Military Review

Simon Petliura

35
Simon Petliura

Petliura before the revolution



“Signs of Semyon Petlyura: height 166 cm, average build, intelligent appearance, serious, has a habit of putting his left leg forward and keeping his hands in front of him; hair on the head is light blond, long, straight, parting on the right side, eyebrows and mustache are light brown, beard is rare, reddish, eyes are gray, large, myopic; in the evening light reads with glasses; the skull is correct, round, the forehead is flat and wide, the nose is straight, the face is oblong ... "

The son of a bourgeoisie, a Poltava citizen, as was usual then among the commoners - study at the seminary, because a priest is free and prestigious, and at the same time a revolutionary socialist atheist, for which he was expelled from the seminary. There were a lot of them, and the authorities themselves created the problem, making secular studies problematic for admission. Humanitarians - descendants from the lower classes were presented with a choice: seminary or nothing. Young people chose seminary, simultaneously hating both religion and the state. Many have traveled this way, and as a result, they became the fuel of the revolution.

In 1901, from the birth of Christ, the half-educated seminarian chose: either to go into the revolution in earnest, as, say, Stalin did, in exactly the same situation, or ...

Petliura, without breaking with the revolution, chose a career. He leaves for the Kuban, becomes a teacher, writes articles in the Poltava region for Austro-Hungarian newspapers ...

So our hero would have lived his life between the blackboard and the pen, but the security department intervened. For prophylaxis, Petliura is searched and dismissed from his post as a teacher at a women's school in Yekaterinodar.

And in 1904 they were going to be arrested at all, from which, however, Petliura fled to Galicia. In general, there is something strange in this stories: in 1901-1902, in Poltava, a wave of arrests of members of the RUE (revolutionary Ukrainian party) - Petliura avoids detention, in the Kuban arrests and searches - Petliura is not touched, recognizing the literature found during a search, safe for the state, in 1904 all friends of Petliura are detained according to Yekaterinodar, leaflets and a hectograph are found at his house, but Petlyura himself at this time is resting at the dacha of a major official who patronizes him. Then, all the same, arrest, but the political and organizer of the revolutionary circle is released on bail, and he calmly leaves for a state with which Russia has rather hostile relations, from where the subversive Ukrainophile work was carried out ... Still, the Security Department worked in the empire for what something to their standards.

In Galicia, Petliura became the favorite of Hrushevsky, the leader of the Ukrainianophiles of that time. However, he did not stay long in Austria-Hungary, the first revolution began in Russia and Petliura illegally crosses the border, unnoticed by either the border guards or the gendarmes, gets to Poltava, where he participates in the revolutionary congress. And in October 1905, an amnesty was given in Russia, and Petliura joined the USDLP, as it were, a party of Social Democrats and Marxists, but at the same time a national party, so to speak, of nationalist internationalists. And almost immediately in the Central Committee of the party.

The party, to be honest, was so-so, reformed moderate social-nationalists RUPovtsy and youth from raznochinets in the amount of a couple of hundred people. And then he moved to St. Petersburg, where he published a magazine for the agitation of Ukrainian students called "Vilna Ukraine", and from there - to Stockholm:

At the IV Unity Congress of the RSDLP, the Ukrainian delegation from the USDLP proposed uniting with the RSDLP on a federal basis, provided that only the USDLP would represent the interests of the Ukrainian proletariat. This proposal, as "nationalist", was rejected by the majority of the congress.

I can imagine the reaction of the Social-Democratic Marxists, a party that is serious and principled in adhering to the Marxist theory, when a party, previously unknown, declared that they represent the workers of Kiev and Kryvyi Rih, Donbass and Odessa, Nikolaev and Yekaterinoslav ... the eyes did not see and they were not aware of their existence, in fact, the work among the workers of the USDLP began only before the elections to the second State Duma.

The next stage of his life is associated with working for big business:

On the recommendation of Mikhail Grushevsky, Petliura was hired for the well-paid job of the executive secretary of the daily newspaper Rada (Council), which was published with his own money by the philanthropist and wealthy landowner of the Kherson province Yevgeny Chekalenko.

Chekalenko is a millionaire and an oligarch, a landowner and Marxists cannot stand his heart, he dreams of Ukraine, but for himself and people like him, without any Marxism-socialism.

