Military Review

How vaccines changed human history

68

Rabies vaccination at the Pasteur Clinic in Paris. Lithograph by F. Pyrodon


From the history


Most of its stories humanity was powerless against major epidemics. For example, smallpox affects millions of people every year. The disease killed 20-30% of those infected (90% of infants), often people died in agony, and those who recovered often turned into invalids. People became blind, became terrible monsters. Smallpox was responsible for 10–20% of deaths in Europe. In America, where the colonialists brought smallpox, it mowed down entire peoples and tribes. It was used as weapon genocide - freeing "living space" from the Indians.

In the 300th century alone, this disease killed more than XNUMX million people. It was noticed that people who have had smallpox do not get sick with it anymore. This observation opened the way for mankind to create vaccines. Attempts have been made to induce mild smallpox disease to prevent the risk of severe illness and death.

In the Middle Ages, attempts to prevent infectious diseases are known in India and China. The method of inoculation (artificial infection) was used - inoculation of healthy people with liquid from the vesicles of patients with a mild form of smallpox. True, there was a risk of using a highly pathogenic virus and death. Also in the Celestial Empire, the method of "nasal insufflation" was used, that is, inhalation of powdered smallpox material (usually scabs) through the nostrils. Similar folk methods of combating smallpox were used in other countries. In Africa, Turkey and Russia. Someone helped, the disease was mild, others did not.

How vaccines changed human history
Accompanying pictures to the text from the Codex Florentine (1540-1585): a Nahua Indian suffering from smallpox (the era of the Spanish conquest of Central Mexico)

Smallpox affected everyone - rich and poor, commoners and aristocrats. Therefore, in the 1774th century, artificial infection was "fashionable" in high society. When King Louis XV of France died of smallpox in 1768, his grandson Louis XVI was inoculated. Shortly before this, under the impression of other smallpox epidemics, the Russian Empress Catherine II turned to the English physician Thomas Dimsdale for help. In October XNUMX, he inoculated the empress and heir to the throne, the future emperor Paul I. The inoculation was successful. This was the beginning of mass vaccination in Russia. In honor of this event, a silver medal "I set an example by myself" was knocked out. On it, Catherine is holding the hand of Tsarevich Paul. Before them is a female figure with children - the personification of Russia.

The English doctor himself, as a token of gratitude, received the title of Crown Baron, the title of Life Medic and a life pension. When Dimsdale returned to England, his business was continued by Thomas Holiday. He headed the Smallpox (Ospoprivalny) house, where those who wished were vaccinated for free and were given a silver ruble as a reward. Catherine even planned to carry out a complete vaccination of the entire population of the empire, but nothing came of it. The state did not have enough resources for such a large-scale action, and the population was wary of the new procedure.


Medal in honor of smallpox vaccination. On it, Catherine II holds the hand of Tsarevich Paul. Before them is a female figure with children - the personification of Russia. Immediately there is an inscription: "I set an example by myself." October 12th day of 1768 "

Defeating smallpox


However, this method did not provide full protection. And the mortality rate was about 2-3%.

The conjecture of the English physician Edward Jenner (1749-1823) helped. For a long time he collected information on the incidence of cowpox among peasants. People knew that cowpox is not dangerous to humans, and those who have had it almost never develop smallpox. Jenner came to the conclusion that it is possible to artificially infect a person with cowpox and thereby protect him from natural diseases.

In 1796, Jenner conducted an experiment - he vaccinated an eight-year-old boy, James Phipps. After a while, the boy was infected with smallpox, but the disease did not develop. Other people did similar experiments, but it was Jenner who published his method, and he began to practice around the world.

In England smallpox vaccination was made compulsory for the army and fleet... The vaccine was named vaccine - from the Latin vacca, cow. In Russia, the Jenner vaccine was first made in 1801 by Professor Efrem Mukhin.

The inoculation material was the contents of the pustules (abscesses) of vaccinated children, a "humanized" vaccine, as a result of which there was a high risk of collateral infection with erysipelas, syphilis, etc.

As a result, A. Negri proposed in 1852 to receive smallpox vaccine from vaccinated calves.

Smallpox was defeated in many parts of the planet later.

Thus, the program for the eradication of smallpox was proposed in 1958 by the Soviet delegation at the XI Assembly of the World Health Organization. In 1967, WHO launched a massive smallpox vaccination program. This made it possible to defeat smallpox, significantly reduce mortality, especially among children, and increase life expectancy.


Sculpture "Edward Jenner grafts his son" by Giulio Monteverde (1873)

Rabies, plague and cholera


In the second half of the XNUMXth century, science made great strides.

In particular, experimental immunology made it possible to study the processes that occur in the body after vaccination. Outstanding French scientist, chemist and microbiologist, founder of scientific microbiology and immunology Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) concluded that the vaccination method can be applied to the treatment of other infectious diseases. On the model of chicken cholera, the scientist made an experimentally substantiated conclusion that a new disease protects against a subsequent one. Pasteur defined the absence of recurrence of an infectious disease after vaccination as "immunity."

In 1881, a French immunologist discovered the anthrax vaccine.

Then the rabies vaccine (vaccine) was developed against rabies. In 1885, the first anti-rabies station appeared in Paris. The second anti-rabies station was created in Russia by Ilya Mechnikov. His student Nikolai Gamaleya worked with him. Already in Soviet times, Gamaleya became a prominent microbiologist and head of the Moscow Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology.

