Military Review

About the power of fear. How Hitler paralyzed Europe

25
About the power of fear. How Hitler paralyzed Europe
Republican poster of 1937, issued after the bombing of Guernica. “We blame the murderers of innocent children and women! Free people of Spain, let's fight back all who support fascism in the rear! "


Apparatus for psychological operations


In the pre-war years and in the first period of the war, the Germans were in the lead in the field of information and psychological influence, and their opponents played the role of catch-ups. Nazi Germany used innovative methods.

First, the Nazis achieved high results in coordinating political, propaganda (including subversive) and military efforts in time.

Secondly, they skillfully implemented the recommendations of scientific psychology for military purposes, having thoroughly studied the psychology of the masses.

Thirdly, a widely ramified and prepared apparatus for psychological operations was created.

On September 1, 1939, the Germans had 14 propaganda companies, and by June 22, 1941, 19 companies (12 companies in the ground forces, 4 in the Air Force and 3 in the Navy). There were also 6 platoons of SS war correspondents.

In addition, to work with the local population, each of the three army groups (North, Center and South) formed a special propaganda battalion, which published newspapers in local languages, broadcast radio broadcasts through the captured broadcast radio stations, and showed films of the corresponding topic.

By the spring of 1943, the number of Wehrmacht propaganda units reached 15 thousand people.


German leaflet in the fall of 1941, addressed to the servicemen of the USSR, about the alleged surrender of Yakov Dzhugashvili

Psychological war


The Nazis, preparing for future wars, understood perfectly well that for a complete, quick and low-cost victory, it was necessary to strike the enemy's consciousness, his psyche, fetter his will and mind with fear.

Traditional war - the defeat of the armies of the enemy, his fleet, Air Force, the destruction of transport and industrial infrastructure, of course, is also necessary, but it requires a lot of time and huge costs - human, financial and material resources. It is easier to win immediately in the field of psyche, information, and the enemy himself surrenders, which will save his time and resources and capture the enemy.

In fact, it is terror. The struggle of the weaker, in terms of resources - people, technology, money, industrial and raw material potential, with the stronger. So, initially, Hitler's Germany was much weaker than its main enemies - France, England, which relied on their huge colonial empires, and the USSR.

It is interesting that from the perspective of their colonial, Eastern policy, in the racial issue and attitude towards "subhumans", as well as in the field of terror, the Nazis were talented students of their older brothers - the British, the Anglo-Saxons. They have mastered and developed their methods. Suffice it to recall how, with the help of the most severe terror, the masters of England first broke and enslaved most of their population - peasants who were deprived of their land, livelihood, drove into workhouses and factories.

By the most brutal methods of slave labor, exploitation of people, including women and children, literally completely "sucking" people, their health and energy (hence the popularity of the image of ghouls-vampires in the West), created the initial capital. This also includes the open slave trade, robbery piracy and drug trafficking. Then the Westernizers turned their predatory gaze to America, Africa, India, China, Australia and other countries, peoples, tribes and islands.

The Anglo-Saxons created an effective, almost global slave-owning civilization. They enslaved hundreds of countries, nationalities and tribes. Any resistance was crushed with the help of terror, the "divide and conquer" strategy, weapons genocide - tobacco, alcohol and drugs. The Anglo-Saxons destroyed almost all the great tribes of North America, and the pitiful remnants of the once great peoples, hunters and warriors were driven into reservations, watered, broken and enslaved.

The German Nazis perfectly mastered all these lessons and developed them creatively. They figured out how to create a global slave civilization - the Eternal Reich. They realized that the defeat of the psyche is the most effective, the most effective strategy for the battle of the weaker with the one who is stronger and richer than you.

It is necessary to sow fear and horror.

Bombing of Guernica


On April 26, 1937, the whole world learned and remembered the word "Guernica", which for some time became a symbol of war and tragedy.

There was a civil war in Spain, the republicans fought the Francoists. Guernica - historical and the cultural center of the Basque Country. In 1937, the city was under the control of the Republicans, who fought for another city in the Basque Country - Bilbao.

Guernica housed several military establishments, including one of two in Spain for the production of aviation bombs. The city was also a junction of strategic roads.

