Technical features of the AMS "Luna-25"


Model of AMS "Luna-25" at one of the exhibitions, 2015

The launch of the automatic interplanetary station "Luna-25" is scheduled for July next year. For the first time in 46 years, a domestic vehicle will land on the moon and carry out the necessary research. Right now, Roskosmos and related organizations are carrying out the next stage of preparation for a future launch, and the situation is conducive to optimism. The Luna-25 project is of great importance for Russian science, and in addition, it is of great interest from a technical point of view.

On development stage

Work on the future lunar AMS, then called "Luna-Globe", began in 2005. For several years, the first version of the project was developed, but in 2011 it was decided to radically rebuild the entire mission. As a result of this decision, in early 2013, they launched the development of a new AMC with a different architecture, different goals and objectives. At the same time, a new name "Luna-25" appeared - by analogy with previous expeditions.

Over the next few years, NPO them. Lavochkina and other organizations determined the technical appearance of the station, and also completed the development of the project. In parallel, scientific instruments were created. Since 2016, various tests of individual components and models for various purposes have been carried out. The main part of the design and other work on the station itself and its instrumentation was completed in 2019-20.

To date, NPO them. The shopkeeper completed the construction of "Luna-25" and is now installing the necessary equipment and conducting various tests. Also, certain shortcomings are identified and eliminated. For example, right now the debugging of the speed and drift measuring device DISD-LR is being carried out, and it will be completed within a few days.

Station at one of the assembly stages

All this work will take several more months. Next spring, the station will be sent to the Vostochny cosmodrome. A few days ago, the Fregat upper stage, which will be used at launch, was delivered to the cosmodrome. In addition, the construction of the Soyuz-2.1b launch vehicle continues.

It should be noted that at the design and construction stage, the Luna-25 project has repeatedly encountered various difficulties. Because of them, the composition of the devices changed, as well as the launch dates were revised. At the moment, the start of the mission is scheduled for the launch window in May-July 2022 - and these plans, most likely, will be fulfilled.

Launch issues

Initially, it was planned to use the Soyuz-2 carrier rocket to launch the first version of the AMS, then called "Luna-Glob". This version of the mission was worked out for several years and made it possible to solve all the assigned tasks. However, a fundamental revision of the project in 2011-12. led to the replacement of the media. Soyuz-2 did not fully comply with the updated requirements, and instead they decided to use the Zenit-2 product.

Further development of the project led to new changes. In the mid-tenths, the final version of the mission was approved, providing for the use of the Soyuz-2.1b launch vehicle and the Fregat upper stage. Products of these types are mastered in production and in operation, and also show all the necessary characteristics and are able to cope with the assigned tasks.

Assembled AMC for acoustic tests, February 2021

According to the flight plan, the Soyuz-2.1b rocket will raise its load to a given altitude, after which the Fregat will bring the Luna-25 into the flight path to the Earth's satellite. The AMC will perform further phases of flight and maneuvers independently and using its own propulsion system. Depending on the launch date and the trajectory used, the flight will take no more than 5-6 days. Then, after several days in orbit, the device will land in one of the polar regions of the Moon.

Station appearance

Luna-25 is an automated probe capable of soft landing on the lunar surface. Structurally, the product is divided into a landing gear and an instrument compartment. The total mass of the AMS is 1540 kg. Scientific equipment weight - 30 kg. The term of active existence is 1 year.

The landing gear is a platform with shock-absorbing supports, propulsion system, tanks, etc. This module will provide flight along a given trajectory, circling the moon and a soft landing. On top of it is a leaky instrument compartment with solar panels and an isotope energy source, the station's own electronics and scientific instruments.

AMS "Luna-25" has its own navigation and control devices, with the help of which it will fly and land, and then use scientific instruments. Among other things, such a complex includes the Bius-L inertial navigation device and the DISD-LR Doppler speed and range meter. The integration of scientific equipment with power supply and control systems is provided by the BUNI complex.

Upper stage "Fregat" for "Luna-25" at the Vostochny cosmodrome, November 11, 2021

The station is equipped with a developed digital communication and data transmission system, which will ensure the solution of the main tasks of the expedition. It will provide stable communication at ranges of up to 410 thousand km, which exceeds the apogee of the moon. Communication means will allow receiving data at a speed of at least 128 kbps and transmitting at a speed of 64 kbps.

