Russia is a single state. Pskov


Article Russia or Muscovy I wrote that the state of Rus, in the opinion of the inhabitants of the country themselves and foreigners, did not disintegrate in the second half of the XII-XIII century.

That is, Russia of the IX century, X, XI, XII, XIII, XIV, XV, XVI and so on centuries - the same state... "Kievan Rus", "Vladimirskaya Rus", "Muscovy Rus" are not and were not states - these are terms introduced by historians in the XNUMXth century, denoting periods stories one state - Russia.

"Novgorodskaya Rus" - the period when Novgorod was the capital of Rus, "Kievan Rus" - Kiev, "Vladimirskaya Rus" - Vladimir, "Moskovskaya Rus" ...

I suggest that readers themselves answer the question about the name of the capital of Russia in this period of history.

The state was ruled by “princes / sovereigns / kings of all Russia”. Not "Moscow and Russia", not "Tartaria and all galaxies", but simply and tastefully - "All Russia".

What did the princes of all Russia own?

As strange as it may sound, the rulers of all Russia ruled all of Russia.

Another thing is that from the middle of the XIII century to the beginning of the XV century, the Poles and Lithuanians, taking advantage of the weakening of Russia by the horde, conquered part of the state: Polotsk, Kiev, Chernigov, Novgorod-Seversk, Pereyaslavsk, Galicia-Volyn principality and part of the Smolensk principality (moreover, the Russian principalities of Lithuania the princes conquered and annexed Lithuania, buying labels for the management of these lands from the Horde Khan and promising to pay tribute from these lands).

The rest of Russia was not conquered. Pskov, Novgorod, Nizovskaya volosts, Ryazan principality remained under the control of the rulers of all Russia - the Russian princes Rurikovich.

And yet there was a strong myth that the state of Russia in the second half of the XII-XIII centuries collapsed and by the XIV century, allegedly, there were several independent states on its territory.

As an example of such an "independent state", they usually cite the "Pskov Republic" or, more pretentiously, the "Pskov Veche Republic": supposedly this state was annexed to Russia only by Vasily III.

But the Pskovians themselves had no idea that they lived in an independent state, and even more so in the "Pskov Republic" - from their point of view, they lived in the state of Russia, Pskov was part of Russia, and the rulers of Russia were the legitimate rulers of Pskov. Pskov and the surrounding area were called "Pskov volost" or "Pskov region".

From the Pskov First Chronicle:

Prince Danilo Alexandrovich and all Pskov, mayor Yuri Filippovich lifting the whole area...
... and you yourself will go to Pskov volost.

The name "volost" or "region" should already hint that Pskov was not independent, but was a part (region) of some other larger state - this "some" state was Russia.

We also note that the Pskov volost is the birthplace of the wife of Prince of Russia Igor Rurikovich Olga - that is, it directly refers to the Rurikovich.

Pskov IX-XIII centuries

The history of the city of Pskov goes back centuries, but in the second half of the XNUMXth century (the reign of Prince Rurik) the Pskov volost (however, then the political center of the region was not Pskov, but neighboring Izborsk) is already part of the Russian state, and the rulers of Pskov are the rulers of all Russia. In fact, the prince's governor rules in the parish.

In the 1036th century, such a governor was the son of the ruler of Russia, Vladimir Svyatoslavich (or his nephew, the son of Oleg Svyatoslavich) Sudislav. In XNUMX, Yaroslav Vladimirovich took him into custody - as a result, the Pskov principality (the center had already shifted from Izborsk) was annexed to Novgorod and ruled by the Novgorod prince by appointing a mayor in Pskov.

In the XII century, another dynastic struggle of princes began for the right to rule all of Russia.

Pskov and Novgorod, as very important cities of Russia, became the arena of confrontation between the branches of Yurievich and Mstislavich. The confrontation went on with varying success: either the Yurievichs who had entrenched themselves in Novgorod knocked out the Mstislavichs from Pskov, then the Mstislavichs returned to Pskov and knocked the Yuryevichs out of Novgorod.

