Ask any political analyst or economist about a topic that can today radically destroy the status quo of the world order, and get an immediate response: "Iran."
From 26 (27) March to 29 March, the second Nuclear Summit began, with South Korea becoming the initiator and host. For the first time, such a large-scale forum was convened in 2010 in Washington. Summit has become an extremely important event. Previously, discussions were mainly on a two-way basis. And primarily concerned the nuclear powers and their arsenals. After the adoption of the UN General Assembly resolution 1540 concerning nuclear terrorism, this topic is increasingly coming to the fore. And such world nuclear summits help to find the ground on which issues countries with nuclear technologies and weapon, it is possible to find mutual understanding and what are these “lucky” general principles of cooperation.
The final communiqué, in particular, stated that "measures to strengthen nuclear security in the world should not hinder the realization of the rights of countries to develop a peaceful atom."
Thus, the conference did not bring significant results on the Iranian nuclear program. Iran in Seoul has shown that it will continue to enrich uranium.
10 September in an interview with the Bloomberg channel, US Secretary of State Clinton said that the Obama administration is tracking Tehran’s steps, but does not intend to establish any red lines. According to Clinton, the United States "does not set deadlines" for Iran and continues to view the negotiations as "by far the best approach" to prevent Tehran’s attempts to develop nuclear weapons.
Iran and 2012 Elections in the USA
At the end of the second Nuclear Summit, an article appeared in the July issue of the authoritative American journal Foreign Affairs, which caused various emotions: Why should Iran get a bomb?
The author of the article, Kenneth Waltz, is sure that the Islamic Republic would probably become a more responsible international actor if she joined the nuclear club.
Israel’s regional nuclear monopoly, along with US support, in its opinion, has created regional instability, which is a major factor in tensions in the Middle East. Nuclear fear in the region, in his view, should encourage local actors to behave more responsibly, as is the case with India and Pakistan. Fear will provide the two nuclear powers with an incentive to resolve the Palestinian conflict. He notes that Iran’s leaders, despite their fanatical rhetoric and authoritarian management style, are very rational in real politics. It is unlikely that Iran with a nuclear weapon would consciously use a nuclear device or transfer it to terrorists.
He believes that Israel is very risky in pursuing a risky strategy towards Iran (in 2010-12, four nuclear scientists were killed and blown up on the way to work, the Stuxnet computer virus aimed at the Natanz processing plant attacked control systems developed by the German company Siemens).
Waltz asks whether the policy of separating the Middle East is in the interests of the United States? In the near future, the elections, and the problem of Middle East settlement can be enjoyed by the American electorate, weary of endless foreign wars.
The September issue of Foreign Affairs (the article “Iran and the Bomb”) states that the threats of Iran in recent months have increased to unprecedented proportions. Continuing the discussion on Iran, the following conclusion is made: despite the fact that Waltz is one of the most respected theorists of international relations in the world, he ignores the important study of political science regarding nuclear weapons, which suggests that new nuclear states are often more reckless and aggressive at lower levels. conflict levels. Iran is not seeking a status quo in the region, but its support for terrorists is more than just defense at the far borders. Such support is an offensive tool to put pressure and intimidate other states, indirectly expand the influence of Iran in the region, promote the spread of revolutionary Islamist ideology and establish Iran’s leadership throughout the Islamic world.
Thus, the indirect influence of Iran on the domestic political process in the United States is returning, the theme of Iran - America's election can be used by American politicians, as Reagan did in his time. Spiegel then wrote: "Once the United States could decide who would be in power in Iran, but today Ayatollahi in Tehran will determine the fate of the US presidency." Despite the fact that elections are an internal matter for each country, but using the factor of regional and global electoral events in some countries is more effective.
6 September 2012 Foreign Affairs has released a collection of articles on Iran. The collection includes expert articles by well-known political scientists and analysts from several countries, including Jahangir Amuzegher, Ehud Airen, Richard Haass, Michael Ledin, James Lindsay, Colin Kal, Matthew Kroenig, Suzanne Maloney, Mohsen Milani, Ray Teke, and Teheke, and Tehnekeekeekeekeen, Mohsen Milani, Rey Teke, and Teheeke, and Tehneke, and Mohsen Milani, Rey Teke The authors pose and discuss the most acute problems. stories the Islamic Republic, Iran’s path to creating nuclear weapons and the reaction of the outside world. The collection contains many materials that contribute to an understanding of the crisis and the prospects for its resolution.
