Military Review

Remote detonator that saved London and the American fleet

67

The Anglo-Saxon allies in World War II actively collaborated in the development and production of new and existing technologies to support military operations and gather intelligence.


Several technologies invented in Great Britain turned out to be critical for the armed forces and were widely used by the Americans during World War II (no one was going to share precisely such technologies with the Soviet Union).

Military historians in the first place among all such innovations and technologies put the invention and use of proximity fuses.

Topicality


The relevance of developing a practical artillery fuse, which would not depend on time calculations to the target, or even on physical contact with the target, was obvious to anyone familiar with the limitations of traditional anti-aircraft artillery.

The gunners of the time recognized that shooting down a small, fast-moving, high-flying plane was mostly luck. Periodic research has shown that, statistically, a direct hit can occur with only one of the approximately 1 anti-aircraft shells fired.

Admiral Arleigh Burke, who commanded fleet American destroyers in the Solomon Islands campaign after the war wrote about the difficulties of defending against Japanese air attacks, especially after dark.
"They're good for harassing enemy aircraft at night, but that's about it."

BACKGROUND


Prior to the invention of the proximity fuse, detonation was caused by direct contact, a timer set at startup, or an altimeter.

All of these early methods used were flawed.

• The probability of direct hitting a small moving target is low; a projectile that misses the target will not explode.

• A fuse that is triggered by time or altitude requires a good forecast by the gunner and accurate timing on the fuse. If something is wrong, then even with correct aiming, the projectiles can “uselessly” explode before reaching the target or after passing it.


Shooting from anti-aircraft guns during the Second World War.

Air defenses using timer fuses had to fire many shots in order to shoot down something.

The proximity fuse is devoid of these disadvantages., a projectile or rocket only needs to fly past the target at a fairly short distance.

A proximity fuse is a fuse that automatically detonates an explosive device when the distance to a target becomes less than a predetermined value.

Regardless of the sensor used, the preset sensing distance is calculated so that the explosion occurs close enough to the target that it is either destroyed or seriously damaged.

In the period leading up to World War II, the chances of anti-aircraft guns hitting the target were slim. The calculations required to calculate the intersection of the trajectory of the projectile and the target were so complex that, on average, tens of thousands of projectiles had to be fired to hit the target.

This problem was especially aggravated during the American-Japanese confrontation after Pearl Harbor. In its initial period, the Japanese aviation proved to be more effective than the naval air defense systems of the American fleet.

History


Aichi D3A was the first Japanese aircraft to bomb American targets in the war, beginning at Pearl Harbor, and American bases in the Philippines. They sank more Allied warships than any other Axis aircraft.

Remote detonator that saved London and the American fleet

During 1942, dive bombing D3A1 и D3A2 contributed significantly to the sinking of three aircraft carriers in the US Navy: Lexington in the battle for the Coral Sea, Yorktown at the Battle of Midway and Hornet at the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands.

They also damaged the aircraft carrier. Enterprise both the Battle of the Eastern Solomon Islands and the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands.

During the war, D3A dive bombers often combined their attacks on enemy warships with a torpedo bomber. IJN Nakajima B5N Kate; therefore, enemy ships were often sunk by a combination of bombs and torpedoes.


The Nakajima B5n Kate was the standard carrier-based torpedo bomber from the Imperial Japanese Navy for most of World War II.

However, there have been cases where only D3A have made attacks, or at least delivered strikes, leading to the sinking of enemy ships.

The Japanese air advantage ended in early 1943.

On the morning of January 5, 1943, four Japanese Aichi D3A dive bombers caught a US Navy task force operating off Guadalcanal by surprise.

One of them hit the New Zealand light cruiser Achilles before the group interrupted the attack.

With a delay, the Americans began to respond and almost fired in pursuit of enemy aircraft.

USS Helena, one of the first three ships to receive the new remote fuse, fired at a dive bomber heading towards its task force.

The cruiser fired two shots, from one of them the enemy plane caught fire and fell into the water.


USS Helena (CL-50) - Brooklyn class light cruiser built for the United States Navy in the late 1930s, the ninth and last member of its class.

Although this fight did not attract public attention at the time, it was a watershed moment in stories artillery and air combat - for the first time an enemy aircraft was deliberately shot down by a remote charge.

Later, also at the beginning of 1943, during the campaign in the Solomon Islands, the proximity fuze showed all its advantages when the task forces of Admiral William Halsey were subjected to repeated night attacks by Mitsubishi G4M torpedo bombers (allied name "Betty").


Mitsubishi G4M "Betty"

As Samuel Eliot Morison writes in his History of US Naval Operations in World War II:
“The smoking fuselages and burning debris on the ground testified to the accuracy of the anti-aircraft batteries and the effectiveness top-secret projectile fuse Mark-32, which passed one of the first combat tests here ”.

Five planes were shot down and the convoy was rescued by "excellent anti-aircraft formation combined with fire control radar and a deadly proximity fuse."

In 1943 alone, according to the Air Defense Command, more than half of all Japanese aircraft were shot down as a result of shelling from ships, although only 25 percent of the shells fired were equipped with non-contact fuses - VT.

Scientific groundwork


British scientists began work on the proximity fuse in the late 1930s and solved many of its inherent problems. But their efforts were blocked by cost overruns and the problem of miniature components, especially suitable for mass production.

When the war was on the doorstep, they shared their best practices with the Americans.

American contribution


Founded in the summer of 1940, the US National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) served as the link between the National Academy of Sciences and the Pentagon. The chairman of the committee was the distinguished electrical engineer and inventor, educated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Vannevar Bush.

To solve countless scientific military problems, the committee turned to various specialized departments.

One such unit was Section-T, which was tasked with creating a workable proximity fuse for large-caliber artillery.