As a result: in the XIII century, the Yuryevichs were entrenched in Pskov (Yaroslav Vladimirovich's flight from Pskov to the Germans from the branch of the Mstislavichs, followed by the distribution of the Pskov territories, which did not find support among the Pskovites), contributed to the transition to the power of the Yuryevichs (the governor and brother-in-law were sent to the city in 1232) Prince of Novgorod Yaroslav Vsevolodovich (brother of the ruler of Russia) Yuri Mstislavich.

The fact that Pskov in the middle of the XIII century was part of Russia and was under the control of the Vladimir branch of the rulers of Russia is also noted in foreign sources.

From the Older Livonian Chronicle:

With this army, they (the Teutons and allies) moved then joyfully to Russia...
...Pskov city in Russia called,
which is located in those parts.

In 1240 the Teutons conquered Pskov. But already in 1241 the commander and son of the ruler of Russia Yaroslav Vsevolodovich Alexander Yaroslavich Nevsky was sent to liberate Pskov, who successfully coped with the task.

In Russia there is a city
it is called Novgorod.
This news reached the prince,
he gathered with many troops
against Pskov, this is the truth.
There he arrived with great strength;
he brought many Russians,
that free the people of Pskov...
... There is a city, great and beautiful,
Situated in Russia,
Который Suzdal called.
That husband's name was Alexander.

From the point of view of the Teutons, Pskov, Novgorod and Suzdal are cities of one state of Rus. The failed Tefton conquerors cannot be suspected of sympathy for Russia or the desire for the unity of the Russian state, but due to the type of their conquering activities, they had to be objective in order to sensibly assess the capabilities of their opponents.

Russia is a single state. Pskov

In the 1250s, Yaroslav Yaroslavich and Vasily Alexandrovich (respectively, the younger brother and son of the ruler of Russia Alexander Yaroslavich) reigned periodically in Pskov.

In 1265, Svyatoslav Yaroslavich, the son of Yaroslav Yaroslavich, reigned in Pskov.


The reign of Prince Dovmont can be cited as an example of the "freedom" of Pskov and the right to invite any Lithuanian princes. Dovmont was indeed a Lithuanian, but to understand how he became the prince of Pskov, you need to return to the reign of Svyatoslav.

In 1265–1266, the son and governor of Russia, Yaroslav Yaroslavovich, accepted into citizenship and baptized about 500 Lithuanians, with wives and children, who came to Pskov from civil strife and confusion that then took place in Lithuania. One of these refugees was Dovmont (baptized Timofey).

Further, Dovmont became related to Yaroslav Yaroslavich's nephew (and part-time Novgorod prince) Dmitry Alexandrovich - and therefore received the Pskov reign. Russian princes often appointed Lithuanian princes who had switched to the Russian service as governors in Russian cities, for example: Pskov, Novgorod, Moscow - the appointee was approved at the veche of these cities.

From the tale of Dovmont:

And again, some time later, in the year 6775 (1268), the great Prince Dmitry Alexandrovich с son-in-law with his Dovmont and with their Novgorodian and Pskovian husbands ...

It is important that both the acceptance of Dovmont to Pskov and his imprisonment as governor were the initiatives of the Russian princes.

Why did they need Dovmont?

After the Horde invasion, the Lithuanian state began a large-scale offensive against Russia, weakened by this invasion. Defending against the Germans, Swedes, Danes, Russia needed allies in the region. The ideal candidate was Dovmont, who had a conflict with Lithuania advancing on Russia. In alliance with the Russians, Dovmont acted against Lithuania in the zone of interests of the Russian state - the Russian Principality of Polotsk.

Durability of the princely power

From 1232 to 1300, only 6 princes reigned in "free" Pskov: the brother-in-law of the Novgorod prince Yuri Vsevolodovich, the brother and son of the ruler of Russia Alexander Yaroslavich Yaroslav Yaroslavich and Vasily Alexandrovich, the brother-in-law of the Novgorod prince (and the ruler of Russia) Dmitry Alexandrovich ruling Dovmont - all from one families.

For comparison, 1232 princes reigned in the capital Vladimir from 1300 to 11.

