Military Review

Executioner's sword

205

The beheading of Lord Guillaume Sans by the sword. Miniature from the Chronicles of Froissard 1470. National Library of France, Paris


But Samuel said: As your sword took away children from wives, so let your mother be deprived of her son among women. And Samuel cut Agag apart before the Lord in Gilgal.
15 Samuel 33:XNUMX

"If you live in virtue,
The sword of justice cannot cut your head! "
"When I raise this sword,
I wish the poor sinner eternal life "
Inscriptions on the blade of one of the swords of justice by the gunsmith Johannes Boygel of Solingen, 1676

History weapons. An article on this "butchery theme" appeared by accident. One of the readers saw this sword in a museum, and another suggested that I contact one of our Russian museums and get information about it there. But ... there is nothing worse than contacting our museums. It's like playing roulette: you can get everything, but you can only waste your time for nothing. Therefore, it is easier to find the same thing in museums abroad. And still very many readers on VO like to look at miniatures from the famous "Chronicles of Froissard". There are many of them and they are all very informative and remarkable in their own way. Today we will kill two birds with one stone: once again we will look at miniatures from Froissard's chronicles and get acquainted with one more historical murder weapon.


The execution of the Breton knights Pierre and Alain Roux. Illustration of one of the lists of Froissard's chronicles

Well, let's start with the fact that in the history of edged weapons, the executioner's sword or "sword of justice" occupies a special place. This sword cannot be included in Oakeshott's typology, but, nevertheless, it exists, and at one time it was quite widely used.

Executioner's sword
Execution of Robert Tresiglian, cousin of the Duke of Ireland. Illustration of one of the lists of Froissard's chronicles

In the Middle Ages, when it was possible to say goodbye to life in general, the fastest execution (and merciful, moreover!) Was execution by beheading with an ax. But the sword was also used, and it was mainly aristocrats who were executed with it. The "peasant" ax was for commoners. However, in addition to status, because the sword, as we know, at that time was a status weapon, there was also a purely practical attitude to the matter. The geometry of the blade of the sword is completely different than that of the ax. Therefore, it was believed that the person executed with the sword experiences less suffering. That is why it was the aristocrats who were executed with the sword: higher honor and less pain.


Execution of Olivier de Clisson and Breton knights accused of treason (1343). "The Chronicles of Fraussard" 1470 National Library of France, Paris

True, they, poor fellows, also got it. For sodomy, they were supposed to be burned at the stake, and for inclinations to this sin in the same England (as well as for rebellion and treason to the king!) They invented execution on the stairs. Its essence consisted in the fact that a person was tied to a higher staircase so that everyone could clearly see him, after which the executioner opened him with a sharp knife, pulled out the entrails and burned them in front of him at the stake, the execution also ended with emasculation.


Execution of Hugo Dispenser, favorite of Edward II. "The Chronicles of Fraussard" 1470 National Library of France, Paris

Nevertheless, out of respect for the rank of nobility, even traitors whose guilt was proven or it was believed that it was proven, most often they were executed with the sword. In addition, there were not so many hunters, even for money, to delve into smelly guts. To blow off a man's head with one blow - yes, here you have both skill and strength!


Execution of Emerigo Marcel. Illustration of one of the lists of Froissard's chronicles

The situation changed in the XNUMXth century. The burgher class, which was gaining strength, demanded honor and place for itself, and this was expressed even in the fact that now the burghers began to be executed with a sword, and not with an ax, as it was before. However, even here, no concession to chivalry was done - or, let's say, these concessions were of a mutual nature. It turned out to be impossible to execute people of an ignoble title with a noble knightly sword, and for this a sword was invented ... without a tip, which did an excellent job, but a priori could not be a weapon, and therefore - and nobility in it was gone!


And they could have killed like that! Assassination of Thomas Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, at Calais in 1397. Illustration of one of the lists of Froissard's chronicles

The earliest sword of justice that has survived to our time dates back to 1540, and it was made in Germany. The "heyday" of swords of justice falls on the 1893th century, and by the beginning of the XNUMXth century they had already completely gone out of fashion. Although in Germany, the last execution with a sword was carried out ... in XNUMX, when a woman poisoner was executed with his help.


Swords of Justice of the early XNUMXth century Royal Armory, Stockholm

It should be noted that execution with a sword requires completely different skills from the executioner than execution with an ax. And it is carried out in a completely different way. Executed with an ax kneels, and puts his head on the block, after which the executioner strikes in the neck with an ax. During the execution with the sword - and this is very clearly seen on medieval miniatures, the condemned also kneels, but does not rest his head on the block. The executioner swings his sword widely and ... delivers a horizontal slashing blow that removes his head from his shoulders.


The hilt of one of the swords of justice from the Royal Armories in Stockholm with an edifying inscription ...


Executioner's sword: handle - Sweden, mid-1,950th century, blade - Germany, late 54th century. Weight: 825 g, width: 1025 mm, blade length: XNUMX mm, total length: XNUMX mm. Royal Armory, Stockholm

For some reason, the sword of justice did not take root in England. There they executed with an ax both the noble and the rootless, and did not consider it something reprehensible. However, there were cases when noble people were executed there with the sword. In particular, it was with the sword of justice that the second wife of Henry VIII, Anne Boleyn, was executed. Moreover, the king ordered the executioner to be discharged from Saint-Omer, since there were few such “masters” in England, and the king's wife was still subject to execution. And, I must say that the executioner did not shame his art and took off her head with one blow, however, and Anna's neck was thin ...


Executioner's sword from the collection of the Tower of London, ground floor, west wing. Dated to 1657. The cruciform hilt of this two-handed sword has a massive egg-shaped pommel in the shape of a "vase" with a "button" protruding from above. The wide flat double-edged blade has a slight chamfer along the edges without a sharp point. The blade bears the estimated date of manufacture ("ANNO: 1-6-5-7") and also the master's mark. Overall dimensions: blade length 1000 mm, blade width 65 mm, total length 1290 mm, total weight 2360 g, handle length 290 mm, handle width 55 mm. The stigma of the master: a head in a helmet, in profile, with a wide collar on the shoulders, a helmet with a plume. This is the mark of Vira bruk, a gunsmith from Sweden.

Well, the example of the execution of Count Chalet in France in 1626 testifies to how important the specialist in "painless executions" was. Then some inexperienced volunteer had to execute the count and it took him as many as 29 sword strikes for this! It was not so if the master took up the case. In 1501, the executioner cut off the heads of two convicts with one blow: he tied them back to back and ... w-ah-ah - immediately blew their heads off!


Scottish sword of justice, 1600-1630 A two-handed sword, the so-called "Claymore" with a German blade, as indicated by the stamp depicting a running wolf. Blade length 1000 mm, blade width 55 mm, total length 1400 mm, total weight 2353 Tower of London, ground floor, west wing

Executioners' swords, as a rule, had one and a half-hand (bastards) or two-handed handles and the simplest straight arches of the cross. The tip was not there because it was not required. That is, such a sword, according to Oakshott's typology, can be described as a sword of "type XIIIa, but without a point." The blades of such swords were very wide - from 6 to 7 cm, and the total length was similar to the length of bastard swords. The weight was also greater - from 1,7 to 2,3 kg, that is, this instrument was not an easy one.




Swords of Justice from the collection of the Royal Armories in Stockholm

True, the blades often had valleys for relief. Another feature was the engraving on the blades. Symbols of justice were depicted, as well as inscriptions of edifying content: “Fear God and love right, and the angel will be your servant».


Illustration from the novel by A. Dumas "The Three Musketeers" by the artist I.S. Kuskov (1990). The executioner is holding a sword, as it is written about. But this is not at all the sword that a French executioner would have acted!

It is interesting that in A. Dumas's novel The Three Musketeers the Lilian executioner also executes my lady with a sword, but in the illustration for this book, published in the Adventure Library series, in his hands is depicted not the sword of justice, but the sword of the landsknecht. Apparently, the illustrator simply did not know such subtleties at that time.
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  1. Lech from Android.
    Lech from Android. 9 October 2021 05: 15
    +17
    Well Vyacheslav Saturday you started in an original way what.
    And the topic is certainly interesting ...
    noble Europe itself did not disdain dirty deeds and we are still teaches something else.
    smile
    Letting out of a person tripe for the amusement of the public on the stairs is already a perversion, you know.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 9 October 2021 05: 52
      +22
      Thanks to Vyacheslav for the article!
      Alexey, we also found a place for such "fun". If I’m not mistaken, Emelyan Pugachev on Bolotnaya Square in Moscow, was executed by quartering in the presence of curious inhabitants. Were our ancestors kinder? I'm afraid not. The first mention of justice in the Tale of Bygone Years is the execution of Prince Igor, who was torn to pieces by wild horses, or by birches. True, during the transitional period (to statehood), Russia knew the time of refusal of blood feud, when “vira” was relied on for death. Similar "fines" have taken place in the Scandinavian countries. There was in Russia both God's judgment and a duel. Alas, the path did not pass us when the disliked were “purified” by fire. Unfaithful wives were buried in the ground and beaten with cameos - and even in the time of Peter I. A little earlier, the institution of "hard labor" - "exile" appeared. Out of sight and out of mind!
      In fact, our ancestors lived in a state where there were similar European and Asian ways of normative imposition of a sanction (sentence). Perhaps, without any hobby, which took place among the neighbors, but alas, we were not exceptional!
      All the good days!
      1. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 9 October 2021 07: 57
        +7
        And good morning to you, and thanks to Vyacheslav Olegovich for reading this morning.
        Once I came across an article that often during executions it was not possible to chop off the head with one blow! Moreover, even women! They chopped them several times to the hooting of the crowd and the horror of the condemned.
        The ranks and surnames were named in the article, but I don’t remember that already.
      2. Edward Vashchenko
        Edward Vashchenko 9 October 2021 10: 29
        +6
        Vladislav!
        Good morning!
        I wanted to ponder a little:
        the murder of Igor is still not an execution. Moreover, the PR could not have an article: to execute.
        Yes, and YOU understand without me, what happened to Igor, the battle for tribute, I agree with those researchers who see in the execution of Igor an act of sacrifice, which was described by Leo the Deacon.
        In the society of this period, there was no execution by the state, since there was no state. There were murders, but executions.
        Vira is a substitute for a place of blood, formally testifies that society has moved to a higher stage of development.
        And the execution - arises at the stage of the formation of the state))))
        In Russia, blood feud was still prevalent: they killed Andrei Bogolyubsky - they beat his murderers, but did not execute them!
        Since there was no state in Russia)))
        Yours faithfully,
        Edward
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 9 October 2021 10: 51
          +3
          Did the Drevlyans observe any articles?