So, in 1886, a "Pasteur station" appeared in Odessa. This station became the first bacteriological research center in Russia. Soon, antirabies-Pasteur stations were created in other cities of Russia. They were created with the money of private owners, so it was possible to completely cover the country's needs only in the 1930s.

This success allowed Pasteur to fend off a wave of criticism of his methods. In 1888, a special institute for the fight against rabies and other infectious diseases was founded in the French capital, which later received the name of its creator.

The discoveries of Mechnikov and Ehrlich made it possible to study the essence of the organism's individual immunity to infectious diseases. They created a coherent doctrine of immunity and were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1908.

Another student of Mechnikov, Vladimir Khavkin, in 1892 created the first vaccine against cholera, which he tested on himself. In 1893, with the help of England, he launched a mass vaccination program against cholera in British India, where the disease was rampant. When the bubonic plague epidemic began to spread in India, which became one of the last in the history of mankind, Khavkin created a vaccine against the plague. The Central Institute of Immunology of Mumbai was named after the scientist.

Khavkin's vaccine has saved many lives in India, but its effectiveness was not known. Another Russian scientist, Magdalena Pokrovskaya, created a vaccination against the plague with a live virus. During the Civil War, she investigated outbreaks of plague and malaria in the southeastern part of Russia. In 1934, a working vaccine was created. During the Great Patriotic War, Pokrovskaya created a technology for treating severe infectious diseases using bacteriophages - special viruses that kill bacteria.

Soviet victories on the invisible front


In 1919, the Soviet government issued a decree on compulsory smallpox vaccination. After the end of the Civil War, when many people died due to epidemics and weakened immunity (malnutrition, hunger, poor sanitary and hygienic conditions, etc.), the spread of smallpox in the USSR was minimized and finally won in the 30s.

In 1925, mass vaccination of children against tuberculosis was introduced.

Mass vaccination against poliomyelitis in the USSR began in 1959, and by the end of 1960, all Soviet citizens under the age of 20 were vaccinated against this disease.

In 1958, the Preventive Vaccination Schedule was introduced, it is valid in Russia to this day. Initially, it included vaccines for smallpox, tuberculosis, whooping cough, diphtheria and polio. Then vaccinations against tetanus and mumps (mumps) were included in the calendar. Over the past 30 years, a number of vaccinations have been added to the calendar: against hepatitis B, hemophilus influenza, influenza, HIB infection.

Nowadays there are 8 compulsory vaccinations in Russia: against hepatitis B, tuberculosis, pneumococcal infection, DPT (protects against tetanus, diphtheria and whooping cough), poliomyelitis, hemophilic infection (for children at risk), rubella and mumps, and flu. There are also vaccinations that are done according to medical instructions. For example, tick-borne encephalitis, plague, rabies, anthrax, typhoid fever, cholera, etc.

Thus, Russia in tsarist and Soviet times became one of the most progressive countries in terms of vaccination and protection of its population from infectious diseases.

Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/
68 comments
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  1. Lech from Android.
    Lech from Android. 7 December 2021 05: 36
    +3
    Alas, viruses and bacteria are an inevitable companion of humanity, a kind of symbiosis of mutual coexistence.
    Vaccines against harmful bacteria and dangerous bacteria are also inevitable if humanity wants to survive.
    An interesting situation turns out ...
    nature wants to control the number of people on the planet with the help of bacteria and viruses in an evolutionary way, and humanity wants to survive by disrupting this process ... creating artificial vaccines ... where will this path lead and does it have a logical end?
    Will not the human body degenerate by introducing artificial bacteria and viruses?
    1. Jacket in stock
      Jacket in stock 7 December 2021 05: 49
      +3
      Quote: Lech from Android.
      Will not the human body degenerate by introducing artificial bacteria and viruses?

      Rather, it will degenerate by introducing different chemistry and conducting genetic experiments.
      Although, rather, it will degenerate from the accumulation of "genetic garbage" not allowing children with congenital disabilities to die and then allowing them to have children of their own.
      1. Far B
        Far B 7 December 2021 05: 55
        +7
        1) You know a pregnant woman who already has 8 children. Two of them are blind, three are deaf, one is mentally underdeveloped, she herself is sick with syphilis.

        Would you advise her to have an abortion? But before answering this question, please answer another one.


        2) There is an election of a world leader and your vote is decisive.

        Brief characteristics of candidates:

        a) Connected with politicians convicted of fraud, constantly consults with an astrologer, has two mistresses, smokes a pipe and drinks 8-10 martinis every day.

        b) Twice kicked out of service, has a habit of sleeping until noon, was convicted of using opium at the institute, drinks a bottle of whiskey every evening.

        c) A war hero, a vegetarian, occasionally drinks beer, does not smoke, has not been seen in any matrimonial relations.

        Whom do you choose? Have you answered?