That is, the princely power in Pskov was strong enough.

Central government crisis

At the beginning of the XIV century, Pskov was part of Russia, and the governor of the ruler of Russia ruled in the city.

But in 1327, the disgraced prince Alexander Mikhailovich fled to Pskov from Tver - this led to the isolation of Pskov from the rest of Russia. In 1330, Alexander fled to Lithuania, and the city returned to the control of the prince of all Russia.

The middle of the XIV century is characterized by the offensive of Lithuania to Russia, in particular, to the Pskov and Novgorod volosts.

In 1331, the Lithuanian prince Gediminus treacherously took prisoner Vasily, who was sent to Volhynia to be ordained Vladyka of Novgorod and Pskov, and two Novgorod posadniks who were with him in the embassy: Kozma Tverdislavich and Efrem Astafiev (Ephraim was also the son of a thousand Novgorod authorities) Novgorod volost, and forced those to transfer a significant part of the west of the Novgorod volost (Ladoga, Orekhov, Karelian pyatina and half of Koporye) to the subordination of Lithuania - the son of the Lithuanian ruler Narimant Gediminovich.

From the chronicle collection of the XVI century:

And Monk Vasily came from the Vladyka's court to be placed in the lordship of Novugrad to Theognast, Metropolitan of Kiev and All Russia, in the Volyn zeslya, and with him the Novgorod mayor Kozma Tverdislavich, Efrem Astafiev, the son of Tysyatsky. And the ehash to the Lithuanian land, and the prince Gediminas of Lithuania took, although they did not fight. And in that captivity, give the right word to his son Narimant on the Novgorod suburbs of Ladoga, and the Orekhov town, and the Korel land, and half of Koporya to him and a child in his patrimony and grandfather.

From the Novgorod Fourth Chronicle:

The same summer, June, on the Nativity of John the Baptist, Vasily went to the Metropolitan in Volhynia, and with him the boyars, Kuzma Tverdislavich, Ephraim Astafievich tysyatsky (son), and the ehash to the Lithuanian land, and Prince Gedimin was taken out, although they did not fight , and in such a burden they gave the right word, to his son Narimant, the Novgorod suburbs Ladoga, Orekhovy, Korelskiy, Korelskaya land and half of Koporya, to the fatherland and to the grandfather.

This, incidentally, is to the question of how the Lithuanian princes began to reign in Novgorod. The Novgorodians did not have any right to invite Lithuanian princes to their place, the imprisonment of a Lithuanian prince in Novgorod was not at all "the choice of free Novgorodians" - it was a raider seizure of the Novgorod princes by Lithuania.

In the same year, 1331, Alexander came to Pskov as the governor of Gediminas - that is, Pskov came under the control of Lithuania.

The reign of the Lithuanian princes in Pskov and Novgorod in the 1330s - 1340s is an example of the struggle between Russia and Lithuania: Lithuania's attempts to take control of the north-west of the Russian state and the opposition to this by the authorities of Russia, respectively - but in no way is an example of the independence of the Pskov and Novgorod volosts or "the liberties of Pskov and Novgorod in princes" and "the right to invite princes from Lithuania."

Restoring centralization of the state

Lithuanian rule was fragile. By the 1340s, Pskov returned under the control of Rus and Novgorod.

But in the early 1340s, another German offensive against Russia began. The Pskovs asked to send the governor from Novgorod to Pskov (the previous one took offense and left) and the army.

From the Pskov First Chronicle:

The Pskovians began to bow much to Novgorod, so that they could give Pskov a governor and help.

The Novgorodians sent an army, but, without meeting the enemy, they returned back. And in the winter of 1341, the Germans launched a full-scale attack on the Pskov volost. As a result, the people of Pskov requested help from the Lithuanian prince Olgerd.

From the Novgorod Fourth Chronicle:

And the Pskoviches rejected Novgorod and the Grand Duke of Russia.

Olgerd sent an army, but during his stay the Lithuanians ravaged the Pskov volost - as a result, Pskov returned to Russia under the control of the prince of All Russia and Novgorod.

