Military Review

On the victory over hunger in the Soviet Volga region

42

Recently, in the so-called ultraliberal circles, the topic has been discussed that in the Soviet Union the topic of famine in the Volga region, in the Ukraine, in the northern regions of Kazakhstan was allegedly hushed up. Allegedly, the statesmen did everything so that the population of other regions did not know about the scale of famine that hit their compatriots in the aforementioned territories.


The fact that these are typical myths is revealed by numerous chronicles, archival documents and even monuments, installed, by the way, precisely in Soviet times. Among the monuments are carriages and locomotives that transported grain from the Urals, Siberia, and other regions of the country to territories suffering from drought and, as a result, famine.

Soviet documentary filmmakers made numerous films about how assistance was provided to the population faced with real hunger. Among other things - documentary filming (filming) about the famine in the Volga region, which hit the region exactly 100 years ago.

On the victory over hunger in the Soviet Volga region

Brown quinoa cakes with bran


What helped to defeat the famine in the Volga region of 1921-1922?

The historian Grigory Tsidenkov, who specializes in the study of this particular issue, reflects on this topic. According to him, it was possible to defeat hunger thanks to a strong government, state policy, solidarity, and mutual assistance. These are some of the ingredients that ultimately helped to save millions of people in Soviet Russia from certain death. Of course, there were some losses. But neither then, nor today, no one was going to and is not going to deny these losses, which, of course, would look stupid.

Film studio Samarafilm:

Photos used:
Facebook / Grigory Tsidenkov
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  1. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 3 November 2021 09: 24
    +6

    For the first time I hear that the topic of famine in the Volga region would be "silent". In Soviet cinema and agitprom, this misfortune, human grief was not hidden. There were posters.
    But the famine in Ukraine and Kazakhstan was really talked about openly after the collapse of the Soviet Union.
    1. Cowbra
      Cowbra 3 November 2021 09: 46
      +5
      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      For the first time I hear that the topic of famine in the Volga region would be "silent".

      Well, maybe the current liberals do. They are dark people (although it's not a fact that they are people in general), they didn't even read 12 chairs ... "And these are orphans. Children of the Volga region."
      1. knn54
        knn54 3 November 2021 10: 08
        +5
        NOTHING grew due to the terrible drought. The civil war has just ended. The excesses (?) Of the "local authorities".
        Superposition of several facts SIMULTANEOUSLY.
    2. Egoza
      Egoza 3 November 2021 10: 02
      +6
      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      But the famine in Ukraine and Kazakhstan was really talked about openly after the collapse of the Soviet Union.

      But this does not prevent the exhibition of photos of starving people from the Volga region in the Ukrainian Museum of Memory. If you say that this is a photo of the Volga region, you will be told that “Ukrainians also lived there,” which means the Ukrainian Holodomor.
      1. Egoza
        Egoza 3 November 2021 10: 04
        +9
        "Exactly 100 years ago, in the fall of 1921, Fridtjof Nansen's Mission to rescue the hungry in the Volga region began. The charitable work of the Norwegian polar explorer brought him the Nobel Peace Prize and helped save from hunger, according to various estimates, from one and a half to two million inhabitants of Soviet Russia."
        1. Crowe
          Crowe 3 November 2021 10: 37
          +9
          "Exactly 100 years ago, in the fall of 1921, Fridtjof Nansen's Mission to rescue the hungry in the Volga region began its work
          At first, the Soviet government did not advertise this fact, but by 1921. it became clear that it was impossible to cope on its own. However, even then, it was not the first persons of the state who turned to the world community for help, but the writer Maxim Gorky. In July 1921. he sent telegrams to a number of European public figures, after which, on August 2, V.I. Lenin appealed to the international proletariat for help, and on August 6, the Soviet government officially notified the world of the crop failure that had befallen the country. The main stream of aid came after an active public campaign organized by Fridtjof Nansen personally and a number of non-governmental organizations in Europe and America in late 1921 - early 1922
          Photo from F. Nansen's archive. Unloading food from the warehouse of the International Union for the Rescue of Children in Saratov, 1921-22. From the memoirs of Nansen: "The most terrible visit was the cemetery, which had a mountain of 70 or 80 naked corpses, most of which belonged to children who have died in the last two days and Brought here from shelters or simply picked up on the streets. And next to it were piled up another 7 or 8 corpses of adults. They are all simply piled into one grave until it is full. The corpses are naked, because the living ones take their clothes. Nansen asked the gravedigger how many dead they were bringing. to the cemetery every day, and received the answer that they were brought in “carts.” Every single day. It was impossible for the gravediggers to cope with the burial of so many dead, because the ground was frozen and it was very hard to dig, so mountains grew out of the bodies of the unfortunate. remained lying on the streets and in houses, because there was no way to take them to the cemetery. "
          Photo from F. Nansen's archive. Cemetery in Buzuluk, famine of 1921-22
          One of the photographs taken by Nansen in Russia during a trip to the starving regions in 1921
          1. alystan
            alystan 4 November 2021 13: 46
            +1
            ... However, even then, not the first persons of the state, but the writer Maxim Gorky, turned to the world community for help. In July 1921. he sent telegrams to a number of European public figures, after which on August 2, already IN AND. Lenin appealed to the international proletariat for help, ... The main stream of aid came after an active public campaign organized personally by Fridtjof Nansen and a number of non-governmental organizations in Europe and America ...