        Then two more words about the candidates.

        a) Winston Churchill
        b) Frankley D. Roosevelt
        c) Adolf Hitler

        Now you are ready to answer the very first question. If you are advised to have an abortion, you have just killed Ludwig van Beethoven.
        1. Grandfather
          Grandfather 7 December 2021 06: 39
          +3
          How vaccines changed human history
          yeah ... from covidly, as if changed, the world is going crazy.
          1. Civil
            Civil 7 December 2021 07: 17
            0
            Soviet victories on the invisible front

            1. So there is no Soviet education.
            2. Those who received higher education in Soviet times - already the majority are either in the grave or are no longer able to remember the principle of the vaccine and why it is needed, are accustomed to being treated with vodka and plantain since the 90s.
            3. The victims of the exam do not have the knowledge to understand what vaccination is and how it works.
            The first place is taken by crazy women with anti-Auxer videos in WhatsApp, which were filmed by ... uneducated victims of the exam. The circle is complete.
        2. Hantengri
          Hantengri 7 December 2021 11: 19
          +3
          Quote: Dalny V
          Brief characteristics of candidates:

          a) Connected with politicians convicted of fraud, constantly consults with an astrologer, has two mistresses, smokes a pipe and drinks 8-10 martinis every day.

          b) Twice kicked out of service, has a habit of sleeping until noon, was convicted of using opium at the institute, drinks a bottle of whiskey every evening.

          c) A war hero, a vegetarian, occasionally drinks beer, does not smoke, has not been seen in any matrimonial relations.

          It is strange that the following person is not on the list of candidates:
          d) Inveterate criminal. From his youth he participated in illegal actions, for which he was expelled from the theological seminary. Presumably participated in at least one armed robbery. He was twice convicted for participation in the activities of an organization banned on the territory of his country and for organizing mass riots. He escaped from places of detention twice. ))))
          1. Doccor18
            Doccor18 7 December 2021 12: 46
            +3
            Quote: HanTengri
            He escaped from places of detention twice. ))))

            But twice?
        3. ALARI
          ALARI 7 December 2021 11: 25
          +1
          Yes, ready to do. I’ll explain you don’t know who is born a genius or an inferior person. Judging by the previous children, it is likely that the second. And as for the three politicians, you also don’t know whether it will be better or worse. Maybe there will be a more balanced person - not hysterical, but this is worse. There will be no Beethovin there will be someone else. We do not know, time is beyond our control.
        4. Martin
          Martin 7 December 2021 16: 24
          +3
          Quote: Dalny V
          You just killed Ludwig van Beethoven
          Read about the role of personality in history. The author, I think, is known to you.
          How many "Beethovens" did the Spartans kill, throwing flawed babies into the abyss?
        5. The comment was deleted.
      2. The comment was deleted.
      3. indy424
        indy424 8 December 2021 09: 15
        0
        yeah, Dr. Rosenberg said exactly the same thing in the 30s
    2. Doctor
      Doctor 7 December 2021 07: 03
      +1
      An interesting situation turns out ...
      nature wants to control the number of people on the planet with the help of bacteria and viruses in an evolutionary way, and humanity wants to survive by disrupting this process ... creating artificial vaccines ... where will this path lead and does it have a logical end?
      Will not the human body degenerate by introducing artificial bacteria and viruses?

      Everything is part of evolution. Vaccines including. Beavers also build dams artificially. yes
    3. Olgovich
      Olgovich 7 December 2021 07: 38
      +3
      Quote: Lech from Android.
      nature wants to control the number of people on the planet with the help of bacteria and viruses in an evolutionary way, and humanity wants to survive by disrupting this process ... creating artificial vaccines ... where will this path lead and does it have a logical end?
      Will not the human body degenerate by introducing artificial bacteria and viruses?

      today this organism lives in twice morethan a hundred years ago.
      1. victor50
        victor50 7 December 2021 10: 16
        +1
        Quote: Olgovich
        today this organism lives twice as long as it did a hundred years ago.

        This is on average. Yes, thanks to the advances in medicine, the average life expectancy has grown very seriously.
        1. Doctor
          Doctor 7 December 2021 10: 51
          +3
          today this organism lives twice as long as it did a hundred years ago.

          This is on average. Yes, thanks to the advances in medicine, the average life expectancy has grown very seriously.

          Moreover, the average has grown due to child and infant mortality. Exaggerated - two children were born, one died at 2, the other at 78. Average 2 + 78 = 80/2 = 40.

          And this includes vaccinations, especially smallpox, diphtheria, poliomyelitis.
    4. paul3390
      paul3390 7 December 2021 08: 53
      +5
      Will the human body degenerate?

      We will degenerate faster from new sausages and other food products of high chemistry ..
    5. Vlad Baryatinsky
      Vlad Baryatinsky 7 December 2021 10: 45
      +4
      Quote: Lech from Android.
      Will not the human body degenerate by introducing artificial bacteria and viruses?

      ?
      If you please, sir!
      We are "HUMANITIES", such creatures that nothing can penetrate Us.
      We will most likely destroy ourselves, much more efficiently and faster.
      So drinks .
  2. Jacket in stock
    Jacket in stock 7 December 2021 05: 43
    +3
    Mdya
    In the dense Middle Ages, even then people were smarter.
    However, now, in the hothouse conditions of life, people have lost the instinct of self-preservation, everyone has become "immortal."
    1. Lech from Android.
      Lech from Android. 7 December 2021 06: 07
      -1
      I want to live longer and even more forever.
      Nature has wisely done by limiting the life of a living being by a time frame.
      Otherwise, we would now be hiding in caves from tyrannosaurs or saber-toothed tigers. smile
      .
      And then, somehow, I don’t want Adolf Hitlers or Genghis Khans to live forever ... although, on the other hand, I don’t want talents to go to another world ... without them our world becomes empty and sad ... alas, our life .. . the eternal road to the void which must be filled with good or evil deeds. what
      1. Grandfather
        Grandfather 7 December 2021 06: 40
        +1
        Quote: Lech from Android.
        an eternal road to the void that must be filled with good or evil deeds.
        we must remember what the road is paved with in HELL.
      2. Vlad Baryatinsky
        Vlad Baryatinsky 7 December 2021 10: 51
        +2
        Quote: Lech from Android.
        I want to live longer and even more forever.