Since the second half of the century, the princely power in the region has been increasing.

In 1368, the Prince of All Russia Dmitry Ivanovich sent his cousin Vladimir Andreevich Serpukhovskoy together with the Novgorodians to help the Pskovians in the defense against the Germans.

In 1380, the Pskovites were present as part of the Russian army in the Battle of Kulikovo.

In 1401, Daniil Alexandrovich was appointed governor of Pskov, Prince of All Russia, Vasily Dmitrievich.

From the Pskov First Chronicle:

Prince Danila Alexandrovich arrived in Pskov as governor from Prince Vasily Dmitrievich.

In 1407, the Prince of All Russia Vasily Dmitrievich sent his younger brother Konstantin Dmitrievich.

From the Pskov First Chronicle:

The Pskovites sent a message to the Grand Duke, asking for a prince, the brother of the Grand Duke, the lesser Konstantin.

In the world of 1409 Russia with Vitovt, Pskov is recognized as part of the Russian state, and the Prince of All Russia Vasily Dmitrievich is recognized as the ruler of Pskov.

From the Pskov First Chronicle:

... and taking eternal peace with Vitovt in the old days, according to the Pskov will, according to the great prince Vasily Dmitrievich.

Pskov was part of Russia.

But Russia is not a unitary state, but a federation. In modern terms, in the city there was a division of powers between the federal (governor of the prince of Russia), regional (the lords of Novgorod and Pskov - Pskov was subordinate to the Novgorod authorities) and municipal (Pskov mayor proper) levels.

This is noted in the Pskov court letter of 1397 (by the way, reached in princely certificates):

Here are the cases subject to the princely court. If they rob the pantry from under the castle, or a sledge covered with felt, or a cart tied with ropes, or a boat covered with bast, or if they steal [bread?] From a pit, or cattle [from a locked barn?], Or hay from a haystack , then all these cases of theft are subject to the princely court, and the penalty [for each specified case] is 9 money. And for robbery, assault, robbery [penalty in favor of the city of Pskov?] - 70 hryvnia, in favor of the prince - 19 money and in favor of the prince and mayor - 4 money.
And the [Pskov] viceroy of the [Novgorod] archbishop is in charge of his own court, and the cases subject to his trial should not be examined by [either the prince] or the city judges; likewise, the viceroy of the lord should not interfere in matters liable to the princely court.

The fact that Pskov and Novgorod with self-government were part of the Russian state and were ruled by the Moscow ruler of Russia is also noted by foreigners.

From "Travels and Embassies" by Guilbert de Lannoa about a trip to Russia in 1413:

Leaving Novgorod the Great, I went on a sleigh - in order to see the world - under the guise of a merchant in other the big city of the kingdom and Russian statecalled Pskov... From the aforementioned Novgorod to Pskov, you need to drive thirty German miles through huge forests.
Pskov is very well fortified with stone walls and towers; and there is a huge castle in it, into which no true Christian can enter on pain of death. And this city is located at the junction of two large rivers - Molde and Pskova; he independently managedbeing in submission king Moscow.

It is noted that Pskov was part of Russia, and the rulers of the city were Russian rulers and Pskovians.

From the contractual charter of Pskov with the Livonian Order about the ten-year peace from 1417:

Ambassadors from Pskov, Gregory and Danil, brought my master the news that Pskov had ordered them about the dispute. Dear sir master. We were sent by our authorities, the mayor of Pskov and all of Pskov, from fatherland of our master, Russian prince, your neighbor, to you ... Now you have sent us and informed us about this, and therefore, lord, lord master, our authorities, the mayor of Pskov and all Pskov, fatherland the grand duke, our lord, Russian sovereign Vasily Dimitrievich, we thank your mercy for this, because it is true that Vitovt wanted to go to us; and when it became known to our lord, to the Russian sovereign, he immediately sent to Vitovt: if you want to ruin my fatherland Pskov, then I am ready to mount my horse against you at once.

Pskovichi unequivocally consider themselves a part of Russia, and Vasily Dmitrievich - the ruler of his state.

Pskov is recognized as part of Russia in the future.