The intensity of passions around Iran is so great that it clearly signals a serious emotional experience. Such, for example, as a desire for revenge.
Relations with the United States are complex and tragic with Iran. The American grievance arises from the loss of control over Iranian oil by American oil companies as a result of the 1979 Islamic revolution of the year and the seizure of 63 hostages at the embassy of Tehran in November of the same year, which were released after 444 of the day (!) Only after eight billion Iranian money was unfrozen stored in US bank accounts. Add to this the indelible shame of the rescue operation “Eagle Claw” (April 1980), which ended with the death of eight soldiers, an airplane explosion, the loss of five helicopters and secret CIA documentation, and you will receive a vengeance installation that lasts for decades.
On the other - the Iranian - pole of tension, a counter-insult lurked, and it was so painful and so deeply rooted in the minds of the Persian people that there could be no reconciliation in the coming years. It can be assumed that this offense is somehow connected with Operation Ajax and Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, who turned the country into a raw material appendage of the United States and Great Britain for a full quarter of a century.
Although the United States appears on the political scene of Iran only at the very curtain, in this circumstance, of course, affects the genius of the British Leo, who managed to solve personal problems in such a way as to substitute only his former colony. Despite the fact that Operation Ajax was conceived by London, the execution was entrusted to CIA agents, whom the British colleagues from SIS provided feasible coordinating support, modestly remaining in the shadows. A multi-step scheme was developed, providing for the replacement of an unfriendly politician. As a result, in the measures to overthrow the government of Mosaddyk, the United States appeared under such a complete program that the historical memory of the Iranians sublimated the British oil company, because of which, in fact, all the porridge was brewing, fixated on resentment and hatred for America.
Operation Ajax was the first successful coup d'état carried out by the CIA in a third world country without the use of direct armed intervention. The only thing that American strategists did not take into account was a long historical memory: “Ajax” is still regarded by the Iranians as the greatest national insult, eclipsing even the excesses of the British during the “Great Game” in humiliation. It is Ajax, and not the personality of Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, that inflames Iran’s hatred of America, making it infinitely difficult for reconciliation, which is so necessary to maintain stability throughout the world.
The history of TPAJAX operation was disclosed by journalist James Risen from the New York Times (April 16 and 18 June 2000). A report on the successful operation of one of the main TPAJAX planners, Donald Wilber, made 1954 pages in March, became public. public ..
This is one of the few documents on the operation of TPAJAX and 10 to other well-known undercover operations of the Cold War period, which during 1990-s the CIA undertook to declassify as historically valuable materials, but in 1998 the CIA director George Tenet changed his word. This prompted the National Security Archive (a non-governmental organization that collects and analyzes documents from many different government agencies obtained through the Freedom of Information Act, and then selects the documents to be published) to file an 13 claim in May of 1999 to the CIA for refusing to declassify its internal documents. history of covert operations in Iran and Italy, which are 50 years old. In court, William McNair, a CIA information management official, justified that releasing any part of this document would seriously damage US national security. It took 14 months of litigation to get the CIA to change the decision. Judge Collaire-Kotelli noted that the CIA only harms national security with an absurd declassification position, as was the case in this case.
Ultimately, the Times published a report on Iran, blackouting unfamiliar Iranian names.
Iran before the coup
The Great Game ended with the signing of an Anglo-Russian agreement in 1907, according to which Persia was conditionally divided into three spheres of influence: the south was withdrawn by Britain, the north by Russia, and a narrow strip remained in the middle, symbolizing not so much the independence of the once great Safevid Empire. The dynasty founded in 1499 by Shah Ismail (1499-1722) formed the image of Persia as a Muslim empire (state religion is Shiism, state language Farsi, etc.) as a buffer zone between internally irreconcilable European powers.