And Petliura has quite taken root in such a circle, writes theatrical reviews and political articles, however, in parallel he writes for the USDRP newspaper, arguing, in fact, with himself. However, not for long - in 1907 the newspapers were slowly closed, and Petliura himself became an accountant in St. Petersburg, moving away from the revolution in favor of everyday life.

And in 1911, having finally retired from politics, Semyon-Simon moved to Moscow and got married, working in the insurance company "Russia" and at the same time continuing to write articles for newspapers. So our revolutionary would have died out at home and work, but war has come to the world. The same one, the First World War, and Simon Petliura again changes his guise:

When crossing the border, Russia's opponents will, of course, try to attract the Ukrainian population to their side and sow confusion among them with all sorts of promises of political and national promises. Ukrainians will not succumb to provocative influences and will fulfill their duty as citizens of Russia in this difficult time to the end, and not only on the battlefield, in the ranks of an abusive army fighting against violators of world peace and law, but also as citizens - ordinary people who are obliged to the best of their ability and opportunities to facilitate the successful fulfillment of the extremely responsible task by the Russian army, which has fallen to its lot.

He turns into a patriot-state-holder, a supporter of war and ... a freemason-liberal:

The formation of such a political orientation in the war was associated with Petliura's "work" in the Masonic lodges, which were guided, first of all, by England and France (the Entente).

In 1915, Petliura was mobilized into the army, however, to the orderlies, and not to the front-line infirmary, but to the ambulance train, and then to the authorized representatives of Zemgor, where he becomes what the front-line soldiers will call Zemgussars with contempt and with whom this episode is connected. :

Nicholas II: They are complaining about you that you hamper the initiative of society when supplying the army.

Manikovsky: Your Majesty, they already profit from the supply by 300%, and there were times when they received even more than 1000% of the profits.

Nicholas II: Well, let them profit, if only they would not steal.

Manikovsky: Your Majesty, but this is worse than theft, it is an open robbery.

Nicholas II: Still, there is no need to irritate public opinion.

And Petliura becomes neither more nor less, but the representative of Zemgor on the Western Front, and this is colossal money and opportunities. By that time, 36-year-old Petliura was already a fully formed personality, an undoubted careerist, a bit of a socialist and a Ukrainianophile. And at the beginning of March 1917, the Central Council and the autonomy of Ukraine were proclaimed in Kiev.

In the events of the revolution


Petliura got to Kiev only in May 1917, where he immediately began his career as a politician and military man in new conditions. Just these days, a military congress is taking place in Kiev, where the radical Mikhnovsky, the author of the Ukrainian commandments (full of xenophobia and anti-Semitism), was promoted to the head of the congress, and the USDLP opposed him with Petliura. We must pay tribute to the front-line soldiers - they did not support Mikhnovsky, but they did not support Petliura, whom they did not know, and whose zemgusar was openly irritated by the people who fought.

Nevertheless, he got into the presidium, and this predetermined a lot in the fate of Ukraine for the next four years. It is difficult to imagine a worse figure for that time than the Minister of War of the rebellious outskirts of the former empire - a populist and socialist without service experience. The uniform does not make a person a soldier, and Zemgor's privileges - an officer, and not understanding how the military organism lives, it was possible to do something like this ... Petliura will do it.

“Ukraine for Ukrainians! Therefore, expel the oppressor foreigners from everywhere from Ukraine! ... Do not take women from other nations as your wives, because your children will be your enemies; do not be friends with the enemies of our people ... "

But against the background of the author of these commandments Mikhnovsky, the moderate Semyon is not the worst option. True, there was a better option - Skoropadsky, who, being a career general, proposed maintaining discipline and organization of the army. But the peculiarity of the crowd is that it follows attractive slogans, Mikhnovsky's ideas did not reach the people, but neither did the ideas of war and discipline.

And in the end, everything will come to the notorious otamanism, but this is already in 1919, but for now the year is 1917. In Petrograd, the Provisional Government, in Kiev, its commissar, the City Duma, the Soviet of Workers' Deputies and the Central Rada. All of them consider themselves to be power, but at the same time anarchy is only growing, and Petliura is building an army, well, how he is building ...