            How do you imagine the appeal of the country of the Soviets to its enemies - the world behind the scenes at the head of the Entente, who arranged total isolation against him with all sorts of sanctions and embargoes? Is it Khokhlostan who smears Russia with slops from morning till night, declares it an enemy, and then, as if nothing had happened, asks for emergency help? And Russia (the Russian pro-Western elite) is glad to immediately respond and forget about the insults and accusations inflicted on it ?!
            Maxim Gorky became, as it were, a harbinger of "people's diplomacy", which worked 100% then!
            Lenin turned to the world proletariat, and not to the bourgeoisie, who benefited from hunger!
      2. tatra
        tatra 3 November 2021 10: 25
        +4
        And further .
        Historian Mironin "From the very beginning, the theme of the Holodomor began to be falsified for the sake of ideology. For example, in February 1935, the Chicago American and New York trips to the Union of Soviet Russia ", T. Walker. Articles devoted to the famine allegedly raging on the territory of Ukraine in 1934 were accompanied by a large number of photographs, allegedly taken by him in" the most unfavorable and dangerous circumstances. "It soon became clear that Walker's report was a fake from start to finish.As the American journalist James Casey managed to show, all these photos of Walker were fakes that had nothing to do with Ukraine in the 1930s.Most of them were taken in Western Europe during the First World War and the 1920s biennium. "
    3. tatra
      tatra 3 November 2021 10: 08
      +3
      Yes, everyone knew about the famine in the early 30s in the USSR, and my Moscow relatives were starving. BUT the enemies of the USSR and the Soviet people, in order to justify the capture of the USSR in their Perestroika, declared three famines during the Soviet regime - in the Civil, in the 30s, in 1946-1947 by specially arranged "Holodomors" by the communists.
      And they created a myth about "abundant Russia before the communists, which produced so much food that it fed the whole world with surplus."
      In addition, the Americans and the Nazis used the famine in the USSR for the purpose of an information war against the USSR.
      1. Serg65
        Serg65 5 November 2021 12: 18
        -2
        laughing Cool! It seems that two completely different people are talking!
        Here's one ... sane ..
        Quote: tatra
        Yes, everyone knew about the famine in the early 30s in the USSR, and my Moscow relatives were starving

        But he is immediately interrupted by another .. insane ..
        Quote: tatra
        enemies of the USSR and the Soviet people

