Military Review

The best special forces submachine guns

121

Fighter with a submachine gun FN P90, photo: fnherstal.com


The first submachine guns appeared during the First World War, for those years it was a real breakthrough. By that time, all participants in the war had already appreciated the importance of machine-gun fire and the machine guns themselves, which clearly proved their effectiveness on the battlefields.

The emergence of an individual rifle weapons, which could fire automatic pistol cartridges, was the next stage of development. Now any fighter got his hands on an automatic weapon, while maintaining high mobility and the ability to maneuver with fire. Considering that most of the machine guns of those years were easel or carriage guns and could weigh up to 60 kg, this was an obvious progress.

During the Second World War, submachine guns were already massively distributed in the armies of the belligerent countries, it was a real benefit of such weapons. After the war, the interest of the armies of the world shifted towards machine guns (assault rifles), which became the main individual weapon of the soldier. But the submachine guns did not disappear anywhere. This weapon is widely used today by special forces around the world, especially by police special forces.

Belgian submachine gun FN P90


The FN P90 submachine gun stands out for its futuristic design. This Belgian model of automatic weapons is familiar to many, even to those citizens who are not particularly fond of small arms. It's all about a very memorable appearance. The Belgian company FN Herstal has released a model that is difficult to confuse with other samples on the market, while providing the weapon with an excellent set of characteristics.

The designers from Belgium invested in the design and paid off. The bullpup model is in demand all over the world and is in service with dozens of countries. Turning to the bullpup scheme allowed the developers to reduce the overall dimensions of the weapon, without sacrificing the barrel and firing characteristics. With a total FN P90 length of 505 mm, the barrel length is 264 mm. This is a very decent indicator.


FN P90 submachine gun, photo: fnherstal.com

The main cartridge in the FN P90 is 5,7x28 mm ammunition. Belgian samples are made specifically for this cartridge. The weapon, in addition to its compact size, is also distinguished by its low weight. Without cartridges, the model weighs approximately 2,6 kg. The FN P90 submachine gun has an effective range of 200 meters. Rate of fire from 850 to 1100 rounds per minute, depending on the model.

A distinctive feature of the Belgian submachine gun is an unusual magazine, designed for 50 rounds. The store is unique; a US patent was filed for it in March 1990. The box magazine is located on top of the receiver of the weapon, while the cartridges in it are located horizontally, perpendicular to the barrel of the submachine gun. They are rotated 90 degrees before being fed into the chamber. The magazine is made of transparent plastic, which allows the shooter to always see how many cartridges remain at his disposal.

Uzi submachine guns


Talking about submachine guns, it would be difficult to ignore the Israeli model "Uzi". This is a truly iconic and well-recognized example of small arms, which has become the hero of numerous films, leaving a large mark on popular culture. There is nothing strange in this, considering that various modifications of the Uzi were in service with the armies, police special forces and security forces in more than 95 countries of the world.

The submachine gun, created by the designer Uziel Gal, was named after him and has been mass-produced since the second half of the 1950s. In Israel, weapons are produced by the large arms concern Israel Military Industries. This is one of the few examples of Israeli weapons that have been widely distributed throughout the world, having taken part in many wars and conflicts of the second half of the XNUMXth century. In the XNUMXst century, weapons are still relevant.


Israeli army Uzi submachine gun, photo: wikimedia.org

The submachine gun turned out to be compact. Modern Mini-UZI and Micro-Uzi models are truly miniature. So, the Mini-UZI model has a total length of 360 mm with a folded stock, and the Micro-Uzi does 250 mm, according to this indicator, the submachine gun is as close as possible to automatic pistols. Simultaneously with the total length, the trunk also decreased. For the Micro-Uzi model, the barrel length is only 134 mm. The weights of the models are also appropriate: 2,75 kg and 1,95 kg, respectively.

Of course, Israeli submachine guns cannot boast of good accuracy or effective range. But in confined spaces, dense buildings or at short distances, they are very effective, for which they are often used by police units around the world. The cartridge used is the timeless classic 9x19 mm Parabellum.

Experts call another important advantage of the Uzi submachine guns the method of reloading the weapon when “the hand finds the hand”. The UZI handle also serves as a neck for box magazines, it is very convenient to use, especially in the dark. At the same time, a wide variety of magazines for 20, 32, 40, 50 or 62 rounds are available to the shooters.

Heckler & Koch MP5 submachine gun


In the ranking there will be a place at once for two representatives of the German company Heckler & Koch. Designers from the small town of Oberndorf am Neckar have created two small arms, which are widely distributed around the world. So, created in the early 1960s, the MP5 submachine gun chambered for 9 × 19 mm Parabellum was in service with more than 50 states and was widely used by NATO countries. This model was used even by American special forces from the Navy SEALs.

The weapon turned out to be reliable and durable in German. MP5 does not lose its relevance, many police and military special forces are still armed with this particular submachine gun. At the same time, externally, the weapon is an adaptation of the G3 assault rifle, which has decreased in size and received a pistol cartridge. The overall shape and configuration of the G3 and MP5 are as close as possible, right down to the adjustable sights.


One of the earliest versions of the MP5A3 submachine gun, photo: wikimedia.org

The MP5A4 submachine gun model with a plastic stock and the ability to fire "with a cut-off" of three rounds has a total length of 680 mm, the barrel length is 225 mm. Weight of the submachine gun without cartridges 2,66 kg. Mass models with a folding stock have a maximum length of 550 mm.

The effective range of the MP5 submachine guns is 200 meters. The models are equipped mainly with two magazines: for 30 and 40 rounds. Experts highlight the good muzzle energy of submachine guns and their low recoil in comparison with small arms with a blowback. Due to firing from a closed bolt on the MP5, high precision of single fire is realized.

Heckler & Koch MP7 submachine gun


The second very popular and successful model of the German arms company was the MP7 submachine gun. A small compact submachine gun, created in the early 2000s, can in some way be called the answer to the Israeli Uzis, only more advanced and designed at the most modern level.

The model is currently actively conquering the market. Moreover, the operators are located not only in Europe. Thus, the MP7 submachine guns are in service with the special forces of South Korea and Japan. It is also curious that this particular model is in service with the Vatican Swiss Guard.