Scientific mission

The final set of scientific equipment includes instruments developed by the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the European Space Agency. In the early stages of Luna 25, other organizations were also interested. So, the Swedish Institute of Space Physics planned to send its XSAN detector of ions and neutral atoms to the Russian AMS by 2018.

Eight instruments and a BUNI control system are installed on board the Luna-25. The ADRON-LR neutron and gamma-ray detector will be used to study the composition of the regolith to a depth of 600 mm. Soil samples will be studied by a laser spectrometer LAZMA-LR. The study of dust particles and their dynamics will be carried out by the PML device. To ensure the operation of some of the instruments, a manipulator LMK has been developed, which is capable of taking soil samples. The infrared spectrometer LIS-TV-RPM is installed directly on it.

The lunar exosphere will be investigated by the ARIES-L device instead of the Swedish XSAN. To monitor the surrounding area, the station received a STS-L television system with four panoramic cameras, two cameras for photographing the surface and two stereoscopic cameras for controlling the LMK manipulator. Before landing, in low lunar orbit, Luna-25 will use the Pilot-D optical complex developed by the IKI RAS and ESA. With its help, promising landing technologies will be worked out.

Landing the station on the moon - so far in the artist's view

During the year of its operation, "Luna-25" will have time to conduct a comprehensive study of the exosphere and soil of the natural satellite of the Earth. In this case, the main attention is paid to the study of the regolith. This will complement the existing knowledge about the moon and the formation of the solar system. In addition, if the existing hypotheses are confirmed, a scientific foundation will be created for future expeditions, incl. with human participation. It is expected that from the lunar soil it will be possible to extract water, oxygen and even hydrogen fuel.


Due to various factors and circumstances, the development and implementation of the Luna-Glob / Luna-25 project was seriously delayed. The start of work on the first version of the mission and the expected launch are more than 15 years apart. Nevertheless, by now the developers have managed to cope with all the difficulties, and the project is moving on to the last stages of preparation.

According to recently announced plans, next spring Luna-25 will go to the Vostochny cosmodrome for final checks, docking with the upper stage and installation on a launch vehicle. At the same time, the main and reserve launch dates will be determined. According to various estimates, the start will be appointed closer to the end of the launch window. Accordingly, the first scientific data will go to Earth before the end of the summer.

Thus, a complex and lengthy project is moving forward. Despite all the difficulties, the organizations from Roscosmos and the Russian Academy of Sciences coped with the assigned tasks, and in a few months a new expedition will begin. It should be recalled that this will be the first domestic lunar landing mission in the past few decades - and for this reason alone it is of particular importance.
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  1. +3
    19 November 2021 05: 05
    Without the development of the Moon, mankind will continue to scratch the Earth's orbit and poke the needles of probes towards the stars.
    1. +14
      19 November 2021 05: 20
      ... For the first time in 46 years
      Yeah, an impressive period of stagnation ... sad
      1. -1
        19 November 2021 05: 23
        It is expected that from the lunar soil it will be possible to extract water, oxygen and even hydrogen fuel.
        still digging potatoes ... yeah .. and in bags by a commodity shuttle immediately to the market.
        1. 0
          19 November 2021 05: 26
          Quote: Grandfather as old
          directly to the market.
          Early radish, onion, greens ... feel
        2. +4
          19 November 2021 09: 02
          Quote: Grandfather as old
          still digging potatoes

          They do not perceive our lunar agricultural program here .. stop They trust Rogozin more! sad
          1. +1
            19 November 2021 09: 26
            Quote: Uncle Lee
            Quote: Grandfather as old
            still digging potatoes

            They do not perceive our lunar agricultural program here .. stop They trust Rogozin more! sad

            these are the followers of the sect ... it is better not to touch them, infectious! wassat
        3. Fat
          19 November 2021 13: 39
          hi And then Mayakovsky, "in a yellow jacket, reaching to his knees ... Carrying 15 bags of carrots." wassat
      2. +6
        19 November 2021 10: 15
        Yeah, the period of stagnation is impressive .... sad

        Yeah. Luna 24 - 1976!