“... we do not need a standing army, but nationwide armament, militia ... The danger is that when the bourgeoisie is organized, the army will defend its interests against the interests of democracy and the peasantry. That is why these regiments "named after the hetmans" may have an element of danger in them when they are created on a permanent basis ... "

The General Secretary of the Central Rada did not consider the army necessary at all, putting it on the militia. And supporters of other points of view were squeezed out of the Rada ruthlessly. The officers especially got:

"All senior officers, even if they were pure-blooded Ukrainians, were treated with deep distrust by Petliura and his closest associates."
As a result, no Ukrainian army was ever built, moreover, the units promoted by the USDRP did not go into battle with either the Germans or the Bolsheviks, but regularly rioted and held rallies.

However, this was an all-Russian problem, by eliminating military discipline, the Provisional Government received a complete collapse of the armed forces, and under what slogans the soldiers did not go to the front - the tenth thing. Anarchy also grew, deserters since weapons dispersed en masse to their homes.

Civil war


After the October Revolution, the position of the Rada was unambiguous.

At three o'clock in the afternoon in the hall of the Pedagogical Museum there was an emergency meeting of the Central Council. It was announced that all power in Ukraine (8 provinces + Northern Tavria) is transferred to the Central Rada as the highest legislative power (head M. Hrushevsky) and the General Secretariat as the highest executive power (head V. Vinnichenko).

In those conditions, this was tantamount to a declaration of war. The situation was aggravated by flirting with the Don Cossacks and the admission of anti-Bolshevik units to the Don, which led to the ultimatum of the Council of People's Commissars and Muravyov's attack on Kiev. By that time, there were already two UPR: one - in Kharkov, pro-Bolshevik, and the second - in Kiev.

What is the role of Petliura in this?

And he remained in the shadow of Hrushevsky and Vynnychenko, supporting all their decisions. He pressed (with executions and torture) an uprising at the Arsenal plant, tried to organize a rebuff to Muravyov (unsuccessfully), and intrigued behind the backs of his comrades, secretly flirting with the Entente countries and the White movement.

It was during this period that Petliura's socialism (in many respects ostentatious and in his youth) was finally exhausted, before us is a candidate for dictatorship and a man savvy in intrigue. Even his departure from service in mid-December played into Petliura's hands only - he was not involved in the collapse of the Central Rada, and a sharp change in position towards the support of officers and Russia made him somewhat popular. And his opposition to the Germans only added points to the piggy bank. All this will play a role in due time, but for now the Germans, the hetman coup and the arrests of members of the USDLP, including Petliura, are in Kiev.

He did not sit for a long time, Hetman Skoropadsky, realizing, in principle, that he had no support besides the Germans, flirted with the former, and Petliura was released, like his party comrades.

In the carriage Directory, under the carriage - the territory


You can write the history of the Directory for a long time and in detail, or you can write a thesis and briefly. In principle, it appeared as a kind of result of a peasant uprising against the German-Austrian occupiers and the hetman, who personified them. No, they organized themselves, from among the last government of the Central Rada, but the support came from below.

And the rest was just logical - both the peasants, who went home, for the hetman was all, and the attempt to unite with the ZUNR, which arose on the ruins of Austria-Hungary and fought with the Poles, and otamanship, because the army formed from detachments of fellow countrymen in conditions war of all against all, could not rob, in the complete absence of discipline, and even wild anti-Semitism with pogroms, which Petliura did not organize, of course, but which he did not want and could not interfere. It is also logical that the Directory eventually fell, and the UPR was headed by his own mini-Napoleon, which became our hero, and even the final development of Petliura's personality, recorded by his comrades-in-arms:

"Tattoo! Lize the devil at the hut! Darma, Sinu, Abi is not a Muscovite! "

After that, Petliura, failing to come to an agreement with the Entente, negotiates with the Poles in an extremely cynical way, handing over the Ukrainian Volhynia to Poland and concluding an alliance with the ZUNR. However, this did not help, the Polish troops retreated and, despite the miracle on the Vistula, received only the territories transferred to them under the agreement with Petliura.

And then there was emigration and death at the hands of a Soviet intelligence agent, who, in addition to work, took revenge for the Jewish pogroms. There remains the conclusion of Vinnichenko, Petliura's comrade-in-arms and opponent for decades:

S. Petlyura, this little obedient servant of Western reaction, a puny ladіator of the imperialist Caesars, an unfortunate slave of his petty popularity and a typical product of a petty national philistinism involved in major national and social cataclysms.