The Falangists (an ultra-right party) tried to subjugate the Basque Country. For this, Franco sent his associate and concurrent rival General Emilio Mola (between the two generals at that time there was a struggle for leadership in the party).

The Spanish right in their struggle against the republicans was supported by the Italian fascists and the German Nazis. In particular, on the side of the Phalangists, the Condor Legion, a German volunteer military aviation unit under the command of German General Hugo Speerle, fought.

Speerle received an order from Berlin "to seize the Biscay region as quickly as possible and without thinking about the methods of fighting." The Biscay region was famous for its coal mines, and the Fuhrer was concerned with the development of his metallurgical industry.

General Speerle and his chief of staff, Lieutenant Colonel and pilot-ace Wolfram von Richthofen, dissatisfied with the too slow advance of Mola's army, decided to use aircraft. Although Franco forbade bombing peaceful cities back in 1936, when the assault on Madrid failed. But from a military point of view, Guernica was a completely legitimate target: there was a republican garrison, military factories and a strategically important bridge across which the road connecting the town with Bilbao ran.

From 16 hours 15 minutes German Junkers 52 began to bomb the bridge, but the bombs stubbornly flew past. Then the fires started, and smoke hid the bridge from the second wave of aircraft. Unable to succeed in destroying the main target, Richtofen ordered to bomb everything.

German aircraft attacked the outskirts of Guernica, then the center of the town and roads, to prevent the withdrawal of Republican troops. Several groups of planes dropped 50- and 250-kilogram bombs (including incendiary bombs) on the city. Also, the planes were firing machine-gun fire.

The operation lasted up to 18 hours and 45 minutes.

On the city, according to various sources, dropped from 27 to 40 tons of high-explosive and incendiary bombs. Those buildings that survived from landmines and a shock wave were finished off by fires. After the attack in the town, where about 3 people lived, only about 700% of the buildings survived.

According to various estimates, between 150 and 3 people died. French news agency Havas reported 000 deaths. The Basque government started with 800 and gradually increased to 500. Pro-republican press like the French communist newspaper L'Humanité reported 1.

Franco's supporters generally denied the bombing or grossly underestimated the number of deaths and injuries. Their opponents were exaggerating.


Ruins of Guernica. 1937 year

The power of fear


The destruction of an entire city by aircraft made a huge impression on journalists and the press. The media relished the details, frightened the townsfolk.

At the same time, they "forgot" that there were bomb shelters in the city that could accommodate almost the entire population of Guernica - they were designed for 3,5 thousand people. They did not write about this, since the surviving residents of Guernica could make the picture of the disaster not large enough.

A detailed study of the tragedy took place much later, after Franco's death (1975). Researchers, studying the documents of the Guernica cemetery, counted about 130-160 dead. Obviously, there were also wounded and injured. Usually, for every one killed in a war, there are two or three wounded and injured.

Thus, the history of the bombing of Guernica was promoted by journalists and the press. Moreover, they did not even play against Germany, but in the interests of big business. It was necessary to start an arms race.

Against the background of the future terrible air raids of the Second World War, after the nightmares of Dresden, dozens of small towns in Germany, wiped out by the Anglo-British Air Force, Tokyo, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, with hundreds of thousands of dead and wounded, cultural and historical monuments and values ​​that have perished forever, Guernica looks very pale.

As well as against the background of the massive battles of the First World War, where the same number of people died in just a matter of minutes. For example, on the Somme or near Verdun. But, be that as it may, it was Guernica who became the main pre-war horror of Western Europe. A nightmare that flew ahead of the Luftwaffe. The virtual threat has become scarier than the real one.

The Germans used the "Guernica effect" 100%.

They thought of combining aviation and the psychology of the masses. The Nazis skillfully took advantage of the atmosphere of fear of air war, which was methodically whipped up in Europe from the 1920s to the 1930s. If in the 60s in the West and in the USA the inhabitants were frightened by the horrors of nuclear war, then in pre-war Europe this role was played by an air war.

Books were published, films were shot, including fantastic ones, research was carried out. Airplane bombers were shown, bringing death and destruction from the air. They also used chemical weapons - the nightmare of the First World War.