        And "curly".
        And I also want to be in "chocolate".
        Quote: Lech from Android.
        Otherwise, we would now be hiding in caves from tyrannosaurs or saber-toothed tigers.

        They forgot to mention about "tobacco".
  3. Crowe
    Crowe 7 December 2021 06: 02
    +13
    In 1958, the Preventive Vaccination Schedule was introduced, it operates in Russia to this day.
    This makes me happy. Not everything turns out to be Soviet successfully defeated, something good is still working.
    1. Alf
      Alf 7 December 2021 19: 16
      +2
      Quote: Crowe
      Not everything still turns out to be Soviet successfully fucked

      But they are successfully working on it ...
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 7 December 2021 06: 28
    +3
    In America, where the colonialists brought smallpox, it mowed down entire peoples and tribes. It was used as a weapon of genocide - freeing "living space" from the Indians.
    Huayna Capac, the ruler of the Inca Empire, located on the territory of modern Colombia, died of smallpox even before the arrival of the Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro, whose name is associated with the destruction of the empire. The first epidemic, the spread of which was stopped, occurred in 1794. Smallpox came to Mexico City from Guatemala and spread to other cities in 4 years. But this time in New Spain, the governors-general created conditions of quarantine similar to modern ones: roads between villages and cities were blocked, trade was stopped, government offices were turned into hospitals and places for isolating seriously ill patients. And so on the territory of present-day Mexico, the United States and Canada was brought in: plague, various varieties of smallpox, including black and chickenpox, influenza, malaria, scarlet fever, tuberculosis, typhoid, cholera, various hemorrhagic fevers, measles.
    1. Free wind
      Free wind 7 December 2021 07: 10
      +4
      All these diseases are dangerous for the inhabitants of the old world and to this day. Yes, and the Indians awarded the Europeans with some funny diseases. Destroying not only lives, but also cells, so to speak, of society. lol
  5. Whowhy
    Whowhy 7 December 2021 07: 11
    +8
    There are diseases, vaccination against which establishes stable immunity for years, or even tens of years, and there are diseases (the same "crown"), the pace of development of vaccines against which, at the moment of development of science and technology, lags behind the rate of mutation of pathogens ... Moreover, vaccination during an epidemic of such diseases accelerates the rate of mutation of viruses, that is, it can make the pandemic "eternal".
    Emergency vaccination is used against especially dangerous diseases (for example, smallpox in Moscow in 1959-1960), when the risks and losses from vaccination are covered by the risks and losses from the disease. Otherwise, natural immunity (after illness) is much stronger and lasts longer than artificial one.
    1. Gardamir
      Gardamir 7 December 2021 08: 47
      +5
      Can vaccinations accelerate mutations?
      1. Daniil Konovalenko
        Daniil Konovalenko 7 December 2021 10: 19
        +7
        Over the past 30 years, we have already mutated. For example, when we moved into a new house, in a gloomy, dark regime, all the residents of the house joyfully planted trees in the yard, they say, how good it will be for the children, there will be a garden, there will be a shadow ... when there was no place to put foreign cars in the courtyards, the tenants and their grown children needed garages and they cut down these trees, it used to be easier, now it is more difficult, signatures need to be collected .. They destroy what they did with their own hands .. Mutation, without vaccinations ..
      2. Whowhy
        Whowhy 7 December 2021 10: 37
        +4
        Can vaccinations accelerate mutations?

        Recently, one Zen person dug up an article in a foreign abstract journal, which says it directly. Moreover, this person claims that out of 26 co-authors there the overwhelming majority are from the Gamaley center.
        1. Alf
          Alf 7 December 2021 19: 19
          +2
          Quote: whowhy
          Recently, one Zen person dug up an article in a foreign abstract journal, which says it directly.

          A scientific article published in the journal Vaccines, which says, among other things, that universal vaccination accelerates the emergence of new strains of coronavirus: -2 with mutations in the RBD protein and S will increase rapidly. " In English, this piece of text looks like this: "It becomes obvious that under conditions of increasing herd immunity developed as a result of the past disease and vaccination, the number of SARS-CoV-2 variants with mutations in RBD and S protein will rapidly increase ".

          Moreover, the authors of the article admitted that as a result of these mutations, the effectiveness of vaccines for new strains of coronavirus is reduced: "It has already been reported that all these mutations increase the affinity for the ACE2 receptor and / or reduce the neutralizing effect of antibodies." In English, this piece of text looks like this: "All these mutations were already reported as increasing the affinity for ACE2 receptor and / or decreasing the antibody-neutralizing effect."

          Quote: whowhy
          Moreover, this person claims that out of 26 co-authors there the overwhelming majority are from the Gamaley center.