          And is it possible to draw a clear line between execution and sacrifice?
          In the case, of course, when the victim herself does not burst into the funeral pyre.
          1. Edward Vashchenko
            Edward Vashchenko 9 October 2021 14: 56
            +3
            Good day, Sergey,
            in this particular case, I think yes.
            Of course, the Drevlyans lived according to customs, and Igor was an external aggressor, so he was killed, at the same time, if Leo the Deacon was not lying, sacrificed.
            Among the people of this period, this can be called a kind of mercantilism: not just kill the leader of the enemies, but also "sprinkle the earth with red", for the harvest and all that ...
            By the way, Olga is acting in the same vein, taking revenge "by her kind" - blood feud for the murder of the head of her community.
            And when we talk about the topic raised in the article, of course here executions with a "special instrument" were carried out according to the Law, written or derived from the law of the God-anointed monarch: "the state is me."
            I will repeat myself within the framework of the tribal and territorial-communal organization of the state as such: they can kill by order of the prince, but this will definitely be arbitrary. As for Russia, this process, the formation of the state went after the Mongols, so they went to be introduced into common law, and then to be formalized on paper - executions. But not because of the Mongols. Ivan III almost never executed any of the boyars, not because he was "good", but Ivan IV was "bad." I think, judging by the sources, my hands were itching, oh itching. But under the grandfather there was a state "on the eve", and under the grandson - early, but the state, and not just the Great Moscow Prince of All Russia, but the tsar: different rights.
            Yours faithfully, hi
        2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 9 October 2021 12: 42
          +6
          Quote: Eduard Vaschenko
          Igor, battles for tribute, I agree with those researchers who see in the execution of Igor an act of sacrifice, which was described by Leo the Deacon.

          Perhaps. In this case, the behavior of Princess Olga can be regarded as retribution to the gods of the Drevlyans. And it is not for nothing that the chronicler admires her.

          Quote: Eduard Vaschenko
          In the society of this period, there was no execution by the state, since there was no state.

          The institution of justice, or rather the court, appears in the Neolithic. In fact, it is not associated with the state and is its optional feature, in contrast to the law. The same divine judgment (with iron and water) existed among the Slavs before Christianity and the acquisition of statehood. One of the oldest forms of punishment, according to historians of state and legal disciplines, is expulsion. Moreover, in a tribal society - it was equal to execution.
          Blood feud is a custom, essentially an element of retribution for the death of a Rodovitch. Will killing a bloodline be an execution? Perhaps yes, if the conditions and procedure adopted by the tribe or clan are observed. Even if it is an oral tradition. An eye for an eye!!! It can only be realized in different ways. In the form of a duel, sacrifice, God's judgment !!! We do not know about the judicial procedure for the murder of Igor, so we can interpret it as convenient for us.
          In one, the death of Igor and Andrey Bogolyubsky is no longer a blood feud or an offering, but a political murder,
          Yours!
          1. Edward Vashchenko
            Edward Vashchenko 9 October 2021 15: 08
            +8
            Vladislav,
            I would like to recommend you the book by Yu.V. Krivosheev, The Death of Andrei Bogolyubsky. SPb., 2003. In it, all historiographic versions about the murder of the prince are examined in detail. I agree with the conclusion of Yuri Vladimirovich: historical sources do not give an unambiguous answer on this matter.
            Yours faithfully,
            hi
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 9 October 2021 16: 46
              +1
              Eduard thanks for the advice, I will find the time and will definitely read it!
        3. cat Rusich
          cat Rusich 9 October 2021 19: 46
          +2
          Quote: Edward Vashchenko

          And the execution - arises at the stage of the formation of the state))))
          In Russia, blood feud was still prevalent: they killed Andrei Bogolyubsky - they beat his murderers, but did not execute them!
          Since there was no state in Russia)))
          State - arises when a "group of independent people" chooses one or several people to manage their community and transfers to the "sovereign" or "council of electors" all the power over itself.
          "Sovereign" - can also force a "group of independent people" to accept his power.
          Legislation - arise in a "group of people" before the stage of formation "States" - entitled custom


          Quote: Edward Vashchenko

          I wanted to ponder a little:
          there was a blood feud: Andrey Bogolyubsky was killed - his murderers were beaten, but not executed!
          Lynching...
          A crowd of "law-abiding townspeople" gathers and executes the one whom they consider guilty of a crime - who says that he is absent from the USA state ?
          hi
          1. Edward Vashchenko
            Edward Vashchenko 9 October 2021 23: 19
            +3
            Respected
            sorry, I don’t know your name.
            long topic.
            About the state - as Hobs said, every state becomes like a house, so it is, the basis of the Russian state is the "courtyard" of the sovereign, however, in Europe, after the Great Migration of Nations, all the states of European peoples arose from the "courtyards" of the sovereigns.
            The story of the lynch trial is different. The USA - historically, it is a union of communities, and the community is the "sovereign", hence the right of the community to be executed.
            But this "trial" and "execution" already took place after the situation described in this article, i.e. at first there was the right of the sovereign-king to execute his courtyard-subjects, and after the change of power. or the American Revolution. all rights were appropriated by the communities.
            Actually the "Lynching Court" arose when the state was absent.
            Best regards
            hi
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 12 October 2021 17: 35
              0
              Quote: Eduard Vaschenko
              the basis of the Russian state is the "court" of the sovereign


              Hello Edward. I do not agree with you here. At the heart of the Old Russian state was not a courtyard, but a table!
              The formation of the European court in Russia occurs late - during the reign of Yaroslav the Wise, if not later. I personally am inclined that the formation of management institutions and the main features of the state in Russia was completed with the emergence of a graveyard (administrative) system under Princess Olga.
              Regards, Vlad!
              1. Edward Vashchenko
                Edward Vashchenko 13 October 2021 06: 52
                +1
                Good morning Vladislav,
                Of course, we have different views, we just rely on different modern historiographic schools, I do not take into account the historiography of the 19th or the first half of the 20th century, of course, many important observations were made just then, in terms of key parameters, it is pretty outdated.
                I am an adherent of the school of I.Ya. Froyanov, whose analysis on sources showed that no state institutions until the 14th century. there is no need to say, the city-state was the political basis of the country, "tables" from the end of the 11th century, these are just places for princes, heads of the executive, not the supreme power.
                But with the formation of the court, as in Europe, the supremacy of the princely power begins, and this process began only after the Mongol invasion.
                Yours faithfully,
                Edward
                1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                  Kote Pan Kokhanka 13 October 2021 19: 05
                  0
                  Question. What state institutions were in the cities of the policies of Early Hellas?
                  Legal science operates with signs of state institutions. They are or not.
                  1. Edward Vashchenko
                    Edward Vashchenko 13 October 2021 19: 46
                    +1
                    Vladislav,
                    good evening,
                    legal science is not decisive here,
                    it can only follow the trail of historical works, since jurists, for example, with regard to Greek history, do not speak ancient Greek.
                    If I'm not mistaken, law schools still consider Pravda Russkaya as an early feudal code, although no modern historian will say this: a typical document of customary law of a pre-class, potestarian society.
                    By the way, the "guru" of the pre-revolutionary legal school of history, the historian of law Vasily Ivanovich Sergeevich considered ancient Russia to be a country of the veche, where the princely power possessed exclusively executive power.
                    But by the way, discussion is discussion.
                    Good evening.
                    Yours sincerely
                    Edward
                  2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                    Kote Pan Kokhanka 13 October 2021 21: 12
                    0
                    Continue.
                    Froyanov, in his works, describes well the institutions of self-government in the Old Russian state, which flow from the customs of the tribal system of the Slavs. Then such archaisms as the "neighborhood community" and "artel" will survive until the beginning and middle of the last century, respectively. The form of state power and structure in this case is secondary, as and under whose guise the court is being conducted, taxes and customs duties are levied.
                    In fact, the state apparatus, by which you mean the “courtyard,” was finally formed in the 15th century. But even the presence of a court in the Moscow Grand Ducal House, right up to liberation from the Tatar-Mongol yoke and gaining sovereignty, does not allow it to be considered a state. However, it is not surprising that the countdown of the Russian modern statehood goes back to the end of the 15th century!
                    Now let's compare the "yard" of Ivan III and the "table" of Vladimir Monomakh.
                    1. Sign (marker of statehood) Sovereignty and internal territorial-administrative structure. The first is available, with the second both have problems, but are not critical. In both cases, there is an institution of local self-government (communities, headmen) and state officials. feeding apparatus, with the first tax collection and trial. True, the first still has a strong tribal element of power tied to the tribal capitals and suburbs to them. The second pack of appanage princes and great boyars.
                    2. The institution of coercion. The first has a squad (of boyars, swordsmen, gridney and adolescents) who are universal, although tiuns, yabedniks, mytniks and other specialized officials are already appearing. Moreover, the material and technical and internal apparatus is in personal captivity, for example, a key keeper.
                    The second has a courtyard, though mired in squabbles for localism.
                    3. Availability of law and court.
                    Both Russkaya Pravda do not have a specialized court yet. Both endure the court of the church, plus customs. The mechanism of inheritance of power is different, but the wills of both Monomakh and Grozny came to the court of descendants. Judges on feeding, not salary here and there.
                    4. Socio-economic braces. There is at the time of both.
                    5. Taxes. There are, however, as well as customs fees.
                    6. International recognition. It is unambiguous that the first one, that the second.
                    You can continue on.
                    The main thing is different, the minimal presence of basic features allows us to consider both formations as states.
                    Regards, Vlad!
          2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 12 October 2021 17: 27
            0
            Quote: cat Rusich
            The state arises when a "group of independent people" chooses one or several people to govern their community and transfers to the "sovereign" or "council of electors" all power over itself.
            The "sovereign" can also force the "group of independent people" to accept his power.
            Laws - arise in a "group of people" before the stage of formation of the "State" - called custom