From the treaty charter of Veliky Novgorod and Pskov with the Bishop of Yuryevsky (Dorpat) on an armistice for 30 years from 1474:

By the grace of God, the standing of the light of Sophia's wisdom of God, and the standing of the holy life-giving trinity, and the health of our lord and our great sovereign prince Ivan Vasilievich, tsar of all Russia, and the health of our lord and our great sovereign prince Ivan Ivanovich, tsar of all Russia... INTO our sovereigns and sovereigns noble and great princes of ruski and tsars sent their voivode, Prince Danil Dmitrovich, with many princes and boyars, to the house of the Holy Trinity, at my departure, near Velikia Pskov, harrow their fathers Great Novgorod and Pskov, offended their search for nemtsokh on yuryevtsokh, their own dani, and old dani, their pledges, and Novgorod's old, and Pskov's insults and staryn. And the pryslasha bishop of Yuryevsk, and the mayors of Yuryev, and all the Yuryevtsy were their own words, Ivan Mekse, the Zemsky boyar, and another Ivan Bobrov, the Yuryevsky ratman, and added the Cholom to Lord Prince Danil Dmitriyevich noble princes, governor Russian tsars, the prince of Pskov Yaroslav Vasilyevich, and the governor of Veliky Novgorod near Veliky Pskov, the mayor of Novgorod Fom Andreevich, and the ambassador of the Great Novgorod Onkif Vasilyevich, and the whole of Veliky Novgorod, and the mayor of Pskov and all Pskovskiy, and the great summer of Pskov. ..
... And on this letter and on this world I gave my hand and my seal to Prince Daniley Dmitrievich, the governor of the noble great princes ruskikh tsars, and the governor of the great princes ruskikh tsarsI prince of pskov Yaroslav Vasilyevich gave his hand and put his seal on. And the voivode of Veliky Novgorod, the mayor of Novgorod Foma Andreevich, and the ambassador of Veliky Novgorod, Onkipa Vasilyevich, kissed the cross for Velikiy Novgorod and for the entire Novgorod state and the seal of Veliky Novgorod. And in Pskov, the cross was kissed by the posadniks of the Pskov staid Alexei Vasilyevich and Mikita Laryvonovich, and to all the good people they kissed the cross for the whole of Great Pskov, and for all the Pskov cities, and for the entire Pskov state of life and the state of the world. And to the honest bishop of Yuryev, he should put a hand and seal for all Yuryev's cities; and the posadnikom Yuryevsky kiss the cross and all the good people for the whole Yuryevsky state and spill the Yuryevsky seal. The ambassadors of Yuryevsk in Pskov kissed the cross of Ivan Zemsky boyaryn Meksei and other Ivan Bobrov, Yuryev's ratman. And whoever does not smack the kiss of the cross to rule, otherwise God and the kiss of the cross, and the pestilence, and hunger, and fire, and the sword. And the konchan world was in Pskov, in the summer of 6982. And in Yuriev, the cross was kissed by the ambassadors of Pskov, Andrei Semenovich Lublev da Kura Olekseevich Shemyatov.

From Pskov's letter to Ivan Vasilyevich about sending a "folding" letter to Veliky Novgorod and about the fire of Pskov in 1477:

To the great sovereign prince Ivan Vasilievich, to the king of all Russia, the posadniks of the Pskov state, and the old posadniks, and the sons of the posadnik, and the boyars, and the merchants, and the people, the whole of Pskov, your fatherland, his sovereign, great Russian prince and tsar, we beat chelom.

Was recognized as the ruler of Pskov and Vasily III.