In August 1940 years the section came under the direction of Merle Tuva, an accomplished and innovative physicist at the Carnegie Institution in Washington.

The new research center, called the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), was established under the auspices of Johns Hopkins University.

The main military customer of his research was the navy.

While trying to develop a workable fuse, Section-T scientists, engineers and ammunition experts faced a number of challenges:

• Creation of an optical, magnetic or electronic feedback mechanism that would signal the "explosion" of an artillery projectile moving at an initial speed of 2 fps as it approaches an enemy aircraft traveling at 600 mph.

• Placement of the radar device (transmitter and receiver) in a 5 "projectile only 20¾" long and already packed with 7 pounds of explosive.

Shrinking such an electronic device to the size of a milk bottle in an era when no one could imagine transistors or integrated circuits.

• Development of a power source of sufficient power and strength for the operation of the fuse and operation in the temperature range from 100 to minus 50 degrees.

• Development of a fuse capable of withstanding the impact of a 5-inch cannon - acceleration 20 times the force of gravity - as well as the centrifugal force of a rotating projectile at 000 revolutions per second.

• Providing a safety function to ensure safe handling and prevent accidental detonation.

• Manufacturing of universal fuses suitable for use in a number of US and British weapons.

• Development of technology for fast, high quality mass production - in millions of units, with components sourced from many American factories.

Nevertheless, it turned out that the solutions to the problems did not go beyond the capabilities of American scientists, engineers, inventors, technicians, ammunition experts and manufacturers.

They really did it!


Details of the VT fuse

But how was it made small enough?

At that time, there was no "solid state" electronic circuit. The radios used convex glass vacuum tubes. Although miniature vacuum tubes were used in hearing aids, they were in no way suitable for use in artillery shells.

The development of miniature glass vacuum tubes capable of withstanding shots became a top priority for physicist James Van Allen. It took nearly a year of research, experimentation and field testing using a series of powerful weapons and explosives.

Meanwhile, APL researchers were refining a transceiver circuit originally developed by British scientists, and National Carbon Co. developed a workable power supply. In the summer and fall of 1941, the refinement of other electronic components and devices continued.

The wartime urgency felt by those working on the fuse project was sharply expressed in a series of prescriptions posted on the walls of Tove's laboratory by the serious and highly motivated Chief of Section T:

I don't want any fool in this lab who wants to save money. I just want him to save time.

The detonator, ultimately developed by Section-T and its partners, used a miniature radio transmitter and a receiver with an amplifier.

It included a thyratron trigger, a gas-filled tube that acts like an electronic switch. It also used a battery operated safety device to prevent accidental explosion.

As the projectile flew, the transmitter sent out a continuous radio signal that bounced off a moving target - similar to how radar does.

The receiver recorded a return signal, the intensity of which increased as the projectile approached the target. As soon as the signal level exceeded a certain threshold, it activated the thyratron trigger, releasing the electrical charge accumulated in the capacitor.

This charge triggered an electric detonator, which in turn set off the main explosive.

In the future, Doppler distance sensors were developed.
Due to the high velocity of the projectile relative to the target, the signal reflected from the target has a frequency offset.
This frequency-shifted signal is fed to a mixer, at the output of which a difference frequency is extracted by a filter. The amplitude of the difference frequency depends on the range to the target.

It's one thing to make a miniature Doppler radar out of vacuum tubes, quite another to make the device work after firing a cannon!


The Applied Physics Laboratory at Johns Hopkins University managed to create a revolutionary fuse that changed the balance of power in America's favor.

The combat effects of the fuses, whether used in shells fired from anti-aircraft guns or ground artillery, were immediate, devastating, and demoralizing to enemies.

By the end of the war, an army of workers had assembled and installed more than 22 million innovative fuses of this type., (each containing about 130 miniature electronic parts), totaling over $ 1 billion in 1940s dollars (roughly $ 15 billion today).

The program remained a closely guarded secret throughout the war, so the Japanese and Germans exposed to such fire never understood why the Allied artillery suddenly became so ultra-precise and deadly.


Fuze production lines have opened at several sites.

One of the first tests of the configuration of tiny electronic components and dry cell batteries occurred on January 29, 1942, when researchers mounted them in 5-inch rounds and fired a standard anti-aircraft gun.

Fifty-two percent of the fuses fired were successful.

This success rate was high enough for the Navy's Arms Directorate to commission Crosley Corp. from Cincinnati, Ohio, to begin pilot production of the fuse. To obscure the significance of the device, the bureau implicitly named it a time-controlled fuse - VT.

The following month, National Carbon developed an improved wet cell battery. The size and shape provided greater stability and longer shelf life by separating the electrolyte liquid in a glass ampoule.

A muzzle blast discharge could break glass and release electrolyte, which, under the action of the centrifugal force of a rotating projectile, would pour out onto the stacked carbon and zinc plates, thus activating the battery - an ingenious solution.

Researchers have worked tirelessly to improve the fuse. To ensure defeat, it had to detonate the moment the target was within the effective 60-meter explosion of a standard 5-inch anti-aircraft projectile.

Test


By the summer of 1942 Tove and his team were ready to test the VT fuse in simulated combat conditions. 12 August newly commissioned light cruiser USS Cleveland, who then sailed in the Chesapeake Bay, began a planned two-day assessment of the new detonator with live fire.

The targets were three drones (a small aircraft with remote radio control) - all of them were shot down by gunners on the first day with just four rounds of air defense with a proximity fuse, despite evasive maneuvers by the dispatchers.

Development engineers continued to adapt fuses for use in various calibers of American and British anti-aircraft guns, as well as other naval weapons.

Thus, shells suddenly appeared, which in half of the cases exploded near the target, potentially shooting down an enemy plane in just a few tens or several hundred shots.

This solved several problems.