          Who are the authors of this wonderful scientific treatise? The article has 30 authors, of which 26 are employees of the NF Gamaleya National Research Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology. This center created the Sputnik V vaccine. Which, among all other vaccines, accelerates the emergence of new strains of coronavirus. And they, in turn, reduce the effectiveness of all vaccines.
          1. Whowhy
            Whowhy 7 December 2021 19: 22
            +1
            In! Thanks! drinks I usually save such links, but in this case I didn't have time - the electricity "blinked".
            1. Alf
              Alf 7 December 2021 19: 24
              0
              Quote: whowhy
              In! Thanks!

              It's my pleasure ! hi
              Quote: whowhy
              and in this case he did not have time - the electricity "blinked".

              After turning on the computer again, you can see the History in the add-ons. It stores the places where the user was today, yesterday and more long ago. Better buy a laptop, it still works without light on the battery. lol
      3. Doctor
        Doctor 7 December 2021 10: 55
        -1
        Can vaccinations accelerate mutations?

        No. But antibiotics, yes.
        If you catch gonorrhea after 3-4 treated, then only pyrogenal will cure. A drug that specifically raises body temperature. yes
    2. Hantengri
      Hantengri 7 December 2021 10: 24
      +6
      Quote: whowhy
      Otherwise, natural immunity (after illness) is much stronger and lasts longer than artificial one.

      You are far behind the times! Today, in the process of an unprecedented, downright, East (e) / (o) riche of the fight against covid, it has become fashionable to believe that immunity from vaccination is much better, more powerful and more durable than that obtained naturally. wassat
      Some people believe. laughing
      1. Doctor
        Doctor 7 December 2021 12: 23
        +1
        You are far behind the times! Today, in the process of an unprecedented, downright, East (e) / (o) riche of the fight against covid, it has become fashionable to believe that immunity from vaccination is much better, more powerful and more durable than that obtained naturally. wassat
        Some people believe.

        It depends on how hard and how long yes had been ill.
  6. Daniil Konovalenko
    Daniil Konovalenko 7 December 2021 08: 06
    +4
    A. Averchenko has a feuilleton, according to information from the newspapers, how the "peasant women" of a medical student was killed, who came to the village for vaccinations. V. Mayakovsky has a poem that spread through the ROSTA windows about the benefits of vaccinations and hygiene. During the plague and "plague" riot in Moscow in the 18th century, the church authorities banned parishioners from attending churches, considering them to be sources of infection, the one who issued this order was almost beaten.
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 7 December 2021 09: 58
      +4
      A. Averchenko has a feuilleton, according to information from the newspapers, how the "peasant women" of a medical student was killed, who came to the village for vaccinations.

      Yes, yes, they say, "he sends out cholera." Was reading. In general, Averchenko wrote very well. good

      I would like to add that the first anti-plague laboratory in Russia was opened in 1899. So that, God forbid, the experiments did not lead to an epidemic, a secluded place was chosen for the laboratory. If the most dangerous American bandits were kept in isolated Alcatraz, then our Good Doctors were given the use of the Emperor Alexander I sea fort, which is near Kronstadt.
      The fort was built in the 40s of the XIX century, it was then considered one of the strongest in the fortress, but the rapid development of artillery after the Crimean War led to the fact that it became outdated very soon, and the military did not need it. The building is monumental, it was possible to accommodate everything necessary for research and staff accommodation, which we did. The admission to the fort was very tight. During the work of the laboratory, two doctors died there. The laboratory itself existed until 1917, and the fort has been called "Plague" since that time.
      In form and content, it is very much like the famous Fort Boyar.

      1. Daniil Konovalenko
        Daniil Konovalenko 7 December 2021 10: 12
        +3
        Pikul mentions in one of the miniatures ..
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 7 December 2021 10: 33
          +4
          Pikul mentions in one of the miniatures ..

          Unfortunately, I didn’t read exactly this miniature.
          In general, the Kronstadt forts are a unique word in Russian fortifications. I recommend the book "Kronstadt Fortress" (Razdolgin, Skorikov), it can be found in the internet for download.
          There will be a lot of progress in the Island of Forts project now.
          1. balabol
            balabol 8 December 2021 01: 14
            +1
            That's a reason to write a few words.
            The above book is very informative indeed. It details the history of the creation of the Kronstadt fortress and forts. In detail and with a lot of rare illustrative material. A minimum of "water". And two features that may be of interest to many - construction budgets with item-by-item specifications are disclosed, and technologies for the construction of engineering structures are described. Some still inspire respect. For example, the 19th century - the construction of foundations under water, without draining the building spot with a sheet pile wall. Early 20th century winter casting of concrete in greenhouses, transporting the mixture from the concrete plant to the casting site in steam-heated trolleys. They knew how, they could.
            It is also mentioned there that on July 27, 1899, a newly built laboratory for the manufacture of anti-bubonic plague drugs was consecrated at the out-of-town "Emperor Alexander I" fort.
            But what kind of laboratory was it? Almost Umbrella from Resident Evil. The equipment was the latest in science at that time. Special rooms for working life of employees and keeping experimental animals. A special lift was built for lifting horses in the laboratory. Its own crematorium for the destruction of test materials. Complete isolation. Volunteers went to work there - scientists who understood that there was no turning back. Victory or death. I do not remember the details of the infection of both deceased employees, but professional burnout happened to one of them. Loss of caution and fear of death is a disregard for strict rules, an elementary mistake in repeated operations. Injury, infection and death, cremation in the fort.
            And in my opinion, this is a feat of doctors, no less than 60 years later the feat of astronauts.
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 8 December 2021 10: 29
              +1
              And in my opinion, this is a feat of doctors, no less than 60 years later the feat of astronauts.