In 1901, monetary obligations, Shah Mozzafar al-Din Shah Qajar, was tied to British financier William Knox D'Arcy in exchange for a ridiculous amount of 10 thousand pounds of 60-year oil concession for 480 thousand miles. Well, it was necessary to try this way: according to the D'Arcy agreement, the British concessionaires promised Persia 16% of the net profit, and it was not indicated anywhere how this profit should be calculated! The soul of the East is wide, what can we say!
Three years later, d'Arcy sold for 100 thousand pounds a controlling stake in his project, the Burmese Oil Company, owned by Scottish David Syme Cargill, and she, in turn, established the Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) in 1909, appointing d'Arcy a director. In 1911, oil rigs were connected by an oil pipeline to a refinery in Abadan, and black gold poured into a full-flowing river in the bins of the Empire. In the second year of successful oil production, the British government, at the prompt of Admiralty First Lord Winston Churchill, APOC nationalized - under the pretext of ensuring uninterrupted fuel supplies to the valiant British the fleet.
In 1921, Reza Khan, a brigadier general of the Persian Cossack Guard, created in the image of the Cossack units of the tsarist army of Russia, carried out a military coup, putting an end to the pitiful history of the Qajar Shahs. Reza Khan founded a new dynasty - his own: 12 December 1925, the Mejlis solemnly proclaimed the Cossack brigade general ruler of Persia under the name Reza Shah Pahlavi.
Reza Shah Pahlavi did not ignore the stranglehold of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company. To begin with, he unilaterally canceled the D'Arcy concession (1932 year), modestly requesting 16 percent instead of 21. The formal pretext for the demarche was the reduction of Persia’s deductions from APOC's profit from oil production in 1931 to a completely ridiculous amount - 366 thousand 782 pounds! This is despite the fact that in the same year the company transferred taxes in the amount of 1 million pounds to the British treasury.
Britain is believed to have frightened Persia’s flirting with Germany and made concessions, signing a new agreement in April 1933.
In August, 1941, the unforeseen flirting of Reza Shah Pahlavi with the Germans (on the eve of the war, Germany was the largest trading partner of Iran) came on fire with lightning occupation of Iran by Britain and the USSR under the pretext of ensuring uninterrupted supply of fuel, weapons and food to the Red Army, which assumed the main thrust of the Wehrmacht. The conversation was serious, an adult, because they did without courtesy: the shah was forced to renounce power and sent to Mauritius. The power was handed over to the limp boy - the son of Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi (September 1941 year). The Allies solemnly proclaimed Iran "The Bridge to Victory" - a circumstance that brightened for some time the post-war fate of the state in passage.
By 1947, the last units of the Soviet and British forces left the territory of Iran. As after the end of the First World War, the physical presence of “good old friends” was replaced by their “spiritual” guardianship. Britain was surrounded by a giant network of "engineers", "geologists", "oilmen" and other spies and agents of influence, while the USSR presented the Communist Party of Tudeh.
The post-war revival of Iran is associated with the name of Dr. Mohammed Mossadegh (1881-1967). The son of the Qajar princess and the Persian finance minister received a brilliant university education in France and Switzerland and upon returning home (1914) declared a national revival program based on three principles: eliminating corruption, reducing government spending and eliminating foreign influence in politics and economics.
After the end of World War II, Mosaddyk headed the oil commission of the Mejlis, which for five years was engaged in a detailed study of the legal grounds and circumstances of the signing of oil agreements between Iran and the United Kingdom. A lush bouquet of bribing officials, ministerial corruption, blackmail and direct threats surfaced. The contribution of Dr. Mosaddyk to the history of 15 in March 1951 materialized, when the Mejlis unanimously voted to nationalize the entire Iranian oil industry.
Mosaddyk categorically rejected the methods of Bolshevik confiscation, and therefore offered the British company to negotiate to determine fair compensation for nationalized assets. The AIOC categorically refused to negotiate, and the UK government imposed an embargo on international supplies of Iranian oil, blocked the Persian Gulf with the Royal Navy ships and filed a lawsuit with the UN International Court of Hague on behalf of the AIOC. The court rejected the claim.