Ships were now less likely to run out of anti-aircraft ammunition on long voyages, and they were much better able to defend themselves against coordinated bombing attacks.

Fuses were also modified for installation in aerial bombs and field artillery guns.

Modifications


In practice, this meant producing eight different fuses for the US Navy, 12 for the US Army, four for the Royal Navy, and six for the British Army.

As the proximity fuse has proven itself in combat, the demand for it has grown.

In the end, there were about 70 versions of the device in production, which required constant testing, modifications and changes on the assembly line.

Secrecy


Advanced top-secret fuses were sent to the front line with strict instructions to use them only when the enemy could not find unexploded ordnance.

The United States and Great Britain went to great lengths to ensure that not a single sample fell into the hands of the enemy, and at the same time the Soviet allies. To this end, the device was initially limited to naval use, mainly to ensure that enemy forces could not retrieve unexploded ordnance for examination and replication for use against allies.

Performance


In 1943, more than half of all Japanese aircraft were shot down by anti-aircraft missile systems from VT.


The use of the new fuse in the 5-inch anti-aircraft guns of the Navy expanded throughout the Pacific in the last two years of the war.

Some naval historians speculate that the Japanese resorted to kamikaze attacks from inexperienced pilots in part because of the terrible losses of experienced crews due to American anti-aircraft fire - not that the kamikaze were immune to projectiles with VT fuses.

Although proximity fuses were available for many applications, the land embargo continued until the summer of 1944, when Germany began bombing London using V-1 flying bombs.

Not targeting specific targets, the rocket missiles have claimed tens of thousands of civilian lives and extensive damage. Launched across the English Channel and approaching 400 mph, the unmanned missiles were difficult to spot and even more difficult to hit.

Defense of England


Section-T began modifying proximity fuses to target small, fast V-1s.

Special fuses were installed in British 3,7-inch anti-aircraft ammunition and US 90-mm anti-aircraft shells.

In mid-July, the Allies deployed about 500 guns to installations along the canal, where their fire posed no danger to RAF fighters. The results have been impressive over the last four weeks of the 80-day campaign.

Allied coastal batteries destroyed 24 percent of all deployed V-1s in the first week, 46 percent in the second week, 67 percent in the third week and a whopping 79 percent in the last week.

Application in the troops


In 1944, these shells were finally cleared for ground warfare, and their greatest moment came during the Battle of Bulge, when General George S. Patton ordered them to be used against the congestion tank crews and infantry.

The shells were to explode about 50 feet above the ground. Shrapnel pierced people and light equipment and disabled entire armored and infantry units due to the huge number of wounded and killed soldiers.

In ground combat, projectiles with proximity fuses inflicted terrible damage to people and vehicles.

The proximity fuse has demonstrated its value in two significant military campaigns during the final phase of the war in Europe.

Fight for Antwerp


The Allied battle for control of Antwerp in late 1944 highlighted the key role of the Belgian port in securing a land offensive against Germany.

The British 11th Armored Division captured the port on 4 September. Over the next five months, the Germans responded by round-the-clock launches of around 2 V-500 flying bombs and V-1 ballistic missiles aimed at destroying the vital port. APL physicists quickly developed a modified fuse for 2 and 3,7mm anti-aircraft projectiles to counter this threat.


The devices were put into production at the Crosley plant, and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill authorized a dedicated Lancaster flight to transport fuses from Cincinnati to Antwerp.

Since this largely prevented air attacks, the large supply port remained open throughout the war.

Battle of the Ardennes


16 декабря 1944 года Germany launched its last major offensive on the Western Front, the Battle of the Ardennes.

By then, proximity fuses had been developed and tested for all calibers of American artillery, and large stocks of ammunition had been sent to the European Theater of War.

The embargo on the use of non-contact fused ground munitions, for both anti-aircraft and field artillery, was lifted within two days of the initial attacks, which included the last concentrated air attacks by the Luftwaffe.

The effect was immediate and overwhelming. Since the time the Allies did not cross the Rhine into Germany, more than 1 enemy aircraft were shot down by Allied air defenses.

Moreover, the parallel development of fire control radars allowed gunners to destroy invisible targets on the reverse hillsides and under the canopy, day and night.

Since the artillery was at a high speed, the German soldiers could not hear the shells until they exploded overhead. The trenches did not provide protection, and the shrapnel even pierced the bunkers reinforced with logs.

Interrogations of German prisoners of war often contained evidence of their panic. "They realized that they were faced with new artillery, but could not understand how it works, or how to evade it."

In fairness, it should be recalled that the assessments of the forces involved in the Battle of the Ardennes and the losses of the parties vary depending on the sources. The Americans tended to exaggerate the strength and losses of the Germans, and the Germans tended to exaggerate the Americans.

The same applies to assessing the role of remote fuses in this final battle.


Conclusion


Materials were declassified in 1995-1997 Operation Venona. This is how the American intelligence services called the systematic collection and decryption of intercepted radio communications between the Soviet intelligence station in the United States and Moscow from 1943 to 1945.

Operation Venona began in 1943 and lasted almost 40 years. The documents of "Venona", in particular, testify that the American radio engineer Julius Rosenberg, who was later executed with his wife on charges of espionage for the USSR, actually worked for Soviet intelligence, and he was doing this solely for ideological reasons.

Most often, Rosenberg's name is mentioned in connection with the American and Soviet atomic programs. However, the information transmitted by him was by no means exhausted by atomic secrets.

It is known that in December 1944, he obtained and handed over to the Soviet intelligence officer Alexander Feklisov detailed documentation and a sample of a finished radar fuse.

Soviet experts highly appreciated this product. At their request, a Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR was adopted on the creation of a special design bureau for the further development of this device and on the establishment of its production.