Despite its small size, the MP7 submachine gun surpasses many competitors of the same dimensions in accuracy of fire. The length of the submachine gun with the stock folded is 415 mm, with the stock folded out - 638 mm. Barrel length - 180 mm without a flame arrester. The weight of the weapon is also very small - only 1,8 kg without a magazine with cartridges. For shooters, two main types of magazines are available: for 20 and 40 rounds, differing in weight (0,1 kg and 0,2 kg, respectively).


MP7A1 submachine gun, photo: wikimedia.org

A distinctive feature of the model is the cartridge 4,6x30 mm. Automatic weapons were specially developed for this new ammunition. Experts say that the advantages of this cartridge are low recoil when firing, good flatness of the trajectory, and high firing accuracy. At the same time, the stopping effect of such an ammunition is predictably small.

Like the Uzi, the German submachine gun is designed so that the magazine is inserted into the pistol grip. A folding telescopic buttstock and an additional front folding handle ensure ease of use of the weapon.

Vityaz submachine gun


The rating is closed by the domestic Vityaz submachine gun. Small arms from Izhevsk are constantly being improved and presented in different versions. The model got its name from the name of the special forces "Vityaz", for which the submachine gun was created. Currently, this weapon, designed at Izhmash in the early 2000s, is in service with the Russian Guard, the police, the FSB, the Federal Penitentiary Service and other Russian power structures.

Like the MP5, the Russian submachine gun was inspired by its older siblings. So, "Vityaz" in Spanish. 10 was based on a shortened version of the AKS-74U Kalashnikov assault rifle. And here is the Vityaz model in Spanish. 20, also known as Vityaz-SN (PP 19-01), was based on the more advanced AK-105 assault rifle. It is reported that the models are unified by at least 70 percent.


Vityaz-SN submachine gun, frame: kalashnikov.media

The weight of the Vityaz-SN model is 2,9 kg without cartridges. The length of the weapon with the stock folded is 475 mm, with the stock folded out - 698 mm. Barrel length - 237 mm. As ammunition in the Russian submachine gun, the 9x19 mm Parabellum cartridge, which is widespread throughout the world, is used. The principle of firing from a closed bolt, implemented in the PP 19-01 submachine gun, ensures a high accuracy of hits.

Possessing a standard sighting range of 200 meters for such weapons, the Russian submachine gun has a trigger mechanism that allows automatic and single fire. "Vityaz" is equipped with box magazines for 30 rounds. The technical rate of fire of the model is up to 800 rounds per minute.
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  1. 28st region
    28st region 22 November 2021 05: 47
    +19
    I didn't have to shoot, but I held an ultrasound in my hands. A heavy fool, the ejection window of the casings is hefty, a hunting cartridge of 12 calories will enter, while firing from an open bolt. Dust, dirt, and God forbid a close explosion, so that the earth and broken brick scatter, 100% the shutter will clog.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 22 November 2021 07: 07
      +13
      Completely in Sami agree, there is also a folding butt is completely idiotic. I don’t understand why they call him “legendary”.
      The same Italian p / p "Beretta" Mod. 12, the same age as "Uzi", much better, more reliable and more convenient than the notorious Israeli.

      Beretta m12
      Cartridge
      9x19 mm "Parabellum"
      Folded length, mm
      417
      Barrel length, mm
      200
      Weight, kg
      3,0
      Number of barrel grooves
      6 right-handed cuts
      Shop
      Box for 20, 32, 40 rounds
      Initial speed of a bullet, m / s
      380
      Rate of fire, shot / min
      550
      Manufacturer
      Pietri Berette SpA, Gardione Val.

      But there is also a minus - shooting from the rear sear too.
      1. Region-25.rus
        Region-25.rus 22 November 2021 08: 15
        +12
        I don’t understand why they call him “legendary”.
        PR comrade! PR! So is the "legendary" Desert Eagle. Promoted in action films.
      2. avg avg
        avg avg 22 November 2021 10: 03
        +8
        Quote: Sea Cat
        I don’t understand why they call him “legendary”.

        Well this is a Jewish PP! And everything that the Jews do is legendary by definition! Including "Galil"!
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 22 November 2021 10: 07
          +3
          Are you kidding me this way?
      3. Alf
        Alf 22 November 2021 19: 29
        +2
        Quote: Sea Cat
        I don’t understand why they call him “legendary”.

        Maybe because he was the first? Moreover, the first in its class, and the first is always remembered and is always compared with the first. The M12 went five years later.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 23 November 2021 05: 40
          +6
          Maybe because he was the first?


          Your untruth. smile The first was the CZ 23 submachine gun, designed by Vaclev Holek, was developed in 1948. Mass production started in 1949. In addition to Czechoslovakia, it has been produced since 1950 in Syria and since 1960 in Cuba.


          Features
          CZ23 / CZ25
          Cartridge
          9x19 mm "Parabellum"
          Folded length, mm
          685
          Barrel length, mm
          284
          Weight, kg
          3,08
          Number of barrel grooves
          6 right-handed cuts
          Shop
          Box-type for 24, 40 rounds
          Initial speed of a bullet, m / s
          380
          Rate of fire, shot / min
          600
          Manufacturer
          Czeskoslovenska Zbrojovka, Brno
          1. Alf
            Alf 23 November 2021 18: 58
            +1
            Quote: Sea Cat
            Mass production started in 1949. In addition to Czechoslovakia, it has been produced since 1950 in Syria and since 1960 in Cuba.

            You are right, as always. That's just a question - Uzi knew all over the cap camp, but who knew about the Czech?
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 23 November 2021 19: 28
              +3
              Czechoslovakia was a socialist country and did not engage in PR. "Uzi" was invented by a Jew in Israel, and "Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer" (tell who the film company belongs to?))), Purely in a relative way, arranged advertising for him all over the world. Almost a joke. laughing

              And as for the Czech, whoever needed it, they knew.



              By the way, it was also produced under the Soviet PM 9x18 cartridge.
              1. Alf
                Alf 23 November 2021 19: 33
                +1
                Quote: Sea Cat
                And as for the Czech, whoever needed it, they knew.

