How Moscow geopolitical opponents prepared for the fall of Moscow
Smoot was a monstrous social and military catastrophe, blew up the Russian state, knocked it into chaos. But historians still argue about the causes of disaster and do not find an answer. Some are trying to rely on the theory of class struggle, others are reasoning about some mysterious features of Russian psychology, and still others recall climatic factors: crop failure, famine. Although all these constructions are easily refuted - hunger has happened before, but did not lead to such consequences. Smoot does not fit into the schemes of revolutions, and “psychological” explanations are simply biased.
But the picture turns out to be much more definite, if we look for the true sources of the Troubles not in the XVII, but in the XVI century.
During the reign of Ivan the Terrible, the first sovereign, crowned and anointed to rule, Russia loudly declared itself to the whole world. The Kazan and Astrakhan Khanates were annexed, the Russians established themselves in the North Caucasus, and opened up routes to Siberia. Don, Terek, Volga, Yaik, Dnieper Cossacks went to the service of the king. The sovereign armies defeated the Livonian order of prey, Moscow subjugated much of Estonia and Latvia. Russian ships went to the Baltic, brought domestic goods abroad.
These successes greatly alarmed Europe. Intervened Lithuania, Poland, Sweden, Denmark. The Western powers pushed the Ottoman Empire to war. And in Russia, one after another, boyar conspiracies began to arise, and their threads clearly stretched abroad. However, new enemies failed to break our country. Russian regiments utterly routed Lithuanians and Swedes, and Moscow diplomacy quarreled among themselves. A huge Tatar-Turkish army was killed in the battle of Molodya. And the traitors were caught, sent to the block or to the links.
But in the West there were forces capable of centralizing the struggle against Russia and bringing it to a different, higher level. In the second half of the 16th century, Catholicism was at the peak of its power and activity. Behind the Vatican were the largest bank houses in Europe: the Fuggers, the Medici, Saketti, Barberini, and others. At the Council of Trent, the Latin clergy developed and adopted the Counter-Reformation program - the attack on the Gentiles. Since 1540, the Jesuit Order has increased and improved its activities - the world's first professional international intelligence service, spreading networks on different continents.
Special attention was paid to Russia. Since 1436, when the dying Byzantium concluded Florence Union with Rome, our country was the main stronghold of Orthodoxy, and therefore the main opponent of the Vatican. The main obstacle to spiritual world domination. Events in Russia were closely monitored, theories were built - with a strong power of the Moscow sovereign, it is enough to turn to his union, and the people unconditionally submit. Similar attempts were made against the grandfather of Grozny, Ivan III, against his father Vasily III, but they were unsuccessful. Still, the Catholics did not lose hope of success. In 1577, the Collegium of Saint. Athanasius, designed to prepare preachers for Orthodox peoples. Through the Polish-Lithuanian king was supposed to introduce a union among his subjects. But Russia should have imposed subordination to the Pope, when the Poles and the Lithuanians would put her on their knees.
Covert operations have developed in several directions. First of all, it was required to unite Lithuania and Poland. In these countries there was a common monarch, but the states remained different, with their own laws, governments. In Poland, the king's post was elected, the Grand Duke of Lithuania - hereditary, and until now unity was ensured by the fact that the Polish pans chose to their throne Lithuanian rulers from the Jagiellonian dynasty. But in the wars against the Russian Poles weakly supported the Allies, stint on the soldiers and money. Now it was necessary to completely merge the two states. And to merge in such a way that Catholic Poland absorbed Lithuania, where a significant part of the population professed Orthodoxy. And for this it was necessary to subdue the Lithuanians to Polish law, to interrupt the Jagiellonian dynasty.
The wife of King Sigismund II Barbara was poisoned. And next to him, out of nowhere, the rascal Yuri Mnishek emerged. This type of efforts focused on the fact that the widowed king did not think about a new marriage, continuously supplied him with the fun of the cutest girls, even kidnapped nuns. When Sigismund began to wear out and weaken, Mnishek in every way warmed up his passion for the fair sex, brought for this healers and sorceresses. But for some reason, the Catholic prelates and the Inquisition stubbornly did not notice the glaring disgraces that were happening in the palace. Mnishek also did not forget himself, received generous rewards and became one of the richest gentlemen. But the goal was achieved. Sigismund, exhausted by excessive fornication, remained childless, fell ill completely, and in 1569, at the Lublin Sejm, Polish magnates, together with the Catholic clergy, achieved the union of the two states into one republic - Rzeczpospolita.