On July 1945, 9390, the State Defense Committee of the USSR adopted Resolution No. XNUMX on the creation of a Commission for German Radar Products. AI Shokin, the future minister of electronic industry of the USSR, was appointed the head of the group of engineering, technical and scientific workers. The commission was engaged in the collection of samples of devices and products, technical documentation, the study of industrial enterprises, the search and involvement of German specialists in the work.

At the end of 1945, the military plant No. 58 (formerly Shot Foundry - Moscow) of the People's Commissariat of Ammunition, together with its special design bureau, was reoriented by the decision of the USSR Government to the serial production of radio equipment for mass ammunition, primarily radar fuses for anti-aircraft shells and bombs.


On the left and in the center is the American Mark 32 radio fuse, and on the right is the Soviet AR-30

As a result, a few years later, the production of exact copies of American VTs was established in the USSR under the designation AR. These fuses in several modifications were produced until the 1960s, adding to the long list of weapons and military equipment obtained by the Soviet Union through military-industrial espionage and copying of foreign designs.

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  1. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 10 November 2021 05: 10
    +17
    A trash article about an interesting topic.

    or an altimeter.
    Very doubtful.

    Muzzle blast discharge could break glass and release electrolyte
    What is that ?!

    In 1943, more than half of all Japanese aircraft were shot down by anti-aircraft missile systems from VT.
    What a lousy knowledge of the history of military technology.

    Not targeting specific targets, the rocket missiles have claimed tens of thousands of civilian lives and extensive damage.
    And just military history.
    1. Pavel73
      Pavel73 10 November 2021 06: 36
      +17
      This is not exactly a hack article, but obviously a translation of a Western article. Under the "discharge of a muzzle explosion" apparently means shock overload on the structure of the projectile at the time of the shot. Well, the rest is some exaggeration and obvious praise of the authors of the article of Anglo-American science and technology. It's just that the United States declassified some of the information about ammunition from the Second World War (by the way, there are not enough technical details), and one of the Western journalists, having familiarized themselves with this information, wrote this article. Not always using technical terms wisely. And our translator did not translate correctly everywhere.
      1. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 10 November 2021 06: 56
        +6
        Quote: Pavel73
        And our translator did not translate correctly everywhere.

        "Our translator" claims knowledge of computer technology and the history of Soviet missile defense, and so shamefully owns basic technical knowledge.
        1. The leader of the Redskins
          The leader of the Redskins 10 November 2021 07: 30
          +15
          And I was immediately alarmed
          requires a good forecast by the gunner
          It became clear that a person who was clearly far from the topic was "finishing the translation". But the topic itself, I agree, is interesting.
        2. Engineer
          Engineer 10 November 2021 10: 25
          +10
          "Our translator" claims knowledge of computer technology and the history of Soviet missile defense, and so shamefully owns basic technical knowledge.

          The author of the article is Ivanov
          The author of the cycle about PRO-Eremenko
          1. Vladimir_2U
            Vladimir_2U 10 November 2021 10: 34
            0
            Quote: Engineer
            The author of the article is Ivanov
            The author of the cycle about PRO-Eremenko

            This is afront! But I usually check what I write. recourse But claims to Eremenko are about the same! Fuh let go, I will not berate myself !. laughing
      2. TermNachTer
        TermNachTer 10 November 2021 13: 57
        +4
        You have to understand - Google - translation, a little "combed", but apparently the author does not understand all the issues. Kepten Arlie Bjork, in 1943 - 43, commanded a destroyer flotilla, although the position is relatively conditional, usually the eldest of the two battalion commanders. But in general. purely personal opinion, the victory of the allies in the war was ensured not by admirals and generals, but by engineers and production workers. The Allies crushed the Axis - qualitatively and quantitatively with technology.
    2. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 10 November 2021 08: 38
      +9
      The topic is interesting. The presentation is not very good. Do not shoot the "scribe" - he plays as best he can. The fact that the Rosenberg spouses transmitted data on radar technology, it is known, did not know only about remote proximity fuses. There is no proof of their connection with the atomic project, this is an American fake, and in fact they were executed precisely for the atomic project.
      1. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 10 November 2021 08: 41
        0
        Quote: Aviator_
        The presentation is not very good. Do not shoot the "scribe" - he plays as best he can.

        If he "does not know how" in sufficiently simple things, then how can one believe what he can do in describing the development of Soviet computer technology and missile defense?
        1. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 10 November 2021 08: 44
          +1
          His opuses about the history of missile defense are becoming more boring and lacking in content. Basically about how brilliant G. Kisunko and what a Kalmyk monster.
          1. Vladimir_2U
            Vladimir_2U 10 November 2021 08: 53
            +3
            Quote: Aviator_
            His opuses about the history of missile defense are becoming more boring and lacking in content.

            I broke down on the fifth or sixth article on missile defense, in which there was not a word about missile defense, but there was a lot about the backward USSR and God-bearing America. By the way, what about missile defense has appeared? Or did the USSR fail? laughing
            1. Aviator_
              Aviator_ 10 November 2021 08: 59
              +6
              but about the backward USSR and God-bearing America is complete.

              It also strained me strongly. I don’t know anything about missile defense, I’ll get myself together, post on VO a review of Kisunko’s memoirs, they also annoy me - how smart and brilliant he is, and everyone around him is interfering with him. Again, he pours his poems everywhere. Immediately I remember "Monday starts on Saturday" - "the poems were either familiar or bad." I did not find familiar verses from Kisunko.
              1. Hexenmeister
                Hexenmeister 10 November 2021 10: 00
                +2
                I will post on VO a review of Kisunko's memoirs
                Good idea, do not delay with it! It is a pity that here it is impossible, as in a regular Forum, to simply open a new topic without any article and start a discussion ... I myself am also now reading his book, only to assess those events it would be good to know the views of "ordinary" participants, but unfortunately they are memoirs do not write, and the Chief Constructors are "not simple people" ...
                1. Aviator_
                  Aviator_ 10 November 2021 16: 10
                  +1
                  I'll finish with the annual reports and write.
    3. mr.ZinGer
      mr.ZinGer 10 November 2021 09: 09
      -1
      acceleration 20 times the force of gravity

      It is interesting how such acceleration can be obtained, the speed of light is resting.
      1. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 10 November 2021 09: 19
        +6
        Quote: mr.ZinGer
        It is interesting how such acceleration can be obtained, the speed of light is resting.

