Why are Iran and the US enemies?

Intensity of emotions.

Ask any political analyst or economist about a topic that can today radically destroy the status quo of the world order, and get an immediate response: "Iran."

From 26 (27) March to 29 March, the second Nuclear Summit began, with South Korea becoming the initiator and host. For the first time, such a large-scale forum was convened in 2010 in Washington. Summit has become an extremely important event. Previously, discussions were mainly on a two-way basis. And primarily concerned the nuclear powers and their arsenals. After the adoption of the UN General Assembly resolution 1540 concerning nuclear terrorism, this topic is increasingly coming to the fore. And such world nuclear summits help to find the ground on which issues countries with nuclear technologies and weapon, it is possible to find mutual understanding and what are these “lucky” general principles of cooperation.
Why are Iran and the US enemies?

The final communiqué, in particular, stated that "measures to strengthen nuclear security in the world should not hinder the realization of the rights of countries to develop a peaceful atom."

Thus, the conference did not bring significant results on the Iranian nuclear program. Iran in Seoul has shown that it will continue to enrich uranium.

10 September in an interview with the Bloomberg channel, US Secretary of State Clinton said that the Obama administration is tracking Tehran’s steps, but does not intend to establish any red lines. According to Clinton, the United States "does not set deadlines" for Iran and continues to view the negotiations as "by far the best approach" to prevent Tehran’s attempts to develop nuclear weapons.

Iran and 2012 Elections in the USA

At the end of the second Nuclear Summit, an article appeared in the July issue of the authoritative American journal Foreign Affairs, which caused various emotions: Why should Iran get a bomb?

The author of the article, Kenneth Waltz, is sure that the Islamic Republic would probably become a more responsible international actor if she joined the nuclear club.

Israel’s regional nuclear monopoly, along with US support, in its opinion, has created regional instability, which is a major factor in tensions in the Middle East. Nuclear fear in the region, in his view, should encourage local actors to behave more responsibly, as is the case with India and Pakistan. Fear will provide the two nuclear powers with an incentive to resolve the Palestinian conflict. He notes that Iran’s leaders, despite their fanatical rhetoric and authoritarian management style, are very rational in real politics. It is unlikely that Iran with a nuclear weapon would consciously use a nuclear device or transfer it to terrorists.

He believes that Israel is very risky in pursuing a risky strategy towards Iran (in 2010-12, four nuclear scientists were killed and blown up on the way to work, the Stuxnet computer virus aimed at the Natanz processing plant attacked control systems developed by the German company Siemens).

Waltz asks whether the policy of separating the Middle East is in the interests of the United States? In the near future, the elections, and the problem of Middle East settlement can be enjoyed by the American electorate, weary of endless foreign wars.

The September issue of Foreign Affairs (the article “Iran and the Bomb”) states that the threats of Iran in recent months have increased to unprecedented proportions. Continuing the discussion on Iran, the following conclusion is made: despite the fact that Waltz is one of the most respected theorists of international relations in the world, he ignores the important study of political science regarding nuclear weapons, which suggests that new nuclear states are often more reckless and aggressive at lower levels. conflict levels. Iran is not seeking a status quo in the region, but its support for terrorists is more than just defense at the far borders. Such support is an offensive tool to put pressure and intimidate other states, indirectly expand the influence of Iran in the region, promote the spread of revolutionary Islamist ideology and establish Iran’s leadership throughout the Islamic world.

Thus, the indirect influence of Iran on the domestic political process in the United States is returning, the theme of Iran - America's election can be used by American politicians, as Reagan did in his time. Spiegel then wrote: "Once the United States could decide who would be in power in Iran, but today Ayatollahi in Tehran will determine the fate of the US presidency." Despite the fact that elections are an internal matter for each country, but using the factor of regional and global electoral events in some countries is more effective.

6 September 2012 Foreign Affairs has released a collection of articles on Iran. The collection includes expert articles by well-known political scientists and analysts from several countries, including Jahangir Amuzegher, Ehud Airen, Richard Haass, Michael Ledin, James Lindsay, Colin Kal, Matthew Kroenig, Suzanne Maloney, Mohsen Milani, Ray Teke, and Teheke, and Tehnekeekeekeekeen, Mohsen Milani, Rey Teke, and Teheeke, and Tehneke, and Mohsen Milani, Rey Teke The authors pose and discuss the most acute problems. stories the Islamic Republic, Iran’s path to creating nuclear weapons and the reaction of the outside world. The collection contains many materials that contribute to an understanding of the crisis and the prospects for its resolution.

Donald Wilber.

The intensity of passions around Iran is so great that it clearly signals a serious emotional experience. Such, for example, as a desire for revenge.

Relations with the United States are complex and tragic with Iran. The American grievance arises from the loss of control over Iranian oil by American oil companies as a result of the 1979 Islamic revolution of the year and the seizure of 63 hostages at the embassy of Tehran in November of the same year, which were released after 444 of the day (!) Only after eight billion Iranian money was unfrozen stored in US bank accounts. Add to this the indelible shame of the rescue operation “Eagle Claw” (April 1980), which ended with the death of eight soldiers, an airplane explosion, the loss of five helicopters and secret CIA documentation, and you will receive a vengeance installation that lasts for decades.

On the other - the Iranian - pole of tension, a counter-insult lurked, and it was so painful and so deeply rooted in the minds of the Persian people that there could be no reconciliation in the coming years. It can be assumed that this offense is somehow connected with Operation Ajax and Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, who turned the country into a raw material appendage of the United States and Great Britain for a full quarter of a century.