From the contractual letter of Pskov with the Livonian Order of the Armistice for six years from 1503:

By the will of God and by the decree of the great Tsar of the Russian Tsar Ivan, by the grace of God tsar and sovereign of all Russia and the great Vladimir, and Moscow, and Novgorod, and Pskov, and Tverskoy, and Yugorsky, and Perm, and Bulgarian and others, and his great son prince Vasily Ivanovich, tsar of all Russia... Came to the greats sovereigns of Russian tsars to the governor of Novgorod, Prince Danil Vasilyevich from the great sovereigns of the Russian tsars of the fatherland, from Pskov, from the great sovereigns of the Russian tsars, the governor, from the prince of Pskov Dimitri Vladimirovich, and from the steppe mayors of Pskov and from the old mayors, and from the whole Great Pskov, the fatherland of the great sovereigns of the Russian tsars, Pskov ambassadors: Grigory Yakovlevich Krotov and the Pskov mayor Fyodor Gavrilov, and the Pskov boyars Leonty Olferievich Yazykov, and Andrei Kirillovich Izraztsov, and Maxim Ivanovich Ponarin, and Fedor Pavlovich Kvasov, and Yakov Mokeevich Eropkin, and the merchant elders Foma Makofarin, and Timofei , and the city scribe Vasily. And also came from the venerable prince of Livland Walter von Plettenberg, the ambassadors of the prince master Klaus Golstever and Diederik Lode, and ended the truce with the ambassadors from Pskov, the fatherland of the great sovereigns of the Russian tsars, with the mayor of Pskov and with the boyars for six years, from the Annunciation 7011, until the day of the Annunciation in 7017, for the prince of the master of Livonia and the archbishop of Riga and their masters, and their knights, and the boyars of their land, and burgomasters, and ratmans, and for all their cities and all the state of the master and archbishop. And in these six years, according to this charter, keep the world tight, and great sovereigns Russian tsars to the governor, to the prince in Pskov, and [to none of] their fatherland, in these six years of the power of the prince of the master and the archbishop, do not fight and do not dirty in anything, and in their land.

So in 1510, Vasily III could not conquer Pskov due to the fact that he was already the legal ruler of the city. In 1510, the Pskov volost just changed its status within Russia (the veche was canceled).

Why was the veche canceled

The Moscow rulers of Russia had been interacting with the Pskov veche for several centuries.

Why was this institution abolished in 1510?

The fact is that since the XNUMXth century, Pskov was the main fortpost of Russia in the northwest and a cover from the German offensive. Conflicts of the municipal authorities with the federal authorities (the Pskov mayor with the governor-prince, who was also responsible for the defense of the region) in the front-line did not contribute to an increase in the defense capability of Russia.

For example, in 1240, excessive Pskov self-government (more precisely, arbitrariness) led to the occupation of the city by the Livonians (the city was surrendered by the Pskov mayor), in the 1330s and 1340s - to the occupation of the city by the Lithuanian prince Olgerd. In the XNUMXth century, relations between Russia, the Livonian Order and the Lithuanian state were hostile, so any arbitrariness of the Pskov mayors, which could lead to a weakening of the country's defenses, seemed to the Russian rulers extremely suspicious and extremely undesirable.

The reason for the abolition of the Pskov veche was the rebellion of the Pskovites against the governor Ivan Mikhailovich Repni in 1509-1510 (it is interesting that Vasily did not even plan to cancel the Pskov veche: in 1509 he traveled to Novgorod, where news of the riot reached him).


- The state of Russia in the XII-XIII centuries did not disintegrate, and Pskov was a part of Russia.

- “The Pskov Republic” did not exist - this is nothing more than a myth.

- The city for a short time came out of the control of the rulers of Russia as a result of pressure from foreigners.
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  1. +1
    20 October 2021 18: 44
    Everything is very, very controversial. But the author has his own view of history.
    1. +1
      20 October 2021 19: 53
      And there was also the Vyatka vechevaya republic
    2. +5
      20 October 2021 21: 03
      ... the author has his own view of history.

      He has a clear squint. request
      1. +2
        21 October 2021 15: 43
        "Teftons" - is that how it is spelled? ThoseVtons!
        1. 0
          29 December 2021 11: 58
          In general, the Teflon people are correct - they are the ones who develop Teflon. What they have to do with Pskov is not disclosed.
    3. -1
      22 October 2021 08: 29
      Quote: AlexGa
      But the author has his own view of history.