        So soon the Lunokhod will be launched! laughing
        1. +14
          19 November 2021 10: 42
          Domestic optimism sometimes rolls over.
          The head of IKI RAN Litvak issued a pearl at the RAS council:
          "If this mission (Luna-25) is realized, then here we will be able to get ahead not only of the Chinese, but also of other contenders of this lunar race."
          What is it like?
          It turns out that just dropping a piece of metal onto the surface of the Moon means putting China on the shovels.
          Those. Chinese lunar rovers, a mission with Chang'e-5, during which an automatic docking of a spacecraft in lunar orbit and delivery of lunar soil to Earth was carried out - this is all nonsense compared to Russia's future achievements (and it begs to be heard - they have no analogues). We no longer mention the States.
          About "several days" of repair of DISD-LR - where is this from?
          "Lavka" discovered a malfunction at the beginning of the month, "Vega" promises to eliminate the defect and complete the incoming inspection of the device only by the end of November at best. But it could be. It may not be.
          1. -8
            19 November 2021 11: 46
            And what did the Americans and the Chinese do? Maybe they haven't investigated what our station is going to do.
            1. +4
              19 November 2021 15: 22
              This despite the fact that there are TWO rovers on Mars and a Helicopter flies!
              1. -2
                19 November 2021 15: 51
                And what did they do on the moon? What did their rover investigate there (I don’t know if there was at least one rover on the moon. Here was our lunar rover)?
          2. 0
            20 November 2021 13: 31
            Quote: Cosm22
            "Lavka" discovered a malfunction at the beginning of the month, "Vega" promises to eliminate the defect

            Again "Vega" bungles !!
            Neither A-100 can compose, nor equipment for aircraft / helicopters PLO, nor ..... can a commissioner and Mauser send there? They say it helps.
        2. 0
          8 February 2022 14: 31
          Quote: Arzt
          So soon the Lunokhod will be launched!

          I don't see anything wrong with that. The development of automation systems that have been lost (for sure, like Buranostroenie) since the times of the USSR is necessary: ​​"better little by little, but forward, than soon forward, but then back-back-back."
    2. 0
      19 November 2021 21: 56
      Once I read that there are a lot of resources of interest to earthlings on the moon. It is interesting for scientific purposes only. Maybe as a base for launching into space, and it's not clear how, if hydrogen can be added there, then how a gas station what
  2. -5
    19 November 2021 05: 26
    Nothing will happen in Rogozin, I do not believe. Will explode upon entering orbit as Phobos-Grunt.
    1. -8
      19 November 2021 05: 47
      Much earlier
      1. +4
        19 November 2021 07: 45
        Quote: Drot Gyt
        Much earlier

        what Tomorrow?
        1. 0
          19 November 2021 08: 50
          Quote: Serg65

          Yesterday ! sad
          1. 0
            19 November 2021 10: 34
            No. Yesterday was Thursday and didn't smell like Friday request
            1. 0
              19 November 2021 10: 40
              "After joy, trouble,
              on the theory of probability ".... sad
    2. 0
      19 November 2021 13: 42
      And Rogozin has nothing to do with it? Have you been denied access to the network? Phobos-Grunt was unsuccessfully launched in 2011, and Rogozin RK has been supervising only since 2018
  3. +6
    19 November 2021 05: 45
    Our eternal problem, OUR PLANS Gramadieu !!!
    If, having initially decided on the equipment and goals, they did not change all this for another, then they would probably have already sent it. But to transfer the project three times, yes .... As an engineer by training, I understand that in fact THREE projects were calculated .... God, now ANYTHING will not be altered. hi
    1. +7
      19 November 2021 08: 53
      If initially, having decided on the equipment and goals, they did not change

      So after all, they did not change at all of their own free will.
      For example. Initially, the station was to be equipped with an inertial navigation unit BIB weighing 1,5 kg. The station was designed for it. But the developer - NPO IT, could not develop the block. And the imported Astrix could not be bought due to the sanctions. I had to develop a new one, on our own element base. NGO them. Pilyugin worked out. Only the weight turned out to be 10 kg with the corresponding dimensions and energy consumption. Naturally, the ALS, where every millimeter of area and every gram of weight matters, had to be rearranged.
    2. AUL
      19 November 2021 14: 16
      Quote: jonht
      But to transfer the project three times, yes ... I, as an engineer by education, understand that in fact THREE projects were calculated ...