In 1932, the book "Air War - 1936" was published, its author was the German Major Helders. In it, he described a picture of how Britain, having entered a war with France over Egypt, destroys half of Paris by air raids.

1936 saw the release of William Cameron Menzies's science fiction film "The Face of the Coming", written by H.G. Wells. The film is notable for its predictions of World War II, which will begin with a bloody clash between Germans and Poles, and for showing the role of strategic aviation destroying entire cities. The fear of bombs from the sky is literally "programmed". Even through the show of the future - 2036, the new British city of Evrytown is built underground.


Burning Guernica

"War of the Worlds"


In October 1938, a curiosity occurred in the United States, which in fact became a unique and large-scale experiment in managing human crowds.

The background was appropriate. A big war is brewing in Europe. At this time, the American radio station CBS conducts dozens of radio broadcasts from Europe. Millions of American listeners are horrified by Hitler's exalted speeches and hear the battle roar of Nazi gatherings. Fear and foreboding of war fills the United States.

And in such an environment, a group of specialists in mass culture and mind processing, led by the future Hollywood star George Orson Welles, decides to conduct an experiment: how will the Americans perceive the fantastic alarming message?

The radio show was based on the novel War of the Worlds by H.G. Wells. But its action was transferred from England in the 1890s to the modern States of New Jersey.

On October 30, 1938, a CBS reporter began to report on the invasion of aliens, which are destroying everything around with death rays (combat lasers) and poisonous gases. The performance was organized very reliably: in the form of direct reports, which were accompanied by noise effects.

They say that the weapons of earthlings cannot withstand the enemy. Alien war machines destroy earthlings, troops and infrastructure. The Attorney General has appealed to the nation to declare a state of emergency. The radio station banned the portrayal of the address of President Franklin Roosevelt, but K. Delmar still portrayed the voice of Roosevelt.

An alarming message is broadcast about the Martian advance on New York. Only at this moment (about 40 minutes after the start of the production) the announcer recalled the fictionality of the reportage. At the end of the hour, Wells stepped out of character and congratulated the audience on Halloween.

The effect was amazing and exceeded all expectations.

Most of the listeners (about 6 million people listened to the production) took it at face value. Crowds of people, seized by panic, tried to escape from the cities to the west. Huge traffic jams have formed on the roads. Others were hiding in the basements of houses or were going to resist the aliens with weapons in their hands. The telephone network was congested. In New Jersey, the National Guard and firefighters were mobilized.

Some people turned out to be inattentive or fell victim to rumors and believed that the United States was attacked by Germany.

When the truth became clear, the enraged people almost hanged the authors of the production on the very first bitch. But a few days later, President Roosevelt himself kindly received Orson Welles.

Thus, all this was organized even before the total "brainwashing" with the help of TV and the current bacchanalia with the help of the network, various social networks and amazing in terms of the degree of credibility of special effects of cinema.

Interestingly, Hitler drew attention to the "war of the worlds" in the United States and called it an example of the decline of the democratic system.

And such productions, books, packs and films were enough then to create an atmosphere of fear in the West.

It only remained to use it, and Hitler did it!


Orson Welles (1915-1985) in 1937

To be continued ...
Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/
25 comments
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  1. Lech from Android.
    Lech from Android. 10 November 2021 05: 22
    +2
    The heirs of Goebbels are still working against our country, somewhere successfully, somewhere with a creak ... waves of psychological attacks follow one after another in different directions.
    Unfortunately, little is written about this, but it is sometimes so clearly visible in our and foreign media that one involuntarily thinks that Goebbels is alive and sitting somewhere in the London Observatory for the Defense of Human Rights.
    Our state is weakly opposing all this ... very weakly ... it is necessary to hold specific people accountable for Goebel's propaganda.
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich 10 November 2021 05: 57
      +2
      Against the background of the future terrible air raids of the Second World War, after the nightmares of Dresden, dozens of small towns in Germany, wiped out by the Anglo-British Air Force, Tokyo, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, with hundreds of thousands of dead and wounded, cultural and historical monuments and values ​​that have perished forever, Guernica looks very pale.