      Yes. It’s just bad that such authors do not understand at all how the lands they are talking about were really managed.
      That in Novgorod, that in Pskov, the head was EVE, at which it was decided which prince to call to him, so that he would maintain order inside and protect from external aggression. Still, do not forget that the princes were professional military men. Even Rurik, in those parts, was not a full-fledged owner. So they decided from where to call the prince, perfectly understanding that in this case they enter into a contractual relationship with the ruling dynasty in the region from where the prince was called. And they tried to choose a strong principality, capable, if necessary, to send the necessary troops to protect
  2. +13
    20 October 2021 18: 53
    In the ranks of the site's manipulative propagandists, history is already getting crowded from those who want to pull the shadows of the past onto the braces of the present.
    At the same time, all sorts of nouns are overthrown into dust, everything, from Karamzin with Snegirev and Metropolitan Evgeny, to Rybakov and Arakcheev with Ivanov.
    As they say - the method is not important, the result is important.
    1. +6
      20 October 2021 19: 49
      Viktor Nikolaevich, in the course of the section "History" on VO, with a slight movement of his hand, he transforms, transforms ... into an owl and a globe ... a poor owl. "It's a pity for a bird" (c) ..
      1. Fat
        20 October 2021 20: 09
        hi Alexey ... I wondered why Pskov, and not Staraya Russa, for example recourse
        And yes, it's a pity for the bird Yes smile
        1. +8
          20 October 2021 20: 40
          Andrey Borisovich, hi I have no words simply. Some emotions. You understand, everything collapsed. The entire temple of the goddess Cleo. Some little vassal painted all the walls in the temple and the walls collapsed .. I sob over the ruins .. And the corpse of an owl, what a terrible death ... .. Will have to bury with the globe ..
      2. +7
        20 October 2021 21: 00
        Hi Aleksey hi , I agree - "I'm sorry for the bird" smile
        1. +4
          21 October 2021 11: 34
          What if it comes to this?

          And yet common sense will prevail along with owls? wink
        2. +2
          21 October 2021 17: 40
          "I'm sorry for the bird"
          laughing good
    2. +10
      20 October 2021 21: 52
      The "Pskov Republic" did not exist - this is nothing more than a myth.

      What a twist good good
  3. +10
    20 October 2021 19: 07
    Tydyysch! V.T. Pashuto and everyone else to the dustbin of history ... To smithereens, to smithereens, the authorities are smashed, to the stove, to the stove of their work laughing It makes no sense to write comments on the article. laughing
    1. -3
      20 October 2021 19: 13
      Well, here it is even more or less decent, in any case, it cannot be compared with the history of Ukraine according to Mykol Galician from 140 thousand years ago.
      1. +8
        20 October 2021 19: 31
        I'm not even going to argue, of course it's decent, two articles and all the research in the dust ... at once, completely ... It's kind of debatable .. laughing "The Kalabukhov house is gone" (c).
  4. -3
    20 October 2021 19: 31
    Now the Pskov region is the most endangered in Russia.
  5. +9
    20 October 2021 20: 27
    And why "Teftons", it seems like they were Teutons all their life. Or has something changed and I missed it? In general, now every historian, and as "directors", also "see it this way," becomes scared for our past. Who else will come up with something?
    1. +6
      20 October 2021 20: 52
      The word is spelled correctly: Teutons. There are a total of 8 letters, 3 vowels, 5 consonants, 3 syllables in the word. Vowels: e, o, s; Consonants: t, v, t, n, c. The author has his own view of both history and spelling .. We are waiting for new discoveries of the author.
    2. +1
      21 October 2021 11: 35
      If the nonesh have "deffchonki", there wouldn't be any "meatballs", sorry, "Teftons" ?? feel
  6. +8
    20 October 2021 21: 07
    What is there to comment on? continuous "I am the author, as I see it" The author tried to take a very long time period from the 12th to the 15th century, passed it all through the "meat grinder" of his perception and issued this text.
    Minced meat, he is minced meat! Without uniform mass, make whatever you want! So he sculpted it! Pskov = Rus.
    Insanity grew stronger.
  7. +12
    20 October 2021 21: 12
    Tin ... wassat
    I, apparently, missed the first article, but now I do not regret it.
    What a rare nonsense, what an enchanting amount of errors, distortions and just nonsense! ..
    After reading it, I can only state that the article contains a blunder. To refute each - you get five articles. It's not worth it.
    If some of my colleagues are interested, I can make out any one paragraph of the article to choose from - I won't be enough for more. wassat No.
    What does the section turn into?
    1. +2
      21 October 2021 10: 47
      What does the section turn into?