                Again, you are right. Those in the photo knew, and which Wild Goose from the West knew about the Czech?
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 23 November 2021 19: 47
                  +1
                  Movie "Geese" ran from "Uzi", but the real ones did not spread about it, they probably used only trophy ones.
                  1. Alf
                    Alf 23 November 2021 19: 57
                    +1
                    Quote: Sea Cat
                    Movie "Geese" ran from "Uzi", but the real ones did not spread about it, they probably used only trophy ones.

                    Maybe, maybe ... But personally, it seems to me that for a Western mercenary, acquiring an Uzi did not create problems, unlike a Czech.
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 23 November 2021 20: 03
                      +1
                      Of course, it was easier to get an Uzi for personal use, but I suppose the mercenary squads were supplied centrally by the hiring party, and the employers could buy anything, as long as the quality was consistent with the price and there was enough money.
                      1. Alf
                        Alf 23 November 2021 20: 06
                        +1
                        Quote: Sea Cat
                        employers could buy anything,

                        Not anything, but something that can be purchased. It is unlikely that in the 50s, the products of the Czech weapons industry could be centrally bought in the West.
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 23 November 2021 20: 16
                        +2
                        Not anything, but something that can be purchased


                        Of course, but the assortment was large; by the way, there were also enough of our weapons on the market.

                        The Czechs drove these cars to almost all third world countries, and already there.
                        Moreover, this P / P under license has been produced since 1950 in Syria and since 1960 in Cuba.
                      3. Alf
                        Alf 23 November 2021 20: 28
                        +1
                        Quote: Sea Cat
                        The Czechs drove these cars to almost all third world countries, and already there.
                        Moreover, this P / P has been produced under license since 1950 in Syria.

                        Most likely, Uziel Gal met a Czech in Syria.
                      4. Catfish
                        Catfish 23 November 2021 21: 15
                        +1
                        He could have done it before if he was interested in weapons. The idea of ​​"running out" of the barrel is important, and it is not necessary to pick it up if you are a competent engineer.
                      5. Alf
                        Alf 23 November 2021 21: 19
                        +1
                        Quote: Sea Cat
                        I could have done it before

                        Quite, but "reading" and "holding in hands" are different things. As the saying goes, nurturing an idea is one thing, but holding in your hands a sample that has brought this idea to life is quite another.
                      6. Catfish
                        Catfish 23 November 2021 21: 31
                        +1
                        So the idea was hatched by Cholek, nothing needed to be embodied, just copied and done, with the appropriate education, this is not a problem.
                        Although ... what are we talking about laughing , it is easier to raise the biography of Gal, but to read how he "came to such a life." wink
                      7. Alf
                        Alf 23 November 2021 21: 33
                        +1
                        Quote: Sea Cat
                        and read how he "came to such a life."

                        Yeah, that's what he wrote ...
                        just copy and do,

                        Who will admit to plagiarism? laughing
                        All by myself, back-breaking work ... laughing Although I do not argue, I really did the Thing.
                      8. Catfish
                        Catfish 23 November 2021 21: 44
                        0
                        If he does not write, others will do it, there are many good people. wink

                        And that this P / P - "Thing", I do not know, I did not shoot from it. I held it in my hands and disassembled it - I didn’t like it, it was heavy, uncomfortable, and there is such a cute thing that you can peel or cut your fingers on the loading handle. Something like this, personal impressions.
                      9. Alf
                        Alf 23 November 2021 21: 47
                        +1
                        Quote: Sea Cat
                        If he does not write, others will do it, there are many good people.

                        Well, yes, toliver with the constable won how hard they tried, now the name of the greatest
                        The ace of all time and Hartman galaxies is included in the Annals of History and what the hell can you prove to someone .. laughing
                        Quote: Sea Cat
                        did not like it, heavy, uncomfortable,

                        But it shoots in bursts and is not very large.
                2. Thompson
                  Thompson 27 November 2021 09: 31
                  0
                  That's why he is wild, to know only his surroundings
          2. yehat2
            yehat2 19 January 2022 12: 35
            +1
            there is even a film about a Cuban commando with this weapon. I don’t remember the name, but it’s interesting - he fought defending the local population and spent the night in a disguised pit underground.
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 19 January 2022 12: 53
              0
              I know what movie you're talking about, but I don't remember the title. The film is a series about the work of Cuban intelligence officers, and the intelligence officer was sitting in a cache, either at the American base, or watching the agents, but he had not a Czech p / p, but a Polish PM-63 RAK.
              1. yehat2
                yehat2 20 January 2022 02: 04
                0
                I watched him for a long time, and I vaguely remember what he had in his hands, the silhouette seems to resemble a Czech, but I can’t say specifically.
      4. Saladine
        Saladine 14 January 2022 14: 50
        0
        “Legendary” because it’s like Evgei. And so extremely mediocre and stupid.
    2. Maki Avellevich
      Maki Avellevich 22 November 2021 07: 44
      +4
      Quote: 28st region
      I didn't have to fire, but I held an ultrasound in my hands. A heavy fool, the ejection window of the casings is hefty, a hunting cartridge of 12 calories will enter, while firing from an open bolt. Dust, dirt, and God forbid a close explosion, so that the earth and broken brick scatter, 100% the shutter will clog.

      about weight, yes it is heavy (although the P90 weighs 2.7) but this weight is gained due to the weighted bolt. the energy / energy of the gate almost completely compensates for the recoil. there is no need to explain the benefits of near-zero return.

      on the subject of camera pollution, the same yes, but this weapon, in principle, is not for infantry in the field (although at the beginning it was used that way), it was used for close combat in buildings and there it proved itself.

      the main advantages of Uzi are minimal recoil, low production cost, low number of parts and replaceable that does not require tools
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 22 November 2021 08: 42
        +7
        "Uzi": loaded PP weight - 4 kg
        weight without magazine - 3,5 kg.
        There, the thickness of the walls of the receiver is also much higher than in similar P / P, hence the weight.
    3. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 22 November 2021 07: 54
      +3
      Quote: 28st region
      I didn't have to shoot, but I held an ultrasound in my hands. A heavy fool, the ejection window of the casings is hefty, a hunting cartridge of 12 calories will enter, while firing from an open bolt. Dust, dirt, and God forbid a close explosion, so that the earth and broken brick scatter, 100% the shutter will clog.

