The Brave Campaigner Francois Lefebvre

The Brave Campaigner Francois Lefebvre
Monument to Lefebvre on rue Rivoli, facade of the Louvre

In this article, we will continue the story about Napoleon's marshals who did not shine with purity of blood, whom fate gave a chance to rise to the top rungs of the hierarchy of the First French Empire. One of them was François Joseph Lefebvre, the miller's son, who also received the title of Duke of Danzig from Bonaparte.

Lefebvre's youth

The future duke was born on October 25, 1755 in the town of Rouffach in the territory historical the region of Alsace, over which the French and the Germans argued for many centuries.

Bust of Lefebvre at the Museum of the City of Ruffach

Lefebvre's native language was German. In this respect, he is similar to Ney, a native of Lorraine, whose hometown is currently located in the Federal Republic of Germany (Saarland). Moreover, even at the end of his life, Lefebvre spoke German better than French.

The real surname of the hero of our article is Feber, however, the royal official changed it to the French style when preparing the documents.

At the eighteenth year of his life, the young man was left an orphan, having entered the care of an uncle, who was a Catholic priest. It is believed that it was this relative who taught him to read and write, believing that the pupil has a direct road to the theological seminary or to one of the monasteries. However, young Lefebvre was not at all going to bury himself alive outside the walls of some monastery. Moreover, before his eyes he had an example of an older brother who served in Strasbourg in one of the royal regiments.

In 1773, the young man went to Paris (they say that on foot), where he managed to enter a private in the Guards regiment, which, of course, was a success for him.

Lefebvre's family life

In 1783 (at the age of 28) Lefebvre got married. His chosen one, the seamstress Katrin Yubscher, as you probably guessed, could not boast of a noble origin and at the time of her marriage she was illiterate. Lefebvre taught it to read and write, and in two languages ​​- German and French. He loved his wife and did not part with her, even becoming a duke and a marshal.

Even enemies said about Lefebvre that in the whole wide world he "loves only his wife, homeland and the emperor" (however, Lefebvre calmly betrayed the emperor in 1814, but not alone - with other marshals).

Catherine also loved her husband and said:

"I can forget that I am a duchess, but I will never forget that I am Lefebvre's wife."

People who knew Katrin well remembered not only her common manners, but also her sober mind and sanity. For example, they tell about her reaction to the proposal to her husband to become a member of the Directory:

“What are you going to do among these people?
They must be crazy if they want to make a fool like you king! "

To the mocking questions of the arrogant aristocrats about her origin, she calmly replied:

"My lineage starts with me!"

And Napoleon once told the Duchess de Lusignan that he

"It was a pleasure to elevate the title of Duchess to Marshal Lefebvre's wife."

Their family had 14 children (12 of them were boys), but almost all of them died in infancy. The only son who survived to adulthood - Marie Xavier Joseph, nicknamed "Coco" (chick), grew up headstrong, spoiled and capricious. The parents' hopes did not live up to.

He also became a military man, but in all units where he served, he had the worst reputation, and the commanders tried to get rid of him as quickly as possible - even at the cost of promotion.

He started out as a sub-lieutenant of the Consular Guard, then was transferred to the 8th Dragoon regiment, then - service in the headquarters of the Hanoverian army, the 9th hussar regiment, the regiment of horse rangers of the Imperial Guard, the headquarters of the Portuguese army, the headquarters of the III corps of Marshal Ney.

In addition, he served as aide-de-camp to generals Bessières and Soult (not yet marshals), and for some time was also his father's aide-de-camp. He quickly became a brigadier general, but did not enjoy authority with his superiors and subordinates. During the retreat of the Great Army from Moscow, Lefebvre's son was wounded and taken prisoner in Vilna, where he died of his wounds at the age of 28.

As a result, his niece, whom he treated like a daughter, became the heiress of the duke and the marshal.

Military service of François Lefebvre: from private to general

We left François Lefebvre as a private in the Royal Guards, headquartered in Paris.

He served well and met the revolution with the rank of prime-sergeant.

It is curious that Lefebvre received his first wound while protecting the officers of his regiment from an aggressive crowd that wanted to deal with them. For this, he even received a commemorative medal from the commander of the National Guard Lafayette and the City Hall of Paris.

On August 31, 1789, Lefebvre's regiment was disbanded, and he, like most of his rank-and-file colleagues, joined the National Guard. There were not enough officers, since many nobles refused to serve the republic. Therefore, Prime Sergeant Lefebvre became a lieutenant here. And in this position, he was again wounded - in the Bellevue castle, where he defended the now elderly relatives of Louis XVI from the crowd. It happened in February 1791.

Not a very typical start to the careers of a Republican general and an Imperial marshal, is it?

It is curious that Lieutenant Lefebvre was then assisted by Lieutenant Colonel Berthier, who almost died in the ensuing scuffle. They say that it was Lefebvre who saved the life of the future chief of staff of Napoleon.

In 1792, Lefebvre again restrains the crowd trying to plunder the building of the State Treasury.

Finally, it is Lefebvre who is tasked with delivering the royal family detained in Varenne to Paris. And again he had to drive the crowds away from the carriage with the unlucky fugitives.

As a result, although he had not yet sniffed real gunpowder, by 1792 he rose to the rank of colonel. And only then did he first go to the front, taking part in the hostilities on the Rhine.

Portrait of Lefebvre, Austrian National Library

Here on December 2, 1793, he received the rank of brigadier general.

Quite late for those times: Lefebvre was already 38 years old. Bonaparte, we recall, became a general at the age of 24.

Finally, on January 10, 1794, Lefebvre received the rank of divisional general.

General François Lefebvre

The first time Lefebvre attracted close attention at the Battle of Fleurus (June 26, 1794, the war of the First Coalition).

Here he very successfully led one of the divisions, first repelling three attacks, and then breaking through the enemy's defenses. The French army was then led by General Jourdan, who used a balloon to observe the battle. In his army, in addition to Lefebvre, another future marshal, Soult, fought. And also Jean-Baptiste Kleber, who in 1799 led the Eastern army of Bonaparte after the Corsican on the frigate "Muiron" left Egypt.

The battle at Fleurus could have ended differently if it had not been for the surrender literally on the day of this battle of the city of Charleroi, to whose aid Friedrich of Coburg, who commanded the Austrians, went. Upon learning that the city was already occupied by the French, he preferred to withdraw his army in an organized manner. Either way, the retreat of the Austrians to Brussels allowed the French to declare themselves victors. The news of this victory aroused great enthusiasm in France and in Paris.

The next big battle, in which Lefebvre took part, took place on June 4, 1796 at Altenkirchen. Here, two French divisions (which included three future marshals - Lefebvre, Soult and Ney) under the general command of Kleber attacked and defeated part of the Austrian army of the Duke of Württemberg. Lefebvre acted in the center.

Monument to General Kleber, Strasbourg

Lefebvre's subordinates then captured about three thousand prisoners, 12 cannons and 4 banners.

Then there were battles at Friedberg (where Lefebvre fought under the command of General Moreau) and Sulzbach (Lefebvre commanded the left wing of Jourdan's army, Ney led the vanguard).

In 1797, Lefebvre's division ended up in the Sambre-Meuse army, commanded by General Gauche. On April 18, in the battle of Neuwied, Lefebvre's soldiers captured 7 banners. But then, as you probably remember from the article dedicated to this marshal, she was not lucky: pursuing the Austrians, he, at the head of 500 hussars, stumbled upon the reserve units of the Austrians of 6 thousand people and was held captive for some time.

In 1798, the talented General Gauche died unexpectedly, whom (the only one) Napoleon Bonaparte agreed to recognize as his equal.

Upon learning of his death, he said:

"In the end, there were two of us, but one was needed."

General Louis-Lazare Gauche, monument in Montreuil (Montreuil, suburb of Versailles)

After the death of Gauche, Lefebvre unexpectedly found himself at the post of commander of the Sambre-Meuse army.

But next year we see him again under the command of Joubert - now in the Danube army. Here, in the First Battle of Stockach, the French were defeated and were forced to retreat beyond the Rhine (General Moreau would take revenge in the Second Battle of Stockach - in a year). Lefebvre was seriously wounded in this battle and was sent to Paris for treatment.

After recovering, he became the commander of the troops of the capital garrison. And therefore Lefebvre was very dangerous for Napoleon and Sieyes, who were preparing a coup d'etat. Moreover, this general was a man from a different army, competing with the Italian army, in which he made a name for himself Bonaparte.

However, Napoleon then found an approach to the harsh Alsatian, who allegedly even promised him support, stating that he was ready to drown in the Seine "lawyers who cling to power."

“This amazing and beneficial revolution was accomplished without any upheaval; it was absolutely necessary ”,

- wrote later Lefebvre Mortier.

Bonaparte praised Lefebvre's loyalty. General was promoted to
Commander of the 17th Military District, became first a senator and then president of the Senate.

At his coronation on May 18, 1804, he was instructed to hold the state sword. And the very next day, Napoleon included him among his first marshals. Although, according to the general opinion, Lefebvre did not have the talents of a commander and was just an executive and courageous campaigner. But, apparently, Napoleon also needed such marshals.

Lefebvre treated his high position without the pathos of the same Murat, but at the same time considered him well deserved. So, to one of the guests who drew attention to the luxury of the furnishings of his house, he said:

“Now we will go out into the garden, and there I will shoot you 60 times. If you stay alive, it will all be yours. "

In the future, Lefebvre, among other positions, will be appointed commander of the infantry of the imperial guard.