        Here I will justify the author a little, he probably confused acceleration with overload. 20 g is quite normal for a shot.
      2. Genry
        Genry 10 November 2021 09: 49
        +3
        Quote: mr.ZinGer
        how such acceleration can be obtained, the speed of light rests

        Physics is definitely a problem for you at school.

        Acceleration 20000g is about 200 m / s000, ---- i.e. the projectile in the barrel accelerates to a speed of 2 m / s in 1000 seconds.
        1. KKND
          KKND 10 November 2021 11: 32
          0
          Quote: Genry
          Physics is definitely a problem for you at school.

          So the author also "smoked" physics at school
          Quote: Pol Alan
          Development of a fuse capable of withstanding the impact of a 5-inch cannon - acceleration 20 times the force of gravity - as well as the centrifugal force of a rotating projectile at 000 revolutions per second.

          How can acceleration and gravity be compared. One in m \ sec * sec the second in kg * m \ sec * sec.
          And the blow of a shot, which crushes a projectile is profanity. The body is destroyed not by force, but by deformation (movement of different parts of the body with different accelerations).
          1. Genry
            Genry 10 November 2021 11: 47
            +2
            Quote: KKND
            How can acceleration and gravity be compared.

            From Wiki:
            .... Gravity is conservative [8]. It imparts to any body, regardless of its mass, the acceleration g ....


            Quote: KKND
            Bodies are destroyed not by force, but by deformation

            What follows from what (what is primary and what is the consequence)?
            1. KKND
              KKND 10 November 2021 11: 57
              0
              The force of gravity acting on a body weighing 1 kg is roughly 10 N, and on a body weighing 2 kg is already 20 N twice as much. Whatever you once again ran to Vika for the missing school knowledge, I will explain why they fall with one acceleration. A body of 2 kg is acted upon by a force of 1 N, acceleration = force / mass = 10 m / s * s. The second body 10 kg force 2 N acceleration 20 N \ 20 kg is equal to 2 m \ sec * sec. A body of 10 ton will be acted upon by a force of 1 N.
              Now about the deformation. It can arise only if a force acts on the body, so that the force is primary. But there are different natures of forces. A body of 1 Ton collided with 100 m and is in flight is affected by a large force of gravity, but it does not deform the body from the word at all. Since initially it acts on all particles of the body in the same way. It is also possible to imagine the absence of deformations in bodies in other homogeneous fields.
              1. Genry
                Genry 10 November 2021 13: 19
                +2
                Quote: KKND
                Whatever you once again ran to Vika for the missing school knowledge, I will explain why they fall with one acceleration. A body of 1 kg is acted upon by a force of 10 N, acceleration = force / mass = 10 m / s * s. The second body 2 kg force 20 N acceleration 20 N \ 2 kg is equal to 10 m \ sec * sec. A body of 1 ton will be acted upon by a force of 10000 N from the Earth ...

                You have already completely moved away from the context that was in the article. Don't fall into primitivism.
                Quote: KKND
                Now about the deformation. It can arise only if a force acts on the body, so that the force is primary. But there are different natures of forces ...

                They branched off to the side.
                Another "shirsh" show your desire to chat about a specific topic.
                1. KKND
                  KKND 10 November 2021 14: 01
                  +1
                  Is there a difference between 1000 N and g? There is.
                  Is there a difference between body deformation and impact force? There is.
                  What kind of chattering?
                  1. Genry
                    Genry 10 November 2021 14: 30
                    +1
                    Quote: KKND
                    Is there a difference between 1000 N and g? There is.

                    You tell 1000 N of what shape and is it poured from cast iron?
                    А "g" -She's a constant !!! Who compares it? tongue
                    Quote: KKND
                    Is there a difference between body deformation and impact force?

                    Who needs your warp here? Start about the crystal lattice ...
                    In the context of the article, only the fact of the destruction of the ampoule ... is interesting, due to the force arising from increased acceleration.
                    1. KKND
                      KKND 10 November 2021 14: 52
                      +1
                      In short, that's what's wrong. Reading the article
                      Development of a fuse capable of withstanding the impact of a 5-inch cannon - acceleration 20 times the force of gravity - as well as the centrifugal force of a rotating projectile at 000 revolutions per second.

                      Now there are 2 correct options.
                      1. Development of a fuse capable of withstanding the impact of a shot from a 5-inch cannon - force20 times the force of gravity - as well as centrifugal force arising from rotation projectile at 500 revolutions per second.
                      2. Development of a fuse capable of withstanding acceleration arising from the shot from a 5-inch cannon - acceleration 20 times greater than g- and centrifugal acceleration a rotating projectile at 500 revolutions per second.
                      The author mixed the concepts into a bunch.
                      Questions, additions, refutations will be?
                      That is why I said that the author "smoked" physics.
                      1. Genry
                        Genry 10 November 2021 15: 15
                        +1
                        Quote: KKND
                        The author mixed the concepts into a bunch.