      In a real battle, he did not work with him, for a private security company that is most. About the weight - well, I don't know. I still had it with an L-shaped twin, after the deadline, and even in the ceramic armor, the weight did not interfere too much)).
    4. And Us Rat
      And Us Rat 22 November 2021 18: 58
      +3
      Quote: 28st region
      I didn't have to shoot, but I held an ultrasound in my hands. A heavy fool, the ejection window of the casings is hefty, a 12 caliber hunting cartridge will enter, while firing from an open bolt.

      Apparently this is a museum piece from the middle of the last century.
      The Uzi today and the Uzi then are two different Uzis. request
      1. Saladine
        Saladine 14 January 2022 14: 51
        0
        Who is the idiot posing in the photo with his finger on the trigger?
        1. And Us Rat
          And Us Rat 15 January 2022 06: 44
          0
          Quote: Saladine
          Who is the idiot posing in the photo with his finger on the trigger?

          A nail would be visible, and the brace would be closed with a finger.
          Probably time to visit an optometrist. wink
    5. Aaron Zawi
      Aaron Zawi 22 November 2021 20: 41
      0
      Quote: 28st region
      I didn't have to shoot, but I held an ultrasound in my hands. A heavy fool, the ejection window of the casings is hefty, a hunting cartridge of 12 calories will enter, while firing from an open bolt. Dust, dirt, and God forbid a close explosion, so that the earth and broken brick scatter, 100% the shutter will clog.

      Or maybe your problem is that you are not familiar with weapons?
  2. Pessimist22
    Pessimist22 22 November 2021 06: 36
    +10
    I would choose the AKS 74u.
  3. Konnick
    Konnick 22 November 2021 06: 57
    +10
    Quote: Pessimist22
    I would choose the AKS 74u.

    And I would be PPSh
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 22 November 2021 07: 36
      +23
      Quote: Konnick
      Quote: Pessimist22
      I would choose the AKS 74u.

      And I would be PPSh

      If you are at war, then the "Bizon" under the auger magazine of increased capacity. If you walk, then "Cypress". If you go and fight, then "Heather".
      Alas, having played a "revolution" in the design of domestic PP, we returned to the concept of PPP in the form of the Knight.
      Having our good cartridges for the PP 9x21 (for Gyurzu) and 9x39 (for Shaft), the latter is silent, we grabbed the centenary 9x19. For the army of today it is not powerful enough, for the police it is redundant. But the trend, or more banal, is the loss of the Kalashnikov concern to develop firearms. In fact, we "use" the old indestructible AK scheme, and then in terms of body kit, competing against this background with Israel, China and Bulgaria.
      I will not continue further!
      P.s. For fans of PPSh, photographs of his beloved from his home collection:



      At the last one, the "PP automation device" made a special photo to show the presence of wooden parts!
      1. Dmitry 80
        Dmitry 80 22 November 2021 12: 45
        +9
        A beautiful product, and the tree is not kotz. A couple of months ago I held this one in my hands, without a tambourine in general, like a carbine, but what I would add is the front grip, like on Tommy.
        It is better to enter with Saiga 12 with a commercial store for 20-30 grapeshot)))), and leave, leaning back with grenades.
      2. Crowe
        Crowe 22 November 2021 13: 12
        +13
        I specially made a photo to show the presence of wooden parts!
        Thank you for not being too lazy and sharing such a beauty with everyone! I envy white envy - we cannot find anything like this, thank God the front was far away. We only have a lot of things that have survived with the Civil Society ..
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 22 November 2021 17: 35
          +9
          Quote: Crowe
          Thank you for not being too lazy and sharing such a beauty with everyone! I envy white envy - we cannot find anything like this, thank God the front was far away. We only have a lot of things that have survived with the Civil Society ..

          The leader was just too lazy to lay out Tomi.
          Regarding the battles, this is not a kopanka, but the original PPSh of the 45th year of production, converted at the Hammer plant into an air rifle. A second 4,5mm is screwed into the barrel on pins and the cartridge feed mechanism is removed.
          Available to anyone over 18 years old.
    2. Catfish
      Catfish 22 November 2021 08: 44
      +7
      And I would have half a liter with a snack. laughing drinks

      Like children, by golly. tongue
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 22 November 2021 08: 55
        +1
        Quote: Sea Cat
        And I would have half a liter with a snack. laughing drinks

        And I would Sasha Gray under the Vivaldi Storm drinks
        Greetings, Constantine! hi
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 22 November 2021 09: 04
          +1
          Hi Albert! smile drinks

          Thank you for reminding me for "Storm", I have listened now and, by the way, it is very good in modern processing. good
          As for Sasha, she immediately reminded me of a familiar saleswoman from the Lesok store, the same simpleton, only her name is Lusya. fellow
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 22 November 2021 09: 09
            +1
            Simpleton. Yes. But very skilled. Striker.
            Maybe Lucy is also a drummer, I don't know, but Sasha Gray is also a drummer. laughing
            And you listened to Storm in the processing of Vanessa Mae, most likely good
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 22 November 2021 09: 21
              +2
              No, not in its processing, but now I will listen to it. smile
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar 22 November 2021 09: 24
                +2
                Quote: Sea Cat
                No, not in its processing, but now I will listen to it. smile

                Dial Vanessa Mae Storm clip 1997 (in my opinion)
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 22 November 2021 09: 52
                  +3
                  I listened. Wonderful! But the first option impressed me more, especially against the background of a video with a storm blowing to smithereens some seaside city.
                  1. Krasnodar
                    Krasnodar 22 November 2021 09: 57
                    +2
                    Quote: Sea Cat
                    I listened. Wonderful! But the first option impressed me more, especially against the background of a video with a storm blowing to smithereens some seaside city.

                    Oh you. I have not seen this good
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 22 November 2021 09: 58
                      +2
                      Unfortunately, there is just a video and no artist name. request

                      Try to dial - Antonio Vivaldi storm is a classic with a modern twist.
                      1. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 22 November 2021 10: 29
                        +1
                        Quote: Sea Cat
                        Antonio Vivaldi storm is a classic with a modern twist.