      And each project was approved, funding was opened for each, and as a result, at least two of them were thrown into the trash along with the approved funding and labor costs! And, by the way, on each approved project on the papers there are the signatures of the approvers! I think it’s worth asking for overdue money from these signers!
  4. +4
    19 November 2021 06: 11
    The main thing is not to forget the Bolts where you need to tighten and keep an eye on so that they don't drill extra holes ... Well, paint the rocket in Khokhloma, where can you go without it, without Khokhloma, that is wassat
    1. -2
      19 November 2021 06: 32
      Quote: Klingon
      Well, paint a rocket in Khokhloma, where can I do without it, without Khokhloma, that is

    2. +3
      19 November 2021 08: 20
      Well, paint a rocket in Khokhloma, where can I do without it, without Khokhloma, that is

      The main thing is not to forget to consecrate. It is impossible without Gundyaev's blessing.
  5. +4
    19 November 2021 06: 20
    Luna-25 has already been moved 7 times.
    I hope the transfers will stop at this figure, but it is better to wait until complete verification and full readiness, and then talk about the start window
    1. -3
      19 November 2021 13: 43
      let them transfer it, the main thing is that it should be launched in the end, and not ditched ..
  6. +14
    19 November 2021 06: 49
    "Over the next few years, the Lavochkin NPO and other organizations have determined the technical appearance of the station ..."
    1. +11
      19 November 2021 08: 07
      Quote: Alexey 1970
      or have you still defined the technical look?

      Back then, the achievements in space exploration were impressive, but now they are disappointing ...
      October 4, 1957 - launching the first satellite into low-earth orbit;
      November 3, 1957 - launch of the first research satellite with a living creature on board into near-earth orbit;
      January 2, 1959 - the first automatic interplanetary station, the first man-made object in solar orbit;
      September 12, 1959 - landing of an automatic interplanetary station on the Moon for research purposes;
      October 4, 1959 - unmanned flyby of the Moon by an automatic interplanetary station with photographing of its far side;
      April 12, 1961 - the first manned flight into space (Yuri Gagarin);
      August 6, 1961 - flight into space of the second cosmonaut (German Titov) of the Vostok-2 spacecraft;
      August 11-12, 1962 - tandem flight of two manned Spacecraft;
      November 1, 1962 - the first automatic interplanetary station in the Martian orbit for research purposes;
      October 12, 1964 - the first flight of the crew consisting of three people;
      March 18, 1965 - the first manned spacewalk.
      November 17, 1970 - landing on the moon of the first rover Lunokhod-1.
      April 19, 1971 - launch of the first Salyut-1 orbital station into orbit.
      July 15, 1975 - Soviet and American spacecraft docking in space under the Soyuz-Apollo program.
      February 20, 1986 - launch of the first multi-module orbital station "Mir" into orbit.
      1. +15
        19 November 2021 08: 44
        So it becomes sad that this is how they work. But in the oil and gas industry, the project is designed for three years, they do it in one and a half two years. For 12 years he has worked on the construction of oil pipelines, now we are building the petrochemical plant and the deadlines are always shifted to the left, not to the right.
  7. 0
    19 November 2021 08: 13
    take soil samples

    and send it to Earth at the second cosmic speed. But for this it is necessary to land at least three automatic stations on the moon at the vertices of an equilateral triangle with an edge of 200 m and to establish communication between them with the perimeter guard. For example, infrared or microwave mm range sensors on telescopic retractable masts.
  8. +4
    19 November 2021 09: 27
    I remember that Roscoosmos promised the Moon by 2015.
    This is only 7 years behind. Before their own promises.
  9. +4
    19 November 2021 09: 29
    Good news! I will keep my fists, so that everything works out!
    1. +1
      19 November 2021 12: 18
      Quote: Vadim Kukhtiev
      Good news! I will keep my fists, so that everything works out!

      how will you eat all these years?
  10. +1
    19 November 2021 09: 41
    Is there really something understudied in the regolith ???
    Without the creation of a permanent lunar base, further space exploration is ephemeral. Projects from the 60s to modernize, adapt and implement !!!
    1. +1
      19 November 2021 12: 06
      Projects from the 60s to modernize, adapt and implement !!!