Although the United States appears on the political scene of Iran only at the very curtain, in this circumstance, of course, affects the genius of the British Leo, who managed to solve personal problems in such a way as to substitute only his former colony. Despite the fact that Operation Ajax was conceived by London, the execution was entrusted to CIA agents, whom the British colleagues from SIS provided feasible coordinating support, modestly remaining in the shadows. A multi-step scheme was developed, providing for the replacement of an unfriendly politician. As a result, in the measures to overthrow the government of Mosaddyk, the United States appeared under such a complete program that the historical memory of the Iranians sublimated the British oil company, because of which, in fact, all the porridge was brewing, fixated on resentment and hatred for America.

Operation Ajax was the first successful coup d'état carried out by the CIA in a third world country without the use of direct armed intervention. The only thing that American strategists did not take into account was a long historical memory: “Ajax” is still regarded by the Iranians as the greatest national insult, eclipsing even the excesses of the British during the “Great Game” in humiliation. It is Ajax, and not the personality of Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, that inflames Iran’s hatred of America, making it infinitely difficult for reconciliation, which is so necessary to maintain stability throughout the world.

The history of TPAJAX operation was disclosed by journalist James Risen from the New York Times (April 16 and 18 June 2000). A report on the successful operation of one of the main TPAJAX planners, Donald Wilber, made 1954 pages in March, became public. public ..

This is one of the few documents on the operation of TPAJAX and 10 to other well-known undercover operations of the Cold War period, which during 1990-s the CIA undertook to declassify as historically valuable materials, but in 1998 the CIA director George Tenet changed his word. This prompted the National Security Archive (a non-governmental organization that collects and analyzes documents from many different government agencies obtained through the Freedom of Information Act, and then selects the documents to be published) to file an 13 claim in May of 1999 to the CIA for refusing to declassify its internal documents. history of covert operations in Iran and Italy, which are 50 years old. In court, William McNair, a CIA information management official, justified that releasing any part of this document would seriously damage US national security. It took 14 months of litigation to get the CIA to change the decision. Judge Collaire-Kotelli noted that the CIA only harms national security with an absurd declassification position, as was the case in this case.

Ultimately, the Times published a report on Iran, blackouting unfamiliar Iranian names.

Iran before the coup

The Great Game ended with the signing of an Anglo-Russian agreement in 1907, according to which Persia was conditionally divided into three spheres of influence: the south was withdrawn by Britain, the north by Russia, and a narrow strip remained in the middle, symbolizing not so much the independence of the once great Safevid Empire. The dynasty founded in 1499 by Shah Ismail (1499-1722) formed the image of Persia as a Muslim empire (state religion is Shiism, state language Farsi, etc.) as a buffer zone between internally irreconcilable European powers.

In 1901, monetary obligations, Shah Mozzafar al-Din Shah Qajar, was tied to British financier William Knox D'Arcy in exchange for a ridiculous amount of 10 thousand pounds of 60-year oil concession for 480 thousand miles. Well, it was necessary to try this way: according to the D'Arcy agreement, the British concessionaires promised Persia 16% of the net profit, and it was not indicated anywhere how this profit should be calculated! The soul of the East is wide, what can we say!

Three years later, d'Arcy sold for 100 thousand pounds a controlling stake in his project, the Burmese Oil Company, owned by Scottish David Syme Cargill, and she, in turn, established the Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) in 1909, appointing d'Arcy a director. In 1911, oil rigs were connected by an oil pipeline to a refinery in Abadan, and black gold poured into a full-flowing river in the bins of the Empire. In the second year of successful oil production, the British government, at the prompt of Admiralty First Lord Winston Churchill, APOC nationalized - under the pretext of ensuring uninterrupted fuel supplies to the valiant British the fleet.

In 1921, Reza Khan, a brigadier general of the Persian Cossack Guard, created in the image of the Cossack units of the tsarist army of Russia, carried out a military coup, putting an end to the pitiful history of the Qajar Shahs. Reza Khan founded a new dynasty - his own: 12 December 1925, the Mejlis solemnly proclaimed the Cossack brigade general ruler of Persia under the name Reza Shah Pahlavi.
Reza Shah Pahlavi did not ignore the stranglehold of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company. To begin with, he unilaterally canceled the D'Arcy concession (1932 year), modestly requesting 16 percent instead of 21. The formal pretext for the demarche was the reduction of Persia’s deductions from APOC's profit from oil production in 1931 to a completely ridiculous amount - 366 thousand 782 pounds! This is despite the fact that in the same year the company transferred taxes in the amount of 1 million pounds to the British treasury.

Britain is believed to have frightened Persia’s flirting with Germany and made concessions, signing a new agreement in April 1933.

In August, 1941, the unforeseen flirting of Reza Shah Pahlavi with the Germans (on the eve of the war, Germany was the largest trading partner of Iran) came on fire with lightning occupation of Iran by Britain and the USSR under the pretext of ensuring uninterrupted supply of fuel, weapons and food to the Red Army, which assumed the main thrust of the Wehrmacht. The conversation was serious, an adult, because they did without courtesy: the shah was forced to renounce power and sent to Mauritius. The power was handed over to the limp boy - the son of Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi (September 1941 year). The Allies solemnly proclaimed Iran "The Bridge to Victory" - a circumstance that brightened for some time the post-war fate of the state in passage.

By 1947, the last units of the Soviet and British forces left the territory of Iran. As after the end of the First World War, the physical presence of “good old friends” was replaced by their “spiritual” guardianship. Britain was surrounded by a giant network of "engineers", "geologists", "oilmen" and other spies and agents of influence, while the USSR presented the Communist Party of Tudeh.

The post-war revival of Iran is associated with the name of Dr. Mohammed Mossadegh (1881-1967). The son of the Qajar princess and the Persian finance minister received a brilliant university education in France and Switzerland and upon returning home (1914) declared a national revival program based on three principles: eliminating corruption, reducing government spending and eliminating foreign influence in politics and economics.