Marshal Lefebvre

Ferdinand Waxmuth. Portrait of Marshal Lefebvre

During the war of the Fourth Coalition, Lefebvre took part in the battle of Jena.

Victor Huen. Lefebvre in Berlin

Then the X Corps under his command (which, in addition to the French, included Dombrowski's Poles, Italians, Saxons and Badenians) was sent to besiege the strategically important Prussian city of Danzig. Arriving at him, Lefebvre told the military engineers:

"I don't understand much in this matter, but you just punch a hole for me, and somehow I will squeeze into it."

It was not possible to punch a hole, and the siege, which lasted from March 19 to May 24, 1807, ended with the honorable surrender of Danzig: the troops of the Prussian garrison left the city in full formation - to the drumbeat and with banners unfurled.

On May 28, 1807, the emperor issued a decree granting Lefebvre the title of Duke of Danzig. In addition, he presented him three hundred thousand francs in a Danzig chocolate box. This case became known among the troops, and since then, in the French army, unexpected gifts began to be called "Danzig chocolate".

Cesarine Davin - Francois-Joseph Lefebvre, marechal-duc de Dantzig, 1807

This was followed by an appointment to Spain, where Lefebvre's IV corps fought successfully in the battles of Duranto, Balmaceda and Espinoza.

In 1809, during the war with Austria, Lefebvre took part in the Battle of Eckmühl, and then commanded the Tyrolean army.

In the war of 1812, Lefebvre entered the rank of commander of the Old Guard, which remained in reserve all the time, and therefore did not take part in hostilities.

He did not participate in the 1813 campaign either.

He ended up in the army again in 1814. The Marshal was almost 60 years old, but this did not prevent him from personally leading the attack of two guards battalions on the village of Marchais in the battle of Montmirail (February 11), and then leading his soldiers to the bridge in the battle of Montero (February 18). There were also battles at Arsi-sur-Aube (the last in 1814, where Napoleon personally commanded the troops) and Champobert (here Russian generals Olsufiev and Poltoratsky were captured by the French, and a horse was killed at Lefebvre).

But in April 1814 Lefebvre became one of the participants in the "rebellion of the marshals" in Fontainebleau. Then the old comrades-in-arms refused to obey the emperor, demanding that he abdicate the throne.

Moreover, it was Lefebvre who suggested that the Senate expel both Napoleon and his relatives from the country. Subsequently, Lefebvre calmly swore allegiance to Louis XVIII and received from him the title of peerage of France, retaining all the awards and titles given to him by Napoleon.

During the "100 days" Lefebvre personally congratulated Napoleon on his arrival in Paris - but no more. Nevertheless, the Bourbons who returned in the train of the allied armies deprived him of the titles of Marshal, Peerage of France and the title of Duke. However, not for long: they returned everything back in 1819.

Lefebvre already had a premonition of his death and several times went to the Père-Lachaise cemetery to choose a place for his grave. He found it next to Massena's grave and not far from the graves of two other marshals, Perignon and Serurier.

François Lefebvre died on September 14, 1820.
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  1. +11
    15 October 2021 06: 50
    I wondered: how much has the population of Central Europe changed among this scattering of titles, Danzing chocolate and other brilliance?

    After all, battle after battle.
    1. +12
      15 October 2021 07: 21
      At least here, non-combatants were not slaughtered as enthusiastically as in Thirty
      1. +6
        15 October 2021 09: 47
        Already progress
    2. +7
      15 October 2021 08: 00
      I don’t know for all of Europe, but in France the population has grown.
      1. +7
        15 October 2021 09: 05
        According to the calculations of modern demographers, the population in France fell by 1792 million people in 1,7 alone.
        Yes, until 1795, the population of France was the largest relative to other European countries. However, in general, from 1740 to 1940, that is, over two centuries, the number of French people increased by only a third - from 30 to 40 million, while the population of other European countries increased significantly during this period. In terms of population growth rates, France lagged behind first Russia, then Germany and caught up with Italy. Indeed, in the 19th century, the population of France increased by 44%, in Germany it grew 2,3 times, in England together with Wales - more than 3 times, in Italy - 1,8 times.
        This is how the Napoleonic wars affected.
        1. +9
          15 October 2021 09: 57
          I was referring to the period of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. During these 25 years, the population of France has grown by about 1 people. Information is easily searched for on the Internet.
          The civilian population was almost not touched in these wars, with the exception of the first period of the revolution, and the armies suffered significantly less losses than an ignorant amateur thinks (if anything, then I’m not about you), and mainly from wild unsanitary conditions, and not on the battlefield. O. Sokolov, the very one, has it detailed in some detail.
          1. 0
            16 October 2021 20: 52
            look at the expansion of France itself, from the Balkans to Holland. and in these territories some people lived
            1. 0
              17 October 2021 09: 08
              The territory of France in 1792 and 1815 is the same.
              1. 0
                17 October 2021 21: 47
                the cards are in your hands. Dalmatia, Catalonia, Holland and a number of other territories have long been developed and populated. but after the demotion of the citizen Buonoparte, everything had to be given
      2. +5
        15 October 2021 09: 50
        "I do not know for the whole of Europe" France is a part of Europe. It reminded me: "I won't tell you about all of Odessa. All of Odessa is too big, but Moldovanka and Peresy adore Sailor Kostya"
    3. +14
      15 October 2021 13: 07
      Good day, Sergey!
      I'm still waiting for the marshal's escapade to be diluted with at least one French admiral. No, I understand that the French did not have their own "Nelson", but reading about the army, one gets the impression that there was no navy either. But someone, after all, "brought" Napoleon from Egypt to Europe, someone commanded, albeit unsuccessfully, at Trafalgar, and then only marshals and marshals, sometimes generals, but not a word about admirals. They did not glorify themselves, but they were and fought. And then everything turns out somehow one-sided.
      1. +10
        15 October 2021 13: 18
        Hi Constantine!

        “The loser is always wrong -
        There is no one to justify him ”(c).

        Trafalgar is usually viewed from the side of the winners.
        And so, from the admirals of Napoleon, perhaps de Villeneuve, Bast are heard. Although there are much more of them. And each has its own story.

        However, the question asked by Mikhail is similar to Babel's question: "Why did Benya Krik become the King?"
        1. +8
          15 October 2021 13: 35
          Benya Krik became King because he did not join the sailors, the same, obviously, happened with Napoleon. laughing
        2. +4
          15 October 2021 14: 26
          I read that in Ben Creek Mishka Yaponchik is depicted. The famous Odessa thief. In modern terms: "thief in law", "overseer"
          1. +1
            15 October 2021 18: 57
            Yes. And to some extent Seaman's prototype in the "Odessa cycle" by Rosenbaum.
            1. +1
              17 October 2021 16: 19
              I don’t know this
              1. +1
                17 October 2021 16: 52
                "Gop-stop", "I, Semen, a thief in the law" and other songs did not come across?
                1. +1
                  17 October 2021 17: 16
                  I somehow liked Willie Tokarev better
          2. +2
            16 October 2021 12: 47
            Yes, Benya Krik-Misha "Yaponchik". A versatile and talented "master of crime." bully
      2. +12
        15 October 2021 13: 29
        when the marshal's escapade is diluted with at least one French admiral
        It would be nice!
        the French did not have their own "Nelson"
        Nelson was lucky that Admiral Louis Rene Latouche-Treville died in the summer of 1804. Thus, yes, by the beginning of the Battle of Trafalgar, Nelson simply had no worthy rivals. Pierre-Charles de Villeneuve is a weak-willed and uninitiated person, there is little interesting about him ... But the idea of ​​transferring (even if temporarily) from land to sea warmly welcomes and support!
        1. +10
          15 October 2021 13: 33
          ... be transported (albeit temporarily) from land to sea ...

          Yes exactly! At least a little swim, otherwise everyone is dusty. wink
        2. +7
          15 October 2021 15: 16
          "Nelson simply had no worthy rivals by the beginning of the Battle of Trafalgar" - it's not just personalities. The French at Trafalgar fired about half as often as the British, with all the consequences. The Spanish were no better trained than the French, hence the results. Abukir also did not happen out of nowhere - it was necessary to manage to release almost half of the crews ashore. All of this taken together is called a school, traditions.
      3. +3
        15 October 2021 19: 38
        the impression is that there was no fleet either.

        There was La Perouse, but savages ate him even before Napoleon. The only officer from his crew, whom La Perouse sent with a report on his expedition from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, nevertheless reached Paris. Then he was appointed commandant of Moscow by Napoleon when the French occupied it.
        1. +2
          15 October 2021 19: 48
          It's funny. An interesting fate for a person. And Napoleon, apparently, decided that since he managed to return from the nightmarish Siberia, then he must cope with the post of commandant of the barbarian capital. smile Then he got to Paris?
          1. +3
            15 October 2021 19: 57
            He managed to learn Russian on the way back, so Napoleon appointed him commandant. And whether he got back from Moscow in Napoleonic time - most likely he also got there, since he was not an army officer, but a representative of the occupation administration, these are always in the forefront on the way home.
            1. +2
              15 October 2021 20: 05
              these are always in the forefront on the way home.

              Anything is possible, but in fact the officer was able to get from Tmutarakan to Paris, it is evident that the man was not a timid dozen. By the way, as a naval officer found himself at Napoleon's headquarters, no one would be appointed commandant of the enemy's capital taken.
              1. +2
                15 October 2021 20: 18
                but as a naval officer found himself at Napoleon's headquarters, no one would be appointed commandant of the enemy's capital taken.