                        In physics, it is customary to talk about forces (interaction in a system), since accelerations, for different objects, are not subtracted or added.
        2. mr.ZinGer
          mr.ZinGer 10 November 2021 14: 30
          +1
          Yes, you are right, I got lost in rubles.
    4. FCSO
      FCSO 12 November 2021 23: 06
      0
      Yes, the author generally very poorly understands what he is writing about.
      Here are a couple of quotes:
      Although this battle did not attract public attention at the time, it marked a watershed in the history of artillery and aerial combat - for the first time an enemy aircraft was deliberately shot down by a remote charge.
      ...
      By the end of the war, an army of workers had assembled and installed more than 22 million innovative fuses of this type.


      There is a great suspicion that the author has very little understanding of what he is writing about.
      Where did the author take that the first plane was shot down by a shell with a remote detonation on January 5, 1943. Does he even know what shells were used in anti-aircraft artillery during the Second World War?

      What are 22 million fuses?
      That's 22 million shells.
      Which ones? All anti-aircraft calibers? ..
      This is just nothing for the US Navy.
      Just count the number of 127-mm universal guns that were on destroyers (from four to six barrels), as well as on cruisers, battleships and aircraft carriers (from 12 to 20 barrels) !!
    5. Avarron
      Avarron 9 January 2022 18: 02
      -3
      We are waiting for your exceptionally competent and delightfully interesting articles.
      1. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 10 January 2022 03: 39
        0
        Quote: Avarron
        We are waiting for your exceptionally competent and delightfully interesting articles.

        Those. Does the quality of this article not suit you either? Or norms? Or is someone's bot getting horny?
  2. Serg Kam
    Serg Kam 10 November 2021 05: 16
    +4
    Modern wars are won by science and economics.
  3. Monar
    Monar 10 November 2021 09: 38
    0
    Hmm. I always thought that the remote (the same wire with the shaitan-machine) and proximity fuses are different things.
  4. A. Privalov
    A. Privalov 10 November 2021 09: 42
    +3
    By the end of the war, an army of workers had assembled and installed over 22 million innovative fuses of this type (each containing about 130 miniature electronic parts), totaling over $ 1 billion in 1940s dollars (roughly $ 15 billion today).

    This comes out at 700 green per fuse at current prices!
    Without specifying the sources and literature used, the figures for the release of fuses and their prices do not look real.
    1. Engineer
      Engineer 10 November 2021 10: 34
      +2
      They look completely real. Figures wander through the articles. And the wiki has
      There is here
      https://www.historynet.com/proximity-fuze.htm
      This is apparently the source of the author's inspiration.
      The Germans made their own analogue. We were unable to expand production just because of the complexity and price.
      1. A. Privalov
        A. Privalov 10 November 2021 11: 06
        +4
        Quote: Engineer
        They look completely real. Figures wander through the articles. And the wiki has
        There is here
        https://www.historynet.com/proximity-fuze.htm
        This is apparently the source of the author's inspiration.
        The Germans made their own analogue. We were unable to expand production just because of the complexity and price.

        You are apparently right.
        The author was simply ashamed to cite the source.

        My doubts come from the fact that in 1940 the American average worker was making 25 cents an hour. It was quite a lot - to buy 3 pounds (about 1,4 kg) of sausage in an hour of work. And for a year, such an employee brought home $ 515. Accordingly, 60 greenbacks for a fuse, the amount, at that time, was inconceivably large.
        1. Engineer
          Engineer 10 November 2021 15: 40
          +1
          In 43, on average, almost a dollar an hour in manufacturing
          https://fraser.stlouisfed.org/title/wages-manufacturing-industries-wartime-4241
          Page 15.
          It seems not so great anymore)
          In 40, it was 65 cents an hour in production.
        2. Grim Reaper
          Grim Reaper 17 December 2021 20: 06
          0
          Quote: A. Privalov
          Quote: Engineer
          They look completely real. Figures wander through the articles. And the wiki has
          There is here
          https://www.historynet.com/proximity-fuze.htm
          This is apparently the source of the author's inspiration.
          The Germans made their own analogue. We were unable to expand production just because of the complexity and price.

          You are apparently right.
          The author was simply ashamed to cite the source.

          My doubts come from the fact that in 1940 the American average worker was making 25 cents an hour. It was quite a lot - to buy 3 pounds (about 1,4 kg) of sausage in an hour of work. And for a year, such an employee brought home $ 515. Accordingly, 60 greenbacks for a fuse, the amount, at that time, was inconceivably large.

          Come on, Alexander, who counts the price in wartime. So, those who extract, those who melt, those who produce from hunger did not die, and okay. And their families got a piece of bread. Of course, it can be counted on the level of peacetime. But these are completely different numbers. I hope you understand what I mean ...
          1. A. Privalov
            A. Privalov 17 December 2021 20: 25
            +1
            And yet, let me remain unconvinced. Moreover, the number - 22 million of these fuses, with 130 miniature electronic parts, I also see incredibly large. It means that from January 1943 to May 1945, the local military industry had to produce 25 (twenty five thousand!) Pieces of such fuses every day.
            1. Grim Reaper
              Grim Reaper 17 December 2021 20: 38
              0
              Quote: A. Privalov
              And yet, let me remain unconvinced. Moreover, the number - 22 million of these fuses, with 130 miniature electronic parts, I also see incredibly large. It means that from January 1943 to May 1945, the local military industry had to produce 25 (twenty five thousand!) Pieces of such fuses every day.

              Oh sure. You are with your opinion, I am with mine. But!! I always think that during a war it is necessary to evaluate equipment / ammunition not in money, but in man / hours. Therefore, such a figure does not seem outrageous. Well, what is 25 thousand a day. Divide into 10 factories. Already 2500 per day. Divide into three shifts. Already a little more than 800 per shift, the figure that seemed unrealistic somehow takes shape.
              Of course, the above is my invention. But I don't see anything unreal.
              1. A. Privalov
                A. Privalov 17 December 2021 20: 49
                +1
                Quote: Grim Reaper
                Oh sure. You are with your opinion, I am with mine. But!! I always think that during a war it is necessary to evaluate equipment / ammunition not in money, but in man / hours. Therefore, such a figure does not seem outrageous. Well, what is 25 thousand a day. Divide into 10 factories. Already 2500 per day. Divide into three shifts. Already a little over 800 a day. And the figure that seemed unreal somehow takes shape.