After the end of World War II, Mosaddyk headed the oil commission of the Mejlis, which for five years was engaged in a detailed study of the legal grounds and circumstances of the signing of oil agreements between Iran and the United Kingdom. A lush bouquet of bribing officials, ministerial corruption, blackmail and direct threats surfaced. The contribution of Dr. Mosaddyk to the history of 15 in March 1951 materialized, when the Mejlis unanimously voted to nationalize the entire Iranian oil industry.

Mosaddyk categorically rejected the methods of Bolshevik confiscation, and therefore offered the British company to negotiate to determine fair compensation for nationalized assets. The AIOC categorically refused to negotiate, and the UK government imposed an embargo on international supplies of Iranian oil, blocked the Persian Gulf with the Royal Navy ships and filed a lawsuit with the UN International Court of Hague on behalf of the AIOC. The court rejected the claim.

28 April 1951, in the wake of the incredible popularity of the people, Mohammed Mossadegh was unanimously appointed by the Majlis as Prime Minister of Iran. Popularity in the homeland echoed international recognition: Time magazine puts the image of Mossadegh on the cover and assigns it the title of the Person of the Year (1951).

Of course, no international authority of the “foe” would have stopped the British from direct armed intervention. Another thing - the factor of the atomic bomb of the USSR!

The situation was stalemate: Mosaddyk insisted on discussing compensation for nationalization, AIOC, by imperial habit, agreed only to increase the Iranian share, and helpless British destroyers burned up the fuel that is rising every day in the Persian Gulf roads.

Convinced of the ineffectiveness of the economic embargo and the military blockade of Iran, Britain remembered, finally, about its main historical ridge - undercover sabotage. True, it took more than two years for the British subversive genius to bring the operation to mind. The first tackle to the United States (1951 year) failed: President Harry Truman invited the American oil companies to share the Iranian concession with AIOC if they were successful, but not enough to outweigh the intuitive fears (which turned out to be prophetic!) To quarrel with the Iranian people.

The second tackle turned out to be more far-sighted: in conversation with the newly elected president Dwight Eisenhower, the British left the economic aspects of the operation for dessert, offering the main course the imaginary support of the Tudda party for Mosaddyk and no less imaginary sympathy for communism. Another important factor was the presence at the talks of the Dulles brothers - John Foster, the state secretary of the White House, and Allen, the director of the CIA, whose service record randomly turned out to be service at the Sullivan and Cromwell law office, which has been representing the interests of Standard Oil of New Jersey for decades Iranian oil market.

The promise to share with the American business 40% of the British concession in Iran turned out to be a worthy addition to the holy cause of the crusade anti-communist campaign, and Dwight Eisenhower gave the fatal (in historical perspective) approval for America's direct participation in Operation Ajax.

Secret operation

An alternative to Mossaddyk was suggesting itself - Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi. The piquancy of the situation, however, was that Shah Mohammed was formally already considered the head of state, although he was de facto removed from office - not so much by the energetic prime minister as by the limitations of the constitution.

The difficulties with the constitution, however, could not be compared with the scale of popularity of Mossadegh, which was unconditionally supported by nationalists, religious leaders, members of the Mejlis and the masses. In such circumstances, formal displacement from the premier’s seat was clearly not enough. For the success of the operation, comprehensive discredit was also required: Mosaddyk had to be presented as an anti-Islamist (to quarrel with mullahs), a communist (to quarrel with nationalists) and a Republican (to embroil the institution of the Shah's power enjoyed sacred status). “We must bring to power a government that is ready to sign a fair oil agreement, turn Iran into an economically sound and financially prosperous state, and also give a decisive rebuff to the Communist Party, strengthened to dangerous limits,” says Donald Wilber.

The report of Donald Wilber is interesting not so much by the detective story, as by setting out an algorithm according to which later on for more than half a century almost all the coups in the world will be carried out. The intelligence agencies of the United States and Britain were so inspired by the success in Iran that literally several months later they applied similar developments in Guatemala, and then, after yet another triumph, put Ajax on the basis of all velvet revolutions.

Kerm Roosevelt was entrusted to lead the operation, nicknamed "Kim" - the grandson of President Theodore Roosevelt and a staff officer of the CIA. At first glance, the appointment looked strange, because the intelligence officer "Kim" was incompetent, which, by the way, was confirmed at the very beginning of the operation. 19 June 1953, Roosevelt arrived in Iran under the name of James Lockridge, established contacts with the British intelligence center in Tehran and began to vigorously implant in the capital's beau monde on the subject of bribing a vast contingent of politicians, newspaper editors, publishers, journalists, clergymen, generals and gangsters. Corruption in operation "Ajax" was given a central place, so the money for "Kim" allocated for those times a lot - one million dollars.

Kermit Roosevelt chose the Turkish Embassy as a launching pad for establishing high-level relations, where he spent almost a month in July. “Kim” diluted business lunches and relaxed evening receptions with elegant tennis parties, one of which he, in fact, failed. Constipation once again its filing, Agent James Lockridge with a cry of "Damn you, Roosevelt!" Threw the racket into the net. Legend has it that “Kim” managed to return to the place the lower jaw of the diplomatic public that was present at the match, with a tale that, being an ideological member of the Republican party, he was imbued with such hatred for the FDR Democratic President (who died eight years earlier). That used his name as the dirtiest curse word.

Whatever it was, the fact remains: before Major Isayev Kermit Roosevelt was clearly far away. Well, the loss is not great: for the success of Ajax, the talent of Donald Wilber and the energetic guys from the British residency were enough. Kermit Roosevelt in Ajax acted simultaneously in the role of a confidant of the White House and in the role of "looker", providing Iran’s good cut for Iran in a situation where the operational initiative was completely in the hands of the CIA.

The plan of the Ajax operation provided for the development of three themes:

- a briefing by General Fazlolla Zahedi, defined by the Allies for the role of the new Prime Minister,
- The blessing of a coup d'état by Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi
- and the preparation of public opinion.