                        In shades of gray and green? Still there is a fishing boat galloping on the waves? Yes cool ))
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 22 November 2021 10: 34
                        +3
                        Yes, it looks like what I was listening to.
                      3. depressant
                        depressant 22 November 2021 16: 28
                        +6
                        Kostya, I was looking for you everywhere on a tip, but it turned out that it should be here)))
                        I know "Storm" as "Thunderstorm", I always listen in the classical version, the orchestra, the background - the city and lightning sparkle. But I listened with the boat, impressed. And the music is such that moments of frost on the skin, lifts the spirit, centuries rush in a thunderous fog before your eyes!
                      4. Catfish
                        Catfish 22 November 2021 16: 32
                        +4
                        Feels like - I agree completely. It is mesmerizing. smile
                      5. depressant
                        depressant 22 November 2021 16: 39
                        +4
                        Mesmerizing.

                        Highly recommend:
                        Karl Off, choir "Oh, Fortune!"
                        Now I’ll go and listen to it myself.
                      6. Catfish
                        Catfish 22 November 2021 17: 06
                        +4
                        Yes! Sleepiness washed away like a wave. I listened twice, the second time the Turetsky Choir - I liked it more, there was something demonic in this performance.
                      7. depressant
                        depressant 22 November 2021 17: 33
                        +5
                        You know, out of harm, I wanted to invite Albert to listen to the chorus of captured Jews from Verdi's opera "Kabucco", but she listened to it herself. This is amazing! The composer seemed to have guessed right. Hints as if either on the tango of the 40s, or on the foxtrot, and the remarks "Arc de Triomphe" ascended before our eyes. Or maybe the organizers tried so hard. The thing is powerful, but I do not recommend it to you ...
                        I hasten to see the news in the morning - sheer militarism. And the dark time of the year grips, and the frost will grab the dirt until the firmament. And all Russia attacks Ukraine, it will not attack in any way. I'm waiting for the "attack" to be made to us.
                        Is there at least one generation in our country that has never known war?
                        Weaponry is a necessary skill.
                      8. Catfish
                        Catfish 22 November 2021 17: 48
                        +4
                        Weaponry is a necessary skill.

                        "- Well, no, I will sell my pants, I will sell everything, just not a revolver. I can't live without a revolver." General Black (c)

                        Vereshchagin, too, could not be without a machine gun, but was forced to throw it away, and died immediately.

                        Our fate is - Russ ...
                      9. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 22 November 2021 17: 50
                        +1
                        Quote: depressant
                        chorus of captive Jews from Verdi's opera "Kabucco"

                        Good thing, I liked it, what's the harm? V captive Jews? laughing
                        Quote: depressant
                        Is there at least one generation in our country that has never known war?

                        More than one
                      10. depressant
                        depressant 22 November 2021 18: 10
                        +3
                        what is the harm?

                        My mischief, Albert! wassat )))
                        You said about "Storm", they say, a boat, nothing is wrong, and I got angry)))
                        "Storm" aka "Thunderstorm" from "The Seasons" is a cult thing for me, I am an adherent of Vivaldi and I think that the times when the culture of the world soared to unprecedented heights are over.
                        That was an elite culture, and now it is for the shirnarmass.
                      11. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 22 November 2021 18: 34
                        +3
                        Yes and no. The seasons are one of my favorite things, and pop has always existed, it's just that earlier they earned less from it)).
                      12. depressant
                        depressant 22 November 2021 16: 18
                        +4
                        Still there is a fishing boat galloping on the waves? Yes cool ))


                        Is it just cool? am
                        Albert, well, you and ... ahem ...
                      13. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 22 November 2021 17: 51
                        0
                        Quote: depressant
                        Still there is a fishing boat galloping on the waves? Yes cool ))


                        Is it just cool? am
                        Albert, well, you and ... ahem ...

                        I hope ahem, in a good sense of the word, Lyudmila Yakovlevna? ))
                      14. depressant
                        depressant 22 November 2021 18: 16
                        +5
                        Yes, you know me, Albert! wassat )))
                        I cannot be angry with people I respect. Sincere anger takes health away. Not only with the one at whom they are angry, but also with the one who is angry. When I realized this, and it was a long time ago, I began to work on myself in this regard. Therefore, if I say that I am offended or angry, do not believe me, then only a figure of speech yes )))
                      15. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 22 November 2021 18: 35
                        +2
                        Yes, this is a well-known anecdote about "in a good sense of the word." laughing
                      16. depressant
                        depressant 22 November 2021 18: 58
                        +3
                        Joke? So tell me! I do not know him )))
                      17. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 22 November 2021 19: 06
                        +4
                        - Monya, have you heard that Rabinovich is a pederast?
                        _ Shaw? Borrowed money from you and did not give it back?
                        - No, bugger in a good sense of the word
                      18. depressant
                        depressant 22 November 2021 19: 17
                        +4
                        You know ... In general, I am still a Soviet person))) I understand humor, but my soul does not accept - vocabulary. Either she lived in such an environment where they did not know such words. There was no need to know. But surprisingly, the phenomena, infrequent, took place. But the vocabulary did not know such a wide and free movement, ksk now.
                      19. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 22 November 2021 20: 18
                        +1
                        The vocabulary is censored, only if earlier the word pederasty meant homosexuality in general, now it means homosexual male pedophilia
                        https://ru-wikipedia-org.turbopages.org/turbo/ru.wikipedia.org/s/wiki/Педерастия
                      20. depressant
                        depressant 22 November 2021 20: 49
                        +2
                        Let it be, I don't care! )))
                        I just think that people like me, by their outward manifestations, can be accused of hypocrisy, hypocrisy, or even impertinence. In fact, this is not the case. It is a habit, ingrained from childhood, to regard certain phenomena in a certain way, which has become a mentality. And it is not clear to me what those who broke the USSR were thinking. Did they really think that by declaring capitalism to the mass of people who had not lived in it since childhood, they would be able to replace the mentality of this mass? Well, this is so, by the way, just by the way what )))
                      21. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 22 November 2021 21: 57
                        +1
                        In general, we were able to)).
                      22. depressant
                        depressant 22 November 2021 22: 15
                        +3
                        Well, if you strictly approach this issue, then partially destroying the old mentality, they did not find how to replace the resulting gap with a decent one. The slop was poured. What else? Not skills and abilities, not the habit of at least studying the basic laws, not the desire to live by them. Anyway, I'll go watch Dexter. Believe it or not, it’s a novelty for me)))
                      23. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 22 November 2021 22: 24
                        +1
                        Thanks to you, I only read what kind of series it is)).
                      24. depressant
                        depressant 22 November 2021 23: 08
                        +3
                        Now I watched episode 1 of season 1. They say the series is cult, but I will not watch. It seemed boring to me. About the killer maniac. Kind of like how it should be funny did not laugh. But the series is close to real life in the United States. You have to watch to know.
          2. Charik
            Charik 25 November 2021 13: 54
            0
            what time is it?
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 25 November 2021 18: 15
              0
              I don’t know, because it’s not my taste. request
  4. Lech from Android.
    Lech from Android. 22 November 2021 07: 04
    +4
    Where, in an enclosed space, it is necessary to crush the enemy with the density of fire, such a weapon is just right ... though you cannot find enough ammunition for it.
    But the weight of the MP7 1.8 kg is impressive ... you can carry it under your arm in a jacket or coat ... no one will notice anything ... cool.
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 22 November 2021 07: 56
      +1
      Quote: Lech from Android.
      Where, in an enclosed space, it is necessary to crush the enemy with the density of fire, such a weapon is just right ... though you cannot find enough ammunition for it.
      But the weight of the MP7 1.8 kg is impressive ... you can carry it under your arm in a jacket or coat ... no one will notice anything ... cool.