              I agree completely.
              It details the history of the creation of the Kronstadt fortress and forts. In detail and with a lot of rare illustrative material.

              Many materials were published for the first time. Probably, it became possible precisely in the late 80s. The illustrative material is great.

              In 2018, I saw on the Internet a project for setting up a clinic for drug addicts at Kronshlot. On the site of the first "hut" tower, it was proposed to build a different one, already of a modern type. But now I can't find this link anywhere - the project, of course, has been closed.

              They have taken up the forts on a large scale ... At least they are planning.

              https://www.fontanka.ru/2020/05/25/69278962/
              They have been trying for the second decade to put in order the fortified city that was born under Peter the Great. As Fontanka wrote, the case moved after the autonomous non-profit organization of the same name was created in April 2019, the founders of which were the Investment Committee of St. Petersburg and the Ministry of Defense - both in its own person and in the person of the Property Management for Special Projects. A member of the working group, with the task of finding investors, is a member of the board of Gazprombank Ksenia Shoigu, the daughter of the Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation. Last February, 4,5 billion rubles were allocated from the Russian budget for the reconstruction of two forts, in total it was initially about investments of up to half a trillion.

              But the forts, I must admit, were for the Ministry of Defense "a suitcase without a handle." On the one hand, they are not needed for a long time, on the other - on the balance of the Ministry of Defense, on the third - the UNESCO heritage. Let's see what happens. But the locals (according to personal conversations) complain that the logistics in Kronstadt are not the best, and if there is an influx of visitors ...
  7. north 2
    north 2 7 December 2021 08: 40
    +2
    if we talk about the history of Russia on the basis of how the plague influenced the fate of Russia, then it is obvious that History cares about Russia here too. From the entire family of the eldest son of Ivan Kalita, Semyon the Proud, the plague regretted only two boys - the future princes Dmitry Donskoy and Vladimir the Brave-Serpukhovskoy survived. It was this that excluded disputes among the heirs, and contributed to the strengthening of the Moscow Principality and the rise of Moscow. Moreover, History ordered that it was Dmitry Donskoy who defeated the Golden Horde not only as an oppressor of Russia, but also as a distributor of the Black Death epidemic, since this epidemic of the then plague was brought and spread by the Mongols to Russia and Europe.
    By the way, Vl. Khavkin created not only a plague vaccine but also a cholera vaccine. And here History for Russia, during the already cholera epidemic, preserved for Russia another no less important person who saved Russia from a liberal invasion, no less dangerous than the invasion of the Golden Horde.
    This person was Emperor Nicholas I. As for the contribution of Nicholas I specifically to the fight and victory over cholera epidemics, it is worth noting the Emperor's trip from cholera-free St. Petersburg to cholera-infected Moscow to calm panic, religious processions, etc. So, Nicholas the First was not afraid to get infected and came from St. Petersburg to Moscow, spoke to the people and this helped to stop the panic. The Emperor's male deed was also appreciated by Pushkin in the poem "Hero".
    However, these are not the only Great people whom History preserved for Russia during the time of epidemics, so that they would save, preserve and exalt Russia, defeating both external and internal enemies of Russia. So, during the smallpox epidemic, History for Russia preserved the Great Stalin ...
  8. A. Privalov
    A. Privalov 7 December 2021 08: 55
    +8
    Anti-waxers were already in those days. The clergy greeted the vaccinated cowpox with indignation.
    Caricature by British artist James Gillray. "Cowpox or the miraculous effect of a new vaccine!" (1802), mocking fears of vaccinations.
  9. Free wind
    Free wind 7 December 2021 09: 52
    +4
    Vaccination against tuberculosis, about 50 to 50 is effective. In northern countries, the efficiency is about 80-90%, in southern countries it tends to zero. There is no long-term vaccination against rabies and is not expected. After being bitten by a rabid animal, go to the hospital immediately, delay 2-3 days and you will be fucked. He did not refuse vaccinations, but what it was, no idea. every year, then in the hand, then in the ass. then under the scapula Under the scapula is especially painful. In the sixth grade it seems that I don’t know what the vaccine is for, but the next day 6-8 out of 30 people came to school. During the week, my arms were very sore, and my right arm refused. Moreover, I had an easy form. I have a vaccination mark in my military soldier, although I have not yet served, from 84 years old, BPV series 79, maybe that would not be cheating on my wife? But it starts to act. wassat
    1. Alf
      Alf 7 December 2021 19: 27
      0
      Quote: Free Wind
      maybe that would not cheat on his wife? But it starts to act.