                Well, he was an outstanding man, La Pérouse probably did not keep a net on the ship, again, he knew Russian - I think Napoleon in the army was strained with this. Recently I found out what crap was Count Rezanov, who was promoted by the poet Voznesensky and the composer Rybnikov - this one from "Juno and Avos". Not only did he conflict with Kruzenshtern, failed his mission in Japan, cut out a Japanese settlement on Sakhalin in retaliation and went on his personal business further to America. And Admiral Golovnin, who arrived later in Japan, went to the Japanese jail for the actions of his predecessor. But nevertheless, he managed to improve relations with the Japanese, compiled a dictionary. The strait between Hokkaido and Sakhalin is still called the "Strait of Treason". By the way, when the Japanese learned about the victory over Napoleon, they were delighted, saying that Kutuzov acted purely in a samurai manner, luring the enemy into a theater of operations that was unfavorable for him.
                1. +3
                  15 October 2021 22: 36
                  There, in the Russian-American Company, a dashing man, Lieutenant Nikolai Khvostov, the commander of the Juno, was there, so he drove the Japanese there with terrible force throughout the Kuril Islands, especially without hesitation in means. But this is a separate story, maybe someone will get to write about him and his friend, the commander of the Avos tender, warrant officer G.I. Davydov. smile
                  1. +2
                    16 October 2021 10: 11
                    maybe someone will have a chance to write about him and his friend, the commander of the "Avos" tender, midshipman G.I. Davydov

                    It was Davydov, on the orders of Rezanov, who cut out the Japanese settlement on Sakhalin. This could have been avoided if Rezanov had at least a little bit of diplomatic ability, and not count's arrogance. Admiral Golovnin managed to smooth out the conflict, not organized by him.
                    1. +2
                      16 October 2021 15: 22
                      carved out a Japanese settlement on Sakhalin

                      Yeah. It sounds like the genocide of the poor Japanese by the terrible Russia and the villain Rezanov. On the orders of Rezanov, two ships made a rustle on Sakhalin and the islands and, in fact, closed the passage to the Sea of ​​Okhotsk for Japan. The destroyed settlement was rather a military outpost of Japan, which was in the Kuril Islands on "bird rights". The islands belonged to the independent Ainu communities. "Cut"? !! What are you talking about? Our "villains" unconditionally returned the prisoners. And why don't you mention the prehistory when you make such throws about the "villain" Rezanov? In our correspondence with the Japanese government, ours specifically linked the events to the behavior of the Japanese towards the Russian embassy, ​​which was reasonably regarded as an "insult to the majesty." It is bad manners to offend ambassadors, samurai gentlemen. More details here
                      1. 0
                        16 October 2021 18: 16
                        What are you talking about? Our "villains" unconditionally returned the prisoners.

                        Well, yes, the surviving prisoners.
                        The islands belonged to the independent Ainu communities

                        Did these independent communities have their own state? There is a great suspicion that they were subjects of the Japs, and they were paid yasak.
                        It is not necessary to idealize Count Rezanov, his arbitrariness in relation to Kruzenstern is enough. Here, of course, is the fault of Alexander I, who gave Rezanov the corresponding pieces of paper. What is Kruzenshtern known in history, and what, apart from a rock opera written 280 years later by a naive composer and poet, is Rezanov known?
                      2. 0
                        17 October 2021 01: 06
                        Well, yes, the surviving prisoners.

                        This means that there was no "massacre", since the prisoners were taken, but an ordinary battle. They didn't read about the background of events on Iturup either ... Otherwise, this would not have happened:
                        There is a great suspicion that they were subjects of the Japs.

                        Suspicion? laughing I gave you a link to the article, and you gave me your suspicions. Good level of argumentation!
                        It is not necessary to idealize Count Rezanov,

                        I did not write anything about the idealization of Rezanov. It looks like you are discussing with yourself.
                      3. -1
                        17 October 2021 19: 38
                        What are you carrying?

                        Choose expressions, although I understand that it is very convenient to be rude here, without fear of getting over the top.
                    2. +2
                      17 October 2021 17: 00
                      I read excerpts from Golovin. He said that the common people put a stone under their heads, and that the higher dignitaries put under their heads, something like a chest with a comb and various brushes
                      Golovin managed to master the Japanese language and was like a translator and ambassador in one bottle
                      1. +2
                        17 October 2021 17: 47


                        Admiral Golovнin. Before coming to Japan, he went to Cape Town for repairs, but by this time England had already become hostile to Russia, and the British administration arrested his ship. For almost a year he stood there, until, on a dark stormy night, he took the ship out of the port. In honor of this, he named his village in the Ryazan province "Cape of Good Hope". It still exists in the Sasovsky district.
                      2. +1
                        17 October 2021 17: 56
                        I read about how they got out of Cape Town as a child in the book: "The Valor of the Russian Fleet"
                      3. +1
                        17 October 2021 17: 58
                        Konetsky also wrote about this. In his time there was a collective farm "Cape of Good Hope" in this village.
                  2. 0
                    17 October 2021 17: 04
                    I only know the names, but I don’t know what they were.
                2. 0
                  9 December 2021 03: 47
                  The usual business manners of the Columbus and Cortes. Everything is in the order of things for its time. You should not evaluate people of another era by today's standards.
                  I think that the then Japanese on Sakhalin were great democrats and met Rezanov sake and sushi. laughing
  2. +14
    15 October 2021 07: 24
    Lefebvre was seriously wounded in this battle and was sent to Paris for treatment.
    Lefebvre showed personal participation in endowing the situation of Russian prisoners of war, whom he met in worn out and shabby uniforms, tired, half-starved. Lefebvre immediately wrote to the minister of war about the need to leave the prisoners in a nearby town until they recuperate, having received the minister's consent. This was the characteristic feature of Lefebvre, thanks to which he enjoyed great popularity among the troops - compassion. Alexander I did not forget about the attitude towards his captive compatriots and in April 1814 he very warmly received Lefebvre, already Marshal and Duke of Danzig, in Paris. In 1807, during the siege of Danzig, Marshal Lefebvre cared no less about the wounded Prussians, having won the gratitude of the head of the garrison.
    1. +9
      15 October 2021 08: 46
      From everything read about Lefebvre, one gets the impression that Lefebvre became decisive only under the influence of the decisiveness of a senior in rank. But if such a number did not turn out to be, Lefebvre limited himself to conscientious performance of official duties within the limits of the possible.