      Now it is easier to do some projects that were still impossible at that time. You can try to send a moving printer to the moon and print a large-scale (1:30, for example) model dwelling made of metal on the surface and include, using a robotic arm, sensors for observation and batteries for power supply. This would greatly help its future development and research - it would be possible to print sensors and devices and all kinds of engineering structures - right at the research object. And it will be a private company, not the state, that will cope with this. People are not yet sent, but robots and some kind of microcircuits to learn to produce right on the spot.
      For example, to print such an inflatable base, you need to learn how to produce a very thin sheet of metal and cut and weld it - in lunar conditions, polymers and fabrics will not last long and it is important to be able to make inflatable structures from a metal film.
      1. 0
        19 November 2021 12: 08
        I agree, the main thing is progress! hi
        1. +3
          19 November 2021 12: 18
          fantasies damn it ...
          1. Fat
            19 November 2021 13: 44
            hi Uncle! Have you started? Get it! I remember the "planetarium in the cultural park" with models and space-dwellers .... PANCAKE! laughing laughing laughing
            Fixed ambiguous Yes
          2. 0
            19 November 2021 18: 47
            fantasies damn it ...

            Well, it's just cheaper and more efficient. Economically, now it makes no sense to do something on the lunar surface by the forces of people, and it is dangerous to send them there. But this does not mean that it is impossible to engage in technical science and materials science. Now, for example, a kubsat satellite can afford a university or, with the support of sponsors, a school. It is also possible to send them to the moon now - structures for payloads in one of such competitions of school robotization should not exceed a bar of soap (10x10x5 cm) in size and weigh no more than 0,4 kg. That is, NASA is already beginning to attract schoolchildren and all sorts of small creative teams to design lunar robots -
            But the scientific results of these inexpensive studies will be used later. And now some kind of political results will be obtained from them - you can create a profile program, name it appropriately and systematically send some kind of standardized landing block with a set of small specialized robots. For the economy, this will not be an unnecessary stress and allows supporting high-tech industries and specialists so that they do not have to look for work abroad and maintain the level of prestige in the world.
            In any case, this is a good project for uniting a group of Russian universities around this topic - they are quite capable of making high-tech devices.
      2. +2
        19 November 2021 16: 48
        Private companies in Russia do not get a chance, but they can present some kind of project, but the financing will be received in the end by the same NPO Lavochkina. This is a road open to all private companies, starting with all kinds of university startups, with a successful project they receive funding from NASA. But the Russian Buzines cannot work like that. wassat
  11. +3
    19 November 2021 10: 11
    When the Chinese launched their stations on the moon, they had rice there, for example. It seems like they were grown on the moon to full condition. So we are waiting for Rogozin to have moon radish! good
  12. +3
    19 November 2021 10: 29
    Good luck!!!
  13. -3
    19 November 2021 11: 32
    I am very worried about the mission, if only everything worked out. Next year there will also be a launch to Mars.
    1. +1
      19 November 2021 12: 19
      Quote: Serpent Gorynych
      I am very worried about the mission, if only everything worked out. Next year there will also be a launch to Mars.

      and on "tau whale" but, there "the weather is not the same ..." (C) Vysotsky
      1. 0
        20 November 2021 15: 19
        The taukites
        In the alphabet of words -
        A little, and the system is bourgeois,
        And their humor is ugly