      In an enclosed space, the density of fire ..? There it is ... ricochets and all that, it works for accuracy, the density of fire is achieved by the number of trunks per square meter. meter laughing
      1. Lech from Android.
        Lech from Android. 22 November 2021 09: 02
        +4
        Yes of course... smile and special shields, armor, helmets with a shield, why ... constantly show special forces training with them.
        And then how many people with trunks are you ready to shove into the room ... one enemy grenade is enough to put everyone.
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 22 November 2021 09: 19
          +2
          You only need special protection at the entrance and during "police" operations, when they shoot alone, so as not to remove the "uninvolved". It is this kind of work that provides for accurate shooting with single ones, the shield on the helmet prevents tear gas / objects from entering the face, etc., the armor guarantees you a fracture and bruise instead of mechanical damage to internal organs.
          Work is a safe "opening of corners", the more barrels, the more efficient.
          If there are no hostages / civilians, then work in the development begins with a grenade in each room, and then the same thing, only without shields on the helmet and, moreover, special shields that an RPG can take, for example))
          1. TerraSandera
            TerraSandera 22 November 2021 09: 43
            +5
            Do you often use RPGs in the "rooms"?
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 22 November 2021 09: 46
              +2
              It depends on who you break into
              If on the territory of "unfriendly" in a building occupied by militants, they can work on you with anything
              1. TerraSandera
                TerraSandera 22 November 2021 10: 42
                +6
                It's clear. I thought, however, that it was "not safe" for the RPG operator.
                1. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 22 November 2021 10: 53
                  +1
                  And even more so for those behind him laughing But they can quite work out in this way.
                  There is a 52 mm mortar, the shot is fired by turning the wheel. The Palestinians hit with such an almost direct fire, using it as a small cannon, especially when it is necessary to shoot from the bottom up. They put the mortar on a stand (car tire, bag of sand) and figchat
      2. Saladine
        Saladine 14 January 2022 14: 56
        0
        From ricochets, etc. various bullets are invented.
  5. Skipper
    Skipper 22 November 2021 07: 07
    +5
    At the base of Vityaz, the PPK-20 (Kalashnikov submachine gun) is already going to the troops, first of all to the pilots instead of the APS.
  6. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 22 November 2021 07: 13
    +4
    The main cartridge in the FN P90 is 5,7x28 mm ammunition. Belgian samples are made specifically for this cartridge. The weapon, in addition to its compact size, is different and light weight. Without cartridges, the model weighs approximately 2,6 kg.

    Just a kilogram lighter than the AK-74.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 22 November 2021 08: 46
      +6
      When you run with him, even a hundred grams after a hundred meters will seem like a kilogram. smile
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 22 November 2021 09: 06
        +3
        Quote: Sea Cat
        When you run with him, even a hundred grams after a hundred meters will seem like a kilogram. smile

        Well, this is if you run only with him and 400 meters at speed, moreover, race with some Ethiopian laughing If you have an unloading, a helmet and an obstacle course with some kind of rope at the end, then it is more important ... the compactness of the weapon. The long, light meter M-16 interferes, the shorter the weapon, the better, in when you are under 30 - the extra kilogram somehow does not care. hi
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 22 November 2021 09: 21
          +5
          I don't know, but 10 km. in kirzach on rough terrain they will finish off anyone. Once only I could not cut it, but this memory for the rest of my life was enough in abundance. laughing
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 22 November 2021 09: 23
            +3
            Quote: Sea Cat
            I don't know, but 10 km. in kirzach on rough terrain they will finish off anyone. Once only I could not cut it, but this memory for the rest of my life was enough in abundance. laughing

            In kirzach - trash, I agree drinks Brrr
          2. Lech from Android.
            Lech from Android. 22 November 2021 11: 38
            +8
            But then, when you stuff the muscles of your legs with tarpaulins and put on sneakers ... your legs are like fluffs ... you don't feel them.
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 22 November 2021 11: 43
              +9
              When I was running in a self-propelled vehicle, in sneakers, of course, I did not feel on any legs - like fluffs ... wink drinks
              1. depressant
                depressant 22 November 2021 16: 35
                +3
                Kostya, is the drawing yours? )))
                As for the article, I liked it! The mention of "Val" warmed the soul - how many stalkers from the Pripyat exclusion zone held it in their hands! wassat )))
                Silent!
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 22 November 2021 17: 12
                  +4
                  No, the drawing is not mine. I have it from a demobilized album, but somehow it’s not very censored. smile
                  And about the "Val" in the Zone - pure fantasy, and now you can't buy cartridges for it, and then even more so. The most realistic Kalash of any model, Makar and TT with Nagant, the rest is all from the evil one.
                  1. depressant
                    depressant 22 November 2021 17: 43
                    +2
                    Well, this is fantastic)))
                    But the authors are mostly military, and even special forces. Speaking in detail about weapons in their simple plots, they seem to specifically give recommendations on the choice of weapons. But the books say so: "Val" is a rarity, an object of envy, cartridges are expensive, purchase for artifacts wassat )))
                    I love stories about simple military guys and vagrant stalkers. Everything is fair there, the strongest in spirit survives. This is if a person for a person ... But in general - oh, fortune! Like the moon you are changeable, and the mind cannot comprehend you! That poverty, that power - everything is unsteady, like ice.
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 22 November 2021 17: 56
                      +4
                      But the authors are mostly military, and even special forces