In the case of General Zahedi, his hatred of communism and personal dislike of Mossaddyk was quite enough. In addition, the new prime minister was assigned the role of a purely secondary: after the coup, Shah Reza Pahlavi, and not a general with a complex outlook, was to become the main figure in Iran.

Ironically, the greatest difficulties arose where they were least expected: with Mohammed Reza Pahlavi. The developers of Ajax did not foresee any problems with the shah, since according to the coup scenario no direct participation was required of him. But the shah was only supposed to sign the firm (decree) of removing Mosaddyk and appointing the post of prime minister, General Zahedi. The fact that, under the Iranian constitution, the Shah did not appoint the prime minister, but only claimed by the vote in the Mejlis, the fighters for world democracy were of little concern: did anyone remember such trifles as the constitution when people expressed their will on the streets, covered in revolutionary fervor?

Once, however, it reached the point, the Shah flatly refused to sign anything before receiving unconditional guarantees of the British and American governments that they would not leave the supreme ruler of Iran alone with his people and army. In fact, the lion's share of the efforts undertaken in the framework of Operation Ajax fell to the shah's persuasion to sign the ill-fated firm. Suffice to say that at key points of the operation, Mohammed Reza Pahlavi indulged in a stampede, followed by a deep bedding to the bottom - the phone does not answer, the mail does not work, the messengers do not find it - at least three times!

The first persuader of the CIA Shah appointed his own sister Ashraf Pahlavi. It was planned that the British intelligence officer Darbyshire and the CIA officer Meade would meet on July 10 with the princess in Paris, where she constantly lived, and bring up to date. There was no princess in Paris at the appointed time, and it took five days to find her on the Riviera. At first, Ashraf politely refused to participate in the operation, however, as Wilber writes in her report, “official representatives held two more meetings with her, after which she agreed to do everything she was asked to do.”

25 July, Princess Ashraf flew to Tehran, came to the palace and tried to prove to her brother that Mosaddyk is the enemy of the people, and Zahedi, on the contrary, is the best friend, so you can’t see Iran without a good firm. Mohammed Reza Pahlavi first yelled at her sister and then expelled from the palace, urging him not to stick his nose in matters in which she does not understand anything. Ashraf was offended, said that the initiative with the firman did not come from her, but from "officials in the United States and Britain", got on a plane and flew back to Paris.

Shah did not believe, although alert. The second run was provided by General Norman Schwarzkopf. It is about the father of Norman Schwarzkopf junior, the hero of “Storm in the Desert.”, The former head of the American gendarme mission in Iran, whom the shah loved and respected. Schwarzkopf visited Reza Pahlavi at the palace, gave him a detailed plan of the operation and asked him to sign, in addition to the firm, Mozaddyk's dismissal and the appointment of Zahedi, also appealing to the army to remain loyal to the crown and not interfere with popular will. Shah promised to think after he was given guarantees of direct support for the operation by the governments of the United States and Britain.

Warranties were provided by the BBC state radio station and the US president personally. On the day agreed with the shah, instead of the traditional phrase “Time is midnight”, a code change of the text was heard: “Exact time is midnight!” The American president acted no less elegantly: during the speech of 4 in August in Seattle at the convention of state governors, he flatly postponed toward the text of the report and stated that the United States will not sit back and watch as Iran falls behind the Iron Curtain.

Shah expressed his deep satisfaction with the guarantees, announced his intention to immediately sign the necessary firms and ... suddenly left for Ramsar, the royal residence on the shores of the Caspian Sea! Six days remained before the planned start of the coup.

The shy monarch was killed by ... Shahin Soraya! Donald Wilber admits in his report that, in the person of the legendary beauty, the CIA and Mi-6 found an unexpected comrade-in-arms, and Soreya’s participation in knocking out the necessary firms from Mohammed Reza Pahlavi was a complete surprise to all “Ajaksovtsy”. Anyway, but on August 13, the head of the Shah’s security, Colonel Nasiri, delivered long-awaited decrees from Ramsar to General Zahedi: everything was ready for the beginning of the putsch.

The first pancake

As soon as possible (a month and a half), Kermit Roosevelt did a tremendous job of bribing members of the Mejlis, publishers, editors and prominent journalists. According to Wilber, on the eve of the coup, more than 80% of metropolitan newspapers and magazines were on the CIA content! Every morning, Tehran’s press shook public opinion with shrill interviews of deputies dissatisfied with Mosaddyk’s policies and scandalous revelations of the unsightly life of a “corrupt prime minister and his associates.” Virtually all of these stories were pure misinformation sucked from the finger by “writers” in Langley. In the same place, at the headquarters of the CIA, the regular "Rafaeli" issued tons of cartoons and cartoons to the mountain, which came to Tehran through the channels of diplomatic mail and immediately transported to the editorial offices of newspapers and magazines.

Demonstrators, allegedly from the Tudeh party, strolled along the street, shouting slogans in a well-thought-out sequence: “Long live Mohammed Mosaddyk! Long live the Soviet Union! Communism will win! ”One by one, mosques flew up into the air across the country, on the ruins of which right there were carefully left evidence leading directly to the communist lair. Furious mullahs betrayed hot on the heels of the anathema of the Prime Minister, closing his eyes to the atrocities of atheist militants who did not shy away from raising their hands on the holy of holies - the prayer houses of Allah and his prophet Mohammed.

The best craftsmen of London and New York made templates of Iranian banknotes, which flooded the domestic market, stimulating unprecedented inflation, which achieved the Iranian economy no worse than embargo and sea blockade.