        Tatra, so how many are you ????
    4. Region-25.rus
      Region-25.rus 6 November 2021 13: 26
      +1
      In Soviet cinema and agitprom, this misfortune, human grief was not hidden. There were posters.
      and not only. In literature too. Let's take the classic - "The Golden Calf" by Ilf and Petrov. There Koreiko stole bread in trains going to the starving Volga region. And the work is just from those times hi
  2. The comment was deleted.
  3. Ross xnumx
    Ross xnumx 3 November 2021 10: 03
    +6
    An interesting feature of the pluralism of opinions.
    Some beat themselves on the chest with their hoofs, claiming that under Nicholas II it was not enough for us several years to launch a rocket into space, that the tsarist industry and agriculture never knew such a flourishing, and the years of Soviet industrialization are not a parody of children's Easter cakes ... ...
    And suddenly we learn that agriculture in the Volga region has preserved the originality of the level of primitive communal relations and the productivity of the digging park ...
    Why analyze the events of a century ago? It is deplorable, bitter, not the most pleasant memories ...
    Here the other day in Brussels, they decided to end all kinds of trade relations with Russia - let's see how our Russian agriculture will manage there without seeds and fertilizers. This summer and autumn we have already been shown how much a pound raisins carrots and potatoes. And the state with cereals, flour is such that the impression of their round-the-world journey from the field to the shop window is strengthened.
    1. V means B
      V means B 13 November 2021 11: 46
      +1
      Moreover, it seems that the trip was double or triple.
  4. Avior
    Avior 3 November 2021 10: 06
    0
    Recently, in the so-called ultraliberal circles, the topic has been discussed that in the Soviet Union the topic of famine in the Volga region, in Ukraine, in the northern regions of Kazakhstan was allegedly hushed up.

    The author is misleading from the very first lines. The theme of the famine in the Volga region in 1921-1922 was not hushed up in the Union. The heavy legacy of the civil war and so on.
    However, the reasons why the famine did not have such catastrophic consequences as it could have were hushed up.
    This was due to the fact that the American Relief Administration was able to organize the aid for the 10 million hungry people that was critical to the fight against hunger.
    https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Американская_администрация_помощи
    As of February 9, 1922, the contribution of the ARA and American organizations and individuals under its control amounted to 42 million dollars, Soviet Russia - about 12 million 200 thousand dollars, F. Nansen's organization together with others who were under its "wing" - about 4 million. In just two years, the ARA spent about 78 million dollars, of which 28 million - money from the US government, 13 - from the Soviet government, the rest - charity, private donations, funds from other private organizations. The Congress decision to provide additional aid to Soviet Russia ($ 24 million for the purchase of grain and medicines) helped to expand the program of activities tenfold - to 10 million people, including adults.

    This is what was hushed up in the Union.
    How is it that some Americans provided assistance with food, clothing, shoes, medicines, detergents, and besides, they were able to do this effectively, without allowing them to be plundered and pilfered and delivered to those in need.
    The pictures, of course, are unpleasant, but they are there.
    In 1922, in the village of Vasilyevka, Samara province, they thank the Americans for their help, for example.
    Or hungry children are fed in canteens



    But at that time it still did not look so offensive - the war, the civil one - and the people still remembered that the Americans had helped from hunger before the revolution, as in the painting by Aivazovsky

    But the famine of 32-33 looked completely different. There was no war, Soviet power was established a long time ago, how to admit that there is a famine in the country on a huge scale, and in the most grain-producing regions, therefore, under the Union it was a taboo topic, it was passed on only in families that suffered.
    So the author is very disingenuous by mixing the hunger of the 20s and 30s.
    They were very different for reasons and in relation to the authorities.
    1. tatra
      tatra 3 November 2021 10: 40
      +1
      Why do you, the enemies of the USSR and the Soviet people, do not care about all those who starved and died of hunger under the Romanovs? Why don't you expose hunger in front of them for their crime?
      There is NO benefit to posing as "great philanthropists"?
      1. atalef
        atalef 3 November 2021 10: 48
        +1
        Quote: tatra
        Why don't you expose hunger in front of them for their crime?
        There is NO benefit to posing as "great philanthropists"

        And there is crime and there.
        Do you agree on this?
        1. tatra
          tatra 3 November 2021 10: 53
          +1
          Remind, when this anti-Soviet clique declared chronic famine under the Romanovs, including 8 years of famine in 20 years of peace under Nicholas II, a crime of the Romanovs?
          There was no such thing, on the contrary, the clique in every possible way justifies the famine under the Romanovs. How does she justify in their presence ALL the facts that she, with hypocritical "righteous anger" and "philanthropy", expose for the crimes of those from whom she took the country into her Perestroika.
          1. atalef
            atalef 3 November 2021 10: 55
            +2
            Quote: tatra
            Remind, when this anti-Soviet clique declared chronic famine under the Romanovs, including 8 years of famine in 20 years of peace under Nicholas II, a crime of the Romanovs?
            There was no such thing, on the contrary, the clique in every possible way justifies the famine under the Romanovs. How does she justify in their presence ALL the facts that she, with hypocritical "righteous anger" and "philanthropy", expose for the crimes of those from whom she took the country into her Perestroika.