The second operation was carried out in Sweden. Here inspired a conspiracy. King Eric XIV has already signed a treaty of alliance with the Russians, but his own nobility overthrew him and died in prison. And his brother was raised to the throne - Yuhan III, an ardent enemy of Moscow. In the Vatican, a high-ranking Jesuit hierarch, Antonio Possevino, was appointed to coordinate actions against Russia. He personally visited Protestant Sweden, succeeded in turning Johan to Catholicism and concluding an alliance with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. From now on, the two powers began to speak together.
Well, in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the papal agents bribed the lords, generously fed the gentry, and in the election campaign pushed Stefan Batory, a petty Transylvanian prince, but a talented commander, to the throne.
He took to support almost all of Europe! In addition to the open allies - Sweden and the Crimean Khanate, the Poles began to help the German Empire, Brandenburg, Denmark, Hungary. Turkish and Crimean emissaries forged Nogai raids, excited revolts among the peoples of the Volga region. From Rome a flood of funding poured in, allowing Batory to hire German and Hungarian soldiers in large numbers. Italian engineers gave him the latest secret weapon - mortars capable of firing incendiary bombs and setting fire to wooden Russian fortresses.
This international crusade was launched in July 1579. Countless superbly trained and armed armies rushed eastward. The interventionists did not hide their goal - not just to win, but to destroy Russia. Batory announced at the Polish Sejm: “Fate betrays you, it seems, the entire state of Moscow! ... There is no peace for us at the moment!” And the Seimas took his appeals with extreme enthusiasm. Polotsk, Sokol, Velikiye Luki, Zavolochye, Nevel, Kholm, Sebezh, Ostrov, Krasny, Izborsk, Staraya Russa, Gdov, Narva, Yam, Koporye were killed by several Russian corps under the blows of the enemy hordes.
The same Possevino, at the height of the fighting, appeared in Russia with a Jesuit delegation. He pretended to be a peacemaker, but in the negotiations he frankly played up to the Poles - and most importantly, Rome was set on fire with hopes that the defeats would force Ivan the Terrible to make concessions, he would agree to subordinate the Pope to the Orthodox Church. However, the Russians still withstood the massive blow of the Western powers. The adversaries choked with blood under the walls of Pskov, the Pechersk monastery, Rzhev, the Nut. And on the proposals of the church union, the Vatican received a firm refusal.
But in the arsenal of enemies there were not only military and diplomatic methods. Another conspiracy has ripened around Grozny. He was headed by his closest trusted king, Bogdan Belsky, connected the sovereign's relative, Boris Godunov. Two brothers Belsky changed, Davyd ran to the Poles, Athanasius to the Swedes, established ties.
Nevertheless, Grozny (whom it is customary to portray as very suspicious) did not remove the "faithful servant" - he was even responsible for the treatment of the king. The court physician of the king, Elisha Bomelius, was slandered and executed, and in his place Belsky brought Johann Eiloff to the court. He introduced himself as a doctor, a Dutch Protestant. Although modern studies have established: among the graduates of medical faculties of European universities Aylof not listed. And at least his close contacts with the Jesuits were recorded at least three times. In particular, Possevino spoke with him during his visit to Russia.
First, the eldest son of Ivan the Terrible and heir to the throne, Ivan Ivanovich, died suddenly. AT history a version was introduced as if his father had killed him. But in fact, in those days when the prince became ill, they were in different cities: Grozny in Staritsa, and the son - in Alexander Sloboda.
The only author who launched the version of sonicide is known. This is Possevino. All the chronicles and other sources of the XVI - beginning of the XVII century (including foreign ones) do not place any blame on the king. They claim that the heir died of the disease. But the courtiers who treated him are also known - Aylof and Belsky. The documents confirming this, survived and reached us. And in the twentieth century a chemical analysis of the remains of Ivan Ivanovich was carried out, which showed that he was poisoned. The arsenic content in the remains is three times higher than the maximum allowable level, and mercury - in 30 times.
After him came the turn of the father. The scheme was similar. Illness, treatment - and in March 1584, the year of Grozny was gone. Chemical analysis shows that he was poisoned by the same method as his son. Arsenic is 2 times the maximum allowable level, mercury x 32 times. Mercury accumulates in the body, acts slowly, arsenic - quickly. Such a scheme allowed us to cause a picture of a serious illness, and then finish off with another poison. And there is no suspicion: the man died from a natural disease. By the way, immediately after the death of the king, the mysterious doctor Aylof left Russia. He did his job.