And a new myth today, about a great and wise ruler.

In fact, Petliura is no better than many others, as well as no worse, perhaps. Any revolution is a wave that brings up random people. It happens, and geniuses, like the same Napoleon, and sometimes - and bourgeois sons who want the best, but do not know how and do not have the necessary qualities for something more. And it ends, as a rule, very badly: military groupings uncontrolled by the command are guaranteed atrocities and robberies, and the civilian population pays for the ambitions.
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  1. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 11 November 2021 06: 00
    +4
    Any revolution is a wave that brings up random people.

    Petliura, like many other "accidental" ones, brought up the dregs of the Provisional Government, which was the result of the stupidity of Nicholas II and the RI rotted to hell.
    In Petrograd, the Provisional Government, in Kiev, its commissar, the City Duma, the Soviet of Workers' Deputies and the Central Council. All of them consider themselves to be power, but at the same time anarchy is only growing, and Petliura is building an army
    1. Cowbra
      Cowbra 11 November 2021 09: 18
      0
      Quote: Vladimir_2U
      which was a consequence of the stupidity of Nicholas II and rotted to hell RI

      Petlyura - so, a small pimple. They overslept nationalism in Finland, Poland, even Bulgaria, which owes Russia as land to the collective farm for its very existence - they failed to keep even within the framework of neutrality - the complete and unconditional defeat of the supreme power in Ingushetia, first of all, diplomacy.
  2. Xlor
    Xlor 11 November 2021 06: 25
    +3
    they did not go into battle either with the Germans or the Bolsheviks, but they regularly rioted and held meetings

    The author did not fully cover the topic - were they already jumping then? wink
    1. VORON538
      VORON538 12 November 2021 13: 11
      +1
      They rode while still in Mazepa. hi
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 11 November 2021 06: 30
    +11
    And then there was emigration and death at the hands of a Soviet intelligence agent, who, in addition to work, took revenge for the Jewish pogroms.
    This is the modern Ukrainian version that Schwarzbard was an agent of Soviet intelligence. Thinking of killing Petliura, Schwarzbard hesitated. And I did not find anything better than to appear in a Parisian cafe and ask Nestor Makhno's blessing for such an action. And he did it in the presence of Makhno's wife Galina Kuzmenko and a whole group of anarchists, including the Bulgarian revolutionary Kiro Radev. “The killer of Petliura Schwarzbard,” wrote Galina Kuzmenko in her memoirs, “was an anarchist and knew Makhno, was sick with tuberculosis, a watchmaker. in the Jewish anarchist group, they gathered on holidays in a cafe. Makhno and I visited this cafe, and met him there. "Galina Kuzmenko recalled that Nestor Ivanovich did not say yes or no to Schwarzbard in response to his question. On March 3, 1938, Schwarzbard died suddenly of a heart attack on the beach in Cape Town, where he was buried. Israeli researchers believe that Schwarzbard's death was the work of Ukrainian nationalists, as revenge for the murder of Petliura.
    so to speak, nationalist internationalists.
    nationalist-internationalist, the concept is not compatible.
  4. Olgovich
    Olgovich 11 November 2021 08: 14
    -10
    After the October Revolution, the position of the Rada was unambiguous.

    ... It stated that all power in Ukraine (8 provinces + Northern Tavria) passes to the Central Rada as the highest legislative power (head M. Hrushevsky) and the General Secretariat as the highest executive power (head V. Vinnichenko).

    In those conditions, this was tantamount to a declaration of war. ,ultimatum of the Council of People's Commissars and Muravyov's offensive to Kiev.


    Exactly so: the illegitimate and illegal thief immediately and naturally led to the Civil War of all against all and the declarations of the independence of the territories: why should Little Russia, the Don, the Caucasus, Orenburg, etc., have to submit to an unselected and unselected handful of revolutionaries?

    And before the thief, according to the very ukronationalist historians (Savchenko), it was completely different, which they declared:
    Despite the self-declaration of Ukraine’s autonomy, back in June 1917, this autonomy did not really exist yet until the end of October 1917, since real power in the so-called Southwestern provinces of Russia was held by the Provisional Government of the Russian Republic.