Nothing, however, compares to the brilliance of a subversive genius with a theatrical production, organized by Wilber on the main shopping street of Tehran, Lalezar. First, Kermit Roosevelt’s money hired militants of a large gangster group, who went to scour the street, crashing the windows of all the shops on their way, beating passersby, shooting at the mosque and happily chanting the intricate phrase: “We love Mossadegh and Communism!” After a couple of hours, the pogromists would meet fighters from a hostile group moved, whose services were secretly paid for, of course, by the grandson of the American president. It ended with the many hours of fighting with firing and fires - all this so that the next morning the capital's newspapers could gloatly accuse the Mossadegh government of failing to control the situation in the city and ensure the safety of the civilian population.

Preparations for the internal revolution were complemented by vigorous gestures beyond its borders. Politicians of all levels and nationalities, speaking at forums, conferences and in the texts of government communiqué carried out at the right moments stuffing the right phrases that set up public opinion against the Prime Minister of Iran and prepare a calm reaction to future political changes.

It is impossible to imagine that such an intensive and comprehensive preparation could fail. However, this is exactly what happened during the first coup attempt, which took place on August 16 1953! According to Kermit Roosevelt, the failure of the operation was caused not so much by the leakage of information from the camp of conspirators (as stated by the head of the Mossaddy’s office, General Tahi Riahi), he knew already at five o'clock in the evening on 15 in August), but by the complete inability of the officers from General Zahedi’s entourage to take decisive action. "We had to make every effort in order to explain to the talkative and often illogical Persians what specific actions are required from each of them. ”- wrote in his report, Donald Wilber.

The frustration of the American spy becomes understandable after reading the official communique of the Mosaddyk government about suppressing the coup d’état - even Horace could not imagine a more ridiculous outcome of many months of efforts, “Judging by the phrase“ Parturiunt montes, nascetur ridiculus mus ” a funny mouse is born ”), he knew a lot about poor undertakings:“ August 16 1953 of the year at 1 one o'clock at night Colonel Namiri (the head of the Royal Guard) appeared next to the house of the Prime Minister with four soldiers, two jeeps and an armored personnel carrier. Namiri stated that he delivered the letter to Mohammed Mossaddyk, but was immediately arrested and disarmed ”!

In fact, Namir brought Mossadegh firman shah to dismiss, but did it at the wrong time, as there was in the house of the Prime Minister before the standing at attention to get an army unit of Lieutenant Colonel Zand-Karimi, provides cover for militant conspirators.

The game with finishing

The failure of "Ajax" in the first approximation looked like a real catastrophe: learning about the arrest of Namiri, the Shah immediately fled to Baghdad and then to Rome, where in an interview with journalists he stated that it was impossible to return to his homeland in the foreseeable future! General Zahedi fell into a severe depression, and his closest comrades went into the deaf underground. Assessing the situation as hopeless, the headquarters of the CIA issued an order to terminate Operation Ajax and the immediate evacuation of key agents from Iran.

Kermit Roosevelt’s refusal to execute the order of his immediate superiors and curtailing the operation indirectly confirms the hypothesis about the special relationship of the offspring of the noble family with Foggy Albion. You can, of course, assume that Roosevelt leaped in ambition and he just wanted to prove that the failure was caused not by weak preparatory work, for which he was responsible ..

Over the next three days - 16, 17 and 18 of August - Kermit Roosevelt and his comrades brought the operation "Ajax" to the victorious end: achieved the elimination of Mosaddyk from power, the appointment of Zahedi to the post of prime minister and the triumphant return of the Shah!

The bet in the second half was made on mass demonstrations of working people, who were brought together by friendly columns to the streets of Tehran, giving out wages to everyone as a precaution. The reason for the demonstration was allegedly the forcible expulsion of the native shah by Mossaddik. People walked around in festive attire (of course: an extra paid day off!), Many people didn’t guess at all about the meaning of the demonstrations.

By skillful actions, specialists in managing the masses sent demonstrators to the building of Radio Tehran, who exactly at that moment made an appeal to the nation, standing on tank, General Zahedi (familiar picture, isn't it?). Another part of the demonstrators was redistributed to the parliament square, where the purchased politicians sprayed microphones with their saliva, urging the shah to return as soon as possible and punish the treacherous traitor Mossadegh. A third of the walking people flocked directly to the Prime Minister’s house.

At the same time, the troops controlled by Zahedi were in the capital. Knowledgeable people fired in the air ...

By the evening of August 19, more than a hundred corpses lay around the residence of Mossadegh. All over the city - still 200. The Prime Minister’s house was surrounded by tanks and engulfed in flames. Yesterday’s people's choice and hero of Iran, Mohammed Mosaddyk, surrendered to the victors.

Consequences of a disaster

Prime Minister Mosaddyk was tried for treason and sentenced to three years in prison. After his release until his death in 1967, he remained under house arrest.

22 August, stunned by the unexpected success of the fall and still not fully believing in victory, Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi returned to his homeland from Italy. The shah told reporters like this: “My people demonstrated loyalty to the monarchy, and for two and a half years of false propaganda they did not turn it away from me. My country did not want to accept the Communists and remained faithful to me. ” Kerm Roosevelt, the Shah said: “I owe my throne to God, my people, my army and you!”

Very soon, life in Iran acquired dignity in the form it was imagined in the West: Anglo-Persian oil company, renamed British Petroleum (surprise-surprise!), Shared Iranian black gold, first with the Americans, and then with the on the feast of the Dutch-French; after the oil, the rest of the Iranian economy set off for a long-term concession (by a quarter of a century!).