The plan of the conspirators and their foreign patrons looks obvious. To set on the throne the second son of Grozny, Fyodor Ivanovich - the weak, the painful. He was married to the sister of Godunov. Through the wife and brother-in-law of the king, it was easy to regulate. What scenario was assumed after the murder of Grozny, we can judge by the events of 1585 year. Batory began preparations for the new war, the money allocated to her dad - 25 thousands of gold scares a month. But at the same time, Poland suddenly offered the Russians to avoid war and conclude an “eternal peace” under the conditions of ... unification. If Batory dies first, let Fyodor be the common king, and if Fyodor dies first, let Batory reign. Not bad, right? Even if we were to allow Fedor to survive the king after signing the treaty, Russia would die anyway. Catholics, Jesuits, Pansky “freedoms” would have poured into it ... And the co-author of the plan was none other than Possevino, in 1585 he carried out communications between Rome and Poland.
But foreign directors made a serious miscalculation. Belsky Godunov was desperately needed - to control the king through his sister. But Godunov Belsky was absolutely not needed. Boris attracted only power. Almost immediately after the death of Grozny, he got rid of an ally. A rebellion was provoked in Moscow, and Godunov, as if at the request of the population, sent Belsky to exile.
Tsar Fedor Ioannovich turned out to be the same zealous advocate of Orthodoxy as his father, and Russia did not weaken at all, was ready to fight back any aggressors. The Poles no longer dared to fight seriously with her. Yes, and Godunov did not need any lords, nor Jesuits, nor Union. Why was it necessary to give someone the power that was going into his hands?
But at the same time, Godunov himself assisted in the accumulation of combustible material in Russia. Tsarevich Dmitri was stabbed to death, repressions were launched against aristocrats who could become Boris's rivals in the struggle for power. And in 1598, Fyodor Ivanovich died, and his brother-in-law got the coveted crown. Relatives and minions of the new tsar found themselves in all the warm places, set off to all the grievances, recklessly enslaved, enslaved people.
By conviction, Godunov was a “Westerner”, he began reforms according to European models. He fasted peasants, taxes, compared with the times of Grozny, increased 20 times.
Fearing the centers of liberty, Boris set out to eliminate the Cossacks, sent punitive expeditions to the Don. And for the moaning people, Godunov opened an outlet - taverns. Before him, the free sale of alcohol in Russia was strictly forbidden (it was allowed to brew beer, drink wine and vodka only for holidays and, with special permission, the governor for a wedding, a commemoration, etc.). And the pubs were very profitable. They allowed to extort profits for the treasury, and at the same time to identify those who were dissatisfied and spilled in a drunken state — they were dragged to prison and to torture.
And in this powder keg there was a “match” - False Dmitry. Whether he was Grishka Otrepiev or someone else, does not matter. The facts are much more revealing that around him the same personalities that were previously involved in the covert operations of Rome are revealed! The “Discoverer” and the main patron of the False Dmitry was Yuri Mnishek. Accepted, dragged to the royal court. He even advised to “marry off his own daughter” to his own daughter — he was so sure of success.
Psychological calculation of sabotage was very accurate. Only five thousand Poles and all rabble gathered at the False Dmitry. But the Russians were confused, they considered the Pretender to be the son of Grozny, and therefore the successor of his course, the defender of justice. The whole south of the country flared uprising.
But it is worth noting that a group of Jesuits was constantly near the “prince”. They clearly underwent advanced training, spoke Russian fluently, thoroughly knew Orthodox worship, managed to grow long beards and disguised themselves as Russian priests. And beards do not grow in a day. And the language for the month can not learn.
And at the same time, when the Impostor detachments entered the Russian land, the book “The Story of the Fabulous, Almost Miraculous Conquest of the Father's Empire by the Young Men Dmitry” was published in Venice. She exactly, literally word for word, retold the legend of the "rescue of the prince", which was voiced in all speeches and proclamations by the False Dmitry himself. Instantly, in record time, this work was translated from Italian into German, French, Spanish, Latin, and it began to spread throughout Europe in fabulous editions for that time. And the author of the book was ... Possevino. Yeah, the world is small!
However, the propaganda campaign in the West was launched at all unprecedented. Even the great Spanish playwright Lope de Vega received an order for the play “Grand Duke of Moscow” - on the same topic, about the “miraculous salvation of Tsarevich Dmitry” and his successes in returning the “legitimate” throne.