      Good morning friends! )))
      1. +9
        15 October 2021 08: 55
        Good morning! It's a pity that little has been written about Lefebvre, perhaps his main feature is compassion. At the beginning of his career, he saved the royal people. When the Bourbons deprived him of all titles, did not run after them and did not remind, others reminded, for him.
        1. +8
          15 October 2021 10: 52
          "did not run after them and did not remind, reminded others" well there was someone to remind. After all, they could say: "he is not my friend and not my brother" (c) it is still unknown how the king will react
        2. +11
          15 October 2021 11: 23
          Too bad little has been written about Lefebvre
          You can't fit everything into one article, books have been written about Napoleon's marshals! And then why are we here, let's supplement our modest ones to the best of our ability, it will be more interesting to read ourselves! That's where you can start
          .In the beginning of his career, he saved royalty.
          It is generally accepted that neither Lefebvre nor his friend Gauche took part in the capture of the Bastille, since both were on duty. When an angry mob on July 12 tried to attack the regimental officers hiding in the regimental barracks, Lefebvre stood up to their defense, firmly declaring to the rioters: “Attacking our officers is like attacking the French Guard. touch ". However, the skirmish, apparently, could not be avoided, for Lefebvre received a concussion that day. Later, on September 14, 1789, by decree of the mayor of Paris and the famous astronomer J.-C. Bayy, he was awarded perhaps his first award: a gold commemorative medal: "In gratitude for his merits on the altar of the public good and as evidence of his courage and patriotism." In February 1791, Louis XVI's aunt, Madame Adelaide (1732 - 1800) and Madame Victoire (1733 - 1799) decided to emigrate from France. The Constituent Assembly, recognizing the crowned relatives as "harmless," did not object. However, rumors quickly spread among Parisians that the "aristocrats" were taking with them "a huge number of sacks of gold." On the day Madame Adelaide and Madame Victoire left, February 19, an excited crowd blocked the path of a small detachment led by Lieutenant Colonel Berthier and Lieutenant Lefebvre, who were guarding the women. Despite the courage of Berthier and Lefebvre, who tried to send the crowned ladies from Paris, they failed to do anything; Lefebvre was even injured.
          After official permission, Madame Adelaide and Madame Victoire decided on the night of February 21 to secretly leave Paris, heading abroad. This time the ladies were lucky, but an angry crowd pounced on their luggage, still believing that the "aristocrats" were trying to take out the gold. Together with Berthier, with a detachment of the Versailles National Guard, Lefebvre, who had barely regained consciousness, stood in the way of the crowd; nevertheless, the baggage was only sent on the 24th. In April 1791, Berthier became a colonel, Lefebvre remained in his former rank. Berthier did not forget about Lefebvre, who saved his life, and remained forever one of his friends. Among Lefebvre's friends are the marshals L.-G. Suchet, A.-E.-K.-J. Mortier, N.-Ch. Oudinot, among the generals - Gosh, Jourdan, F.-S. Marceau-Degravier, J.-B. Kleber. In 1818, Lefebvre partially subsidized the costs of erecting a monument to Kleber in Strasbourg.
          On April 18, 1791, Louis was about to move from the Tuileries to Saint-Cloud. A hostile crowd immediately gathered and, believing that the king was abandoning the country, surrounded the carriage, blocking the road. The royalists who guarded the king were ready to protect him, but he, fearing bloodshed, ordered not to resist. Among the nobles loyal to the king was J.-J. Eid de Neuville, injured in a skirmish with the crowd: "Five or six vagrants attacked me. I would have inevitably fallen victim to them if it had not been for the timely intervention of a National Guard lieutenant who rushed to my aid with a naked sword and dispersed them." This lieutenant was 11-year-old Lefebvre, who received another wound while defending the king.
          On June 25, 1791, during an unsuccessful flight from France during the Varennes crisis, returning from Varennes, Lefebvre again helped Louis. When an angry mob attacked the carriage with the king near Paris, Lieutenant Lefebvre with a company of grenadiers came to the rescue of Louis. The mood of the crowd was so aggressive that Lefebvre had to escort the king to the Tuileries palace.
          Having come to power after the Hundred Days, Louis XVIII, wishing to punish those who had defected to Bonaparte's side, forgot about the services of the Marshal to his brother in 1791, depriving the Duke of Danzig of his pension of 40 thousand francs, which was due to him as a Marshal, leaving him practically without means of living ... But the feat of Lefebvre in 1791 was remembered by others. On February 10, 1817, a special delegation from the National Guard asked its commander, Marshal Oudinot, to reward Lefebvre for his double contribution to saving the life of Louis XVI in 1791, when a lieutenant of the battalion "Daughter of St. Thomas" Lefebvre was able to provide evidence of loyalty to the king and his august family ", a special award introduced by Louis XVIII on February 5, 1816 for 600 National Guardsmen who proved loyalty to Bourbon during the Hundred Days, called the Decoration de la Fidelite. Five days after the request, with the consent of the Comte d'Artois (future King of France Charles X), on February 15, 1817, Oudinot presented Lefebvre with the "Loyalty Award". Less than a month later, on March 11, Lefebvre was officially announced the restoration of his marshal's pension.
      2. +14
        15 October 2021 08: 57
        Marshal of the First Empire François-Joseph Lefebvre, Duke of Danzig was never considered to be an outstanding military leader. And Lefebvre himself never considered himself a great commander. It is no coincidence that the military historian G. Delbrück said about Lefebvre (as well as about the future marshals of Napoleon Jourdan and Lannes): "at best he would remain a non-commissioned officer of the royal army." Good morning and the same day to everyone present!
        1. +13
          15 October 2021 09: 24
          Good luck!
          But Lefebvre's wife was the best. I really liked it. It is a pity, her portrait is not on the forum. In high society, she was called "Madame arrogance" behind her eyes. Well, there was no pretense in a woman! wassat )))
          1. +13
            15 October 2021 09: 43
            It's a pity, her portrait is not on the forum
            Now fix it.
            Without a doubt, the nickname suited her very well, but it was not invented specifically for her. For this nickname, as you know, she had to "thank" the playwrights V. Sardou and E. Moreau, who wrote the play "Madame Impudence" in 1893, where Madame Lefebvre became the main character. In fact, the real "Madame impudence" was the famous French woman-dragoon M.-T. Figueur (1774 - 1861), who received this nickname from Napoleon. Madame Lefebvre was friendly with the servants, always helping if someone fell ill. Catherine was proud of her husband, not only at the time of his sergeant in the royal guard, but also after. She often said with pride: "I can forget that I am the Duchess, but I will never forget that I am Lefebvre's wife." One of her contemporaries wrote about her: "Of course, the title of duchess did not really go to the march, but she was a kind woman."
            Marshalsha never insisted on special honors. Appearing once together with the Duchess of Montebiello in the Tuileries, she stopped the master of ceremonies, who was going to announce their appearance in accordance with the adopted regulations, with the words: "Just tell me that Lefebvre's wife and Lannes's wife have come."
            1. +11
              15 October 2021 10: 32
              "Just tell me that Lefebvre's wife and Lanne's wife are here."

              Lannes and Lefebvre are names that, even without mentioning titles, spoke for themselves)))
            2. +9
              15 October 2021 10: 41
              That is, wives Lanne and Lefebvre got along. And good. And then Lyudmila Yakovlevna is already satisfied with the correspondence competition of the marshal's wives.
              1. +13
                15 October 2021 11: 02
                They got along, only with Napoleon's sisters Carolina and Eliza, always like a cat with dogs or like a dog with cats, as it is more correct .. Very often, quite harsh skirmishes took place between Madame Lefebvre and the sisters of the emperor. The Duchess of Danzig never crawled into her pocket for a word and answered her offenders sharply and in a simple way, if necessary, she could stand up not only for others, but also for herself. Knowing that many at court ridicule her appearance and manners, for a long time she tried not to notice this, but one day she could not stand it and, turning to the Empress Josephine in front of everyone, said loudly: "Madame, I beg you, tell all these rattles to be silenced." After one of these skirmishes, Caroline, addressing her sister Eliza, and wishing to emphasize her superiority, said: "Let's get out of here, sister; we do not know how to speak the same language with the washerwoman, whom the weakness of our brother made a duchess!" As for Madame Lefebvre, she was not ashamed of her origin and often began her conversations with the phrase: "When I was a laundress ..." And so simple, strict but very kind at the same time - according to the memoirs of contemporaries, " it was cold "She and her husband were very close to each other and loved to the impossible - Lefebvre never cheated on his wife and respected her very much. Madame Lefebvre died on December 28, 1835 at the age of 82, in a mansion on rue Joubert.
                1. +7
                  15 October 2021 14: 37
                  Yes, she was so ...
                  Always kind to the servants, she always helped if one of them fell ill. But at the same time she personally searched the servant suspected of theft. "She was a stern, but not soulless woman," recalled the gardener's grandson Madame Lefebvre.
                  In other words, she was the bearer of a steadfast, life-loving and extremely practical French character.
        2. +9
          15 October 2021 12: 08
          French non-commissioned officers created a new, revolutionary army.
  3. +11
    15 October 2021 08: 32
    and Poltoratsky
    The most successful of the sons of "Poltorachikha".
    Thank you, Valery!
  4. +2
    15 October 2021 08: 40
    But in April 1814 Lefebvre became one of the participants in the "rebellion of the marshals" in Fontainebleau. Then the old comrades-in-arms refused to obey the emperor, demanding that he abdicate the throne.
    Hitl..Napoleons come and go, but France remains.

    They did it right, it's a pity that it's too late: then put thousands of lives to extend the reign of the maniac for several hours, who has already killed more than 20 million people in an uninterrupted 5-year war?

    About Napoleon:
    Stunted ... never physically strong, nervous, prone to seizures akin to epilepsy. And also - convulsions, bouts of unconsciousness, fits of rage, when he rolled on the floor, he beat and broke everything. "He sometimes fell into a fainting or semi-fainting state."

    "The peoples of Italy subject to me ... must remember that there is more intelligence in one of my little fingers than in all their heads put together."

    And for whom to fight?
    1. +10
      15 October 2021 09: 28
      In your opinion, it turns out that they are fighting only for handsome men?
      In fact, as far as I understood, the people fought under the slogan "Fatherland is in danger!"
      1. -1
        15 October 2021 10: 39
        Quote: depressant
        In your opinion, it turns out that they are fighting only for handsome men?

        in my opinion it turns out that handsome / ugly was
        nervous, prone to seizures similar to epilepsy. And also - convulsions, bouts of unconsciousness, fits of rage, when he rolled on the floor, he beat and broke everything. "He sometimes fell into a fainting or semi-fainting state
        .It's enough
        Quote: depressant
        In fact, as far as I understood, the people fought under the slogan "Fatherland is in danger!"

        the fatherland feared in Egypt, Russia, Spain, Prussia, and so on and so forth? Is it not far from the fatherland?
        1. +8
          15 October 2021 10: 44
          Is it not far from the fatherland?

          Andrey, it seems to me that you are sending claims to the wrong address. wassat )))
          And it would be necessary for the French people of that time. And think for yourself what those people would answer you.
          1. +1
            15 October 2021 12: 37
            Quote: depressant
            Andrey, it seems to me that you are sending claims to the wrong address)))
            And it would be necessary for the French people of that time. And think for yourself what those people would answer you.

            the fact of the matter is that the working slogan voiced in 1792, already in 1799, being repeated, did not cause any emotions., especially later. Died.

            For he sounded pretty wild in Egyptian sands and Russian snows
      2. +6
        15 October 2021 12: 10
        "Fatherland is in danger!"
        And "Peace to the huts! War to the palaces!"
    2. +6
      15 October 2021 09: 29
      Napolene's self-esteem was off the charts. Although, Italians are not distinguished by discretion. However, like the French
      1. +8
        15 October 2021 09: 35
        "when I rolled on the floor, I beat and broke" a typical attack of epilepsy. However, Peter also had epilepsy.
  5. +12
    15 October 2021 09: 08
    "In the war of 1812, Lefebvre entered the rank of commander of the Old Guard, which remained in reserve all the time, and therefore did not take part in hostilities." - Surely the Old Guard was in reserve all the time? But what about the battle at Krasnoye, where the 3rd regiment of grenadiers (Old Guard) died? Also at Borodino, the artillery of the guard took part ...