      "The house is gone ... what will happen to the steam heating? ..." (Prof. Preobrazhensky).
    2. 0
      21 October 2021 15: 28
      What does the section turn into?

      historical fantasy
  8. 0
    20 October 2021 22: 37
    The photo to the article is old ... It looks like the author took the first one that came across.
  9. +1
    20 October 2021 22: 45
    And here I live in this Pskov-Guards City!
  10. 0
    21 October 2021 09: 45
    porridge, nothing else
  11. -4
    21 October 2021 11: 47
    An excellent article, based on facts and primary sources, and not on speculation, slogans rewritten from article to article or low-grade senseless emotions and hysteria, with which some comments on the article abound.
  12. +4
    21 October 2021 16: 10
    I have been reading this resource for many years. But then he could not resist and still registered.
    A question to the author - you have quoted excerpts from the chronicles - who is the source? Whose translation?
    And in which archive could you read it?
  13. 0
    21 October 2021 21: 07
    I now live in the Guards Pskov region, well, thanks to the author for such opuses.
    I do not know the history so deeply, but I know from a short that Pskov, Izborsk, Novgorod were
    defensive support of Russia in the western direction always, not always successfully, but they have always been.
    This is probably why our population was practically destroyed every century!
    1. -2
      22 October 2021 09: 04
      Your population was destroyed, including by the Russian-Muscovites in the 15th and 16th centuries. Moreover, Pskov and Novgorod were then thoroughly otgenocidal, especially during the campaigns of Ivan the Terrible-Demoniac ...
  14. -2
    22 October 2021 09: 00
    The author again introduces into circulation the rotten myths of the Muscovites and their claim to the entire so-called Rus.
    It is now well known that no such monolithic states under the names "Kievan Rus", "Vladimirskaya Rus" and "Moscow Rus" existed. These were most likely some unstable and temporary associations of Slavic tribes, which then dispersed and formed different states (Veliky Novgorod, VKLiR, Muscovy). And the concept of 'Russian land' does not at all mean that Russians (people) lived everywhere, who appeared as an ethnos somewhere in the 13-14 centuries, but just a generalized name geographer. areas of residence of various northeastern Slavs.
  15. 0
    4 December 2021 12: 13
    I will give you here for reflection the beginning of the 1st Torun Peace Treaty of 1411, which begins with the titles of the signers:
    “Vladislav (Jagailo Olgerdovich approx.), By God's grace the king of Poland, Lithuania, the supreme ruler and heir of Russia, etc., together with the Grand Duke Alexander (the throne name of Vitovt approx.), Otherwise Vitovt, the supreme ruler of Lithuania, etc. ... "

    Yagailo is called "the supreme ruler and heir of Russia" on the grounds that Russia (mainly on the territory of modern Ukraine) is his hereditary fiefdom, was liberated from the Tatar yoke in 1362 by his father, Olgerd. And Yagailo died "in Russia" (somewhere near Lvov), in his ancestral domain. I wish the author not only to pull an owl on the globe in the footsteps of Russian propagandists from the history of ala Tatishchev, etc., but to use documents, preferably primary sources.
    1. 0
      25 January 2022 10: 39
      Oh, how many such temporary passing "supreme" in the history of Russia! Left no trace in the Russian state.
  16. 0
    29 December 2021 21: 58
    The author confuses geography. the name "country" and the social-political "state" (as a form of organization of society in a certain territory with public authority, which has an apparatus of government, coercion and violence). So there was no such unified state of Russia from the word at all.
  17. 0
    25 January 2022 10: 34
    Russia at all times, no matter how it is called, has always been a COMMUNITY of tribes - which has become a STATE!

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