      lol
      This is the latest development of Soviet scientists, buried by the democratizers-Vaccination with a delayed validity period. lol
  10. Sovpadenie
    Sovpadenie 7 December 2021 13: 36
    +1
    Types of anti-axers:
    -Witness immunity. He believes in his immunity of the universal power and is sure that he will easily bear the disease
    -Familiar. The man who all the familiar people of his eight cousin's friends got sick from the vaccine and nearly died
    -Professor. Eats burgers, chips, etc., smokes, drinks, but is not going to inject some kind of incomprehensible slurry into himself
    -Master CHIP. Believes that he is implanted with a tracking chip, and he buys a new iPhone every year
    - Certifier. I bought a certificate and thinks that he is the smartest.
    I beg your pardon. I didn't want to offend anyone. All characters are fictional ...
    1. Hantengri
      Hantengri 7 December 2021 15: 26
      +4
      It's so good that there are anti-axers! If they were not there, they should have been invented. It is very convenient to blame them on all the results of the incompetence of the covid "gutters", including the results of the advertising campaign for vaccines and vaccinations. So "brilliantly" performed that she managed to sow seeds of doubt, even in the minds of quite sane and rather loyal, initially, to this procedure, people.
    2. depressant
      depressant 7 December 2021 15: 33
      +5
      Yes, do not offend, you are no one, colleague)))
      And I would supplement your collection with the category "Coward".
      The coward is me crying )))
      Well, look: from not a single vaccination, such as smallpox, tuberculosis, plague, cholera, etc., no one died from anaphiloctic shock within 10 - 15 minutes after the injection. There were cases of such deaths from an injection against covid! Further, where is the guarantee that, having come to the vaccination station, I will not get infected with covid from the fact that hidden carriers of the virus have already visited the station?
      So I'm scared. And this despite the fact that I am not an anti-axer. I can only envy those who decided to get vaccinated.
    3. Whowhy
      Whowhy 7 December 2021 19: 58
      0
      Sovpadenie (Alexey),
      Why not add one more category to your typing - sane. This is the one who knows how to work with information and draw simple logical conclusions, for example, from the fact that he himself had been ill with this rubbish twice in a mild form (not vaccinated), that all his relatives and friends (including those vaccinated) also got sick in a more or less mild form, that most of the deaths attributed to covid occurred from improper treatment (plus very late, plus from its complete absence) and from a secondary hospital infection, that the risk of dying from covid is much less than the risk of dying (or become disabled) from vaccination, that vaccines, in fact, have not passed all stages of testing (including the initiation of oncology, infertility and teratogenic effect - various abnormalities and deformities in offspring). There is also "etc., etc.", but it seems to me that the named is quite enough.
      England statistics
      https://www.fondsk.ru/news/2021/12/02/britanija-kak-primer-otricatelnoj-effektivnosti-vakcinacii-55025.html?utm_referrer=https%3A%2F%2Fzen.yandex.com
      Dialogue with Ph.D. Gundarov. Excursion to the "red zone"
      https://zen.yandex.ru/video/watch/61a4c0a3ecd7db22fefec13e?t=16
      Interview Deputy Director for Research of the Medical Scientific and Educational Center of Moscow State University, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences Simon Matskeplishvili, who works in the covid hospital of Moscow State University named after Lomonosov, in which during the entire epidemic only 4 people died (the lowest mortality rate throughout Russia).
      https://ekb.tsargrad.tv/articles/kovid-ne-bolezn-ljogkih-cherez-dva-goda-nas-zhdjot-napast-postrashnee_300877
      1. Whowhy
        Whowhy 7 December 2021 20: 14
        0
        And here is another link, which seems to be irrelevant, but very indicative and timely: A veteran of military operations and part-time police officer-retired gives step-by-step instructions on how to resist mask-extremists - werewolves in uniform:
        https://zen.yandex.ru/video/watch/61a7b6abfa21172677fd028f
        1. Alf
          Alf 7 December 2021 20: 24
          +1
          Quote: whowhy
          And here is another link, which seems to be irrelevant, but very indicative and timely: A veteran of military operations and part-time police officer-retired gives step-by-step instructions on how to resist mask-extremists - werewolves in uniform:
          https://zen.yandex.ru/video/watch/61a7b6abfa21172677fd028f

          Herr Hauptmann, the vaccinators will trample you now. One gets the impression that one of the side effects of vaccination is unmotivated, unexplained aggression towards "everyone who is not us."
  11. Old Horseradish
    Old Horseradish 7 December 2021 16: 28
    +4
    Most do not even understand the difference between a classic vaccine and a genetically modified drug.
    1. Alf
      Alf 7 December 2021 19: 29
      0
      Quote: Old Horseradish
      Most do not even understand the difference between a classic vaccine and a genetically modified drug.

      But of the classic vaccines, there is only Kovivak of the Chumakov Institute, but C-V is natural synthetics.
  12. ved_med12
    ved_med12 7 December 2021 17: 46
    0
    The article requires at least continuation!
    They waited a long time for the polio vaccine in Japan - 13 million doses were imported from the Soviet Union in the summer of 1961. Prior to that, indignant mothers, fearing for the fate of their children, protested in the streets for months and besieged the Ministry of Health - the government was very reluctant to buy vaccines from Moscow. But why exactly did the USSR find itself at the forefront of the fight against polio?
    1. ved_med12
      ved_med12 7 December 2021 17: 50
      0
      At the very moment when the outbreak of the disease was crushed in the USSR, Japan came under attack. Until 1960, local doctors turned a blind eye to polio, believing that there were more serious problems. But when the number of cases of the disease doubled in a year, a real panic began in the country.

      The Japanese received the Salk vaccine, but, firstly, it was expensive, and, secondly, it provided far from a 100% result. Tokyo also learned that a more effective vaccine was being mass-produced in the USSR, which was already exported to the countries of the socialist bloc. And this provoked a real political crisis.