    1. +16
      15 October 2021 09: 31
      I completely agree, but Lefebvre himself did not take a direct part in this, although he was very fond of this business possessing incredible personal courage and courage. with one hand and a stick in the other. During the retreat from Russia, the Duke of Danzig showed himself to be a real father and friend of the soldiers. Together with them, he covered hundreds of kilometers, encouraging them in every possible way. However, the closer to the Neman, no one listened to "Lefebvre's daddy". When in Vilna, in the middle of the streets filled with charging boxes, carts, limbers, wagons, Lefebvre, with a white beard with snow and a marshal's baton in his hand, tried to cheer up the guardsmen, in response one huntsman muttered through his teeth: "Shut up, old brute! If we are destined die, then sooner or later we will all go to the parade to the Almighty! "On December 28, 1812, a completely exhausted Lefebvre, barely able to stand on his feet almost literally, turned to Berthier for permission to return to Paris. Having received no answer, Lefebvre repeated his request on January 4, after which he received consent, leaving the command to General Rog. The 57-year-old marshal, completely demoralized and tired, went to his lands in Combo for treatment. He was so weak that the campaign of 1813 passed without his participation.
      1. +7
        15 October 2021 10: 29
        "why udevlyatsya, age from" to the present time 58 years is not yet old and not even pre-retirement age.
        And then 58 "savsem" old
        1. +8
          15 October 2021 10: 53
          Well, maybe because they lived a much more intense life than we do.
          Voltage hazard.
          I have seen many photographs of the Second World War. Very young girls and guys look like the current 40-year-olds, or even older. They look grown up. War takes away strength from everyone. Both mental and physical. And over time, this affects.
          1. +7
            15 October 2021 13: 44
            And after the war, as every peaceful day and hour is appreciated.
            1. +7
              15 October 2021 14: 04
              And after the war, as every peaceful day and hour is appreciated.

              Oh, who would have known how much I appreciate these quiet, peaceful days of October! This unobtrusive, occasionally falling rain, soft gray clouds hiding the occasionally peeping dim sun, birch trunks curved from the now long-standing hurricane, carpets and rugs made of fallen, but in many cases, for some reason, green leaves are traces of the bygone weather war .. Everything seems to be permeated with a gentle smile of sadness.
              1. +2
                15 October 2021 14: 23
                "After the rain
                The heavens are spacious ”(c).
                1. +3
                  15 October 2021 14: 27
                  Sergei, no, in order to bring me back to the conversation about Lefebvre in a business-like manner, on the contrary, you support sedition! You cannot indulge the weaknesses of your neighbor's interlocutor! wassat )))
                  1. +3
                    15 October 2021 14: 42
                    Each forum has its own tone.
                    "In this case, the spring is flowing" (c).
                    1. +4
                      15 October 2021 14: 48
                      "The spring is flowing ..." Amazing!
                      For the first time this year, the inhabitants of Oman watched as rivers rushed from the sky into their deserts and lakes flooded everywhere ...
                      The rivers left, creating sand where there was none.
                    2. +4
                      15 October 2021 19: 03
                      "The Neva will flow quietly ...
                      And still to flow into the Kolyma! " (WITH)
                      1. +2
                        15 October 2021 19: 36
                        And still flow into the Kolyma

                        And there is better:

                        I love to watch the moon bathe in milk.
                        And there are so many stars around! Take at least everything - no one takes.
                      2. +2
                        15 October 2021 19: 48
                        “Look: my poor hedgehog
                        He threw off all the needles, became completely tame ”(c).
                  2. +4
                    15 October 2021 19: 02
                    Contact me, Lyudmila Yakovlevna! I do not indulge! laughing
                    1. +4
                      15 October 2021 19: 30
                      Already! I know, I know, Anton, you are solely on the part of rotting crying )))
                      1. +3
                        15 October 2021 19: 47
                        Come on, Lyudmilp Yakovlevna! In your case, I am just a criterion for the importance of an individual user within the resource. And as a person, I love you! love
                      2. +2
                        15 October 2021 20: 04
                        Anton ...
                        I'm shocked ...
                        Have you found a personality in me?!? How did you manage it? All my life I was looking for and did not find, so that, having found it, hide it away, and once you found it. Please, I beg you, don't tell anyone! For having a personality is dangerous in impersonal times ((( belay )))
                      3. +3
                        15 October 2021 20: 13
                        You missed "I love you" ...
                      4. +2
                        15 October 2021 20: 21
                        You missed "I love you" ...

                        And again the question is - how did you manage it?
                        Really my screen image amazed you?
                        I see a course of sly thoughts.
                        Winter ice does not warm the soul.
                      5. +2
                        15 October 2021 20: 25
                        I'm a jester, Lyudmila Yakovlevna, shouldn't I love phantasmagoric personalities?
                      6. +1
                        15 October 2021 20: 36
                        I told you right away - there is no personality in me! Do you know the best way to encrypt something? It is necessary to disassemble the encrypted into parts and spread them to different places. But there are individuals who are whole. Here's an example from Balmont:

                        He was the type to bear the seal
                        The unquenchable bright suffering
                        Who should curse or be silent
                        When the chords of the universe sound.

                        Among the faces, where every glance is transparent,
                        Among the angels singing in a bright chorus,
                        And echoing their eternal "Holy, holy, holy" -
                        He would have flared up with anger and reproach.

                        No, another ominous light shone in him,
                        Like a torch he burned at a gloomy feast:
                        Where there is sorrow, where there is a groan, there is no truth,
                        At least beauty breathed in the world ...

                        And so on.
                        Tell me, what personality of the Napoleonic era could these lines be attributed to?
                      7. +2
                        15 October 2021 20: 58
                        1. You are as "impersonal" as I am.
                        2. To every second.
                      8. +1
                        15 October 2021 21: 15
                        Look, how they built a protective wall around themselves!
                        Not realizing that she is transparent wassat )))
          2. +3
            15 October 2021 16: 17
            Maybe you are right
        2. +10
          15 October 2021 13: 22
          And then 58 "savsem" old
          Well, how can I say ... Everything is purely individual after all .. Here Augereau, yes, he was really bad, he even tied himself to a horse - against his background Lefebvre looks like a fine fellow! Napoleon wrote about him in the bulletin of the Great Army (April 19, 1807): “Marshal Lefebvre fights with the fervor of a youth.” In the 1814 campaign, the old marshal (Lefebvre was almost 60 years old) fought alongside young soldiers. At the Battle of Montmirail, he led an attack by two battalions of Old Guard infantry on the village of Marshae. This blow, along with the advance of Ney and Mortier units, brought victory to the French. At the battle of Montero, February 18, Lefebvre once again sets an example of valor and heroism to his young soldiers. Realizing how important the bridge in the city is, Napoleon turned to Lefebvre: "Take my entire headquarters and gallop! We must capture the bridge!" At the head of several squadrons, the old marshal rushed into the attack like a simple officer. Soon he was supported by Pajol's cavalry and units of the guard. Captain Coigne in his "Notes" wrote about the marshal during this period: “Foaming at the mouth, the marshal did not give his saber a rest. It seemed to explode. When our soldiers saw examples of such courage, they believed that the commanders would not be left behind and were afraid to lag behind their leaders in the attack. "
          Marshal Lefebvre was the only honorary marshals (Kellerman was 79 years old, Perignon - 60 years old, Serurier - 72 years old), who continued to directly participate in hostilities.
        3. +1
          16 October 2021 08: 13
          It was exactly the same with Massena. By about 60, he had lost most of his energy (although there was still enough for women). This, incidentally, is one of the main reasons for the failure of the Portuguese campaign.
  6. +8
    15 October 2021 09: 20
    Colleagues, Valery good morning. "I will shoot 60 times" hardly his guest was tempted by such a prospect.
    1. +13
      15 October 2021 09: 52
      Of course, the same number (approximate) of battles in which he participated, often in the forefront! As, for example, near Danzig, the garrison of which decided to destroy all the work done by the French and on April 13 made a swift sortie and captured the French siege trench. The Saxon units that were part of the siege corps of Lefebvre fled. The Marshal, seeing what turn events were taking, opened his cloak with all his orders and turned to the soldiers of the 44th Regiment: "Well, now it's our turn!" And at the same moment he rushed forward, drawing the soldiers into the attack. In the heat of battle, his teams followed one after the other: "Step march!", "Gallop!" and finally, “Career forward, march!” The soldier who tried to cover him with himself was repelled with the words: “No, no, I also want to fight!” When, after the battle, the soldiers, surrounding the marshal, asked him why he took them for horses, giving the corresponding orders, Lefebvre, smiling, replied: "That's for sure. In battle, you need to be brave people and swift as horses. Look at the Saxons. These men have officers who barely move and do not want to run. Therefore, their losses are three times more than yours. "The courage was incredible! However, Napoleon did not keep others, so you can say about all his marshals!
      1. +4
        15 October 2021 17: 38
        This is true. Bonopart was not interested in cowards.
        He knew how to "close his eyes" to disrespect to his person. If the same Augereau or Davout mentions his name obscenely in a conversation, Napoleon did not make a tragedy out of this. He reasoned approximately like this "Augereau said that I would be, not an emperor. It's a shame, but he is talented."
        Unfortunately, in our history, it has not happened that the authorities "turned a blind eye" to such disrespect. A little bit that well-wishers "sew" a policy
  7. +10
    15 October 2021 10: 05
    However, Napoleon then found an approach to the harsh Alsatian, who allegedly even promised him support, stating that he was ready to drown in the Seine "lawyers who cling to power."
    A lot depended on Lefebvre's position. He could easily suppress any protest against the existing government, and Bonaparte was well aware of this. Therefore, his entourage threw all their strength into winning over Lefebvre. Finally, an approach to the latter was found, and Bonaparte invites the commander of the Paris garrison to dinner at his residence - a mansion on Victory Street. Having spoken to the general a bunch of pleasantries and, having achieved his location, Bonaparte immediately goes into a frontal attack. "So, Lefebvre, you are one of those who support the Republic. Do you want her to die in the hands of all these lawyers? I urge you to join me to save her!" With these words, he takes off his precious saber, brought from Egypt from Egypt, and hands it to Lefebvre. "Hold! This saber was with me at the Battle of the Pyramids, and I present it to you as a testament of my respect and trust!" At the sight of such a generous gift, the old soldier, who more than once looked death in the face, was so moved that tears came to his eyes. Accepting a priceless gift from Bonaparte, he immediately assured him that he would "melt all these lawyers in the Seine."
  8. +7
    15 October 2021 10: 10
    "Lefebvre in German, spoke better in French" is natural that he learned in childhood remains for life.
    My mother tongue was surzhik, a mixture of Ukrainian and Russian. Half a century has already passed, and I am happy if the opportunity presents itself to pamper. Unfortunately, I know only a few surzhik speakers
    1. +6
      15 October 2021 10: 55
      My great-grandmother, Evdokia Kalinovna, spoke surzhik. Thoroughbred Kuban Cossack)))
      1. +3
        15 October 2021 12: 52
        I wonder how. My grandmother is Evdokia Kalinichna. Great-grandfather - Kalinnik Fokeevich.
        1. +3
          15 October 2021 13: 09
          I got alarmed, I thought ...
          That is the great-grandmother, and this is the grandmother.
          No, not relatives wassat )))
          It's a pity!
          But the main thing is the kinship of the spirit)))
          1. +3
            15 October 2021 13: 20
            The likelihood of such combinations of name and patronymic is now extremely small.
            1. +4
              15 October 2021 13: 53
              Probably vanishingly small.
              And, you see, the male name Kalina sounds beautiful. Like Dobrynya or Nikita. Again, Alyosha)))
              1. +4
                15 October 2021 13: 58
                Who is not happy with a family name?
                And so - each name has its own shade.
                And a lot depends on how it is pronounced.