      Not for the people of Guernica.

      A nightmare that flew ahead of the Luftwaffe. The virtual threat has become worse than real.

      The terrifying reality of the bombing of Stalingrad, Tokyo and Dresden far surpassed the most daring virtual realities, so it was not in vain that they feared.
      1. Basil50
        Basil50 10 November 2021 07: 10
        -3
        Another attempt of the Europeans to justify themselves for serving Hitler and nothing more. * We were intimidated in unprecedented ways *, * scared * very much because they became Hitlerites It turns out that the Europeans served Hitler not for the promised colonies and slaves, but out of fright. And did they commit atrocities out of fear?
        And how the USA * got scared * fighting the Japanese, up to * vigorous * bombs.
        A good excuse, moderately stupid and immensely impudent. * PEOPLE * EUROPE * SHAVE *. Here is a * excuse * in frankly dastardly deeds.
        By the way, this is how criminals are justified, they do a lot * with fright *.
    2. vladcub
      vladcub 10 November 2021 09: 33
      0
      "Goebbels' heirs" must admit that Goebbels was a master of propaganda. Look for such liars
      1. lot
        lot 10 November 2021 21: 11
        +1
        why was he lying? on the contrary - he was very honest - study his quotes about propaganda, at least in the wikuha. and take the noodles off your ears yourself.
        read and enjoy:
        “The worst enemy of any propaganda is intellectualism.”
        "Give me the media, and I will make a herd of pigs out of any nation."
        “A dictator does not need to follow the will of the majority. However, he must be able to use the will of the people. "
        "The country is inhabited by a mixture of races that cannot be called a people."
        -In general, a chevreder!
        "Bolshevism is a dictatorship of the worst."
        "Propaganda loses power as soon as it becomes apparent."
        “Propaganda should be popular, not intellectually pleasing. The search for intellectual truth is not part of the task of propaganda. "

        - in general, "we smile and wave" (c)
        1. vladcub
          vladcub 11 November 2021 12: 01
          -2
          It is not advisable to poke
    3. zenion
      zenion 10 November 2021 19: 18
      0
      Lech from Android. Hitler lectured his comrades-in-arms - we will not be there, but our ideas will remain. This had to be said by the end of the lost war. For the continuation of such ideas, many values ​​were hidden that support these ideas and are hiding in the private museums of the American rich.
    4. ivan2022
      ivan2022 16 January 2022 22: 29
      0
      Quote: Lech from Android.
      The heirs of Goebbels are still working against our country, somewhere successfully, somewhere with a creak

      That's right ! Especially those who are "patriots" ..... you can compare our "patriot prop", for example, with an article on VO about "Goebbels' mistakes." There are typical posters and theses of the Nazis, which are repeated a million times by our today's media. It just seems that the main opus of Adolf was banned only because there is too much in common in it - both in our "patriot propaganda" and in Internet comments on it, especially when it comes to the USSR. Downright "one-on-one" .... didn't you notice?
  2. Uncle lee
    Uncle lee 10 November 2021 05: 26
    +2
    a widely ramified and prepared apparatus for psychological operations was created.
    I wonder what apparatus the CIA prepared for the collapse of the USSR?
  3. Lynx2000
    Lynx2000 10 November 2021 05: 52
    +5
    About the power of fear. How Hitler paralyzed Europe

    I think that neither Hitler nor the Anglo-Saxons were innovators in this (one of many) methods of war.
    The ancients also understood the importance of intimidating the enemy even before the battle. For example, Assyrians, fear and terror
    walked before the Huns from the tribes fleeing / migrating from the invasion, the Vikings by their name already
    terrified the coast of Europe, or the army of Genghis Khan.
    We improved the methods and means of delivering this "information" to the opponents.
    1. zenion
      zenion 22 December 2021 00: 47
      -1
      It is not so much Hitler as the rulers of these countries paralyzed the people under their control. If somewhere, something happened, then you need to look for traitors from the ruling class, who are commanded by a tightly stuffed wallet.
  4. The comment was deleted.
  5. parusnik
    parusnik 10 November 2021 06: 17
    +11
    The republican government commissioned Pablo Picasso to paint, which later became one of his most famous. The painting made a huge impression with its expressiveness and expression. The story is known that when in 1940 people from the Gestapo came to Picasso, they saw postcards with a reproduction of "Guernica" on his table. One of the officers, pointing to the postcards, asked with dislike: "Did you do this?" To which Picasso replied: "No. You did it. You can take it as a keepsake."
    1. NDR-791
      NDR-791 10 November 2021 08: 04
      +6
      Quote: parusnik
      "No. You did it.