    2. 0
      19 November 2021 13: 23
      Typo, huh?
      There will be a POK on Mars !!!
  14. +6
    19 November 2021 12: 06
    As I remember now, a year ago, on the pages of VO, a well-known commentator, drowning for space in full with foam at the mouth, argued to me that "IN OCTOBER WILL FLY". He proved with ardor and conviction, tried so hard that I looked forward to October as my second birthday. Well, that's it, that's it. Didn't fly. The device with 25 kg of payload will again wait in the wings, it is not known how long. So it goes ! Success as it is.
    1. -3
      19 November 2021 13: 47
      laughing am I not the case?
      1. +4
        19 November 2021 14: 30
        No, it seemed to be Slipped) I just wanted to once again emphasize for those who truly believe the degree of blatant uselessness in organizing even such, in general, not super technologically breakthrough projects ..
        1. -4
          19 November 2021 15: 55
          Well, what they postpone is sad, but on the other hand, it is clear that they are working and gaining competence ... and this is the most important thing.
          1. +1
            19 November 2021 16: 40
            I just look at it all - here we lost in the Moon Race at one time, this is a fairly well-studied story with conclusions about the fact that the dispersal of forces is badly blabby, the lack of political will is badly blabby, muddy planning is badly blabby, sort of like we are revered by space, the first man-satellite-dog, there is a lot of pathos, films are filmed and ... and everything is on the old knurled track, as if this historical, sad experience does not exist. Now, after all, we are also "heading for success", despite the fact that there are plans, huge money is allocated for them, the HORN regularly shakes the air - but then we go to a loss, again. This saddens most of all. When it is necessary to rewrite the constitution, or raise the retirement age, or screw some vile little tip - we know how ... but here it’s a shame, a year is practically in the pipe - and laaadno. Then, after all, our children will read history and ask our generation - "why didn’t we become the second in the Lunar race? After all, they were so steep in space, for ten years it was at least stable for training." What will they answer .. all this sad story, in short.
            1. -4
              19 November 2021 16: 49
              and we have a race? meaning to spread the extra 2-3 trillion rubles ahead of time? what will it change? to fly to the moon. The fact is that the Cosmos will give results at best to our grandchildren ..
  15. Fat
    19 November 2021 13: 34
    Old man. I am trying after many years to raise this game. Thank you, Buddy. Not so much for the game, but for the recognition of the era. Yes
    By the way ... I play and lose as hell .... I am angry, as the "micro-pose" was expecting ... Not many simulators provide an opportunity to "replay" the situation ... But what if?
  16. +4
    19 November 2021 15: 25
    Interestingly - this 30 kg of equipment will include a camera capable of taking QUALITATIVE COLOR shots of the Moon instead of the wretched gray daub that we are still being treated to?
  17. +2
    19 November 2021 16: 27
    It was necessary to quickly learn how to land a platform on the moon. And only then put the devices on this platform. Otherwise, either the rocket will not take off, or the platform will not land, or the devices will not work.
  18. +4
    19 November 2021 16: 53
    Quote: Knell Wardenheart
    No, it seemed to be Slipped) I just wanted to once again emphasize for those who truly believe the degree of blatant uselessness in organizing even such, in general, not super technologically breakthrough projects ..

    Oooh, this Sleeper has everything cool flying and being developed, he will even give you about every Russian Bolt that flew on bourgeois vehicles for the Great Achievement. By the way, he is now here all adequate realists and minus
  19. 0
    19 November 2021 21: 37
    "The total mass of the AMS is 1540 kg. The weight of the scientific equipment is 30 kg."
    Payload 1,94% of mass.
    Lunar module Apollo 11 landing module - characteristics:
    weight including fuel -10334 tons (including water storage tank 151 kg.)
    while the mass of fuel and oxidizer is 8165 kg.
    We get a payload - 21% !!!!! This is NASA magic!
    Of course, with such a payload, you can fly to the moon with a man !?
    1. 0
      30 November 2021 21: 55
      Luna 17 1970 with a mass of 5600 kg delivered to the moon a lunar rover weighing 750 kg, which is about 13% of the mass. (we still don’t count the fuel)
      Maybe this is not the magic of nasa, but just someone forgot how to build spacecraft?
  20. +1
    19 November 2021 22: 01
    Project AMS-25 / Luna - a coffin. :)
  21. 0
    19 December 2021 20: 41
    Success to the project! But the overclocking module has no place for a man in work clothes! Hygiene must be observed!
  22. 0
    15 January 2022 20: 59
    survived at last
  23. 0
    9 February 2022 08: 50
    Spend so many lards of public money to throw 30kg of junk on Chinese chips onto the moon?
    Of course success!
  24. 0
    18 February 2022 16: 15
    "... For example, right now the debugging of the DISD-LR speed and drift measuring device is being carried out, and it will be completed within a few days ...".
    And what, a Doppler meter - such and such? DISS, it seems, was studied by us at the flight school in the early 1970s. In general, Luna-25 slightly jumped over that "Moon", which is half a century older.
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