            Dear Kotik-Rusich, there are such disciplines as History of State and Law and Theory of State and Law, as a former teacher with 17 years of experience for such a student's answer "slapped" the latter with an unsatisfactory grade, and then he wrote a letter of resignation from the university.
            Everything is much simpler, more complicated and more interesting. Find the TGP textbook by Damir Askhatovich Yagafarov, you will not regret reading it!
      3. garrett
        garrett 12 October 2021 12: 41
        +1
        The execution of Pugachev and other convicts took place (10) on January 21, 1775 in Moscow on Bolotnaya Square (the place where public punishments were then performed in the capital). According to the stories of contemporaries (transmitted, in particular, by AS Pushkin in his "History of Pugachev"), a lot of people were present at the execution of the rebel, there was a fierce frost. After reading the manifesto, Pugachev, standing on the scaffold, crossed himself in cathedrals, bowed to all sides and repented before the people. Then the head, severed by the executioner, was shown to the people and ended up on the spoke, the rest of the body on the wheel.
        By the way, the executioner had a secret instruction from Catherine II to reduce the torment of the convicts, so Pugachev and Perfiliev were first beheaded, and only then quartered. Their severed members were smashed to the Moscow outposts and a day later burned, and the executioners scattered the ashes.
        THOSE. ESSENTIAL, they cut off his head and did not torture him with quartering.
    2. Crowe
      Crowe 9 October 2021 06: 13
      +19
      Saturday you started in an original way
      The morning turns out to be very bright, inspirational and romantic.

      I was completely stunned
      I almost burst, screaming.
      I yelled: "Who dared
      To offend the executioner! .. "

      Dying fatigue closed my eyelids.
      It was already getting light, our time was up.
      But at least before I died, I was lucky -
      Spent such a night, not everyone got it!

      He wished me good night goodbye
      He drove the annoying fly off my shoulder ...
      What a pity, I don't have a memory for long
      And the image of a kind, wonderful executioner.
      1. mr.ZinGer
        mr.ZinGer 9 October 2021 06: 40
        +16
        The topic of the article is Saturday, lyrical

        Who knows how much boredom
        In the art of the executioner!
        Wouldn't take it in hand at all
        A heavy sword.
        And I study at school
        Within the walls of the monastery,
        From wisdom and pain
        Agonizing grief.
        But the path of science is rigorous
        I rejected in my youth,
        And on a free road
        I came to Nuremberg. [I] [/ i]
        Executed on the square:
        Someone's dark shoulders
        In the crimson-hazy dust
        A broad sword flashed.
        Scarlet seduced me
        Executing sword
        And languid fatigue
        The gray-haired executioner.
        Came to him, studied
        Wield his sword,
        And fell in love with his daughter,
        And I became an executioner.
        The fear of the people
        Deprived of free meetings
        One before every execution
        Sharpening my dark sword.
        I will climb the platform alone
        On a dewy morning I
        While calm at home
        Strict judge.
        I'll tie my hands with a rope
        At the victim of the executioner.
        Oh what a dull boredom
        In the sparkle of the sword!
        I will bring down the blow of the sword,
        And the vertebrae will crunch
        And someone will throw a soul
        In the sweep of my hand.
        And a crimson current will rush,
        And, dragging a heavy corpse,
        Someone will appear
        And dark at the sword.
        Without looking down,
        I will go slowly away
        From boring shame
        On my daytime night.
        Sternly frowning eyebrows,
        I'll knock on the window
        And at home a lust for blood
        Will clung to the executioner.
        My son will lie down obediently
        On a narrow bench.
        Again the rope will tie
        My longing.
        Moaning and tears, -
        An executioner is an executioner everywhere.
        Oh, boring birch splash!
        Oh, boring baby crying!
        Who knows how much boredom
        In the art of the executioner!
        Wouldn't take it in hand at all
        A heavy sword.
        1. Crowe
          Crowe 9 October 2021 06: 45
          +15
          It's good in my dark
          And the edge of the sword shines,
          I collected poppies today
          To greet the executioner.

          Hello dear executioner from the abyss,
          I will enchant you with sleep
          You were always nice to me
          You and I will understand each other.

          Tell me, my silent friend,
          Before they die, what do people scream?
          Maybe there is one of them happy?
          Or humble as a hundred lambs?

          What's most important to life
          If fear owns them?
          And let's sing them funerals,
          As a monk once taught.

          And we'll drink wine from the glass,
          Guilty one sip
          Forgive me, I have not become a saint,
          And besides, you are not God.

          It's good here in our darkness,
          And the edge of the sword shines,
          I did not come to the chopping block for nothing,
          I'm just in love with the executioner.
          1. mr.ZinGer
            mr.ZinGer 9 October 2021 07: 24
            +15
            The executioner does not know how to breathe! ..
            But still, damn it
            Work in the air
            Work with people.
            1. hohol95
              hohol95 9 October 2021 10: 36
              +12
              The executioner came home with a sack on his shoulders.
              Threw it in the corner.
              The bag stirred.
              The executioner's wife asked - "What's in the bag?"
              “I took a job at home!” Was his answer.
              1. Lena Petrova
                Lena Petrova 10 October 2021 16: 46
                +1
                Quote: hohol95
                “I took a job at home!” Was his answer.

                ... Heavy burden, dubious work
                They don't take this job home ...
                1. hohol95
                  hohol95 10 October 2021 17: 25
                  +1
                  Are there any witnesses ??? belay
                  Now, when the French “mechanized” “it” with the help of a guillotine, the process accelerated and probably began to fit into “one shift”! lol
          2. Astra wild2
            Astra wild2 11 October 2021 11: 30
            0
            "I'm just in love with the executioner" indeed, the executioners had families. I can't imagine: how can you touch such a person ?!
            I read that Sanson executed his beloved on the scaffold. Is he a nobleman by birth?
      2. Korsar4
        Korsar4 9 October 2021 10: 27
        +12
        High style.

        And here the folk is importunately remembered:
        “The executioner waved his ax.
        The people are shouting: “Come on! (And further into rhyme) ".
    3. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 9 October 2021 06: 14
      +12
      Don't exaggerate. This type of execution was quite rare. Offhand, I can recall only four historical figures to whom it was applied.
      1. Simon
        Simon 9 October 2021 08: 17
        +6
        Of course, I agree with you, but it's still interesting, I personally did not know about such special swords for execution. request
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 9 October 2021 10: 18
          +6
          Of course it is interesting, because I was one of those two provocateurs who prompted the author to write this material.
          1. Maki Avellevich
            Maki Avellevich 9 October 2021 10: 28
            +4
            I would like to raise the question.

            Was the use of the sword of justice effective then (not in the mechanical but in the social aspect) and should its use be returned to our time?
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 9 October 2021 10: 32
              +4
              Sorry, could you expand, I missed the point?
            2. Maki Avellevich
              Maki Avellevich 9 October 2021 10: 51
              +5
              The question of the effectiveness of both the death penalty and physical punishment in reducing abnormal behavior.