  6. Daniil Konovalenko
    Daniil Konovalenko 10 November 2021 08: 10
    +3
    Samsonov and Guernica somehow have fun. "Nothing special" (c) Italian aviation also took part in the bombing of Guernica. There was no fire brigade. Until help arrived from Bilbao, there was nothing to extinguish. Surprisingly, the military factories did not suffer. The Francoists occupied the city without resistance, the spirit was so broken. Fascist planes shot on the roads those who tried to escape from the city.
    1. Flank
      Flank 10 November 2021 15: 32
      -2
      Nothing special could have been, the city has 3700 people. It's a 10 minute walk from end to end, they just escaped while bombing the bridge. My grandfather in the city more survived such a bombing and says that few people died directly from it.

      There is nothing surprising in the integrity of the factories. They are on the outskirts, and they bombed the center.
  7. north 2
    north 2 10 November 2021 08: 28
    -2
    fear is common to all people. Another thing is how people overcome fear when mortal danger hangs over their home and country. Rather, what kind of people rises for a mortal fight with the enemy, and who, with folded paws, lie under the enemy. In short, before the Second World War there was no repression either in France, or in Denmark, or in Belgium, etc. And there were repressions in the USSR. But then all of Europe, led by France, fell under Hitler, and the Soviet people before the Second World War by Stalin, cleared of traitors, enemies and pests, managed to find the strength and courage not to fall under Hitler. And then these Soviet people, having broken the back of Hitler in the struggle, also save those in Europe who fell under Hitler. Moreover, Soviet soldiers with their blood defended not only the honor of their Motherland, but they also redeemed Europe's freedom, honor and peace with their blood ...
    But there is no need to doubt that if not the Stalinist pre-war deliverance of the Soviet people from traitors, enemies and pests, then this evil spirits would not only meet Hitler with flowers and lie under Hitler, but also help Hitler and the rest of the Soviet people before the Nazis to kneel and turn into slaves.
  8. Million
    Million 10 November 2021 09: 04
    +2
    Psychological warfare never ends
  9. Simple
    Simple 10 November 2021 12: 21
    +1
    About the power of fear. How Hitler paralyzed Europe


    Psychological warfare is effective on a real basis.


    The Duke of Windsor's correspondence with Hitler is kept in the royal archives.
    A copy of these documents is kept in the USA.

    ... At one time it came to the point that the British government stopped putting documents with the stamp "top secret" into the "king's red box", because The English king could transfer them through Charles Edward, Duke of Saxe-Coburg to the German embassy in London.

    In December 1937, the Duke of Windsor with Wallis Simpson (there were rumors that Wallis had previously had a love affair with Ribbentrop, when he was his German ambassador in London, and continued to maintain business contacts with him in the future) visited Hitler's Germany. Where, including in the house of Rudolf Hess, the plan for the return was discussed
    Duke of Windsor for the royal throne of Great Britain in exchange for the alliance of Great Britain and Germany, which gave carte blanche in the conquest of the European part of the Eurasian continent.
    When a German communications plane crashed over Belgium with plans to capture France, through the Duke of Windsor, Hitlerite Germany, the fact that the plans fell into the wrong hands became known. The plans have been revised. A month later, Paris fell.
  10. evgen1221
    evgen1221 10 November 2021 12: 39
    0
    Yes, the artist did not paralyze anyone in Europe (except for lemmings), the dude was purposefully fattened for one purpose, he tried to kick up once until 1941, he was immediately explained that it was inappropriate to do this.
  11. grak33
    grak33 10 November 2021 12: 43
    -4
    How Hitler paralyzed Europe

    It also had horns, a tail and hooves.
    The further the war, the more "passions" they write about it.
    And soon, it seems, they will add to the pen at all.
  12. Operator
    Operator 10 November 2021 13: 27
    -5
    Propaganda is seeds, the main thing is the internal circumstances in the countries opposing the Third Reich during WWII.