      The authorities insisted that we have contracts with American manufacturers, and the Soviet drug raises serious doubts about its reliability. In general, roughly speaking, the rhetoric of 60 years ago was not very different from modern attacks on Sputnik V. And Japanese children at this time died and became crippled.


      A vaccine for fear. How the USSR and the USA together defeated polio
      Details
      1. ved_med12
        ved_med12 7 December 2021 17: 51
        +3
        The last assault
        In 1961, a social movement arose in Japan demanding that the authorities provide the Japanese with access to the Soviet vaccine. The government's excuses became more and more unconvincing - a delegation of Japanese specialists, having visited the USSR, confirmed that the Soviet vaccine was reliable and, moreover, advantageous in terms of price.

        In the summer of 1961, Japan was on the verge of a real revolution. On June 19, angry mothers broke into the building of the Ministry of Health and demanded from officials a direct answer to the question of when the Soviet vaccine would be purchased. The Cabinet of Ministers began to seriously fear that it would not only be removed, but hanged over Tokyo lanterns.

        On June 22, it was announced that it had purchased 13 million doses of polio vaccine from the Soviet Union.

        When the first Aeroflot plane with a batch of vaccine landed at Tokyo airport, thousands of people greeted it. We met, seeing in this burden the hope for the salvation of our children.

        And the hope was justified - in just a few months, the outbreak of the disease faded away.

        Albert Seibin and Mikhail Chumakov, who saved the lives and health of tens of millions of children, passed away with a difference of only three months in 1993. But the memory of their scientific and human feat will remain forever.
        1. ved_med12
          ved_med12 7 December 2021 17: 54
          -1
          Cooperation between Soviet and American biologists.
          1. ved_med12
            ved_med12 7 December 2021 17: 56
            -1
            https://aif.ru/society/history/ruka_pomoshchi_kak_sovetskaya_vakcina_s_amerikanskimi_kornyami_spasla_yaponiyu
            1. ved_med12
              ved_med12 7 December 2021 17: 58
              -3
              Dedicated to Antivak seram!
              1. Alf
                Alf 7 December 2021 19: 31
                +1
                Quote: ved_med12
                Dedicated to Antivak seram!

                Before you dedicate something to someone, you would ask about the differences between Sputnik and Kovivak. Then you will understand why they are chasing Kovivak.
                1. ved_med12
                  ved_med12 7 December 2021 19: 54
                  +1
                  Surprise me! Where Do I Compare Sputnik and Kovivak?
                  1. Alf
                    Alf 7 December 2021 19: 58
                    +1
                    Quote: ved_med12
                    Surprise me! Where Do I Compare Sputnik and Kovivak?

                    It's not my job to surprise you.
                    roughly speaking, the rhetoric of 60 years ago was not very different from the modern attacks against "Sputnik V"

                    You are not comparing, it is true. But extol C-V as a miracle remedy, meanwhile, how exactly synthetic vaccines such as Pfizer, Modern, Sputnik give the greatest number of side effects and a surge in morbidity.
                    1. ved_med12
                      ved_med12 7 December 2021 19: 59
                      -1
                      It's not my job to surprise you.

                      ??
                      Do you work here?
                      1. Alf
                        Alf 7 December 2021 20: 00
                        +1
                        Quote: ved_med12
                        It's not my job to surprise you.

                        ??
                        Do you work here?

                        I understand that there is nothing to argue on the topic.
                    2. ved_med12
                      ved_med12 7 December 2021 20: 01
                      -1
                      In general, I did not mention a single vaccine AND I did not advertise!
                      Good luck!
              2. Whowhy
                Whowhy 7 December 2021 21: 45
                +1
                ved_med12 (Ilmir)
                "There is an elder in the garden, there is an uncle in Kiev." What does polio have to do with it?
                "It is important to take into account the duration of immunity that is developed in vivo. In infections accompanied by the formation long or lifelong immunity, after a natural meeting with the pathogen, the effect of vaccination can be expected (measles, polio, diphtheria, etc.), while in infections with short-term immunity (1-2 years with influenza A), vaccination cannot be counted on as the leading measure. "(Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology: Epidemiology: Textbook / N. I. Briko, V I. Pokrovsky. - M .: GEOTAR-Media, 2015. - 368 p.: Ill. ISBN 978-5-9704-3183-2)
                The same can be said about the "crown", since here we are not even talking about a year. For example, my friend (social worker) was sick after vaccination three times, every six months.
  13. Mikhail Sidorov
    Mikhail Sidorov 7 December 2021 21: 04
    0
    I myself was the first to be vaccinated from covid in my family, I am 36 years old. We looked live. Then parents of 70 years old went. A whole bunch of chronic diseases. Everything is fine. At work, I got rid of everyone to vaccinate. Different ages in the team. Everybody is alive. About deaths from the vaccine, only gossip from the Internet.
  14. BMP-2
    BMP-2 7 December 2021 22: 29
    +1
    And what about the attempts to make a vaccine for syphilis nothing specific sounded? There is also a very fascinating story ... with an unexpected ending.
  15. zenion
    zenion 8 December 2021 15: 42
    +2
    The Bolsheviks in 1917 made a vaccine against the rich. But in 1991, the epidemic broke out due to the fact that the dangerous and prone to wealth were not vaccinated with the 9 grams vaccine, after Stalin died.