherwise the people began to stare at communist ideas (nothing to do with Zyuganov).
  27. viktortarianik
    viktortarianik 27 December 2021 07: 50
    0
    Thank you for the article. My opinion about this man has changed for the better. And his fate once again proves that even talented and, possibly, honest people without education can change little. In a word, an eternal student.
  28. AKS-U
    AKS-U 1 January 2022 09: 59
    0
    The people treated Nestor well, respected him. Although the Kaluga or Tambov ones could not be respected. That's what they need, Nestor Ivanovich.
  29. Murrr 27
    Murrr 27 19 January 2022 10: 33
    0
    Unfortunately, it was too late, after the murder of Zhan Sagadeev, I found out about the most underestimated group of Russian Rock - ECT (I learned at the concert of the Orgy of the Righteous - they said and sang their song, 30 KhGSA). But this is a saying - and a fairy tale is here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UPA-F4KFiTQ song TO NESTOR MAKHNO'S POEMS
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5pQzKp6ARyU 15:21 - тоже песня явно посвящена Махно.

    And what was at the heart of this phenomenon, the Makhnovshchina, was - I will try to state my vision.
    https://topwar.ru/190428-dezertirstvo-v-vermahte-istorija-ober-efrejtora-bezhavshego-iz-pod-moskvy.html вот буквально рядом, про немецкого дезертира, что в Швейцарию сдристнул.
    The same rural psychology: "here is my village, here is my home", but I don't give a shit about everything and everyone else. I would venture to demonstrate my megalomania, to supplement Bulgakov, since they began to quote Vladimir Semyonovich -
    "The guys have a broad outlook, from the stall to our groceries." Here is the peasant outlook - from the neighboring village (this is for the young, where interest is seething - what if the girls in the neighboring village across angry ) to the market town. And then it's not interesting. As it is rightly said - "we would have brought gas (kerosene) and chintz." Your own bread, moonshine .... well, good moonshine cannot be compared with today's "breech", whoever tried it will not argue drinks , again, their own cattle, the winemaker is not alone, but who has a kulamet buried under a cherry near the house, wink And there are ammo. The truth is that you can’t make cartridges in the forge - it’s not clear, they think that their stocks will be enough. And yes, they are firmly convinced that the city should be fed with the holy spirit, and even they are extinguished and chintz is brought for nothing - you can’t argue with the classic, it’s true. And the fact that they wanted to put too big a dumpling in the mouth - it’s not harmful to want it, but who will give it.
    Makhno - the peasant was powerful, and answered the aspirations of the peasants. And you need to know and understand your history. Therefore, the article, kmk, is necessary. +++