28 April 1951, in the wake of the incredible popularity of the people, Mohammed Mossadegh was unanimously appointed by the Majlis as Prime Minister of Iran. Popularity in the homeland echoed international recognition: Time magazine puts the image of Mossadegh on the cover and assigns it the title of the Person of the Year (1951).
Of course, no international authority of the “foe” would have stopped the British from direct armed intervention. Another thing - the factor of the atomic bomb of the USSR!
The situation was stalemate: Mosaddyk insisted on discussing compensation for nationalization, AIOC, by imperial habit, agreed only to increase the Iranian share, and helpless British destroyers burned up the fuel that is rising every day in the Persian Gulf roads.
Convinced of the ineffectiveness of the economic embargo and the military blockade of Iran, Britain remembered, finally, about its main historical ridge - undercover sabotage. True, it took more than two years for the British subversive genius to bring the operation to mind. The first tackle to the United States (1951 year) failed: President Harry Truman invited the American oil companies to share the Iranian concession with AIOC if they were successful, but not enough to outweigh the intuitive fears (which turned out to be prophetic!) To quarrel with the Iranian people.
The second tackle turned out to be more far-sighted: in conversation with the newly elected president Dwight Eisenhower, the British left the economic aspects of the operation for dessert, offering the main course the imaginary support of the Tudda party for Mosaddyk and no less imaginary sympathy for communism. Another important factor was the presence at the talks of the Dulles brothers - John Foster, the state secretary of the White House, and Allen, the director of the CIA, whose service record randomly turned out to be service at the Sullivan and Cromwell law office, which has been representing the interests of Standard Oil of New Jersey for decades Iranian oil market.
The promise to share with the American business 40% of the British concession in Iran turned out to be a worthy addition to the holy cause of the crusade anti-communist campaign, and Dwight Eisenhower gave the fatal (in historical perspective) approval for America's direct participation in Operation Ajax.
An alternative to Mossaddyk was suggesting itself - Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi. The piquancy of the situation, however, was that Shah Mohammed was formally already considered the head of state, although he was de facto removed from office - not so much by the energetic prime minister as by the limitations of the constitution.
The difficulties with the constitution, however, could not be compared with the scale of popularity of Mossadegh, which was unconditionally supported by nationalists, religious leaders, members of the Mejlis and the masses. In such circumstances, formal displacement from the premier’s seat was clearly not enough. For the success of the operation, comprehensive discredit was also required: Mosaddyk had to be presented as an anti-Islamist (to quarrel with mullahs), a communist (to quarrel with nationalists) and a Republican (to embroil the institution of the Shah's power enjoyed sacred status). “We must bring to power a government that is ready to sign a fair oil agreement, turn Iran into an economically sound and financially prosperous state, and also give a decisive rebuff to the Communist Party, strengthened to dangerous limits,” says Donald Wilber.
The report of Donald Wilber is interesting not so much by the detective story, as by setting out an algorithm according to which later on for more than half a century almost all the coups in the world will be carried out. The intelligence agencies of the United States and Britain were so inspired by the success in Iran that literally several months later they applied similar developments in Guatemala, and then, after yet another triumph, put Ajax on the basis of all velvet revolutions.
Kerm Roosevelt was entrusted to lead the operation, nicknamed "Kim" - the grandson of President Theodore Roosevelt and a staff officer of the CIA. At first glance, the appointment looked strange, because the intelligence officer "Kim" was incompetent, which, by the way, was confirmed at the very beginning of the operation. 19 June 1953, Roosevelt arrived in Iran under the name of James Lockridge, established contacts with the British intelligence center in Tehran and began to vigorously implant in the capital's beau monde on the subject of bribing a vast contingent of politicians, newspaper editors, publishers, journalists, clergymen, generals and gangsters. Corruption in operation "Ajax" was given a central place, so the money for "Kim" allocated for those times a lot - one million dollars.