    Only with the fall of the Provisional Government in Petrograd did the possibility of the transfer of power in Ukraine in the hands of the Central Rada open up.
    .

    But even after the thief, Ukraine declared its entry into Russia and only the war unleashed by the Bolsheviks forced it to declare independence.

    By the way, the same Savchenko about those times, a hundred years ago:
    European The 40 million people seemed to be ripe for their own statehood.

    Then, it turns out, they were already "Europeans" and went to Europe. lol

    death at the hands of a Soviet intelligence officer

    Schwarzbard ... a Soviet intelligence agent? Something new..

    But he shot this worthless little man quite right: there was a lot of blood on his hands. Which confirmed the acquittal of the murderer.
    1. Vladimir_2U
      Vladimir_2U 11 November 2021 09: 33
      +1
      Quote: Olgovich
      This is precisely how the illegitimate and illegal thief immediately and naturally led to the Civil War of all against all and the declarations of the independence of the territories: why should Little Russia, the Don, the Caucasus, Orenburg, etc., have to submit to an unselected and unselected handful of revolutionaries?
      Only RI decayed long before the Revolution and the situation was aggravated by the deposition of the tsar by his own ministers-generals and the subsequent Provisional Government.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 12 November 2021 08: 10
        -7
        Quote: Vladimir_2U
        Only RI rotted long before the Revolution

        The speed with which your regime has rotted is simply unique and in history is unrepeatable by anyone.
        1. Vladimir_2U
          Vladimir_2U 12 November 2021 08: 53
          +1
          Quote: Olgovich
          The speed with which your regime has rotted is simply unique and in history is unrepeatable by anyone.

          The regime, the likes of which was nowhere and never in the world, which means that it made many mistakes on its way, which changed everything in the world, thanks to which Russia is alive to this day, broke down, yes. And Russian tsarism, in spite of the thousand-year experience of monarchies, in some places even still operating, in spite of numerous relatives over the hill, rotted and covered up for three hundred and a half years.
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 12 November 2021 10: 23
            -6
            Quote: Vladimir_2U
            Russian tsarism, despite the thousand-year experience of monarchies, in some places even operating to this day, despite the numerous relatives over the hill, rotted and covered up for three hundred and a half years.

            Under the Romanovs, Russia has grown by 75% of the territory, and the population has grown SEVENTEEN times, she lived and successfully worked for over THREE HUNDREDS years, leaving a huge scientific, cultural, civilizational, demographic, industrial potential and fiercely fought for her existence in a terrible war.

            The next regime rotted initially, from the first day, rotted in a couple of decades (already in 1936, the rotten red ones who had fought with rapture cut each other out by tens of thousands, beat each other's rotten ones and later, in the 40s and 50s, then the rotting corn plant came and ave, then the absolutely stinking rot of EBNy, shevarnadzy, marked and so on kravchuk (other leaders your rotten did not know how to raise) grew up, brought up by rot, absolutely stinking rot of EBNy, and the completely decayed structure self-developed without anyone's resistance and attack.
            Quote: Vladimir_2U
            thanks to which Russia is still alive

            And if rot went to the fastest growing Russian people in the world, full of strength and initiative, hundreds of thousands of schools and teachers, excellent science and a fast-growing economy, the largest country, then the legacy that Russia inherited from rot (and this is rotten, old, dying out, weaned to work proactively, the people, cut off by a QUARTER Russia within the borders of the 17th century, the old, uncompetitive prehistoric economy, destroyed agriculture and coupons for cowards) is simply tragic.