              Sometimes, observing the inappropriate behavior of people behind the wheel, the thought comes that a couple of three whips on the square teaches the mind faster than a fine.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 9 October 2021 11: 17
                +5
                Everything is relative. Over there, the Chinese are carrying out demonstrative executions, but there is still a long way to a complete victory over corruption.
              2. Morris812
                Morris812 10 October 2021 11: 18
                +1
                The effectiveness of punishment is determined not by its severity, but by its irreversibility. If every inappropriate driving behavior will be permanently and irreversibly punished: a fine, another fine, even more fine, deprivation of a / c, 14 days, 3 months, 3 years. Then even the most inadequate repeat offenders will not be able to commit 10 offenses (for example), and after the seventh they will go to a long prison sentence
              3. Astra wild2
                Astra wild2 11 October 2021 12: 06
                +1
                Colleague, Maki Avelyevich. You have raised a difficult question: in the Middle Ages, counterfeiters were poured molten lead into their mouths, but the number of counterfeiters did not diminish.
                Most pickpocketing happened when thieves were executed
            3. cat Rusich
              cat Rusich 9 October 2021 19: 57
              +2
              Quote: Maki Avellevich
              I would like to raise the question.

              Was the use of the sword of justice effective then (not in the mechanical but in the social aspect) and should its use be returned to our time?
              Look at Saudi Arabia, there is still a beheading.
              Only in Saudi Arabia use "saber of justice" и the position of executioner is inherited...
              hi
          2. hohol95
            hohol95 9 October 2021 10: 37
            +3
            So, who tried on the "cassock of the priest Gapon" ... good
        2. Hypertension
          Hypertension 9 October 2021 13: 07
          +7
          Quote: Simon
          I personally did not know about such special swords for execution.

          The execution sword has already penetrated even the Warhammer 40K. As a weapon of disciplinary execution, of course.
    4. Baron pardus
      Baron pardus 9 October 2021 06: 25
      +16
      Absolutely fair punishment for sodomy, which was generally considered a huge sin in Catholic Europe. Then, by the way, it was quite natural that sodomy was viewed as the most terrible and unnatural perversion. So, by relics and oil. And as for cruelty, it is not necessary to make a "Land of Angels" out of Russia, they put on stakes the only way. Worthy students of the Turks and Mongols. It is still unknown what is more humane - to burn a person at the stake for 15-20 minutes or to impale him on which he will live for 12-20 hours. I am NOT saying that the Europeans were angels, I am NOT saying that the Russians were angels. All were children of their age. By the way, deep down they remained. What did Frederick the Great write? “We are on the threshold of great discoveries, we have become more educated, more readable, we are on the threshold of solving the mystery of electricity, but has a person become less mean from his education? Less cruel? Has he become less stealing, deceiving and betraying? I have already said that if something happens, we will all slide into medieval customs at the speed of sound.
      1. Snail N9
        Snail N9 9 October 2021 07: 36
        +9
        That the Middle Ages .. There are in the internet scenes of executions, which are now carried out by Muslim fanatics, they are still inventors. What kind of perverted executions they will not come up with. Slow sawing of the neck with a blunt saw or a knife at a twitching victim is probably the most humane of all ...
        1. Baron pardus
          Baron pardus 9 October 2021 09: 37
          +6
          As for sawing with a saw, this is described in the Bible, and at the same time in the Torah (aka the Old Testament) and in the Koran. So the Taliban have not invented anything new. By the way, the icon with the sawing of some saint is described in "Schweik" when after he "burst into tears" during the sermon in the prison they dragged him to the field guard Otto Katz "Francis of Salek looked inquiringly at Schweik. “What a great martyr.” Someone drove the teeth of a saw into his ass, and some unknown Roman soldiers diligently sawed him. The face of the martyr did not reflect either suffering, or pleasure, or the radiance of martyrdom. His face expressed only surprise, as if he wanted say: "How is it me,
          in fact, I have come to such a life, and what are you, gentlemen, doing with me? "
          Christians, as well as the Jews before them, and the Muslims after them, amused themselves so that they left behind mountains of mutilated corpses. Read the Old Testament, it is the Torah. Adolf Alloyzovich and Chingiz Bagatur nervously smoke on the sidelines. However, the Aztecs were even worse, from the fact that they got up even the harsh Spaniards went nuts and fell into the sediment.
          1. The comment was deleted.
            1. Seryoga64
              Seryoga64 9 October 2021 10: 57
              0
              https://nstarikov.ru/18-volynskaya-reznya-slabonervnym-ne-smo-39044
              [media=https://yandex.ru/video/preview/?text=смотреть%20документальный%20фильм%20про%20зверства%20бандеровцев&path=wizard&parent-reqid=1633766047181409-15368205221400239692-sas3-0899-b7e-sas-l7-balancer-8080-BAL-8832&wiz_type=vital&filmId=100361418602273369]
        2. Catfish
          Catfish 9 October 2021 12: 24
          +7
          ... Muslim fanatics-

          Yes, these guys have always been "ahead of the rest" with their unique sadism.
      2. Seryoga64
        Seryoga64 9 October 2021 08: 01
        +2
        Quote: Baron Pardus
        I have already said that if something happens, we will all slide into medieval customs at the speed of sound.