                “Call me softly by name,
                Give me spring water ”(c).
                1. +4
                  15 October 2021 14: 09
                  "Will the boundless heart respond,
                  Untold, stupid, tender.
                  Sleepless twilight rises again
                  The window panes are covered again for me
                  There lilacs and currants nods,
                  Call me quiet homeland

                  Call me, at the end of the day
                  Call me, sad sadness, call me ... "(c)
                  1. +4
                    15 October 2021 14: 21
                    Yes. Speaking words. Responded: viburnum, mountain ash, currant. Yes, even nettles. Echoes of his own.
                    1. +4
                      15 October 2021 14: 23
                      Nettles are especially responsive! wassat )))
                      This is how I can shoot lyrical seizures)))
                      1. +4
                        15 October 2021 14: 25
                        And nettles.

                        "Sing in your own way,
                        Even like a frog "(c).
                      2. +3
                        15 October 2021 14: 30
                        Kostya will come ... Well, or Seryozha will come. And they will give a wonderful portrait of a frog. I remember this portrait.
                      3. +3
                        15 October 2021 14: 41
                        This is the French, out of hunger, - gastronomic interest.
                        And with us, princesses are hiding in frogs.
                      4. +3
                        15 October 2021 14: 43
                        Here, a new turn, and the motor roars ...
                        How is it next? )))
                      5. +3
                        15 October 2021 14: 44
                        "And you can't figure it out until you turn it" (c).
                      6. +2
                        15 October 2021 15: 01
                        That's it!
                        Here is a French bike from those times:

                        "During Napoleon's flight from Elba and his return to France in 1815, the newspapers wrote about it as follows. The first news:" The Corsican monster landed in the Bay of Juan. "The second news:" The cannibal is coming to Grasse. " ". Fourth news:" Bonaparte has occupied Lyon. "Fifth news:" Napoleon is approaching Fontainebleau. "Sixth news:" His imperial majesty is expected today in his faithful Paris. "

                        These are the twists and turns! good drinks wassat )))
                      7. +6
                        15 October 2021 15: 25
                        And then, bam, and Waterloo.

                        And again, the "Corsican monster"!
                        The press, in a word. laughing
                      8. +2
                        15 October 2021 15: 41
                        Moreover, the same newspapers
                      9. +4
                        15 October 2021 15: 13
                        Aha, aha! And in princesses? Who? belay
                        Good day Sergey!
                      10. +4
                        15 October 2021 15: 50
                        Hi Seryozha!

                        That's how lucky you are.
                      11. +5
                        15 October 2021 15: 11
                        They will come. They will certainly come. Both of them from the casket .... And then you know yourself. Good day Lyudmila Yakovlevna!

                      12. +4
                        15 October 2021 15: 21
                        Oh, here comes the long-awaited frog! wassat ))
                        Hello, Seryozha! good )))
                        And - a new twist:

                        The official fell into the hands of a libel against Napoleon, and he rushed to the emperor to find out what measure of restraint he would prefer in relation to the libelist.
                        Napoleon read it, got angry and, throwing the libel on the table, declared that it was not the author of the libel that should be punished, but the official who delivered the libel, who dared to see the image of the emperor in the writings.
                      13. +4
                        15 October 2021 15: 28
                        But this case resembles something similar. From our history. No?
                      14. +3
                        15 October 2021 15: 33
                        I strained my memory. She rummaged through her bins.
                        Empty! ((( belay )))
                        No, Seryozha, he doesn't.
                      15. +3
                        15 October 2021 15: 56
                        Alexander III: "Stop the case, release Oreshkin, henceforth not hang my portraits in taverns, tell Oreshkin that I also spit on him."
                      16. +3
                        15 October 2021 16: 03
                        Yes, yes, yes! Bravo, Sergey !!!
                      17. +3
                        15 October 2021 16: 19
                        Bravo, Sergey !!!

                        And I naively thought that the tsar's patience with the author of the lines "Autocratic villain! You ..."
                        But this: "... tell Oreshkin that I didn't give a damn about him either," is a masterpiece! wassat )))
                        And so it was.
                        The soldier Oreshkin got drunk in a tavern and began to brawl. They tried to reason with him, pointing to the portrait of Tsar Alexander III the Peacemaker hanging in the room. Like, it is a shame to behave like this in the presence of the sovereign. But the drunken soldier said that he wanted to spit on the emperor. Oreshkin was arrested and a case of insult to greatness was opened. The papers were handed over to the emperor for consideration, and he delivered the very verdict that Sergei brought.
                        These are the subtleties of French and Russian history)))
                        I guess this is most likely a bike.
                        Like the next one.

                        “When Napoleon became emperor, he demanded that his secretary review the press published in English and German on a daily basis. The secretary tried to interest the emperor in the French press, but received the following answer:“ Don't bother! All French newspapers write what I want! "
                      18. +4
                        15 October 2021 15: 39
                        I didn't know such a moment. Approximately as in Russia there was a custom "the first whip to the donor"
                      19. +3
                        15 October 2021 18: 59
                        "Ivan Tsarevich kissed the frog for the twentieth time, and the guests all sneered:" Bitter! Bitterly! "
                      20. +2
                        15 October 2021 19: 27
                        Bitterly! Bitterly!

                        And then Ivan Tsarevich could not stand it! He lifted the frog by the foot from the dish, brushed off the side dish from it and threw it to the guests: "Damn it, eat it, paddling pools! I wanted to wake it up, but it didn't work ..."
                      21. +2
                        15 October 2021 19: 39
                        Eh, no! We are "terpily for life" (I will pour autumn rain into your garden) tongue
                      22. +2
                        15 October 2021 19: 50
                        Just spill more carefully! And then ...
                        And when He opened the sixth seal, I looked, and, behold, a great earthquake occurred, and the sun became dark as a sackcloth, and the moon became like blood

                        You never know what "rain" you have prepared for me! They are now different in the assortment available. Either stones fall from the sky, hailstones 10 cm long, the "heavenly slab" opens, or even frogs and fish.
                      23. +2
                        15 October 2021 20: 07
                        Don't demonize me.
                      24. +1
                        15 October 2021 20: 15
                        "I know many people want
                        To be something like a demon -
                        Piercing, dagger gaze
                        Fire inside, cold outside.

                        But the demon is not happy with his days!
                        And there are no sadder nights.
                        He is cursed and persecuted a hundred times,
                        He's like a nail on an anvil.

                        I can’t turn back good
                        In evil, he does not know happiness.
                        Wanting to touch love
                        He is deprived of the right to choose. "(C)

                        I agree, I will not! wassat )))
                      25. +2
                        15 October 2021 20: 39

                        A bit more. laughing
                      26. +1
                        15 October 2021 20: 50
                        Seryozha !!! wassat ))))
                        You, as always, hit the spot!
                        I laugh heartily! Ah, time ... if only it hadn't passed!
            2. +3
              15 October 2021 17: 50
              Quote from Korsar4
              The likelihood of such combinations of name and patronymic is now extremely small.