            It's just FACTS
    2. Sugar Honeyovich
      Sugar Honeyovich 11 November 2021 16: 57
      +1
      A contemporary testifies:
      “The Ukrainian“ national liberation movement ”in the first months of 1917 developed by leaps and bounds. The Central Rada enjoyed immense success among Ukrainian peasants and soldiers.
      The most zealous “independents” demanded to end long and “unnecessary” negotiations with the Provisional Government and to withdraw the Ukrainian soldiers from the front, i.e. to bare the front.
      The separatist policy of the Rada, at first more disguised, and then more and more frank, eventually turned into the formula: “Enough of the Great Russians! Three hundred years they dominated us! Get away from Ukraine! Long live independent Ukraine! ”
      The main tribune and mouthpiece of the Ukrainian separatist movement was the Ukrainian military congresses: the preaching of separatism began to be heard louder and louder and spread wider and wider among the soldier and peasant masses. Relying on these Troops congresses, who wished for an end to the war at all costs and as soon as possible, in order to "divide the land of the land." The Council gradually ceased to reckon with the power of the Kiev Executive Committee in Kiev, and in Petrograd with the power of the Provisional Government, announcing everywhere since May 1917 that the Ukrainian people recognize only one power over themselves, namely the power of the Central Rada.
      In mid-April, the Ukrainian Rada convened an All-Ukrainian National Congress, which put forward a demand for a federal reorganization of Russia and for Ukraine's participation in peace negotiations at a future peace conference. This requirement actually meant the recognition by the great powers of Ukraine as an independent state. At the same time, Ukrainian political parties took shape.
      …. At the end of May, a delegation of the Ukrainian Rada headed by Vinnichenko went to Petrograd with a demand to recognize the autonomy of Ukraine as part of the future Russian Republic and to organize Ukrainian units in the army. But the Provisional Government and the Petrograd Soviet of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies refused to accept these demands.
      Then the Ukrainian Rada, contrary to the ban of Kerensky, convened the 2nd Ukrainian Military Congress in mid-June (500 delegates - representatives from 2 million Ukrainians in the army). After the congress, the Rada issued the I Universal (Manifesto) on June 28.6.1917, XNUMX, which stated that Ukraine takes on the task of building its future: "We will build our own lives." At the same time, the highest body of Ukrainian executive power was created - the General Secretariat (Council of Ministers), headed by Vinnichenko and Petlyura. The secretariat took control of Ukraine.
      The Provisional Government in vain asked the Rada to wait until the convocation and decision of the future Constituent Assembly. A delegation led by Kerensky was sent to Kiev for negotiations with the Rada. The negotiations actually ended in victory for the Rada.
      The Provisional Government, in an agreement of July 3, 1917, had to recognize the Rada and the General Secretariat as the highest regional authority in Ukraine. " (N.P. Poletika)
      Savchenko also writes:
      “If at the beginning of November 1917, immediately after the proclamation of the Ukrainian People's Republic, the attitude of the Bolsheviks towards the Central Rada was expectant and loyal, then by the end of the month, when Lenin's power in Petrograd and Moscow was finally established, the Leninist Council of People's Commissars ceased to hide its aggressiveness and discontent with bourgeois separatists ".
      Simply put, the collapse of a united Russia began then and took place because and when the government in the capital was considered weak and, in comparison with the tsarist, illegitimate. Under the Temporary it began slowly, the further - the stronger. And when it became clear that the strongest and most legitimate (for which the majority of the people) government is the one in Moscow, separatism faded. Russia was restored.
  5. Daniil Konovalenko
    Daniil Konovalenko 11 November 2021 08: 43
    +5
    Quite a pretty image smile
    In fact, Petliura is no better than many others, as well as no worse, perhaps.
    Ugums ... arranged Jewish pogroms, while not only Jews suffered ... Moreover, as he did. He will give an oral instruction, and after the pogrom, he writes a decree with condemnation. which during the pogroms all relatives were killed.
    1. Avior
      Avior 11 November 2021 09: 00
      -2
      And, as he did, he will give an oral instruction ...

      Did you overhear just that moment?
      No need to fantasize.
      1. Daniil Konovalenko
        Daniil Konovalenko 11 November 2021 09: 03
        +5
        About what, that there were no pogroms? Or was it a "private" initiative? .. Why eavesdrop ...
        1. Avior
          Avior 11 November 2021 09: 57
          -2
          Will give an oral instruction ...