Kermit Roosevelt chose the Turkish Embassy as a launching pad for establishing high-level relations, where he spent almost a month in July. “Kim” diluted business lunches and relaxed evening receptions with elegant tennis parties, one of which he, in fact, failed. Constipation once again its filing, Agent James Lockridge with a cry of "Damn you, Roosevelt!" Threw the racket into the net. Legend has it that “Kim” managed to return to the place the lower jaw of the diplomatic public that was present at the match, with a tale that, being an ideological member of the Republican party, he was imbued with such hatred for the FDR Democratic President (who died eight years earlier). That used his name as the dirtiest curse word.
Whatever it was, the fact remains: before Major Isayev Kermit Roosevelt was clearly far away. Well, the loss is not great: for the success of Ajax, the talent of Donald Wilber and the energetic guys from the British residency were enough. Kermit Roosevelt in Ajax acted simultaneously in the role of a confidant of the White House and in the role of "looker", providing Iran’s good cut for Iran in a situation where the operational initiative was completely in the hands of the CIA.
The plan of the Ajax operation provided for the development of three themes:
- a briefing by General Fazlolla Zahedi, defined by the Allies for the role of the new Prime Minister,
- The blessing of a coup d'état by Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi
- and the preparation of public opinion.
In the case of General Zahedi, his hatred of communism and personal dislike of Mossaddyk was quite enough. In addition, the new prime minister was assigned the role of a purely secondary: after the coup, Shah Reza Pahlavi, and not a general with a complex outlook, was to become the main figure in Iran.
Ironically, the greatest difficulties arose where they were least expected: with Mohammed Reza Pahlavi. The developers of Ajax did not foresee any problems with the shah, since according to the coup scenario no direct participation was required of him. But the shah was only supposed to sign the firm (decree) of removing Mosaddyk and appointing the post of prime minister, General Zahedi. The fact that, under the Iranian constitution, the Shah did not appoint the prime minister, but only claimed by the vote in the Mejlis, the fighters for world democracy were of little concern: did anyone remember such trifles as the constitution when people expressed their will on the streets, covered in revolutionary fervor?
Once, however, it reached the point, the Shah flatly refused to sign anything before receiving unconditional guarantees of the British and American governments that they would not leave the supreme ruler of Iran alone with his people and army. In fact, the lion's share of the efforts undertaken in the framework of Operation Ajax fell to the shah's persuasion to sign the ill-fated firm. Suffice to say that at key points of the operation, Mohammed Reza Pahlavi indulged in a stampede, followed by a deep bedding to the bottom - the phone does not answer, the mail does not work, the messengers do not find it - at least three times!
The first persuader of the CIA Shah appointed his own sister Ashraf Pahlavi. It was planned that the British intelligence officer Darbyshire and the CIA officer Meade would meet on July 10 with the princess in Paris, where she constantly lived, and bring up to date. There was no princess in Paris at the appointed time, and it took five days to find her on the Riviera. At first, Ashraf politely refused to participate in the operation, however, as Wilber writes in her report, “official representatives held two more meetings with her, after which she agreed to do everything she was asked to do.”
25 July, Princess Ashraf flew to Tehran, came to the palace and tried to prove to her brother that Mosaddyk is the enemy of the people, and Zahedi, on the contrary, is the best friend, so you can’t see Iran without a good firm. Mohammed Reza Pahlavi first yelled at her sister and then expelled from the palace, urging him not to stick his nose in matters in which she does not understand anything. Ashraf was offended, said that the initiative with the firman did not come from her, but from "officials in the United States and Britain", got on a plane and flew back to Paris.
Shah did not believe, although alert. The second run was provided by General Norman Schwarzkopf. It is about the father of Norman Schwarzkopf junior, the hero of “Storm in the Desert.”, The former head of the American gendarme mission in Iran, whom the shah loved and respected. Schwarzkopf visited Reza Pahlavi at the palace, gave him a detailed plan of the operation and asked him to sign, in addition to the firm, Mozaddyk's dismissal and the appointment of Zahedi, also appealing to the army to remain loyal to the crown and not interfere with popular will. Shah promised to think after he was given guarantees of direct support for the operation by the governments of the United States and Britain.