        One push is enough
      3. Andrey Moskvin
        Andrey Moskvin 9 October 2021 09: 59
        +8
        Peter1 also put on a fur coat on Glebov, so as not to freeze, sitting on a stake.
        1. Baron pardus
          Baron pardus 9 October 2021 10: 05
          +3
          Exactly. By the way, EMNIP either with Razin or with Pugachev was done in such a way that he could only envy Walls. They tortured me no worse, and even better. Razin - late 17th century. Pugachev - the end of the 18th century. But William Wallace - the end of the 13th century. That is, the Russians during the Renaissance were no less sadistic than the British during the Dark Ages.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 9 October 2021 10: 14
            +11
            What are the Dark Ages? Wallace's biography dates back to the High Middle Ages.
          2. The comment was deleted.
            1. avg avg
              avg avg 9 October 2021 13: 45
              0
              Well, let the Baron be Russophobic! Otherwise, his workday will not be counted and he will be left without his 30 pieces of silver!
              1. Baron pardus
                Baron pardus 9 October 2021 23: 52
                0
                And I don't need to Russophobia. Your story speaks for itself. The problem is that you make yourself white and fluffy. And you were no better than everyone else. In Europe, they burned at the stake (20 minutes of agony), they impaled you (20 hours of agony). I don’t know which is worse. Remind you when the first university was built in "backward" Europe and when the first university was built in "God-saved Russia"? Remind you who exactly built all "your" architectural monuments? (Since they were built by Italians, are they "your" monuments? Or maybe Italian ones. It seems to me that they are Italian). About the fact that when there was a subway in England you only abolished serfdom, you yourself know. Do you remind you of the fact that in the RYAV huge Russia has gotten the huge brutes from the tiny Japan that has just crawled out of feudalism? About how you merged the Crimean remind? You were a Superpower ONLY during the Soviet era. Your time of Greatness was under the SOVIET flag. It was under the SOVIET flag that you were the greatest country in the world. Which not only rebuilt itself from the ashes of the destruction that the Nazis staged, but also managed to help other countries free of charge (for which she received such "gratitude" that she was completely atas). But they DID. All were provided with at least some kind of but almost free apartments. SOVIET AUTHORITY. COMPANY. By the way, how many of you have the modern shitty oligarchic plutocratic power of Russia provided with almost free housing? Even the notorious 9 sq. M per person? That's the whole explanation. Under the USSR, you were the GREATest country on the planet. Under Stalin, you were the Greatest Country in Human History. And as soon as your elite decided to abandon the precepts of Stalin and Lenin, and the population sold everything corny for "beads" (or rather, for jeans, Coca-Cola and chewing, like ignorant natives) - everything was over. The circus of holy fools that happened with the "wedding" of Gosha Mukhosky only confirms this. I, and no one needs to be Russophobic. Your (or rather NOT YOUR) Elite does everything by itself. By the way, answer my question. Why did the German Nobles have German as their mother tongue, and why the French had French, the English nobles had English, and according to the list. And why did the Russian noblemen have native French or German? Why has the English elite, or the German elite, or even the Spanish elite not praised any other culture except their own, and your "elite" has not ceased to grovel in front of foreigners for 300 years? I, and no one else, needs Russophobia. Your "elite" and the intelligentsia are calmly doing this themselves.
          3. Klio2
            Klio2 11 October 2021 14: 15
            +1
            Baron, do you know how they quartered in Europe? In Russia, only Tsikler was quartered in the "European" style, and so they cut off his head in front of him.
            Of course, imprisoning is the most merciful execution, but actually there is a book on this topic ..
            How was tortured and executed in Russia
            1. garrett
              garrett 12 October 2021 12: 50
              0
              “Never argue with idiots. You will descend to their level, where they will crush you with their experience. "
              - Mark Twain
      4. Revival
        Revival 10 October 2021 22: 27
        0
        That's right!
        I confirm, by the imperial observations of the 1st Chechen, from a very visible person ..
      5. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 11 October 2021 12: 10
        +1
        Baron, I’ll carry off the quote from Frederick. She is smart
        1. Baron pardus
          Baron pardus 11 October 2021 17: 48
          0
          I'm a big fan of Friedrich. On my wall there are portraits of Friedrich, Stalin and Bismarck. I will find a good portrait of Richelieu - and it will go to my wall.
          1. Astra wild2
            Astra wild2 11 October 2021 18: 18
            +1
            Richelieu was an intelligent man. And Bismarck, and Friedrich? I am not familiar with him.
            More precisely, I do not have any information about him. I know a little more about Bismarck
    5. The comment was deleted.
      1. Baron pardus
        Baron pardus 9 October 2021 09: 42
        +6
        The execution by hanging was also a good spectacle. A skilled executioner could pull up someone so that they danced in a loop for at least 10 minutes. Record 25 minutes. Here, pick up the thickness of the rope and tie the loop so that it barely slips. Any execution loves a skilled executioner, and this is knowledge of anatomy and applied physics. You can even shoot in such a way that the person sailed away for a long time and at the same time felt EVERY minute of agony. Knowledge is power. Although the spectacle of the ax bosko is impressive, it is short-lived. "Execution just eliminates one criminal. The harsh execution gives others an object lesson and prevents 10 crimes." - Machiavelli.
        1. The comment was deleted.
          1. Baron pardus
            Baron pardus 9 October 2021 12: 25
            +4
            You will not believe. A person should not be sadistic for this. This requires very little. Just stop thinking of your opponents as human. Simple dehumanization. You won't believe how little it takes. The sadist experiences pleasure, but here there is no pleasure - everything is very simple. Boring to the ordinary. After all, this is no longer a person, it is a cross between a cockroach and a rat. I don't know how exactly to translate into Russian "Nothing personal, but you got on our way, now suffer, and it is your own fault. Nobody told you to fight against us." Literally "Now - suffer" translates as "And now suffer," the truth is translated more pathetically than it really is. But you need quite a bit to pass by a stranger wounded in the stomach, shrugging your shoulders even if you have "extra" medicines.
            1. The comment was deleted.
              1. ver_
                ver_ 9 October 2021 16: 36
                +2
                .. there is no beast more terrible than a woman ..
              2. Kozak Za Bugra
                Kozak Za Bugra 9 October 2021 23: 34
                +6
                Hello, I want to add about the Germans, it is so, the most cruel were Croatian Ustashi, Finns and Ukrainian nationalists. But the Germans did not lag behind, there is a book on German profits "Der Soldaten" in Russian "Wehrmacht soldiers", the author is two Germans who stumbled upon the English archive of records about the fact that the captured soldiers talked among themselves when they thought that they were not overheard, and so the German officers tried to make the soldiers brutally dealt with the Slavs. It is about how the soldiers shot 100 civilians for one soldier lost by the partisans, about the shooting of evacuation trains from planes, violence and others.
                This book was scandalous, including that it destroyed the myth about "pure Wehrmacht".
                P.S. about Ukrainians I meet a lot of negative comments about them, this is so, but I want to make a distinction between a nationalist and just a Ukrainian by passport, for example, my grandfather, his wife and his brother lived in Volyn, when Bandera came, they all went into partisans, when the front moved further into Europe, my grandfather's brother began to cleanse Ukraine from Bandera, in 1947 he died of Bandera in the line of duty, and my grandmother received the Order of the Patriotic War and was nominated for the medal of Partisan Glory, but she did not take her out of fear that Bandera would kill her for this medal. My grandfathers considered themselves Soviet people of Ukrainian nationality according to their passport, (well, my cousin, the Order of the Red Banner for Avgan, is also Ukrainian) ... but the Bandera people were hated more than the Germans themselves, I mean not to enroll all Ukrainians as Banderlogs because there are a lot of Ukrainians fought against the Nazis for the USSR.
                I’m not for argument, there’s just a lot of negativity about nationality.
                1. Baron pardus
                  Baron pardus 10 October 2021 00: 07
                  +2
                  I bow in the Feet to your Grandfather and Grandmother. My grandfather also participated in the liquidation of Bandera bandit formations. I even got a Red Star for it. But these are his words that "There was a policeman for each Kovpak." Not mine. Grandfather Joseph Kovpak himself knew. It was a nodding acquaintance, but they knew each other by sight. My impression of the Ukrainians is extremely negative. I lived in Kiev. By nationality - pure-blooded Mischling - father - Jew, mother - Russian. And it was the Ukrainians, not the Russians, and not the Gypsies, who shouted insults at me on a national basis. On the contrary, I was very friendly with two gypsies in our school. By the way, my best childhood friend is a Pole, with my mother Kazimira. I have only heard about the notorious Polish anti-Semitism. There were many Poles in the States and in the Army, and I live in an area where there are many Poles and Germans. Only now I have not seen anti-Semitism from them. When I went on vacation to Russia, to the villages near Vladimir, and Pskov and Novgorod, and spent 2-3 months there, I NEVER heard insults based on ethnicity from rural Russian guys and girls. There was an incident. We went with the boys and girls on boats along the Volga. Well, I was carrying supplies and fucking along with everyone. One guy asked me "Dimka, are you really a half-breed?" I say "Yes, why are you asking, you can't see it on my face" he says "No, no, there are no questions with the face, you just work on an equal basis with us, and I thought that the Jews were afraid of physical labor." I tell him. "No, since everyone is pulling and rowing, then I do the same. I was raised that way." And that's all. I had no other problems on the national basis in Russia. A
                  My father was told “While I’m rector here, all sorts of“ Iosifovichs ”will not learn from me” at the KIEV Conservatory. But in Vladimir he was accepted without problems. My aunt was told "Ukraine has national cadres" in Kiev, and in Novgorod she was accepted without exams. Personal experience of me and my family left the most negative opinion about Ukrainians. Let's just say - all the problems on a NATIONAL basis that my family received were from UKRAINIANS. My uncle Alik is a Jew. Was not admitted to the KPI. Was accepted in Minsk, without re-delivery. He never returned from Minsk. He said that his legs would never be in Ukraine again. Therefore, I have created quite persistent stereotypes, both about Russians and about Belarusians and about Ukrainians.
                  1. Kozak Za Bugra
                    Kozak Za Bugra 10 October 2021 01: 46
                    +2
                    Hello, thank you. The problem of Ukrainian nationalism is a political problem, my father was born in a village on Volini, where electricity was supplied after the war, he learned Russian at school, so he said that there was no hatred for the Poles or Jews, he says that there were many friends of Jews (or rather he was not interested), only in the cities by the time of the eighties he met with "Svidomo" and the cult of the nation, there he was told "your friends are Jews and Muscovites", he also swore with them for reprehensibility
                    1. Kozak Za Bugra
                      Kozak Za Bugra 10 October 2021 01: 48
                      +1
                      I don’t know if it was like that in all villages, but my father said that he mainly met anti-Semites and nationalists in big cities.
                  2. Klio2
                    Klio2 11 October 2021 13: 50
                    0
                    "About Belarus" in the Second World War was a lot. There were cases of anti-Semitism in Belarusian villages, but there were also cases when Jews were rescued.
                    In Ukraine, there were both those and other cases. And there were punishers among the Jews.
                    Astra, somewhere on the site I read that the Jew was awarded by Hitler
                2. Klio2
                  Klio2 11 October 2021 13: 34
                  0
                  I hear about this from Astra more than once
        2. Seryoga64
          Seryoga64 9 October 2021 11: 00
          +1
          Quote: Baron Pardus
          The execution by hanging was also a good spectacle.

          By the way, pickpockets came running from all over the city and "worked" tirelessly
          1. Baron pardus
            Baron pardus 9 October 2021 12: 30
            +3
            And if they were caught a little they did not seem to. They joined the show. Batogov poured them. Although if they steal something from a big bump, they could pick it up right there. Endless fun :-)
            1. Seryoga64
              Seryoga64 9 October 2021 13: 40
              -1
              Comedy series laughing
    6. ja-ja-vw
      ja-ja-vw 10 October 2021 14: 21
      -1
      Quote: Lech from Android.
      noble Europe itself did not disdain dirty deeds and we are still teaches something else.

      "for a long time sit It was".
      21 of the Constitution: “No one should be subjected to torture, violence, other cruel or degrading treatment or punishment”.
      Article 117 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation prohibits "Causing physical or mental suffering by systematic beatings or other violent actions."


      Since 2015, Russia has spent € 3,5 million on the payment of compensations assigned by the ECHR for torture and degrading conditions in colonies and pre-trial detention centers. This is 0,1% of the annual expenses of the Federal Penitentiary Service, which have been growing in recent years, despite the decrease in the number of prisoners
      at the exchange rate on October 6 amounted to approximately 292,5 million rubles

      Read more at RBC:


      State Duma Speaker Viacheslav Volodin said he was shocked (even this one ....) information about torture and abuse of prisoners in the colony of the Saratov region.
      The one on the left, Colonel of the Internal Service Alexei Fedotov, is awarded the Order of the Saratov Diocese "Savior Not Made by Hands", III degree. This is the "hero" under whom the torture took place

      now, tail between his legs, he quickly scribbled his resignation letter.
      Quote: Lech from Android.
      Letting out of a person tripe for the amusement of the public on the stairs is already a perversion, you know.

      and filming the rape of prisoners on a service camera and using it as a report on the work done ... is this the norm?
      Well, if we return to our "scrapie", then
      For example, water torture, which appeared in China, implied drops of cold water falling on a person from a height. In Russia, this torture was changed: several liters of sewage or other liquids (hot oil, vinegar or horse urine) were poured into the throat. And after that they also beat on the swollen belly with a club..

      under Elizaveta Petrovna, tongue pulling out was practiced. According to official data, during the years of her reign tongues were torn out from more than 11 thousand people: from serfs, and from burghers, and from merchants, and from nobles - always for insulting the queen... But the decree did not spell out exactly how the tongue should be cut off. And if the executioner was given a bribe, he cut only the tip, and the person retained the ability to speak.

      request
  2. Andrey Moskvin
    Andrey Moskvin 9 October 2021 05: 34
    +8
    In my opinion, the difference between the claymore is in the guard, with the arches of the cross at 45 degrees.
    And, Vyacheslav?
    1. kalibr
      9 October 2021 05: 36
      +8
      Quote: Andrey Moskvin
      In my opinion, the difference between the claymore is in the guard, with the arches of the cross at 45 degrees.