                They did not have so many specialized factories, and even with miniature electronics there was a strain at that time.
                There were not 150 million people living there; no one worked there as during the war in the USSR in three shifts.
              2. Amateur
                Amateur 15 January 2022 18: 30
                0
                Just over 800

                And if you continue your thought and divide 800 pieces by 8 hours (shift duration), you get 100 pieces. per hour or 1.67 pieces per minute. That is, prvkicheski continuously. That's a lot for such a complex product. So the number of factories must be multiplied by at least 10.
    2. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 10 November 2021 18: 03
      +1
      Quote: A. Privalov
      This comes out at 700 green per fuse at current prices!
      Without specifying the sources and literature used, the figures for the release of fuses and their prices do not look real.

      This is simple morgue average hospital temperature. smile
      As for any product put into a series, the first batches cost prohibitive, but further, as the volume of production increased and the technology was developed, the cost fell sharply.
      Aunt Vika slanders that in 1943 the first VT-fuse cost as much as $ 732 apiece. But by 1945 the same detonator cost $ 18 apiece.
  5. Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 10 November 2021 10: 35
    +3
    One of the myths of the Second World War. The best air defense of US and British ships 40 mm anti-aircraft guns with an objectionable shock fuse. They shot down a lot more than the radio-controlled cannons.
    It should be added that the radio viewers beat expensive ones, could only be used in medium and large caliber cannons and reduced the combat charge. The probability of direct hitting the plane is not much less from a sufficiently close passage and the radio viewer was slightly superior to the simple shock viewer itself in terms of efficiency.
  6. Paul Alan
    10 November 2021 10: 35
    +6
    Colleagues.

    The author of this article on fuses and their use during World War II has nothing to do with the series of articles on missile defense. winked

    Therefore, critical or approving reviews, as well as the associated sarcasm on the topic of missile defense, would be more appropriate to post in another thread and address them to the author.
    https://topwar.ru/user/Sperry/
    1. KKND
      KKND 10 November 2021 11: 39
      +1
      Quote: Pol Alan
      Colleagues.

      The author of this article on fuses and their use during World War II has nothing to do with the series of articles on missile defense.

      Sorry, of course, but what's stopping you from writing articles and comments under different pseudonyms / usernames? Here Shpakovsky easily signs his articles with different pseudonyms, what prevents you from doing something like that?
      1. Grim Reaper
        Grim Reaper 17 December 2021 20: 15
        0
        Quote: KKND
        Quote: Pol Alan
        Colleagues.

        The author of this article on fuses and their use during World War II has nothing to do with the series of articles on missile defense.

        Sorry, of course, but what's stopping you from writing articles and comments under different pseudonyms / usernames? Here Shpakovsky easily signs his articles with different pseudonyms, what prevents you from doing something like that?

        Shpakovsky under pseudonyms? Fig you have a lot of weed.
        IN. if you read my comment, post a link to your pseudonyms.
  7. The comment was deleted.
  8. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 10 November 2021 11: 20
    +2
    During WW2, the USA, Germany, Japan worked especially actively on proximity fuses (NV) ... The Americans achieved the greatest success, especially in practical application. In Germany, they worked on several types of NV: 1. active radio frequency; 2.passive infrared; 3.active photoelectric ... The Germans even produced one type of radio frequency NV, but in insufficient quantities ... faced certain technological difficulties. NV were intended mainly for anti-aircraft missiles ... In Japan, an active photoelectric fuse for aerial bombs was developed and produced ... By the way, after the end of hostilities, the Americans got acquainted with the Japanese NV and gave it a high assessment!
  9. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 10 November 2021 11: 40
    +2
    A very interesting detailed article. good
    I did not know that there was such a "turn" in the artillery during the Second World War
  10. Basarev
    Basarev 10 November 2021 11: 52
    -3
    As a result, a few years later, the production of exact copies of American VTs was established in the USSR under the designation AR. These fuses in several modifications were produced until the 1960s, adding to the long list of weapons and military equipment obtained by the Soviet Union through military-industrial espionage and copying of foreign designs.

    Why, then, is a primitive pipe of almost Napoleonic times used (and issued as a breakthrough) on the Baikal module?
    1. Genry
      Genry 10 November 2021 14: 00
      +1
      Quote: Basarev
      Why, then, is a primitive pipe of almost Napoleonic times used (and issued as a breakthrough) on the Baikal module?

      belay
      Did Napoleon have laser-controlled electronics in his cannonballs? laughing
      1. Basarev
        Basarev 10 November 2021 14: 19
        0
        It meant that the Baikal shells with remote detonation use a conventional powder track and a timer, which is quite comparable to the level of 812.
        1. Genry
          Genry 10 November 2021 14: 58
          0
          Quote: Basarev
          It meant that the Baikal shells with remote detonation use a conventional powder track and a timer, which is quite comparable to the level of 812.