Warranties were provided by the BBC state radio station and the US president personally. On the day agreed with the shah, instead of the traditional phrase “Time is midnight”, a code change of the text was heard: “Exact time is midnight!” The American president acted no less elegantly: during the speech of 4 in August in Seattle at the convention of state governors, he flatly postponed toward the text of the report and stated that the United States will not sit back and watch as Iran falls behind the Iron Curtain.
Shah expressed his deep satisfaction with the guarantees, announced his intention to immediately sign the necessary firms and ... suddenly left for Ramsar, the royal residence on the shores of the Caspian Sea! Six days remained before the planned start of the coup.
The shy monarch was killed by ... Shahin Soraya! Donald Wilber admits in his report that, in the person of the legendary beauty, the CIA and Mi-6 found an unexpected comrade-in-arms, and Soreya’s participation in knocking out the necessary firms from Mohammed Reza Pahlavi was a complete surprise to all “Ajaksovtsy”. Anyway, but on August 13, the head of the Shah’s security, Colonel Nasiri, delivered long-awaited decrees from Ramsar to General Zahedi: everything was ready for the beginning of the putsch.
The first pancake
As soon as possible (a month and a half), Kermit Roosevelt did a tremendous job of bribing members of the Mejlis, publishers, editors and prominent journalists. According to Wilber, on the eve of the coup, more than 80% of metropolitan newspapers and magazines were on the CIA content! Every morning, Tehran’s press shook public opinion with shrill interviews of deputies dissatisfied with Mosaddyk’s policies and scandalous revelations of the unsightly life of a “corrupt prime minister and his associates.” Virtually all of these stories were pure misinformation sucked from the finger by “writers” in Langley. In the same place, at the headquarters of the CIA, the regular "Rafaeli" issued tons of cartoons and cartoons to the mountain, which came to Tehran through the channels of diplomatic mail and immediately transported to the editorial offices of newspapers and magazines.
Demonstrators, allegedly from the Tudeh party, strolled along the street, shouting slogans in a well-thought-out sequence: “Long live Mohammed Mosaddyk! Long live the Soviet Union! Communism will win! ”One by one, mosques flew up into the air across the country, on the ruins of which right there were carefully left evidence leading directly to the communist lair. Furious mullahs betrayed hot on the heels of the anathema of the Prime Minister, closing his eyes to the atrocities of atheist militants who did not shy away from raising their hands on the holy of holies - the prayer houses of Allah and his prophet Mohammed.
The best craftsmen of London and New York made templates of Iranian banknotes, which flooded the domestic market, stimulating unprecedented inflation, which achieved the Iranian economy no worse than embargo and sea blockade.
Nothing, however, compares to the brilliance of a subversive genius with a theatrical production, organized by Wilber on the main shopping street of Tehran, Lalezar. First, Kermit Roosevelt’s money hired militants of a large gangster group, who went to scour the street, crashing the windows of all the shops on their way, beating passersby, shooting at the mosque and happily chanting the intricate phrase: “We love Mossadegh and Communism!” After a couple of hours, the pogromists would meet fighters from a hostile group moved, whose services were secretly paid for, of course, by the grandson of the American president. It ended with the many hours of fighting with firing and fires - all this so that the next morning the capital's newspapers could gloatly accuse the Mossadegh government of failing to control the situation in the city and ensure the safety of the civilian population.
Preparations for the internal revolution were complemented by vigorous gestures beyond its borders. Politicians of all levels and nationalities, speaking at forums, conferences and in the texts of government communiqué carried out at the right moments stuffing the right phrases that set up public opinion against the Prime Minister of Iran and prepare a calm reaction to future political changes.
It is impossible to imagine that such an intensive and comprehensive preparation could fail. However, this is exactly what happened during the first coup attempt, which took place on August 16 1953! According to Kermit Roosevelt, the failure of the operation was caused not so much by the leakage of information from the camp of conspirators (as stated by the head of the Mossaddy’s office, General Tahi Riahi), he knew already at five o'clock in the evening on 15 in August), but by the complete inability of the officers from General Zahedi’s entourage to take decisive action. "We had to make every effort in order to explain to the talkative and often illogical Persians what specific actions are required from each of them. ”- wrote in his report, Donald Wilber.