In 1979, the incorruptible and principled Ayatollah Ruhalla Khomeini came to power in Iran ...

http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/137731/kenneth-n-waltz/why-iran-should-get-the-bomb offline.business-magazine.ru/2007/128/290130/
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  1. Slayer
    13 September 2012 15: 47
    Because they need access to the Caspian if, in 2 words
    1. 0
      13 September 2012 20: 57
      Quote: Slayer
      Because they need access to the Caspian if, in 2 words

      1. Click-Klyak
        13 September 2012 21: 40
        Who was the main enemy of Iran in the 20th century? USA.
        Who was the second after the main enemy?
        THE USSR.
  2. spender
    13 September 2012 15: 51
    Too many letters laughing America makes friends and enemies based on interests. You need a country - the elite and friends are bribed to the grave. If the top is not bought, then it means undemocratic, then the raid of the Kyrgyz Republic and aviation, no-fly zones, bribery of the "jackals" overthrow the government and landing "our".
    Now they break off and there is not much money and the authority has faltered
    1. 0
      13 September 2012 21: 07
      Quote: spender
      Too many letters

      OIL! That's where the dog is buried! hi
  3. +4
    13 September 2012 15: 54
    Americans need to get close to Russia from the Caspian and surround them in a ring. Iran does not want to be a puppet of the United States. That’s dislike. And the United States and Iranian oil, too.
  4. 0
    13 September 2012 15: 56
    yes, a large oil field in the Caspian ... plus events from the femen hit them when the Iranians and theirs, like green berets, took their embassy, ​​and an airplane and a helicopter crashed in the desert ....
    1. +1
      13 September 2012 19: 36
      Good article, deep.
  5. +1
    13 September 2012 15: 59
    In the capital of Yemen, Sana'a, demonstrators attacked the building of the US Embassy. The attackers broke the glass in the building of the security services near the embassy, ​​after which they tried to break through the main entrance to the territory of the diplomatic mission. In response, security forces opened fire, resulting in several injured.
    Yes, it’s time to demand the introduction of a no-fly zone and begin to arm peaceful demenstrants ... hi
    1. with
      13 September 2012 18: 22
      Quote: vezunchik
      Yes, it’s time to demand the introduction of a no-fly zone and begin to arm peaceful demenstrants ...

      Then right away in the USA and back in November 2011.
      For shelling a database from Kalash!
  6. Yarbay
    13 September 2012 16: 08
    In principle, an explanatory article about those events!
    But there are inaccuracies, firstly, the Mossadyk circle did not act decisively, having the opportunity not to arrest the instigators !!
    There were so many double agents in both camps !!
    Powerful corruption, for the money they would sell everything at the top of power !!
    Secondly, the USSR did not support him and he did not make contact with representatives of the USSR!
    Mossadyk, I think, was afraid that the Communists would come to power!
    1. T72B
      13 September 2012 21: 49
      Greetings, Alibek. I clicked on the plus and immediately added +4. How am I dashing? I agree, not everything in the article is accurate. And how much we don’t know at all about those events and will never know.
  7. +2
    13 September 2012 16: 10
    A very interesting article, I read it with pleasure, thanks!
  8. +3
    13 September 2012 16: 22
    As soon as possible (a month and a half), Kermit Roosevelt did a tremendous job of bribing members of the Mejlis, publishers, editors and prominent journalists. According to Wilber, on the eve of the coup, more than 80% of metropolitan newspapers and magazines were on the CIA content! Every morning, Tehran’s press shook public opinion with shrill interviews of deputies dissatisfied with Mosaddyk’s policies and scandalous revelations of the unsightly life of a “corrupt prime minister and his associates.” Virtually all of these stories were pure misinformation sucked from the finger by “writers” in Langley. In the same place, at the headquarters of the CIA, the regular "Rafaeli" issued tons of cartoons and cartoons to the mountain, which came to Tehran through the channels of diplomatic mail and immediately transported to the editorial offices of newspapers and magazines.

    What a familiar handwriting.
    It seems to me that for some time now the United States will be the blood enemy not only of Iran, but also of Russia - such interventions in internal affairs are remembered longer than any aggression.
    1. wax
      14 September 2012 01: 36
      We had exactly the same. But we did not have a concession law. Amer rushed to accept the Duma, but did not have time to dkfolt. By the way, the Communists hacked the law on concessions in the Duma; I don’t understand why they hush up this victory in the interests of Russia.
  9. Evil Tatar
    13 September 2012 16: 26
    I think that we, the Russians, have figures and are worse than any ml. Roosevelts and others ...
    And all this is like a fight of jackals or hyenas at a corpse of an antelope that broke a leg ... When a hungry bear looks from afar, looks at a fight of the insane with the smell of blood (oil / butterflies), and gives them all a snot, dispersed through the bushes ...
    Yes, definitely not ... Russians like THESE usually don't ...
    And they’re doing it, for example, as in the 45th, or as an unexpected throw of the airborne forces at an airfield in Serbia ... Or as taking the Amin’s palace ... etc.

    Wait for today's ETI corpse eaters ...
    Another "wave of the hand" in order to slap Russia in the face may be the last physical exercise for them ... I hope THEY know or guess about it ...
    And if not, then there will be a surprise - they will rejoice ...

    1. Yarbay
      13 September 2012 16: 47
      Quote: Angry Tatar
      Another "wave of the hand" in order to slap Russia in the face may be the last physical exercise for them ... I hope THEY know or guess about it ...

      Unless certain people sell, of course !!
      for many, corpse eaters have a compromise, through their banks!
      That is why I spoke and I say, it is necessary to immediately uproot corruption in Russia !!
      1. with
        13 September 2012 17: 58
        Alibek, good afternoon! hi
        Congratulations on your next rank! drinks
        Quote: Yarbay
        That is why I spoke and I say, it is necessary to immediately uproot corruption in Russia !!