                      To be honest, I doubt it. I read several books about the Zone, then threw them away, the blunders of these "experts" in weapons are above the roof, and there is no need to talk about literary merits. The creators of the game, even though real pros advised, and they wrote shots from different types of weapons at the training ground, and these books ... Yes, God be with them, you are resting on them, and okay ... smile
                      1. depressant
                        depressant 22 November 2021 18: 23
                        +1
                        Well, why not? For example, Dmitry Sillov.
                        And if "blunders", then, as it seems to me, because of the desire to adapt the description of how the weapon is used and what it is in terms of properties, to the level of people like me who are not confused about the real features of this or that type of weapon. After all, the plot and the image of the hero are important to me)))
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 22 November 2021 18: 30
                        +3
                        I haven't read Sillova, I don't remember. But I was referring to the blatant ignorance in the description of the performance characteristics of the weapon and the methods of its use. Kind of like some of the "specialists" here are defecating.
                        Well, my time has come, I say goodbye, because the bugler is playing "lights out."
                        Till tomorrow. smile
                      3. depressant
                        depressant 22 November 2021 19: 12
                        +2
                        Dear Friend, have a nice rest! love )))
  7. Konnick
    Konnick 22 November 2021 08: 21
    +4
    Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
    At the latter, the "PP automation device" made a special photo to show the presence of wooden parts

    It is a tree that is beautiful and warm. Well, the simplicity of the design, you need to choose the most reliable weapon.
  8. Trapp1st
    Trapp1st 22 November 2021 10: 07
    +7
    This model is in service with the Vatican Swiss Guard.
    It is not clear why they needed MP7 when they themselves were at the origins of Vector !?
    It is interesting in the opinion of the author of Vector where in the rating, if he did not get into the 5th grade))
  9. Seamaster
    Seamaster 22 November 2021 11: 34
    +3
    "Uzi" was created as a Jewish analogue of the PPSh or "Wall" with a wooden butt - a submachine gun for infantry. He had a wooden stock and a weight equal to the weight of the PPSh. No one planned to wear it under the armpit or in the belt. And then, as the concept of infantry weapons changed, they began to "cut" and "shave off" it, turning it into a weapon for special forces and bandits. But they never got rid of its inherent weight. And all these "Mini" and "Micro" are not the famous "Uzi". This is something made not even on its basis, but under the same label.
    1. atalef
      atalef 22 November 2021 11: 42
      0
      Quote: Seamaster
      "Uzi" was created as a Jewish analogue of the PPSh or "Wall" with a wooden butt - a submachine gun for infantry. He had a wooden stock and a weight equal to the weight of the PPSh. No one planned to wear it under the armpit or in the belt. And then, as the concept of infantry weapons changed, they began to "cut" and "shave off" it, turning it into a weapon for special forces and bandits. But they never got rid of its inherent weight. And all these "Mini" and "Micro" are not the famous "Uzi". This is something made not even on its basis, but under the same label.

      You would at least read it for a start, then you would understand that ultrasound and ppsh are completely different designs, and even about the fact that mini and micro are not Uzi, as I understand you. Did you hold and shoot in your hands?
      I was shooting and somehow it seemed to me that it was an ultrasound, but were you holding it in your hands? Did they shoot?
      1. Zufei
        Zufei 22 November 2021 12: 13
        +5
        Quote: atalef

        You would at least read it for a start, then you would understand that ultrasound and PPSh are completely different designs

        Free shutter, rear whispered motionless drummer - yes they are brothers! )
        1. Maki Avellevich
          Maki Avellevich 22 November 2021 20: 26
          +3
          Quote: Zufei
          Quote: atalef

          You would at least read it for a start, then you would understand that ultrasound and PPSh are completely different designs

          Free shutter, rear whispered motionless drummer - yes they are brothers! )

          well then, here's another brother:

    2. Catfish
      Catfish 22 November 2021 17: 17
      0
      "Uzi" was created as a Jewish analogue of the PPSh or "Wall" with a wooden butt - a submachine gun for infantry.

      And where did you find this nonsense of a gray mare, a home-grown specialist? I slapped a minus with great pleasure. for do not go where you do not understand anything.
    3. vl903
      vl903 24 November 2021 11: 26
      0
      Quote: Seamaster
      "Uzi" was created as a Jewish analogue of the PPSh or "Wall" with a wooden butt - a submachine gun for infantry. He had a wooden stock and a weight equal to the weight of the PPSh. No one planned to wear it under the armpit or in the belt. And then, as the concept of infantry weapons changed, they began to "cut" and "shave off" it, turning it into a weapon for special forces and bandits. But they never got rid of its inherent weight. And all these "Mini" and "Micro" are not the famous "Uzi". This is something made not even on its basis, but under the same label.

      weight is what you do not like? weight should be proportional to stability when shooting and inversely proportional to recoil.
      you can make a titanium aluminum PP, but no one can shoot successfully from it
  10. sen
    sen 22 November 2021 13: 19
    +4
    The best special forces submachine guns

    A good weapon, but the barmaley also began to wear body armor. It can reduce the caliber to 7,62 to increase the speed of the bullet, and make the bolt semi-free (kinematic-inertial) for ease of use. Reducing the proportion of the recoil force attributable to the shutter, by decomposing it into two forces. One of which directly acts on the barrel or receiver, and the other on the free breechblock. This can be done using a lever (beam) or wedge-rotor mechanism. You can read A.A. Blagonravov. "Foundations for the design of automatic weapons", M, Voenizdat, 1940,
    http://rufort.info/lib/blagonravov-a-a-osnovaniya-proektirovaniya-avtomaticheskogo-oruzhiya-1940/
    "Material part of small arms", ed. Blagonravova A.A., book. 1-2, M, Military Publishing, 1945-1946, there are many examples.
    And make a bullet with a screwdriver.
  11. Illanatol
    Illanatol 22 November 2021 14: 08
    +3
    Quote: sen
    A good weapon, but the barmaley also began to wear body armor.