An indirect evidence of where the true roots of the Troubles lay could be the sayings of some of the then politicians. In the 1606 year, after the death of False Dmitry, Pope Paul V complained that "the hope of bringing the Grand Duchy of Moscow to the Holy See disappeared." And on the Polish Sejm in 1611, the words were sounded: “The source of this case, from which subsequent streams flowed, is, in truth, secret intentions, diligently hidden, and should not be made known what the future can warn the enemy.” It turns out that the yas-noble gentlemen knew something.
While Boris Godunov was alive, he still somehow kept the situation in the country under control. However, 15 April 1605, he died. Neither the people nor the people wanted to obey his relatives and confidants. The troops went over to the Pretender. The son and heir of Boris Fedor tried to organize defense, but a mutiny broke out in Moscow. He was headed by another of our "friend" - Bogdan Belsky. Do you think there are too many matches? Belsky, Mnishek, Possevino ...
True, the Pretender did not triumph for long. He manifested himself too openly in Moscow. He surrounded himself with Poles and rogues, was in revelry and debauchery, for six months he squandered 7,5 million rubles from the treasury. (with the revenue part of the annual budget 1,5 million). In May 1606 of the year. Vasily Shuisky staged a coup. The end has come to both False Dmitry and his minions, and the brazen foreigners who have come under a hot hand. But the country was already agitated, swung, and it was not difficult to fuel the beginning of the Troubles. The figures of Bolotnikov, False Dmitry II appeared ...
Authors diversion have achieved their. Russia was seduced. Nobles and boyars changed, for the sake of awards and awards flew now to one, then to the other side. For the sake of their own benefits, the cities and townships swore oaths to impostors. Cossacks, peasants, serfs were stunned by the opportunity to walk and plunder. But the price of temptations was too high. Strife opened the way for intervention. Not gangs, but professional armies moved to Russia.
The structures of state power have collapsed. Cities and villages turned into ashes. According to various estimates, between a quarter and a third of the population were exterminated. In Moscow, Smolensk, Chernihiv Poles hosted, in Novgorod the Swedes, and in Rome, the Polish victories over the heretics were celebrated magnificently, with carnivals and fireworks. At the Warsaw court, it was openly proclaimed that Russia should become the “Polish New World”. That is, the conquest of our land was equal to the Spanish conquest of America. Accordingly, the Russians were assigned the fate of the Indians. They needed to cross and convert into slaves.
But ... one more chain of "coincidences" seems to be very illustrative. As we have seen, the “crusade” with the aim of destroying Russia was organized in Rome much earlier. Smoot was only his sequel, another attack in fulfillment of old plans. And the first attack, the beginning of the “crusade” was the advance of Batory in July 1579. But in the same year (and in the same month, on the same days!) There was a big fire in Kazan. It would seem, what relationship did he have to the war, to the Poles? It turns out the most direct.
The Kazan Icon of the Mother of God was revealed in the ashes, according to the dream of the girl Matrona. The very icon that will consecrate the turning point of the struggle! Sanctify the Russian victory, the liberation of Moscow.
And he found the Kazan icon and rules before her first service, transferred to the temple, the priest Ermolai. The same priest, who will change the name with the tonsure and will become the patriarch Hermogenes. He will not bow down before the invaders, will take a martyr's crown, starved by hunger, but he will have time from imprisonment to call on the people for a feat, to rise in defense of their land and faith.
In the same year, according to the Russian calendar 7088 from the creation of the world, son Dmitri was born in the family of Prince Pozharsky. And in the same year 1579 in the Rostov Borisoglebsky Monastery, peasant Ilya, the future Rev. Irinarkh the Recluse, was tonsured. The very saint who will be glorified at the time of the Troubles, will warn Tsar Vasily Shuisky about future disasters, bless voivode Mikhail Skopin-Shuisky to defeat Falsdmitry II. And in 1612, bless Dmitry Pozharsky and Kozma Minin to go on enemies, save the occupied capital!
And again, it is legitimate to ask the question, is it possible that so many "coincidences"? Those who own probability theory, can count at their leisure ...
Despite all the sins, the Lord did not set aside Russia. He knew that she would fall, but he also knew that she could repent, rise. A deadly storm was rising and advancing on the country - and at the same time key figures were already being deployed to save Russia and the Orthodox Church. Isn't that a miracle?