          Powder tracks - when is it poured from a keg with gunpowder? good
          Specifically, what kind of fuse (code) do you mean?
          The mechanical timer is manual loading.
          Electronic - .... in 1812 ???
        2. stankow
          stankow 15 January 2022 19: 11
          +1
          Not a "remote drive", but a remote setting of the drive time.
  11. RPG_
    RPG_ 10 November 2021 12: 49
    0
    How radio fuses worked on ground targets is not at all clear from the article. In a word, hack.
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 10 November 2021 16: 18
      +1
      Without being distracted by the quality of the article, I can assume that the radio fuse, when firing at ground targets, provided a detonation at a predetermined height (5, 10, 20 ... m) with a downward trajectory
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 10 November 2021 17: 53
        +3
        Quote: Aviator_
        Without being distracted by the quality of the article, I can assume that the radio fuse, when firing at ground targets, provided a detonation at a predetermined height (5, 10, 20 ... m) with a downward trajectory

        Exactly. VT-fuse in field artillery provided the possibility of guaranteed (within the limits of the probability of detonation of the fuse) air detonation of fragmentation projectiles at a given height above the target, which sharply increased their effectiveness compared to ground burst (even the infantry in the trenches got out of the fragments). With it, it was not necessary, as with shrapnel, to set the remote tube at a given range / flight time of the projectile before rupture, grind your teeth when the target was outside the time of the remote tube operation, adjust the tube settings for actual breaks - you only had to hit the area with the projectile goals. smile
        1. Basarev
          Basarev 15 January 2022 20: 59
          -2
          Now, that's exactly what I was talking about, and these cling to words all the time. The point was that we still have the same remote tube. And it is issued for a breakthrough. And in the west, since the war, a radio fuse has been in use.
  12. Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 10 November 2021 14: 16
    +4
    Specific facts for the US Pacific Fleet in the war:
    40 mm cannon - 33% of all downed aircraft and 1713 rounds to shoot down an aircraft;
    20 mm cannon - 28% and 5287 sleep / self;
    127 mm cannon without radio viewer - 15% and 654 s / s;
    127 mm cannon with radio viewer - 15% and 340 sn. Itself.

    Vyewod is the most effective 40 mm anti-aircraft gun. automatic.
    1. Zufei
      Zufei 10 November 2021 14: 53
      +3
      Where does the percentage of hits with a specific caliber come from?
      It seems to me that anti-aircraft artillery worked from all calibers at the same time. And there is no way to determine the most effective one.
    2. Jacket in stock
      Jacket in stock 10 November 2021 14: 55
      0
      Quote: Kostadinov
      Vyewod is the most effective 40 mm anti-aircraft gun. automatic.

      Quite the contrary.
      You did not take into account how many 40 mm guns were, and how many 127 mm.
      I think the difference is several orders of magnitude.
      Although, you can not take into account, you yourself wrote everything:
      Shells of 40 mm are needed 1713 for 1 plane,
      127mm rounds with 340 radio fuses, i.e. 57 times less.
      1. demiurg
        demiurg 10 November 2021 16: 10
        +9
        Something you have weakened in fractions. 1700/340 is 5.5 approximately. But the 40mm projectile weighs much less.


        In short, you two are both wrong. 127 mm is the first line of defense, and protection against high-altitude aircraft.
        40 mm is the finish of those who broke through the first line. 20 and 12.7 is already a bayonet in air defense. If there are only five-inches, then everything that breaks through closer than 3-4 km, with active maneuvering, is unlikely to be hit. If there are only Bofors and Erlikons, then a 4 km high bomber will calmly throw suitcases and suitcases one by one. And sooner or later it will.

        You've seen how smart I am, right?
        * Went proud of himself into the fog. laughing
  13. Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 10 November 2021 16: 57
    +1
    Quote: Zufei
    Where does the percentage of hits with a specific caliber come from?
    It seems to me that anti-aircraft artillery worked from all calibers at the same time. And there is no way to determine the most effective one.

    1. Data from the study "Antiaircraft Action Summary · World War II, October 1945
    Headquarters of the Commander in Chief UNITED STATES FLEET "
    I will not translate. Can be found easily in the net.
    The conclusion is that the most effective 40mm cannon is there and quoted from this study.
    2. How the anti-aircraft guns worked and for what purposes, you need to read the material. Obviously, it does not share the opinion that there is no way to assess the effectiveness of the guns.
  14. Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 10 November 2021 17: 07
    +1
    Something you have weakened in fractions. 1700/340 is 5.5 approximately. But the 40mm projectile weighs much less.

    1. More precisely 5 times more than 40 mm than 127 mm projectiles per aircraft. Now we need to compare the price of a 40 mm projectile with an impact fuse and the price of a 127 mm projectile with a radio fuse. I have no information but the difference is at least 40-50 times.
    2. The rate of fire of a 40 mm cannon is 120 rpm, 127 mm - 12 rpm. It takes half the time to shoot down one plane with a 40 mm cannon.
    3. There is no doubt that both of them hit necessary, since the range of destruction of the 127 mm cannon is much higher. But in World War II, bombing ships from a great height and range with conventional bombs and torpedoes meant only the waste of ammunition.
  15. Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 10 November 2021 18: 11
    +1
    There is no evidence that with the help of radio controllers, they shot down even one BR V-2.
    Losses in Antwerp from ballistic and krylate missiles were significant. The allies were saved not by anti-aircraft artillery, but by the low accuracy and reliability of German missiles.
  16. looker-on
    looker-on 11 November 2021 10: 43
    0
    Gorgeous. Thank you very much! The amount spent on development and production is shocking. But it was worth it.
  17. nemoXX
    nemoXX 12 November 2021 11: 01
    0
    The article supports the version that any "miracle - weapon (or" retaliation ")" is parried by the enemy either symmetrically or asymmetrically, and all the chatter about "being 10-20 years or more ahead" ends in bloody debunking of myths. So it was in the last war, and so it will be in the future. Moreover, there is no hope of victory by the "mass heroism" of the kamikaze. But there are massive illusions on this score and attempts to build a policy on their basis. It will end sadly.
  18. stankow
    stankow 15 January 2022 18: 54
    0
    The British got it for free - wow, how cool! The Russians organized the production - oh, how stupid and insidious they are! :)
  19. Boratsagdiev
    Boratsagdiev 31 January 2022 19: 49
    0
    "In 1943, anti-aircraft fire missile complexes" - Patriots?