    PP "Whirlwind" chambered for 9X39 (shortened modification of the VAL).
    And the rest is fart, sorry for my French.
  12. Max PV
    Max PV 22 November 2021 15: 26
    +6
    Now the PP as an army weapon is practically supplanted by shortened machine guns / assault rifles. With the proliferation of SIBZ, which are now available even for barmaley, the penetration of conventional pistol cartridges has become absolutely insufficient, since it is the protection against NATO 9x19 with an all-metal shell that is now the minimum for the durability of body armor. PDW-shny 5,7x28 and 4,6x30 are also capable of something, as well as our 9x19 7H21 and 7H31, and that's all. Moreover, in the West with 9x19 there is also the problem of standardization in terms of the limiting parameters of the impulse, and most importantly the pressure, which complicates the development of an effective armor-piercing cartridge in this caliber. What was adopted as a NATO standard in the 50s is now a problem, and weapons for it, for example, are unsuitable for domestic high-impulse cartridges. How many people have killed the same magnificent Glocks, charging them with 7N21, or even 7N31.
    In addition, the development of pistol-caliber armor-piercing cartridges is not weakly hindered by US legislation (the main consumer of pistol cartridges), where expansive and explosive bullets are more legal than armor-piercing bullets on the civilian market.
    In general, the PP is now almost a purely police weapon, winning due to the lower propensity of the bullet to ricochet and compactness.
  13. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 23 November 2021 15: 04
    +1
    It's easier to buy a Glock with a stock and sights.

    And nothing else is needed for close combat.
    The cartridge is powerful enough. The accuracy is decent. Light.
    1. yehat2
      yehat2 19 January 2022 12: 41
      0
      Quote: voyaka uh
      It's easier to buy a Glock with a stock and sights.

      for this money it is fashionable to buy a used tank request
  14. Living7111972
    Living7111972 12 January 2022 21: 58
    0
    A whirlwind, let it be an automatic, but I would choose for the dimensions, like PP. Well, efki
  15. vick vickers
    vick vickers 15 January 2022 18: 50
    0
    FN P90 - a rare grave, "in dozens of countries" it most likely lies in gun parks - the weak point is the same plastic garbage that unfolds the cartridge before feeding it into the chamber, even with a single fire, the cartridges get stuck in it
    Ultrasound - simplicity and reliability, a kind of product of a rural blacksmith, but at the same time an absolutely trouble-free machine, designed primarily for mechanical drivers, as a regular barrel, well, for urban operations, with such a mass you can shoot "from the belly and with a fan" - not miss.
    MP5 is technical perfection, but when disassembled it is a bunch of small parts that are easy to lose, well, that’s how it is intended for Special Forces, and the Western specialist will not clean the barrel immediately after use on the stump, it will reach the PPD.
    MP7 - I won’t say anything, according to open data, look for it in Germany and look for it - and it’s not a fact that you will find it, it’s definitely not in the Bundeswehr (the cartridge was rejected by NATO bosses), most likely in the BND and maybe even in SGS-9, but these guys do not share their impressions in principle wink
    The Vityaz (in any version) is the native "Ksenia", familiar to the last pin (which is a plus), and even with reduced recoil due to the 9X19 cartridge used (which is also a plus), in general, for our person, the choice is obvious smile
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. yehat2
      yehat2 19 January 2022 12: 39
      0
      Quote: vick vickers
      Vityaz (in any version) is the native "Ksenia"

      explain the idea, not everything is deep in the topic request
      1. vick vickers
        vick vickers 21 January 2022 20: 29
        0
        "Ksyuha" --AKS-74U
  16. yehat2
    yehat2 19 January 2022 12: 37
    0
    the r-90 has a specific cartridge. Can it be considered a special forces weapon?
    1. vick vickers
      vick vickers 21 January 2022 20: 41
      0
      Submachine gun P-90, pistol FN 57 - cartridge 5,7X28
      HK MP-7 - cartridge 4,6x30 smile special forces have their own requirements, which are not always clear to us mere mortals wink
  17. Amateur
    Amateur 10 February 2022 21: 17
    0
    Colleagues! Does the FN P90 really have any sense or just show-offs?
    The automation scheme itself with a 90 ° rotation of the cartridge raises doubts about reliability. And the ergonomics are "peculiar".
    Has anyone held this device in their hands. How will it "function" in the rain or if it is dropped into the mud.
    Only a request to those who know, and not to those who "think" drinks
    1. IVZ
      IVZ April 6 2022 22: 34
      0
      Dismantled, studied, but did not shoot. The trigger, by the way, is one to one with the AUG-77, in my opinion, it is even unified in terms of basic details. In his hands with dummies of cartridges, he seemed to work - he served, reflected. But some sense of distrust did not go away.
  18. IVZ
    IVZ April 6 2022 22: 21
    0
    PP as a military weapon is not relevant. It is used mainly or as a police one, and then a large-caliber pistol cartridge with a high stopping effect of a bullet not prone to ricochets is desirable, or as an emergency one as part of an aviation NAZ, for arming military personnel of non-combat specialties and as a self-defense weapon for command personnel and specialists (tankers, grenade launchers etc.). And in this case, penetrating small-caliber cartridges with good ballistics are relevant. It is precisely such weapons that the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation sorely lack. At least, I think so. In shooting, the most convenient and comfortable in my memory were PPSh, PPS and MP-38. At the MPi-69, at the moment the shutter was released from the rear sear, the pickup was great, stronger than that of the above samples. "Chestnut" is too miniature and therefore not very convenient. "Cypress" well, "Scorpio" under 9x18 is right a Mercedes in comparison with it. Thanks to the author of the article for pleasant memories.