              More precisely: not at all. I have not met anywhere. Although in the 14th there is a urologist: Andrey Parmenovich, he is from somewhere in the Urals. Not yet 40 -45 years old.
              But I don’t know any more
              1. 0
                15 October 2021 18: 51
                We had a teacher - Sofya Parmenovna.
                There are many names. Old Russian ones are popular now. But, in my opinion, a limited range of names.
                1. +1
                  16 October 2021 16: 30
                  You are right: there is a circle limiting the number of "old Russian" names (these are Christian names). After all, no now: Markel, Sosipator, Merkul
  9. +9
    15 October 2021 10: 54
    For some reason, it was after this article that I was drawn to generalizations. Let's see what all Napoleonic marshals have in common, except for the final rank. What unites and distinguishes them.
    Military talent? Not everyone had it, or rather, everyone had it to varying degrees. And were these marshals certainly more talented than all the generals and colonels who never became marshals? Personal courage? Yes, but there are many brave, but few marshals. What else? Devotion, conviction, patriotism? Somehow all this is banal and unconvincing.
    But one thing in common in their biographies is one way or another - a quick career rise from a soldier to a general's ranks. A couple of years and the sergeant becomes a general, almost like in our military unit. smile
    Despite the fact that there were thousands of lieutenants and other majors in the army, those who become marshals suddenly begin to grow by leaps and bounds, overtaking all colleagues.
    In his articles, Valery simply states that he has been promoted. And for what exactly was the same Lefebvre, Lanne, Ney assigned the next officer rank a couple of months after receiving the previous one, and why exactly to him?
    It seems to me that they should all have some specific character trait, an ability that is inherent only in them and distinguishes them from the general mass, and this trait should be most clearly manifested precisely during the period of rapid career growth.
    Colleagues who are fond of Napoleonics, I have a question for you. Is there information about what exactly the future marshals received officer ranks, why exactly they, and is it possible, on the basis of this information, to draw any conclusions regarding the general features of their character that allowed them to rise?
    1. +9
      15 October 2021 11: 14
      But one thing in common in their biographies is one way or another - a quick career rise from a soldier to a general's ranks. A couple of years and the sergeant becomes a general, almost like in our military unit.
      In my humble opinion - the era! Remember our Civil! "There are people of a certain era and there are epochs incarnated in people."
      Marina Tsvetayeva
    2. VLR
      15 October 2021 11: 17
      How was Weber doing in Jesus Christ Superstar?
      It seems so:
      I only ask things I'd ask any superstar
      What is it that you have got that puts you where you are?

      (we propose to translate as follows:
      "Why are you silent, hiding your secret from us?
      Or is there something in you, but we don't?
      That quality of character and personality that Ernst Troelch called charisma, and Lev Gumilev called passionarity?
      1. +6
        15 October 2021 12: 48
        Quote: Crowe
        In my humble opinion - the era!

        Quote: VlR
        That quality of character and personality that Ernst Troelch called charisma, and Lev Gumilev called passionarity?

        "Epoch", "passionarity" - this is not what I would like to hear. Common words. And I want specifics. A person's life consists of his actions - specific actions that affect the world around him. What done are these people to be exalted? And what personal have you shown quality? What united them and what set them apart from the rest?
        I'm afraid that the answer to the last question can be reduced to the banal "they were more fortunate." It would be boring. Maybe there is another answer?
        1. VLR
          15 October 2021 13: 10
          An era of change that has opened up many paths - of course. Good luck - definitely. Who knows how the history of Europe would have gone if not for the death of the same Gosh. Or Joubert. And how many potential marshals died without having time to really achieve anything. Perhaps, in terms of their potential, talents, business qualities, they surpassed the same Lefebvre, or Soult, Saint-Cyr, and so on.
          But still there was something special in these, as a rule, rootless "minions of fate" - Murat, Ney, Lanna and others. Jeanne d'Arc, who for some reason obeyed the "reckless" aristocrat Gilles de Rais and the Gascon robber-knight Etienne de Vignoles (La Gere). Something that threw them up - like the same Menshikov. Or - a German woman who was alien to everyone in Russia - Ekaterina, who, it seemed, had neither special prospects nor chances. Some kind of strength of personality, a special charm that made them listen precisely to their opinion, at a critical moment to obey their orders.
          1. +9
            15 October 2021 13: 58
            Valery, have not yet forgotten - you already have a traditional gratitude for one more page of a fascinating cycle about the great people of the great era! Lefebvre is rightfully among them - one could split the story about him into two articles!
            1789 - Gold Medal of the National Guardsman.
            1803 - honorary saber. Legionnaire of the Legion of Honor.
            1804 - Senior Officer of the Legion of Honor.
            1805 - badge of the Grand Eagle of the Order of the Legion of Honor.
            1805 - Commander of the Order of the Iron Crown (Italy). Grand Cross of the Order of St. Charles III (Spain).
            1809 - Grand Cross of the Military Order of Karl Friedrich (Baden). Grand Cross of the Hesse Order of Merit (Hesse-Darmstadt).
            1814 - Commander of the Order of St. Louis.
            1818 - Commander of the Order of the Iron Crown (Austria).
            In memory of Lefebvre, his wife erected in 1823 a monument at his grave on Père Lachaise. His most striking victories are carved on the monument: Fleurus, the crossing of the Rhine, Altenkirchen, Danzig, Montmirail.
            There is a bust of the Marshal in the central square of Ruffach.
            Lefebvre's name is engraved on the north side of the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, and one of the boulevards in Paris bears his name
            1. +3
              15 October 2021 15: 51
              "except that the awards" they all had a "collection" of orders and not only French
    3. +9
      15 October 2021 12: 30
      This always happens in an era of change. The English bourgeois revolution, there, too, shoemakers became generals and colonels, in China, peasant leaders founded new dynasties, the farmer became a tangerine and ..... everything returned to "normal", "so that to remake brains and ten years will not be enough "(c) for something good, yes, for something bad, and 30 years is enough.
      1. +7
        15 October 2021 13: 02
        It seems to me a special style of communication.
        Whatever marshal you take, they all started out as simple campaigners. But, being extroverts, that is, sociable people, by some instinct they established especially trusting, warm friendly relations with those who would later also become a significant person. That is, as if in advance providing themselves with support in the future, and did this, I admit, unconsciously at all stages of their career. Intuition?
        Further. Another person will do something important and useful - well, okay! Done, forgot, and forgot everything. However, what is the attitude of a person to his deed, so is those around him. Having done something important, these people knew how, without boasting, to catch the eye of their superiors, involuntarily reminding them of their achievement. And the more often you appear in front of the commanding eye, and even not stupid, courageous and very bright in some of your features, the first of all the management remembers you if it is necessary to raise someone.
        1. +5
          15 October 2021 13: 06
          Partly controversial, but I don't want to argue. smile
          1. +4
            15 October 2021 13: 17
            I guess what you thought. But in a different environment, modesty is a trait that distinguishes a person from a particularly noisy company. And then there was not just a military situation - a struggle of ideas, desires, ambitions.
            There was no place for the humble.
            Lefebvre was not humble in the usual sense of the word. He was just more educated and prudent.
            1. +5
              15 October 2021 13: 18
              He was just more educated and prudent.
              and virtuous ..
              1. +9
                15 October 2021 13: 41
                He was, especially to his soldiers - they simply adored him. One example - he somehow caught his marauders. They think, well, everyone, they fought back, they will shoot (Davout would have done it) now .. Lefebvre: "Run quickly to the camp, damned robbers! But do not forget to capture your theft, and do not forget to bypass the patrols! ". Servant to the king, father to the soldiers! And in battles often not just next to them, but ahead of them! And good manners ... no, this is not about him ... An interesting story about which Marshal MacDonald told in his memoirs, perfectly illustrating Lefebvre's soldier's directness, completely not familiar with the intricacies of secular communication
                Upon arrival in Cologne, the new commander-in-chief of the Rhine army, accompanied by his deputy General Lefebvre, the commandant of the city of Trigny invited them to the theater and even gave them his carriage, being sure that these two "gentlemen" would leave a place in the carriage and his wife. However, everything did not happen as the commandant had anticipated. To Trigny's proposal to go to the theater accompanied by his wife, he heard Lefebvre's answer in a thunderous voice: “What a shit! We are not here to accompany all sorts of women there! And even more so your wife with her withered breasts! "
                That evening they were playing Voltaire's tragedy "Brutus, or the death of Caesar." Lefebvre was delighted with this play and the whole performance was pushing MacDonald, who was sitting next to him, in the side, enthusiastically asking: "Listen, is that guy who composed all this, is he here now?"
                1. +2
                  15 October 2021 18: 52
                  "Run quickly to camp, you damned robbers! But don't forget to capture your theft, and don't forget to bypass the patrols!"
                  Everything is within the framework of the eleventh commandment.
              2. +6
                15 October 2021 13: 50
                and virtuous ...


                On June 2, 1786, Lefebvre was promoted to sergeant grenadier (or rank, I don’t know how, correct it).
                Then on April 9, 1788, Gonto-Biron appointed him the first sergeant. Not fast compared to the careers of other marshals, but upward movement. Because Lefebvre, with his direct and open character, with his desire for justice, enjoyed great authority in the regiment. It says something.
    4. +8
      15 October 2021 13: 25
      The marshals are difficult to unite in something: there were a variety of biographies. But we can single out a group that is quite numerous, which has the following in common:
      1. Start of an officer's career in the ranks of volunteer, volunteer formations, often on an elective basis. Personal courage and popularity made it possible to pass the way to the captain in 1-1.5 years (some started with the captain);
      Bessières - after the revolution of 1789, he joined the Constitutional Guard of Louis XVI, and after its disbandment in 1792 - the National Guard. In 1794 - captain;
      Brune - enrolls in the National Guard, where in October he is elected a lieutenant colonel, and in 1793 he becomes a colonel;
      Saint-Cyr - entered military service during the revolution, and quickly gained popularity among the soldiers, began to occupy elective officer positions in the "volunteer revolutionary battalions" - in 1794 he already had the title of divisional general;
      Jourdan - In 1790 he joined the Limoges National Guard as a captain;
      Lannes - was elected by his colleagues as a junior lieutenant of the 2nd battalion of volunteers of the department of Gers.
      Lefebvre - September 1, 1789, with the rank of lieutenant, transferred to the National Guard of Paris.
      Mortier - Recorded as a captain in the 1st Northern Volunteer Battalion.
      Augereau - in 1790 joined the National Guard, from 1792 he served in a battalion of volunteers of the French revolutionary army.
      Victor - In October he became a volunteer for the 3rd battalion of the Drome department. In the Republican Army, he made a rapid career, progressing from a non-commissioned officer (early 1792) to a brigadier general (assigned on December 20, 1793).
      Suchet - May 12, 1792 began military service as a soldier in the volunteer company of Ardèche. He quickly passed the steps from private to captain. On September 20, 1793, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel (lieutenant colonel), and was appointed commander of the 4th battalion of Ardèche volunteers.
      2. Personal luck (did not kill or die from disease). That is the same Dese was just unlucky.
      3. Caught Bonaparte's eye and demonstrated loyalty.