      Yes, I wrote here about two-handed swords. But in this case, an inscription from the Royal Arsenal in London is reproduced. I just deliberately took this word in "..."
      1. Crowe
        Crowe 9 October 2021 07: 08
        +11
        By the way, no one will explain to an amateur, something suddenly became interesting ... Everything seems to be clear: decorations, inscriptions, engravings, and even poems on these swords ... I can understand. But what is this for

        What decorative or yet practical role did these holes technological holes?
        1. Andrey Moskvin
          Andrey Moskvin 9 October 2021 09: 12
          +8
          I read it just to hang it on a nail, and also that some executioners put a lead bullet into the hole to make the blow heavier.
        2. kalibr
          9 October 2021 11: 58
          +8
          Quote: Crowe
          I would be grateful for the answer to the masters!

          Well, you asked !!! We'll have to write to the museum ...
        3. Adrey
          Adrey 9 October 2021 12: 41
          +5
          Hang on the wall laughing hi
        4. saygon66
          saygon66 9 October 2021 15: 47
          +3
          Did such a sword have a scabbard? If not, then for these holes (and at the handle) you can attach something like a sling ... How the same it was worn to the place of work ...
      2. Blacksmith 55
        Blacksmith 55 9 October 2021 12: 35
        +4
        Vyacheslav Olegovich, a picture from the Three Musketeers, where the executioner executes Milady. This is an old book, we had just such a picture in our family. They brought back memories.
        Of course I heard about the dreams of justice, but I never read and was not interested in them.
        Thank you.
        And there are so many verses about executioners in the comments. Sometimes the comments are no less interesting to read the article itself.
        Thanks to the commentators too.
        1. kalibr
          9 October 2021 13: 01
          +5
          I am glad that it was useful and interesting for you!
          1. cat Rusich
            cat Rusich 9 October 2021 20: 48
            +3
            In Saudi Arabia, people are still executed by beheading and there are dynasties of executioners.
            But I have not heard about "saber of justice".
            hi
            1. kalibr
              9 October 2021 21: 11
              +1
              Quote: cat Rusich
              cutting off the head and there are dynasties of executioners.
              But I have not heard about the "saber of justice".

              I, too!
  3. Xlor
    Xlor 9 October 2021 06: 14
    +8
    I never even thought about such a topic! Thanks...
  4. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 9 October 2021 06: 18
    +11
    But ... there is nothing worse than contacting our museums.
    So Kulinsky did not condescend ...
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
  5. Crowe
    Crowe 9 October 2021 06: 20
    +10
    Although in the same Germany the last execution by a sword was carried out
    The last executions by sword in Europe were carried out in Switzerland in 1867 and 1868, when Niklaus Emmenegger in Lucerne and Heli Freimond in Moudon were beheaded for murder. Almost everywhere it was replaced by execution by beheading with the use of a guillotine and other similar machines that appeared in Europe in the XNUMXth century.
    In Germany, the last execution by a sword took place on January 22, 1886. In the English newspaper "Steele Scrapbook" of January 24, 1886
    the execution report was posted:
    “A woman was beheaded in Germany.
    Berlin, January 24 - A woman named Badmewski was beheaded Friday in Berlin by the hand of an executioner for poisoning her husband. She, in all likelihood, will be the last criminal executed in this way, since the German emperor turned his attention to the methods of the death penalty. His Majesty decided to abolish the current barbarian system. Currently, execution in Germany is carried out in such a way that the sentenced criminal sits on a stool, and the executioner's assistant holds his head while the executioner, using a razor-sharp sword, separates the head from the body. "
  6. Crowe
    Crowe 9 October 2021 06: 31
    +12
    some inexperienced volunteer had to execute the count and it took him as many as 29 sword strikes for this!
    Yes, the count was out of luck, let's face it ...
    It was not so if the master took up the case
    For example, such as the famous Parisian executioner Charles Henri Sanson, who was very responsible and conscientious in fulfilling his professional duties.
    “… After each execution, the blade of the sword is no longer in the proper condition for the production of the next one. The sword must be guided and sharpened again, and if the execution is to be performed on several, then one must have a sufficient number of prepared swords. This creates great difficulties and costs. It often happened that swords broke during such executions. "
    Sanson described his sword like this:
    “This weapon was four feet long, with a thin but rather wide blade. The end of the sword was rounded, and in the middle of the blade was a recess in which the word "Judgment" was carved. The sword hilt was wrought iron and was about ten inches long. "
    Sanson also said that he personally owns two swords specially made for him, given to him by the Paris Parliament, and each of them has a value of 600 livres. Considering the price of a cow at that time in 15-20 livres, there is nothing left but to sincerely sympathize with Monsieur Sanson.
  7. north 2
    north 2 9 October 2021 07: 00
    +8
    and who in the hands of the executioner and why, from the beginning of our era to the Middle Ages, put a sword, an ax, or laid down and set fire to a fire under the feet of a living punished in Europe? Catholicism! And it all started with the words of Pope Innocent uttered back in the fifth century. And in these words the main word was DISCIPLINE.
    ... it should be remembered that power was granted by God and the sword was allowed to avenge the crime, so whoever commits this revenge is a servant of God. What motive do we have for condemning a practice that everyone considers allowed by God? Thus, we adhere to what has been observed so far, so as not to violate the DISCIPLINE and so that it might not seem that we are acting contrary to the authority of God ...
    From here and the crowd of the public, to see how the servants of God disposes of the power of God. Gradually, the severed head became the plot of the most famous artists of the Middle Ages, where the severing of the head justified even plots from the Bible. Thus, beheading or burning alive at the stake for the Europeans of the Middle Ages became something similar, like going to a theater or a museum. Spectacular!
    Martin Luther was one of the first to speak out against such a public spectacle in the Middle Ages. And only against the fact that heretics would be burned at the stake to death. Please chop off heads and then burn them at the stake. But even that was enough for Luther's Catholics to be excommunicated from their Church.
    Yes, heads were cut off in medieval Russia as well. But here are two things.
    First. Today is an article about executions in Europe.
    Second. Something I don’t remember that the Armory Chamber of the Moscow Kremlin and other most famous historical museums in Russia would be bursting with exhibits of swords and the executioner's ax, which cannot be said about museums in Europe.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 9 October 2021 08: 48
      +4
      Yes, heads were cut off in medieval Russia as well. But here are two things.

      As I understand it, it is another turbopatriotic rite on the theme of a "special path".
      First. Today is an article about executions in Europe.

      Let us ask the author to write the following article about the execution in Russia. I think that the description of such methods as burning at the stake and in an iron cage, impalement, cooking in a cauldron with water or oil, wheeling, cutting leather into belts, will be interesting to readers, and such an exclusively national way as "sheathing Medvedno "- especially.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 9 October 2021 22: 05
        +3
        Yes, the turbopratriotic population on the site is growing by leaps and bounds. The area in "News", "Opinions" and "Analytics" no longer contains them. Even Shpakovsky's articles do not save them from them.
    2. Baron pardus
      Baron pardus 9 October 2021 10: 08
      +5
      Don't talk nonsense - they hanged and chopped boski back in Babylon. They were planted on stakes in the same place. Was there Catholicism there too? And those atrocities, even non-animal atrocities that the Aztecs staged, are Catholicism to blame there too? You should read at least a couple of books chtoli, instead of being engaged in ignorant chatter. How old are you?
      1. north 2
        north 2 9 October 2021 11: 46
        +2
        here you are that is a sample of ignorance! Open your eyes and you will see that I dedicated my commentary specifically to Europe from the fifth century to the Middle Ages. And then Babylon or the Aztecs. In Europe at that time, executions were blessed and often initiated by the Catholic Church. What, the article also talks about who and how and why they chopped off their heads in Babylon or America? No, both in the article and in my commentary, it is specifically about executions in Catholic Europe!
  8. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 9 October 2021 07: 05
    +9
    Swords of Justice from the collection of the Royal Armories in Stockholm
    I want to note that they are very similar to the Swedish ceremonial swords. Himself was misled by the similarity

  9. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 9 October 2021 07: 22
    +6
    Good article ...... The sword is somehow solemn ....... And the French are innovators in everything, then they came up with the guilletine. During the week I walked near the Lobnoye Mesto on Red Square.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 9 October 2021 07: 32
      +7
      The guillotine was not invented by the French. Since the XlV century she has been known as the "Scottish Maiden"
      1. Klio2
        Klio2 13 October 2021 17: 13
        +1
        But it is widely believed that Gilletine appeared in Paris.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 13 October 2021 17: 52
          +1
          Widespread misconception, Katya hi
          1. Klio2
            Klio2 13 October 2021 19: 51
            +1
            This is what the encyclopedias are all saying.
    2. ohka_new
      ohka_new 9 October 2021 11: 09
      +6
      A widespread misconception (probably with the light hand of Lermontov in "Song of ... the merchant Kalashnikov"). Until 1918, the higher clergy performed prayers at the Execution Ground, and the kings from this elevation spoke with their people and introduced their heirs to them. According to an ancient tradition, abolished in 1678, the patriarch blessed the people from the Execution Ground on Palm Sunday. Somewhere in the southern part of Red Square there was a place for public executions, but there is no evidence of the use of the place of execution for this purpose.
  10. Seryoga64
    Seryoga64 9 October 2021 07: 54
    +5
    Auto RU + + +
    Great article and no less wonderful illustrations good
    Thanks for the pleasure hi
  11. Konnick
    Konnick 9 October 2021 08: 06
    +7
    It's very bad for the executioners at night,
    If executioners dream of executioners,
    And as in life, but still half a year,
    The executioners beat the executioners on the snout.
  12. Undecim
    Undecim 9 October 2021 09: 04
    +3
    Second. Something I don’t remember that the Armory Chamber of the Moscow Kremlin and other most famous historical museums in Russia would be bursting with exhibits of swords and the executioner's ax, which cannot be said about museums in Europe.