        And this is what a man from the East tells us !!))) bully
        1. Yarbay
          13 September 2012 18: 39
          Dear Met!
          maybe you won’t believe me!
          Since 28 years I have been working as a boss, served and worked in different places, but I swear to you all that I care about, to this day, inclusive, have not taken a dime from anyone and have not paid anyone a dime for appointments or positions!
          Maybe I'm lucky !!
          There was such a service where no one even suggested, but it was pestering, but fortunately my leadership supported my position !!!!
          1. T72B
            13 September 2012 21: 56
            But one guy from Azerbaijan served with me, he told me that after the service he would not go back, but would stay in Belarus. I wondered why. “Because here you can go to college for free,” he enlightened me.
            Looks like something has changed since then. Glad.
            1. Yarbay
              13 September 2012 23: 19
              Quote: T72Б
              But one guy from Azerbaijan served with me, he told me that after the service he would not go back, but would stay in Belarus. I wondered why. “Because here you can go to college for free,” he enlightened me.
              In Soviet times, it was almost impossible to do without us!
              But after the introduction of the test system, a lot of my friends and relatives are among those who, of course, studied quietly, go to the most prestigious universities !!
              We have big and in my opinion very positive changes in the draft!
              After the military commissariats were liquidated and corruption was almost completely eliminated there!
              But there are still some areas where there is corruption, but I will honestly say the country's leadership as far as I know trying to get rid of it !!
              A lot is being done on their part, but gradually!
              It seems to me it could be more cardinal, but I understand there are Europe and * democracy *
          2. wax
            14 September 2012 01: 40
            I believe you, because my life went exactly the same. Whatever they say about the system, etc. in fact, everything is decided by the man himself.
          3. Evil Tatar
            14 September 2012 06: 38
            Quote: Yarbay
            maybe you won’t believe me!

            Of course, I’m not Stanislavsky, but I’ll shout: - I do not believe !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
            Quote: Yarbay
            Since 28 years I have been working as a boss, served and worked in different places, but I swear to you all that I care about, to this day, inclusive, have not taken a dime from anyone and have not paid anyone a dime for appointments or positions!

            It's just like Rock Against Drugs ...
            Or bees against honey ...

            There are no such things in the system ...
            Or Yarbay, working as the head of the Mars rovers on Mars ...
            Rjunemagu ...
      2. 0
        13 September 2012 23: 13
        Quote: Yarbay
        That is why I spoke and I say, it is necessary to immediately uproot corruption in Russia !!

        - it’s high time not to eradicate them, but rather, closer to the roots from the bottom to dig.
    2. with
      13 September 2012 17: 32
      Quote: Angry Tatar
      Wait for today's ETI corpse eaters ...

  10. +8
    13 September 2012 16: 36
    enemy of my enemy my friend wink
    1. +7
      13 September 2012 16: 45
      Quote: strannik595
      enemy of my enemy my friend

      When was it? After the story with the S-300, the priorities changed

      China to deliver S-300 to Iran
      Beijing takes Moscow's place in the arms markets. Refusing to sell Iran S-300 missiles, Russia lost the Iranian market, and China has already begun to occupy it. Beijing made an offer to Tehran to buy its analogue of the Russian air defense system.

      It turns out that China is not afraid of the United States, as it is not the best energy supplier in the world
      1. sahha
        14 September 2012 06: 26
        Quote: Vadivak
        Beijing takes Moscow's place in the arms markets. Refusing to sell Iran S-300 missiles, Russia lost the Iranian market, and China has already begun to occupy it. Beijing made an offer to Tehran to buy its analogue of the Russian air defense system.

        Russia and China defend Syria and Iran, but Russia seems to be leading, respectively, all the bumps on it. China helps, as it were, but keeps on the second number, not forgetting to "select free" markets.
        Thoughtful China.
    2. 0
      13 September 2012 20: 58
      Quote: strannik595
      enemy of my enemy my friend

      But this is a controversial statement in the current situation ...... request
  11. +2
    13 September 2012 16: 39
    As Churchill once said, Great Britain has no permanent friends or enemies, it has permanent national interests. So it is with the United States and any other country, Today it is profitable, we are friends with Iran and we sell him everything that he can buy, tomorrow it is unprofitable and we start bombing everything that was previously sold to him, and at the same time everything else. Another thing is that the national interests of each country, including the United States, and Russia, etc., are nothing more than a set of selfish interests of those in power in this country. "Skins" change, and interests also change. For example, there was Clinton in power in the United States, who understood that Iraq needed a strong hand like Hussein and he did not touch Hussein during the Gulf War, although he had a dark chance to “touch” him, and under the stormy “approval” from the “world community”. Then, instead of Clinton's skin, another skin appeared and Saddam was done away with and Iraq fell apart into flaming debris. Output? It is necessary to be careful with the choice of skins and everything will be OK
  12. 0
    13 September 2012 16: 41
    how did everything get ... stupid president ..... what kind of Iran? .... I want to go home to my mother (or to a woman)
  13. +1
    13 September 2012 16: 41
    "In an extremely short time (one and a half months) Kermit Roosevelt carried out a colossal work of bribing members of the Mejlis, publishers, editors and prominent journalists."
    doesn’t resemble anything ....?
  14. +2
    13 September 2012 17: 19
    Events on the Swamp is similar from this opera.
    1. +1
      13 September 2012 18: 45
      Quote: AIR-ZNAK

      Events on Bolotnaya similar from this opera

      I see no analogies, except for a handful of paid clowns and some media.
  15. 0
    13 September 2012 17: 22
    in light of recent events, I do not envy the US ambassadors in different countries, even in Berlin the American embassy is evacuated ....... here it is the power of the art of cinema wink a worldwide Muslim-American schukher is planned .......... it's not for you to pushie-wright and the good priests from the Russian Orthodox Church, these purely concrete heads can be cut off
  16. Patriot
    13 September 2012 17: 50
    Quote: strannik595
    enemy of my enemy my friend

    And who said that this is the enemy of the United States? JUDGING ON THE AMOUNT OF CONSTANT ACCEPTANCES OF AMERICA AND WHO WAS SAVING MONEY TO THE US ECONOMY, he is a friend of America. IS NOT IT?
    1. -4
      13 September 2012 18: 11
      Quote: Patriot
      . IS NOT IT?