            You did not answer the question
            1. tatra
              tatra 3 November 2021 10: 58
              -2
              What kind of question is this, given that you, the enemies of the USSR and the Soviet people, have proved that you DO NOT consider the famine in the Republic of Ingushetia and in the capitalist countries of the world to be crimes of the authorities?
              1. atalef
                atalef 3 November 2021 11: 06
                +1
                Quote: tatra
                What kind of question is this, given that you, the enemies of the USSR and the Soviet people, have proved that you DO NOT consider the famine in the Republic of Ingushetia and in the capitalist countries of the world to be crimes of the authorities?

                Is the famine organized by the Bolsheviks a crime as much as hunger under tsarism?
                1. tatra
                  tatra 3 November 2021 11: 14
                  -1
                  Why should the Bolsheviks destroy their people? Do you seriously think that if under the Romanovs there was a chronic famine, then after the October Revolution there should not have been a single famine, including both during and after the war?
                  Are you completely incapable of adequately perceiving reality, or is it useless to expect something from you, except for anti-Soviet guidelines, which you, the enemies of the USSR and the Soviet people, have the only justification for the capture of the USSR by you in 30 years?
                  1. atalef
                    atalef 3 November 2021 11: 43
                    +2
                    Quote: tatra
                    Why should the Bolsheviks destroy their people? Do you seriously think that if under the Romanovs there was a chronic famine, then after the October Revolution there should not have been a single famine, including both during and after the war?
                    Are you completely incapable of adequately perceiving reality, or is it useless to expect something from you, except for anti-Soviet guidelines, which you, the enemies of the USSR and the Soviet people, have the only justification for the capture of the USSR by you in 30 years?

                    Classes struggle - that's why they destroyed, read Lenin.
                    But she didn’t answer the question, you slip away from the answer like an eel.
                    Typical Bolsheviks - blame everyone, but the type itself has nothing to do with it, it's funny to read
      2. Avior
        Avior 3 November 2021 11: 39
        +3
        Why do you, enemies of the USSR and the Soviet people, do not care about all those who starved and died of hunger under the Romanovs?


        Why don't care?
        I don't care, for example. (By the way. What makes you think that I am an enemy of the Soviet people?)
        I am outraged by all sorts of "canonization" of the tsar as a martyr of some sort, for all that he has done.
        I am outraged by the company of the guard of honor at the wedding of the descendants of the Romanovs - this is generally beyond common sense.
        And it was I who raised in my post the question that there was famine under the tsar, and even a picture of Aivazovsky (Distribution of food. 1892) cited for illustration. Her image under the tsar was limited to display, both under Soviet power and under modern power. The truth about hunger does not suit anyone, and Aivazovsky was an eyewitness.
        But all this in no way justifies the famine under Soviet power and in the USSR.
        And the topic of the article under discussion is just about the famine in the USSR.
        in the Soviet Union, the topic of the famine in the Volga region, in the Ukraine, in the northern regions of Kazakhstan was allegedly hushed up

        Not supposedly, but it was hushed up.
        Therefore, your claims against me are in vain.
      3. V means B
        V means B 13 November 2021 11: 49
        0
        What are you, Comrade, there was no famine during the Romanovs, so minor troubles, or it’s the case with the Bolsheviks, don’t feed those with bread only to arrange hunger or some other nasty thing, judging by modern information ...
    2. Crowe
      Crowe 3 November 2021 10: 40
      +11
      The ARA also helped - the American Relief Administration, the American Quaker Society, the International Save the Children Alliance, the Vatican Mission, the Joint, the Swedish and German Red Crosses, the British trade unions and many others - thanks to all of them.
      On September 30, 1921, from the rostrum of the League of Nations, F. Nansen again addressed the European powers, urging them to respond to the Russian tragedy. In his speech, he noted that helping the Russian people does not mean helping the communists and that millions of people cannot be condemned to death because of hostility to the Soviet regime. “I think that we will not strengthen the Soviet government if we show the Russian people that there are still human hearts in Europe. But let us even assume that by doing this we will strengthen the Soviet government. Will there be at least one person here among our meeting who would dare to say that he would rather be ready to allow 20 million deaths from starvation than to help the Soviet government? "
    3. Anatole Klim
      Anatole Klim 3 November 2021 11: 10
      +5
      Quote: Avior
      in the Soviet Union, it was a taboo topic, it was broadcast only in families that suffered.
      So the author is very disingenuous by mixing the hunger of the 20s and 30s.