    Apparently the one who wrote the commentary managed to visit most museums in Europe and all museums in Russia to make such a qualified statement.
    In fact, no museums in Europe are bursting with axes and swords of the executioner, although these items, as an integral part of history, are presented.
    And there is one more point to which the author did not pay attention.
    It is necessary to distinguish between the executioner's sword / the sword of the executioner and the sword of justice; it is Richtschwert, literally "the judge's sword", "the judge's sword".
    The latter was rarely used for executions and had ceremonial functions. Visually, these swords are no different, but the latter are much more.
    As for the museums of Russia, they also have such swords in their collections, although this instrument of execution does not belong to the "national tradition".
  13. depressant
    depressant 9 October 2021 09: 38
    +12
    In fact, I am not particularly interested in the textual content of The Chronicle of Froissart. Indeed, what special could have been described in them - just a brutal Middle Ages! wassat )))
    Miniatures are much more interesting - they are amazingly informative, extremely detailed and accurate in details. "Chronicles" have withstood several handwritten "editions". The one presented by Vyacheslav Olegovich was designed by a group of artists from Bruges, and the miniatures were created by the representative of this art school, JAN FOUQUET.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 9 October 2021 10: 09
      +5
      In fact, I am not particularly interested in the textual content of The Chronicle of Froissart.
      Is it not interesting what exactly Jean Fouquet portrayed?
      1. depressant
        depressant 9 October 2021 10: 23
        +5
        Of course it does! )))
        But in addition to the meaning of what is depicted, I am also interested in the technique with which the image is created. As someone who once dabbled in a brush for watercolors and gouache.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 9 October 2021 10: 28
          +5
          Technique has undoubtedly made a step forward in comparison with miniatures created a century earlier. And the addiction to drawing details by the followers of the "school from Bruges", I would even venture to call it hyperrealism.
          1. depressant
            depressant 9 October 2021 11: 15
            +5
            Hyperrealism as a consequence of the need to convey to the reader of the Chronicle the smallest details of what is happening - I agree!
            Take paleontology, for example. A paleontologist found a dinosaur bone, say, a fragment of a finger. And there seems to be a high-resolution photo. Take a picture of that bone and showcase it. Well, or in storage. But no! Drawing in the smallest details, drawing creation is obligatory. Otherwise, no reputable paleontological journal will accept the article without him. Because no photograph will give specialists an idea of ​​what is most important in this bone, it will only give a schematic drawing.
            So in Fouche's drawings - show in detail how this or that event took place, highlight the main thing and not miss anything. The viewer should not try to fantasize, he should have accurate knowledge. It's one thing to read about an event described in detail, it's another to see an illustration of it.
  14. depressant
    depressant 9 October 2021 10: 16
    +8
    The poses of the people in Fouquet's miniatures seem a little strange, don't they? )))
    In fact, for that time, such postures, determined by the setting of the feet, were natural and determined by the type of shoe being worn. These shoes did not have heels and were called PULLEYS. So, these pulleins, not having not only heels, but also the difference in the right and left legs, assumed a different development of the calf muscles than we, "heel makers", and, as a result, the corresponding position of the legs and the position of the spine while walking. Nowadays such shoes are worn by some women, and they are called "ballet flats".
    1. Ua3qhp
      Ua3qhp 12 October 2021 16: 21
      +1
      Something that those who in Russia walked barefoot, in bast shoes and felt boots did not have such a gait, but the pupils of the choreographic school are quite similar.
      But the tradition of the image is also possible.
      1. depressant
        depressant 12 October 2021 21: 24
        0
        Perhaps, dear colleague, perhaps.
        For example, on one of A. Venetsianov's canvases, barefoot peasant children have just such a positioning of their feet.
  15. Korsar4
    Korsar4 9 October 2021 10: 20
    +5
    Attention is drawn to how the heart is depicted in the scene of the execution of the favorite of Edward II. Anatomy textbooks would not approve.

    And it’s also interesting, really, except on the stairs, there was no place.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 9 October 2021 11: 09
      +7
      And it’s also interesting, really, except on the stairs, there was no place.
      It's just that the Dispenser family was so addicted to the then English society that they decided to arrange a more vivid spectacle than, say, the execution of Wallace.
  16. Edward Vashchenko
    Edward Vashchenko 9 October 2021 10: 20
    +7
    Dear Vyacheslav Olegovich,
    taking off my hat.
    Great topic, similar presentation.
    Thank you! hi
    1. kalibr
      9 October 2021 12: 18
      +6
      Thanks Edward!
  17. iskanderzp
    iskanderzp 9 October 2021 10: 38
    +6
    Regarding the execution of the Comte de Chalet, I met the opinion that such an outrage (you cannot say otherwise) was not accidental. Richelieu was generally a very thoughtful person and politician ...
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 9 October 2021 11: 59
      +9
      Concerning the execution of the Comte de Chalet

      The Count's friends tried to save Chalet by eliminating the executioner, but only increased the torment of the comrade-in-arms. Not wanting to cancel the execution, Richelieu offered life to one convicted gallows in exchange for beheading the Comte de Chalet. The offender immediately agreed.
      Not knowing how to handle the sword intended for decapitation, the newly-minted executioner was able to chop off the head of the Chalet only from the 29th time.
      1. iskanderzp
        iskanderzp 9 October 2021 12: 31
        +4
        Absolutely right! But history is silent about what other conditions were set for the gallows who agreed to become an executioner!
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 9 October 2021 12: 51
          +7
          Of course, it could have been anything. A person in this state will agree to any conditions, just to save his life. And who could he feel sorry for, a nobleman who had taken part in an operetta conspiracy? He would have spanked him on occasion, just out of the eternal antagonism between the estates.
  18. Tramp
    Tramp 9 October 2021 10: 47
    +5
    here they are beasts
  19. Free wind
    Free wind 9 October 2021 11: 15
    +3
    Cut off a woman's head? I have never read the Musketeers. Just never.
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          1. Catfish
            Catfish 9 October 2021 13: 46
            0
            Kuzya, leave the Ukrainians alone, do you have a fad on them? True, there are enough of you, such "punctual" ones: who have "liberals", who have "enemies of the communists", you have "Ukrainians", but in all cases, all this is unambiguous according to the department of your district psychiatrists.
            In addition, I'm not sure that it was in Ukraine that this execution was invented with impalement, Europe still always went ahead of the rest of the world in all respects. laughing
          2. saygon66
            saygon66 9 October 2021 15: 54
            +2
            Then the Romanians have Vlad Tepes, Transylvania ...
  20. depressant
    depressant 9 October 2021 13: 04
    +5
    Well, and most of all of the miniatures presented, let's say, touched the "Execution of Thomas Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester." Well, the author of the picture could not deny himself the reproduction of emotions. Just look at the malevolent pleasure that the stranglers experience! Wasn't the artist's own fear and indignation at the cruelty of what was happening?
    The artist's desire to share his emotions with the readers of The Chronicle of Froissart makes the drawing a work of art.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 9 October 2021 13: 15
      +5
      This is natural, every artist sees this world in his own way. smile
      1. depressant
        depressant 9 October 2021 13: 18
        +6
        Kostya, as always, I am grateful to you! love )))
        You yourself are a holiday man!
        Laughed long and nervously wassat )))
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 9 October 2021 13: 37
          +5
          Thank you, Luda. smile love
          I myself like people who can find a funny side in any "chernukha". That's how this artist is. smile
          1. depressant
            depressant 9 October 2021 14: 03
            +4
            But surely there were some precedents. Some people humbly accepted fate, others, having already ascended the block, resist. I happened to read that a certain rolling head, on residual reflexes, even tried to speak, however, due to the lack of air flow, she imitated speech only with facial expressions. But the king ordered to listen to her and report. Well, we listened and reported pleasant wassat )))
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 9 October 2021 14: 12
              +4
              Well, we listened and reported pleasant