The frustration of the American spy becomes understandable after reading the official communique of the Mosaddyk government about suppressing the coup d’état - even Horace could not imagine a more ridiculous outcome of many months of efforts, “Judging by the phrase“ Parturiunt montes, nascetur ridiculus mus ” a funny mouse is born ”), he knew a lot about poor undertakings:“ August 16 1953 of the year at 1 one o'clock at night Colonel Namiri (the head of the Royal Guard) appeared next to the house of the Prime Minister with four soldiers, two jeeps and an armored personnel carrier. Namiri stated that he delivered the letter to Mohammed Mossaddyk, but was immediately arrested and disarmed ”!
In fact, Namir brought Mossadegh firman shah to dismiss, but did it at the wrong time, as there was in the house of the Prime Minister before the standing at attention to get an army unit of Lieutenant Colonel Zand-Karimi, provides cover for militant conspirators.
The game with finishing
The failure of "Ajax" in the first approximation looked like a real catastrophe: learning about the arrest of Namiri, the Shah immediately fled to Baghdad and then to Rome, where in an interview with journalists he stated that it was impossible to return to his homeland in the foreseeable future! General Zahedi fell into a severe depression, and his closest comrades went into the deaf underground. Assessing the situation as hopeless, the headquarters of the CIA issued an order to terminate Operation Ajax and the immediate evacuation of key agents from Iran.
Kermit Roosevelt’s refusal to execute the order of his immediate superiors and curtailing the operation indirectly confirms the hypothesis about the special relationship of the offspring of the noble family with Foggy Albion. You can, of course, assume that Roosevelt leaped in ambition and he just wanted to prove that the failure was caused not by weak preparatory work, for which he was responsible ..
Over the next three days - 16, 17 and 18 of August - Kermit Roosevelt and his comrades brought the operation "Ajax" to the victorious end: achieved the elimination of Mosaddyk from power, the appointment of Zahedi to the post of prime minister and the triumphant return of the Shah!
The bet in the second half was made on mass demonstrations of working people, who were brought together by friendly columns to the streets of Tehran, giving out wages to everyone as a precaution. The reason for the demonstration was allegedly the forcible expulsion of the native shah by Mossaddik. People walked around in festive attire (of course: an extra paid day off!), Many people didn’t guess at all about the meaning of the demonstrations.
By skillful actions, specialists in managing the masses sent demonstrators to the building of Radio Tehran, who exactly at that moment made an appeal to the nation, standing on tank, General Zahedi (familiar picture, isn't it?). Another part of the demonstrators was redistributed to the parliament square, where the purchased politicians sprayed microphones with their saliva, urging the shah to return as soon as possible and punish the treacherous traitor Mossadegh. A third of the walking people flocked directly to the Prime Minister’s house.
At the same time, the troops controlled by Zahedi were in the capital. Knowledgeable people fired in the air ...
By the evening of August 19, more than a hundred corpses lay around the residence of Mossadegh. All over the city - still 200. The Prime Minister’s house was surrounded by tanks and engulfed in flames. Yesterday’s people's choice and hero of Iran, Mohammed Mosaddyk, surrendered to the victors.
Consequences of a disaster
Prime Minister Mosaddyk was tried for treason and sentenced to three years in prison. After his release until his death in 1967, he remained under house arrest.
22 August, stunned by the unexpected success of the fall and still not fully believing in victory, Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi returned to his homeland from Italy. The shah told reporters like this: “My people demonstrated loyalty to the monarchy, and for two and a half years of false propaganda they did not turn it away from me. My country did not want to accept the Communists and remained faithful to me. ” Kerm Roosevelt, the Shah said: “I owe my throne to God, my people, my army and you!”
Very soon, life in Iran acquired dignity in the form it was imagined in the West: Anglo-Persian oil company, renamed British Petroleum (surprise-surprise!), Shared Iranian black gold, first with the Americans, and then with the on the feast of the Dutch-French; after the oil, the rest of the Iranian economy set off for a long-term concession (by a quarter of a century!).
In 1979, the incorruptible and principled Ayatollah Ruhalla Khomeini came to power in Iran ...