          Did he give you a verbal instruction? Or were you overheard?
          1. Daniil Konovalenko
            Daniil Konovalenko 11 November 2021 12: 01
            +2
            Materials of the court session on the murder of Petliura, about 300 witnesses were questioned ..
            1. Avior
              Avior 11 November 2021 12: 38
              0
              And which of these witnesses was present specifically when you wrote.
              Give a link where you can read their testimony about the fact that he gave oral instructions? How did they hear it, where and under what circumstances?
              1. Daniil Konovalenko
                Daniil Konovalenko 11 November 2021 12: 42
                +1
                Seeker, let him find
                1. Avior
                  Avior 11 November 2021 15: 19
                  0
                  You said that supposedly such a fact had a place to be, to you and to give it up.
  6. A. Privalov
    A. Privalov 11 November 2021 08: 55
    +14
    And then there was emigration and death at the hands of a Soviet intelligence officer

    Soviet intelligence officer Shulim Itskovich Schwarzburd! lol laughing wassat fool This is a test! good
    1. Daniil Konovalenko
      Daniil Konovalenko 11 November 2021 09: 06
      +4
      Well, if in the Kotovsky brigade he fought as part of a Jewish anarchist detachment, while being a French citizen, of course, a "Soviet intelligence officer" laughing laughing laughing
      1. tihonmarine
        tihonmarine 11 November 2021 12: 02
        0
        Quote: Daniil Konovalenko
        Well, if in the Kotovsky brigade he fought as part of a Jewish anarchist detachment, while being a French citizen, of course, a "Soviet intelligence officer"
        On January 16, 1925, Schwarzbard received French citizenship. But whoever he was, he did the right thing.
    2. tihonmarine
      tihonmarine 11 November 2021 11: 47
      +1
      Quote: A. Privalov
      Soviet intelligence officer Shulim Itskovich Schwarzburd! This is a test!

      Why !!!
    3. tihonmarine
      tihonmarine 11 November 2021 11: 58
      0
      Quote: A. Privalov
      Soviet intelligence officer Shulim Itskovich Schwarzburd!

      Of course at that time he was a French citizen, but he did what had to be done .... On May 25, 1926, a stranger approached a man who was looking at a street window on the corner of Boulevard Saint-Michel and Rue Racine in Paris. After asking a question in Ukrainian and receiving a satisfying answer, the stranger took out a revolver and fired three shots at the man. The killer's name was Samuil Yakovlevich Schwarzburd, and Simon Petliura was his victim.
      1. Daniil Konovalenko
        Daniil Konovalenko 11 November 2021 12: 04
        +3
        During WWI, he served in the Foreign Legion, an anarchist by conviction. Of course, as a result of the Petliura pogroms, all his relatives were killed, he did what needed to be done.
      2. Daniil Konovalenko
        Daniil Konovalenko 11 November 2021 12: 15
        +3
        And lastly, he did not hide from the scene of the murder, he allowed himself to be arrested ...
  7. Avior
    Avior 11 November 2021 09: 51
    +1
    I started reading and caught myself thinking that recently, in the same style of inventions and distortions, I was reading an article about Razumovsky.
    I looked who the author was and saw that he was not mistaken. You can see the bird by its gait!
    Distortion at every turn.
    He leaves for the Kuban, becomes a teacher, writes articles in the Poltava region for Austro-Hungarian newspapers ...

    The author has released nuances
    at first he gave private lessons in Yekaterinodar, and later worked as an assistant-researcher in the expedition of Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences FA Shcherbina, who was engaged in the systematization of the archives of the Kuban Cossack army and worked on the fundamental work "History of the Kuban Cossack Host" [8]. Petliura's work was positively assessed by FA Shcherbina [9].

    Petliura joins the USDLP, like a party of social democrats and Marxists, but at the same time a national party, so to speak, nationalist internationalists

    not like, but the party of Marxists
    Ukrainian Social Democratic Labor Party (Ukrainian. Ukrainian Social Democratic Robotic Party, USDRP) is a Ukrainian Marxist political party created in 1905.


    And in October 1905, an amnesty was granted in Russia ...

    and here the author missed an important nuance for understanding events
    During the revolution of 1905-1907, he led one of the detachments of Jewish self-defense in Poltava [16]. Thanks to well-organized self-defense, pogroms in the city were avoided.

    One of the organizers of these self-defense units was Yitzhok Shimshelevich, later known as Chaim Weizman, the first president of Israel, in Poltava he was one of the activists of the Zionist Poalei Zion (Workers of Zion) party.
    The same one, the First World War, and Simon Petlyura again changes his guise

    Changes the mask except in the fantasies of the author. USDRP advocated the autonomy of Ukraine, and not for its separation from Russia. Later, this thesis of the USDRP in the form of the Ukrainian SSR was implemented by other Marxists.
    And at the same time allows gossip and fiction
    The formation of such a political orientation in the war was associated with Petliura's "work" in the Masonic lodges, which were guided, first of all, by England and France (the Entente).