      There was also a group of marshals who had experience of serving in the royal army, which, given the resulting shortage of officers, gave a tangible advantage: Pears, Davout, Berthier, in lower positions the same Ney and Murat.
      1. +8
        15 October 2021 14: 10
        The marshals are difficult to unite in something: there were a variety of biographies.
        I totally agree with you! Everything is so individual that it is difficult and practically impossible to unite all the marshals with one thing, so everyone had their own path to glory! Head of the transport department listen to the Master of Trilobite himself .. I am sure that his answer will not be boring, banal and consisting of general words and everyone will read him with pleasure.
        1. +4
          15 October 2021 18: 50
          "The master of the trilobite" is called Michael. hi
        2. +5
          15 October 2021 19: 48
          Unfortunately, I have nothing to please my colleagues with this question. I, in fact, asked him in order to form my own opinion, because I myself am not very strong in the topic - I know the biographies of the marshals superficially, the events are only the main ones.
          But, nevertheless, I think that they had something in common, uniting them all, and the more interesting it is to find and highlight this commonality.
          Yes, they were different: from different lands, estates, different in temperament, intelligence, courage, but everyone must have something in common, including Napoleon. And this "something" I have not yet grasped.
          Well, other than luck, but it's boring. smile
      2. +2
        15 October 2021 18: 10
        "in the rank of lieutenant" he was a career Sergeant, and since there were not enough officers, they made him a lieutenant.
        And how did you "enter the captain" with what fright? I do not know. There was probably some reason
        1. 0
          15 October 2021 18: 27
          Well, in Mortier's case, the volunteer battalion was organized and funded by his uncle)
    5. 0
      9 December 2021 04: 00
      As the saying goes: "Time has chosen us." And they just followed the time.
  10. +8
    15 October 2021 11: 09
    Comrades, I did not know about Lefebvre. Thanks to Valery for introducing him to Lefebvre.
    If you look at his biography: nothing exceptional. An average performer, but such are also needed. And for the bosses, this is the main principle
    1. +9
      15 October 2021 11: 31
      Napoleon was also grateful to him for this - when Bonaparte appeared in the meeting room of the Council of Five Hundred (the lower house of parliament), he was greeted with a storm of indignation. Shouts like "Death to the tyrant!" Were heard from everywhere. No one listened to the general, his voice was drowned in an unimaginable roar raised by the deputies. A group of representatives of the people, armed with daggers, rushed to Bonaparte. A few more moments and the candidate for dictatorship would have shared the fate of Caesar. But then Lefebvre came to the aid of Bonaparte, accompanying him with a group of guard soldiers. With great difficulty, the grenadiers headed by him tore out the confused and discouraged, in a semi-conscious state, Bonaparte from the crowd of angry deputies and almost carried him out of the hall in their arms.
      1. +2
        15 October 2021 16: 21
        When did he decide to become consul?
  11. +6
    15 October 2021 14: 42
    Good afternoon. Astra speaks to a colleague, but it seems to me that a colleague is not entirely appropriate. Indeed, among the physicians present on the site, and even more so the nurses will be: 0,2%, and maybe less. I don't like mathematics.
    As a rule, women are not Matimati.
    Ladies and gentlemen are funny

    So I'll just say hello
    1. +5
      15 October 2021 16: 33
      "women are not mathematicians" in fact, and among men there are not very many mathematicians
    2. +3
      15 October 2021 18: 48
      "- Listen, Shura, if you have finally switched to French, then call me not Monsieur, but sitayen, which means citizen." (WITH)
    3. +5
      15 October 2021 19: 53
      "Colleagues", in this case - colleagues by passion for history, by interest in it. smile
      Simply the most neutral and at the same time respectful treatment. The profession has nothing to do with it.
      1. +3
        17 October 2021 18: 26
        Rather, it would be appropriate: "friends", and a colleague: "a person of the same profession, a comrade at work or study in a higher school" (Ozhegov, Shvedova "Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language")
        I think that Ozhegov is a "trump ace".
        1. +2
          17 October 2021 20: 26
          As you wish. It's just that some of my colleagues are not friends to me personally. smile
          1. +1
            18 October 2021 07: 29
            Mish, greetings. I agree: some individuals, even if you crack, cannot be called friends.
            "a goose is not a pig's comrade" (c)
            PS. There is no cooler Ozhegov yet
            1. +1
              18 October 2021 13: 24
              Quote: vladcub
              There is no cooler Ozhegov yet

              Although it has been necessary for a long time. Since the release of his dictionary, the Russian language has changed a lot, the dictionary is largely outdated.
              With such a rate of language change, explanatory dictionaries should be published every ten years, at least.
              1. +2
                18 October 2021 13: 54
                Fig knows, perhaps, several reasons: 1) not a desire to sit and collect. Easier to use ready-made
                2) in all sciences there are "sacred cows" and if you need to correct this for this you need reinforced concrete justifications, otherwise you will be "without salt and onions like Cook" (c) they will say: the smartest one found?
                You know
                1. +1
                  18 October 2021 16: 20
                  A living language is changing very quickly, and Russian is more alive than all living things. smile More than half a century has passed since the last publication of Ozhegov. How many new words have appeared, how many old ones have changed their meaning?
                  Language is not a frozen constant. It is created by the people who speak it, the people. They, with their "collective mind" and create sound, grammar and other components of the language. Writers, as people who speak speech better than others, give it out in a concentrated form, and linguists describe it with certain rules by which they then teach children in schools. And so on in a circle without end.
          2. 0
            18 October 2021 16: 26
            Mikhail, I'm sorry that by name, you can probably refer to a nickname on the site or even ignore such
            1. +1
              18 October 2021 19: 58
              You can contact me as you like - by name or nickname. I just don't like it when they start to distort or distort the nickname itself.
              The name is written in the profile for this, so that anyone can read it and apply accordingly. smile
              So do not be surprised if they call you by your name as you wrote it in your profile. smile
              1. 0
                19 October 2021 15: 21
                Weight n

                To be honest, this is the first time I have learned that there is such a word. Believe it or not, I still watched Wikipedia
        2. +1
          18 October 2021 13: 35
          Quote: Klio2
          I think that Ozhegov is a "trump ace".

          And, by the way, there are no “trump cards”. smile
          In addition to Ozhegov, there are also a lot of explanatory dictionaries, more recent and therefore more accurate, reflecting a greater number of changes in the language. It is quite possible that in the next edition of the "Big Explanatory Dictionary" it will be written that "colleagues" can also be fellow hobbies, but so far - yes - formally you are right.
          1. +1
            18 October 2021 16: 35
            1 "ace of the trump suit" so to speak. It's just that in colloquial speech such a phraseological unit is used
            2 Ozhegov is considered canonical. The question is why so: on the conscience of linguists, possibly politicians?
            1. +1
              18 October 2021 20: 04
              I know about a stable phraseological unit. I would like to say that in any science such concepts as "indisputable authority", "trump ace" or something else like that do not exist. Everything is questioned and everything needs to be proven. Ozhegov's dictionary, like any dictionary, is becoming outdated, but it is more than half a century old and has nothing to do with politics.
              1. +1
                19 October 2021 15: 15
                Do not tell me: if the authorities of the city council want the ACADEMY to instantly update the dictionary
                Our leaders, judging by their biographies, were educated people and they were satisfied with "Ozhegov's canonical dictionary." Perhaps Yeltsin was influenced by vapors or whose advice he could
  12. +4
    15 October 2021 16: 13
    Valery was deprived of the Bourbons, why in the plural? The king had a name: Louis 18.
    By the way, not everyone knows that Louis was an intelligent man; he considered himself the king of ALL French. Restrained the radical actions of the monarchists. Do not allow revenge or pursuit of the Jacobins and Bonopartists. One can imagine what excesses would have been, but the king did not allow it. And his brother Karl 10 was just one of those about whom Alexander 1 said: "they did not draw conclusions." In short, it was a retrograde
  13. +4
    15 October 2021 17: 13
    Comrades, I have long been occupied with the question: why the hell did the French go to Egypt? To tell mummies: "freedom, equality *.
    The assertion that Diriktoria was frightened by Napoleon's ambitions. It's funny if it were like that, they could send him into retirement, declare him an enemy of the revolution and "mustache in order boss" (c)
    1. +3
      16 October 2021 10: 51
      Good morning!
      To create their own colony in North Africa, to weaken the position of England and for the subsequent dash to ... India. wink
      "Freedom, equality ..."? Well, you know, these concepts are for our own people, for the French. hi
  14. +2
    15 October 2021 17: 59
    "To drown in the Seine" he Bonopartu is also a goodie, but he could say in nature: "brothers, go to the Seine"! Perhaps no one drowned, but there is little pleasant in such a procedure.

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