      I myself am from the Volga region, my grandmother told me, the hunger was terrible, they ate the dog, the cat ran away, apparently guessed that she would be next. The village was as quiet as in a cemetery, no mooing of cows, no dogs barking, no cock crowing. But then they gave a bag of grain, thanks to which they survived, nevertheless the Soviet government tried to rectify the situation.
  5. tatra
    tatra 3 November 2021 10: 12
    +3
    Igor Orlov, professor at the Higher School of Economics (HSE), in his book “Soviet Daily Life” lists the “indirect” causes of hunger, referring to the direct cause two, one after another, very lean years. The Central Volga region generally reacted negatively to the Bolsheviks' coming to power, and starting in 1919 the peasants diligently began to eat bread - as long as it "did not go to the enemy." Here is a description from the archives of what is happening in 1919-20 in this region: “The peasants at first tried to eat as much as possible, regardless of the fact that they subsequently had to go hungry, they did not spare bread and often added livestock to feed. The bread was hidden, it rotted or was eaten by mice. They tried to sell the extra pood to the speculator. As a result, with the onset of spring, a very significant part of the population does not have seed oats; the land will remain uncultivated. By the spring, the population itself was almost without bread and was starving. ”
    1. Avior
      Avior 3 November 2021 11: 43
      +1
      At first, the peasants tried to eat as much as possible, regardless of the fact that later they would have to starve, they did not spare bread and often added to cattle feed. The bread was hidden, rotted or eaten by mice. They tried to sell the extra pood to the speculator.

      The peasants can be understood. If they had not sold it, they would have simply taken it away during the surplus appropriation, no one would have paid for it at all.
  6. pitr_74
    pitr_74 3 November 2021 10: 14
    -3
    The famine in the early 20s was a direct consequence of the experiments of the Bolsheviks to break down the market system of the economy and the total confiscation of grain from the peasants. As soon as NEP was introduced, hunger disappeared somewhere. The story of the famine received a repetition already in the 32nd, when Stalin decided to pacify the peasants through an organized famine, and in Russia the famine was even worse than in Ukraine. The goal of the Holodomor was to destroy the kulaks, i.e. peasants who knew how to work and were able to fill up on the Stolypin reform. The Bolsheviks have always feared a peasant uprising and regarded the kulaks as their main enemies. Stalin needed only slaves on his collective farms.
    When at the end of the thirties, firing squads roamed the camps, the convicts were fired without trial under the article krtd and kulaks, Shalamov described this in detail in the Kolyma stories. In Sandarmokh, the same Vasya Blokhin, the executioner and his team, killed thousands of people like that.
    1. ivan2022
      ivan2022 3 November 2021 10: 24
      -1
      Quote: pitr_74
      Stalin needed only slaves on his collective farms.

      And the famine in Western Ukraine, Moldova and Romania at the same time, also from the Bolsheviks? To be honest, have you actually heard anything about it? Look online.
      And the fact that you need (it is not known why) laborers in the kulak "strong farms" - isn't it a topic? Denseness, my God !!
      "Experiments" with agricultural holdings, agricultural cooperatives in the West began in the 19th century ... The only difference is that the mores of society in the West, let's put it bluntly, are more humane in relation to their fellow citizens than in Mother Russia. With any power!
      1. Avior
        Avior 3 November 2021 11: 46
        +2
        Look online.

        this is the trend. As soon as a person composes something, instead of providing evidence with links and quotes, he immediately sends it to the network. They say, I said - but you strain, refute, and then I will say that you incorrectly refuted ...
    2. tatra
      tatra 3 November 2021 10: 29
      -1
      Your "market economy" is good, in which Russia has not emerged from a state of chronic hunger for centuries.
      And if we remove all imports now, and leave only products produced according to Soviet GOSTs, then there will be a real famine, there will be very few products, and they will be at such huge prices that they will become inaccessible to the majority of the people.
    3. tatra
      tatra 3 November 2021 10: 47
      -1
      in the 32nd, when Stalin decided to pacify the peasants through the organized Holodomor

      WHY ? Why would the Bolsheviks, who undertook to heal, teach the peasants to read and write, to destroy them?
      1. atalef
        atalef 3 November 2021 10: 50
        0
        Quote: tatra
        in the 32nd, when Stalin decided to pacify the peasants through the organized Holodomor

        WHY ? Why would the Bolsheviks, who undertook to heal, teach the peasants to read and write, to destroy them?