    Look further
    In 1915, Petliura was mobilized into the army, however, to the orderlies, and not to the front-line infirmary, but to the ambulance train, and then to the authorized representatives of Zemgor, where he becomes what the front-line soldiers will call Zemgussars with contempt and with whom this episode is connected.

    That is, it turns out that Petliura got into the Zemgusars through mobilization.
    Zemgor (Chief Committee for the Supply of the Army of the All-Russian Zemstvo and City Unions) is an intermediary structure for the distribution of state defense orders created in the Russian Empire in 1915 on the basis of zemstvos and city councils. It was closely associated with the leaders of the February revolution of the 1917 year.

    It is clear that there was a lot of fighting in the empire for such a jackpot as military orders, and it could not do without bribes
    But at the front, the reputation of Zemgor, through the efforts of Prince Lvov, the then leader of the Zemgusars, was quite positive
    in fact, he becomes almost the chairman of some special government. At the front, they only talk about him, he is the savior of the situation, he supplies the army, feeds the hungry, heals the sick, arranges hairdressing salons for the soldiers - in a word, he is some kind of ubiquitous Muir and Meriliz

    And Petliura becomes neither more nor less, but the representative of Zemgor on the Western Front

    That is, Petliura was related to Zemgor's work at the front, and not in the rear, where a lot of money was spent on supplies for the army.
    One of the participants in Zemgora was the future creator of Soviet cinema, a member of the RSDLP, either from 1902, or 1904
    Nikolai Fyodorovich Preobrazhensky (1886 - 1952) - a participant in the revolutionary movement and the Civil War in Russia, a Soviet party leader, one of the first organizers of Soviet cinematography, actor, film director, editor, economic manager.

    Later he became the leader of this very Zemgor.
    Read on
    Petliura is building an army, how is he building ...

    “... we do not need a standing army, but nationwide armament, militia ...

    Builds in the same way as other Marxists in Petrograd - the Red Guard - in the form of the people's militia. So it was then accepted. However, the Red Guard and from whom its backbone was formed is generally a separate question.
    In general, about the article ....
    In general, it is difficult to find at least one paragraph in an article in which there is no distortion, distortion or manipulation.
    And I would like without it.
  8. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 11 November 2021 10: 53
    +3
    After all, the Security Department worked in the empire by some of its own standards.

    What do you want from the organization whose agent organized the assassination of the Minister of Internal Affairs and the Governor-General of Moscow (and the latter was already a member of the Surname - V.K. Sergey Alexandrovich). He also supplied weapons to illegal armed groups within the Empire. smile
    1. Normal ok
      Normal ok 13 November 2021 14: 31
      +1
      Quote: Alexey RA
      After all, the Security Department worked in the empire by some of its own standards.

      What do you want from the organization whose agent organized the assassination of the Minister of Internal Affairs and the Governor-General of Moscow (and the latter was already a member of the Surname - V.K. Sergey Alexandrovich). He also supplied weapons to illegal armed groups within the Empire. smile

      By the way, I had to.
  9. tihonmarine
    tihonmarine 11 November 2021 11: 45
    -2
    Any revolution is a wave that brings up random people. It happens, and geniuses, like the same Napoleon, and sometimes - and philistine sons ...

    Yushchenko, Yanukovych, Poroshenko Zelensky ..... bourgeois children.
  10. tihonmarine
    tihonmarine 11 November 2021 12: 10
    -2
    Thanks to the author, you have a Roman, always credit papers.
  11. zenion
    zenion 11 November 2021 15: 34
    -2
    Simon Petlyura is a corrupt skin!
  12. Looking for
    Looking for 11 November 2021 16: 18
    -2
    who's next in line-HIMMLER.Gebbels.Kaltenbrunner?
  13. Looking for
    Looking for 11 November 2021 16: 24
    -3
    commentators-gathering of the Ukrainian "fifth column"
  14. Normal ok
    Normal ok 13 November 2021 14: 29
    +2
    Figs with him on Petliura. I myself can’t stand it. But, another gross about Ukraine. How much did they order you to embitter people? ...