    In the West, the mass surrender and surrender of states were due to the anti-communist ideology of the ruling regimes, which, before the war, planned to use the Third Reich as a counterweight to the communist USSR. After the surrender, Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Holland, France, etc. perfectly coexisted within the framework of the Third Reich, rapidly producing weapons for it, fuel and energy resources, agricultural products, etc.

    Until 1942, there was no article in the Criminal Code of the RSFSR and other union republics for the surrender of soldiers of the Red Army without appropriate circumstances (lack of ammunition, loss of control by the command staff, injury, shell shock, etc.).
    Therefore, in 1941 - early 1942, the Red Army and commanders so easily surrendered to the Germans and their allies on the Eastern Front: in the period from June to December 1941, 5,1 million people were captured, of which 4,2 were Red Army soldiers ( the rest were NKVD workers, railroad workers, postmen and other civil servants who wore paramilitary uniforms and insignia).
    The situation changed only after the publication of a normative act - the order of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the USSR Armed Forces, People's Commissar of Defense of the USSR No. 28 dated July 1942, 227, providing for responsibility for surrender under any circumstances.
  13. Sugar Honeyovich
    Sugar Honeyovich 10 November 2021 15: 48
    0
    "In just over four years, this man of low birth catapulted disarmed, chaotic, almost bankrupt Germany, the weakest among the major powers of Europe, to such heights when it was considered the strongest state of the Old World, others trembled in front of her - England and even France ... "(W. Shearer)
    This is even before the bombing (excluding Spain).
    1. deddem
      deddem 10 November 2021 20: 47
      +1
      Sorry, but complete bullshit.
      The Germans immediately and diligently worked for revenge, long before Hitler. There would be no him - there would be some Strasser or there Goering.

      Actually, the cyclical nature of history: humiliating defeat-killing the nation for the sake of revenge-sleepy swamp.
      France went through this cycle a couple of decades earlier.
  14. Glagol1
    Glagol1 10 November 2021 16: 52
    +3
    Sevastopol, Stalingrad, Voronezh and many other large cities were destroyed under our bombs. We had the right to revenge, but Germany was bombed not by us, but by the Saxons. Nobody appreciated our nobility not to fight the civilian population, neither the Germans themselves, nor even the Saxons. The moral of this fable is this: in war, all means are good, just to win.
  15. Dkuznecov
    Dkuznecov 5 January 2022 22: 02
    -1
    None of the world's politicians took the clown Hitler seriously.
    My opinion. Dug a little in the newspapers. So, "local fulyugan".

    Watch the movie "The Great Dictator" (1940)
    Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin, for example.
    Reflects the opinion of certain circles.

    And inside Germany too. Who is his - "Czech",
    who - "Austrian" called.
    (there are documentary links - ask)

    But, having dispersed state institutions and, having received sole power,
    this scoundrel has done such a thing, a wonder can be given.

    Even the Holocaust, from the original "squeeze and appropriation",
    turned into destruction just because
    that "dreams" and real logistics somehow did not come together.

    The "partisanship" began, inventing on the go, who is Volksdeutsche, who is Reichsdeutsche,
    and who is not. A mountain of decrees / instructions / explanations of the type - "here we wrapped the fish, we don't read it."

    The Reich did not have time to "squeeze" the Untermens beyond the Urals (as planned),
    so I had to solve the issue quickly, with gas.
    Add to this the complete lack of funds for the war.
    The poor fellow thought that he had taken it - and fatten. Yeah.
    The soldiers drove through Ukraine and wondered
    bread - crumbled in the fields, not harvested. (I will give you links)

    This comrade (Hitler), and the whole of Germany,
    there was not a single chance to conquer the lands in the east.
    Zero.
    But he did this, for thousands of 10 years in hell.
    I could be wrong here, but 8 thousand - for sure.

    My opinion.