        Strange, you, that would destroy the cash enemy, read Lenin
        1. tatra
          tatra 3 November 2021 10: 56
          -1
          In your opinion, not a few million kulaks were fierce enemies of Soviet power, but ALL the peasantry? In your opinion, most of the peasants were in favor of being farm laborers at the kulaks, and living from hand to mouth for centuries?
          1. atalef
            atalef 3 November 2021 11: 04
            0
            Quote: tatra
            In your opinion, not a few million kulaks were fierce enemies of Soviet power, but ALL the peasantry? In your opinion, most of the peasants were in favor of being farm laborers at the kulaks, and living from hand to mouth for centuries?

            So the Bolsheviks decided, therefore, they organized a famine, so that, on the one hand, they would destroy the kulaks, and on the other, get free slaves at the construction sites of industrialization.
            1. tatra
              tatra 3 November 2021 11: 09
              -2
              Ha, and why didn't the Bolsheviks destroy your beloved kulaks, enemies of the USSR and the Soviet people?
              And what did the Bolsheviks create a BETTER life for the peasants than it was under the Romanovs? WHY did they produce hundreds of thousands of tractors in the 30s to facilitate peasant labor?
              And why do you always falsify everything, including the fact that Stalin allegedly confessed to Churchill that 30 million peasants died of hunger in the USSR in the 10s?
          2. pitr_74
            pitr_74 3 November 2021 22: 21
            -1
            Yes, and these millions of hard-working peasants were one of the main threats for Stalin and his Bolsheviks. Stalin's goal was to break the country for himself, create a new person, killing all his opponents, even those who later became loyal to him. And the Holodomor turned out to be a convenient way to destroy the kulaks, and the full-time executioners of the organs completed the work.
            After the bestiality of serfdom and the liberation of the peasants by Alexander II, Russia became the most vigorously developing economy in the world, but the Bolsheviks broke everything. AND
            in their new economic system, this language does not dare to call it, money was no longer worth much, food could be bought in stores for ration cards, which were given only to working people. The highest step in the hierarchy of the Bolshevik society of the 30s was admission to special stores for the new nobility, and deprivation of special rations was a terrible punishment. Yes, and the usual ration, food ration, too - when an ordinary city dweller lost his job, then often he had only one way not to starve to death with the whole family - to go to a collective farm. Quite a common way in the thirties to replenish collective and state farms with labor in Siberia. To do this, they launched whole companies of layoffs of employees, sending them into collective farm slavery, to a hungry life for workdays.
  7. tatra
    tatra 3 November 2021 10: 45
    -2
    The famine in the RSFSR / Soviet Russia was a consequence of the invaders of Russia unleashed by the internal enemies of the Bolsheviks and their accomplices, who seized the main grain-producing regions and did not let food through to the territories controlled by the Bolsheviks. And on this territory, the Bolsheviks were harmed in relation to food, they killed the food detachments, ripped open their bellies just because they wanted to get food for the starving townspeople.
    1. Avior
      Avior 3 November 2021 11: 51
      +1
      share what the invaders captured
      the main grain-producing areas, and did not allow food to enter the territories controlled by the Bolsheviks

      in 1921-23, and especially in 1932-33. And in 1946-1947, who dared to seize our lands? Where did the newly formed Soviet army look so that in 1946-47 someone would seize our lands?!?
  8. parusnik
    parusnik 3 November 2021 18: 34
    0
    There was also a silent feature film, I don't remember the name already. Filmed back in the 20s. It was shown not in the perestroika years. But there was a program where Soviet films were told and shown, The Young Lady and the Hooligan, Battleship Potemkin, Mother (dumb) and many others
  9. for
    for 7 November 2021 03: 40
    0
    Brown quinoa cakes with bran

    Why fry them in machine oil? My grandmother did not fry potatoes with water.