      Exactly, and not otherwise. We so want to contrast ourselves with America that we deny the obvious; The policy of the Russian leadership is consistent with the policy of the West. And only when the personal interests of our elite are offended do contradictions arise.
    2. +1
      13 September 2012 18: 52
      Quote: Patriot

      What is this pun? I daresay you meant "invests in the US economy"? If so, then yes. Russia has recently been buying up large factories and enterprises abroad, China is also sweeping everything away. They buy up because there is money. And at the expense of who is friend to whom is the enemy, then Vova is a serious politician, and for serious politicians to take sides is an impermissible luxury.
      1. +1
        13 September 2012 20: 40
        Quote: Alexej
        Russia recently buys large factories and enterprises abroad

        Link please?
        1. 0
          14 September 2012 13: 02
          Quote: Karabin
          Karabin Yesterday, 20:40 ↑ 1 
          Quote: Alexej
          Russia recently buys large factories and enterprises abroad
          Link please?

          No link? It’s sad.
          1. -1
            14 September 2012 14: 50
            Search yourself, you are exceptional. This is not trumpeted.
            1. 0
              14 September 2012 22: 59
              Quote: Alexej

              Search yourself, you are exceptional. Do not trumpet about it

              Here you are how interesting. And what are they blowing? About how we wanted to buy SAAB and OPEL and threw us through a fun place. Confirm your bazaar, and this:
              Quote: Alexej
              Russia recently buys large plants

              it’s a bazaar and nothing more, real information. these are not cons to sculpt those with whom I disagree.
    3. +1
      13 September 2012 20: 54
      Quote: Patriot
      IS NOT IT?

      Hello! Along the way - this is so! I am particularly alarmed by the sluggish actions of Russia on everything that happens. I do not take into account the actions of the Security Council .....
      Watch the movie ....
  17. Robin_3ON
    13 September 2012 17: 53
    And who said that this is the enemy of the United States? JUDGING ON THE AMOUNT OF CONSTANT ACCEPTANCES OF AMERICA AND WHO WAS SAVING MONEY TO THE US ECONOMY, he is a friend of America. IS NOT IT?

    Such friends (USA), for x ... and to the museum
    1. Evil Tatar
      14 September 2012 06: 45
      Quote: Robin_3ON
      Such friends (USA), for

      What type ...
      You Innokenty Smoktunovsky ... No.
      You are Yuri Papanov ... No
      Who do you not recognize you in makeup?

      Socrates? Diogenes?
  18. rate
    13 September 2012 17: 59
    How does it look like 1991. and everything else. USA will end badly, very badly. We will leave them a medal "for victory in a cold war" where we should.
  19. +2
    13 September 2012 18: 46
    Quote: strannik595
    enemy of my enemy my friend

    Iran is still that fruit ... It is not in vain that the Caspian flotilla is equipped with shock pace with weapons that are not appropriate for the theater and the means and weapons. This is not casual.
    But while the Russian Federation needs to fully support the current regime of Iran. And in general to support them, as they stubbornly stand up under the heel of the Americans.

    On this topic, I liked one opinion:
    “Let's imagine that Iran is under US control, just like Iraq is now,” warned an expert from the CIS Institute, Mikhail Alexandrov, on the pages of the bs-kavkaz.org website. - Regimes in Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan immediately reorient to Washington. Azerbaijan will join NATO along with Georgia. The US Navy appears in the Caspian Sea. Armenia is cut off from Russia. In these conditions, Yerevan has no choice but to leave the CSTO, surrender Nagorno-Karabakh and also join NATO. The West is creating an energy corridor from Central Asia to Turkey and further to Europe. The latter no longer needs Russian energy resources. Their purchases are plummeting, Russian gas and oil prices are falling sharply. The Russian economy, devoid of oil and gas revenues, is starting to stall; it is already impossible to maintain an adequate military budget. Russia's nuclear potential is gradually becoming obsolete. Meanwhile, America is surrounded on all sides by American missile defense systems, and then by first-strike missiles. And twenty years later, Moscow receives a strategic mate without any nuclear war. She had no choice but to capitulate and dissolve the Russian Federation. “Such a sad scenario is looming before us if we do not take an adequate response to the US invasion of Iran.”

    There is something logical in Alexandrov’s reasoning. Iran’s support is geopolitics. And in it Russia needs to be careful and always wary.
    At the moment, Iran is not controlled by the Americans, which means it is an enemy of the United States. Russia is profitable. So the enemy of our enemy is our friend.

  20. +1
    13 September 2012 20: 38
    The situation described in the article is very reminiscent of Syria.
  21. 0
    13 September 2012 20: 48
    To answer this question, I recommend everyone to watch the movie:
    Particularly well outlined are the consequences for Russia ...... hi
  22. +1
    13 September 2012 21: 03
    Well, yes, if our people figured it out, then the Iranians and even more so. And who wants to be a "hamster"? Nobody...
    Here's a simple reason for the "Iranian bomb" - to send all the "directors" nafig ...
  23. -1
    13 September 2012 21: 20
    Russia must be neutral. They will agree among themselves.
  24. Bobxnumx
    14 September 2012 03: 46
    Well done Iranians wipe their uncle Sam's nose with their rockets! bully


    olods Iranians keep on wiping uncle Sam's nose!
  25. 0
    16 September 2012 22: 21
    The proverb "Do not underestimate the enemy" applies equally to everyone! Both sides still understand this. In my opinion, there is a "chess game". The law of the game - the strongest will win. It is in this very situation that the Grandmasters are fighting (in contrast to the Iraq-USA game). I am for Iran !. And if this Victory is bloodless - honor and praise to the Grandmaster !!!

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