              How else? And then its own head on the residual reflexes will also say something "pleasant". laughing
              1. depressant
                depressant 9 October 2021 14: 29
                +5
                Only our giant head, according to Pushkin, turned out to be speaking when separated from the body. She belonged to the elder brother of Chernomor, a handsome and stately young man who, moreover, was a brave, strong-willed warrior. The dwarf Chernomor, as usual, was jealous, but both brothers, for some mystical reason, were killed only with a special sword. Having persuaded his brother to get that sword, Chernomor took advantage of the brave man's carelessness, chopped off his head, and, burying the sword in a deserted place, put it on top of that head to guard the kladenets. And since Chernomor was a sorcerer, the head did not die.
                It turns out that this happens. wassat )))
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 9 October 2021 15: 07
                  +6
                  Luda, don't you think that here Chernomor looks like some wild mixture of a rabbi with Karl Marx? laughing
                  1. depressant
                    depressant 9 October 2021 15: 21
                    +3
                    Karl Marx's face was wider. If the rabbi in the picture is flattened on top, the similarities will become obvious.
                2. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 9 October 2021 20: 37
                  +2
                  But if from these stories we can hear Farlaf's rondo performed by Krivchenya, then this is no longer in vain.
                  1. depressant
                    depressant 9 October 2021 20: 58
                    +2
                    I remember this rondo from childhood - on the Moscow radio, almost every day. He was no longer on TV)))
                    1. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 9 October 2021 21: 11
                      +2
                      But now in the network - just wish.
                      1. depressant
                        depressant 9 October 2021 21: 27
                        +3
                        I listen to something else. Most often - "Lonely Shepherd".
                      2. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 9 October 2021 21: 29
                        +2
                        The repertoire may vary. Depending on the mood or the season.
                      3. depressant
                        depressant 9 October 2021 21: 32
                        +3
                        Right! I'm listening to Vivaldi. From the summer I love "Thunderstorm".
  • bandabas
    bandabas 9 October 2021 13: 44
    +3
    Then the guillotine appeared and made everyone equal. Putting on the stream without dividing into estates. "Superhuman" invention, a child of progress. hi
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 9 October 2021 14: 13
      +8
      I say - Europe is always ahead of the rest of the world. laughing
      1. depressant
        depressant 9 October 2021 15: 29
        +2
        Laughing again! )))
        So that's what the guillotine was invented for!
        Obviously, the head bearers were also matched to the task. wassat )))
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 9 October 2021 15: 33
          +5
          head carriers were matched to the task

          Obviously by weight. laughing
      2. Svarog
        Svarog 10 October 2021 09: 12
        0
        laughing Where do you find such pictures ..? good laughing hi
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 10 October 2021 11: 23
          +2
          Type in a search engine, for example - "Executions. Caricature" - and you are thrown out a whole bunch of pictures to choose from. It remains to choose what is more suitable. Not all, however, are downloaded. smile drinks
      3. Sharikov Polygraph Poligrafovich
        Sharikov Polygraph Poligrafovich 22 October 2021 00: 06
        0
        The real strike :-)))
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 9 October 2021 16: 07
    +5
    Comrades!
    "Master of the Trilobite" sends greetings to all from the dungeons of the Grand-Châtelet!
    1. depressant
      depressant 9 October 2021 16: 45
      +1
      For hello, of course, thanks! )))
      But you mean from the ghost of the Grand Châtelet? laughing )))
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 9 October 2021 17: 02
        +2
        For me, definitely not. I know my way around medieval Paris quite well.
        1. depressant
          depressant 9 October 2021 17: 26
          +1
          Is Misha writing an article about Chatelet?
          What a fertile topic!
          It would be interesting.
          I look at the city and see what it once was. And somewhere it hurts, but the happiness that he was, it is with me, and there is a swarm of memories in him.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 9 October 2021 17: 34
            +3
            Is Misha writing an article about Chatelet?
            No, although Mikhail is more than a good judge of the European Middle Ages, he still prefers to write about the Russian Middle Ages. And not only journalism.
            1. depressant
              depressant 9 October 2021 17: 38
              +2
              Did I learn something new about Misha?
              If by journalism we mean something different from comments on VO.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 9 October 2021 18: 08
                +4
                Go to his profile and find there 25 publications on this resource (this is only under the current nickname and not counting the cycle of materials rejected by the editors for some reason that I do not understand). In addition, Mikhail is the author of several essays in the genre of historical fiction.
                1. depressant
                  depressant 9 October 2021 18: 25
                  +2
                  Even so?
                  Thanks for the information! I'm leaving now.
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 9 October 2021 18: 36
                    +2
                    Thanks for the information!
                    "Thanks to those who ate. It's easy to cook" (Borgia family motto) laughing
                    1. depressant
                      depressant 9 October 2021 18: 59
                      +3
                      My God!
                      Mikhail Burlakov - Master of the Trilobite. How could I not tie? "Something with my memory has become ..." I participated in the discussion of his article "Have you seen a falcon here? ..." I participated poorly, having a poor understanding of the subject. At that time, I was still learning to participate, and only then it dawned on me that the history was shouting "How long!" and emotions are not enough, it is urgent to acquire knowledge and only on their basis to express some kind of opinion. Or at least be eligible to participate in the forum. And I also read all of Mikhail's subsequent articles. But she did not connect that Misha is the Author!
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 9 October 2021 19: 08
                        +2
                        "The country must know its heroes!" (WITH)
                      2. depressant
                        depressant 9 October 2021 19: 25
                        +1
                        Right!
                        Of course, I am not the whole country, but I will know the hero. Rather, now I will definitely remember that he is a hero)))
                      3. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 9 October 2021 19: 39
                        +2
                        I will note, however, monami, Lyudmila Yakovlevna, that it is not possible to thoroughly study the epoch for every "person from the street." Personally, I am grateful to Mikhail, as well as to other comrades, that they hone my knowledge about the era of the European Middle Ages.
                      4. depressant
                        depressant 9 October 2021 19: 47
                        +2
                        Of course, you are right.
                        But, for example, my knowledge of the Hundred Years War ended with its name. Now I know more. Or take at least such a masterpiece as The Chronicles of Froissart. I looked through dozens of sites with miniatures, read the biography of Jean Froissard - is it not enough?
                      5. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 9 October 2021 19: 51
                        +2
                        Undoubtedly a lot !!! But, between us "interested", Froissart, is he still a timeserver? ...
                      6. depressant
                        depressant 9 October 2021 20: 52
                        0
                        Adaptability is a way of survival in conditions that exclude the manifestation of the true "I" of a person. Those who do not possess this property, at least partially, usually perish, disappearing without a trace. Those in possession can leave a trace in history for the joy of grateful descendants.
            2. Undecim
              Undecim 9 October 2021 21: 52
              +4
              But she did not connect that Misha is the Author!

              We all wrote a little, about something and somehow.
      2. kalibr
        10 October 2021 07: 49
        +1
        Quote: 3x3zsave
        In addition, Mikhail is the author of several essays in the genre of historical fiction.

        Most importantly, he writes well. It's not hard to be an author. That's good to write ...
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 10 October 2021 07: 55
          +1
          Agree. Three times I wrote an article about the Olenins and rubbed it three times.
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 9 October 2021 19: 02
    +1
    Looking at the miniatures, it suddenly became interesting where the tradition came from, to blindfold the executed? After all, executed by beheading, he sees nothing except the edge of the chopping block or the scaffold boards ...
    1. depressant
      depressant 9 October 2021 19: 41
      +2
      The magical effect of the look.
      There is an example when a boss made a remark to a subordinate and immediately fell down dead under his incinerating gaze. The ambulance arrived quickly and could not do anything. The phenomenon of the effect of a glance is poorly studied and is contained only in the phrase "He did not look at me like that!" Hence the concept of the evil eye. So, the person being executed was blindfolded not for humane reasons, they say, so that he did not see the ax and guns directed in his direction, but for humane reasons in relation to the executioners.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 9 October 2021 19: 45
        +3
        Hmmm ...
        The mother of my children also said: "Bazhin, you can kill with a look!" ...
        1. depressant
          depressant 9 October 2021 19: 57
          +1
          Are there precedents? wassat )))
          But seriously, there is something like that. Is this not the origin of the protection that nature has given to autists? They cannot make eye contact.
          Indeed, the direct, strong gaze of some people is difficult to bear. Sometimes a glance can say everything or a lot. The look can be commanded. Condemning looks are unpleasant - they are worse than words!
          Children understand eyes better than words. Only parents do not use it.
          It seems to me that this property of the human gaze stretches behind us from distant primitive eras, when danger lurked behind every bush, and it was necessary to exchange information in silence.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 9 October 2021 20: 59
            +2
            Any "fighter" autistic?
            1. depressant
              depressant 9 October 2021 21: 22
              +3
              If you mean a hand-to-hand fighter, then with diffuse vision, including lateral vision, you can see much more than looking into the enemy's eyes. The skill trains. Hand-to-hand combat is not a duel of glances. This is the application of the absent-minded gaze property for the quickest response of the body.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 9 October 2021 21: 42
                +2
                Lyudmila Yakovlevna! I talked a lot with "nervous" people and "nervous" dogs.
                "To teach the father, only to spoil"
                1. depressant
                  depressant 9 October 2021 21: 50
                  +1
                  Well, you and the executioner's sword in hand! wassat )))
                  In fact, I really sympathize. Also fell.
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 9 October 2021 21: 55
                    +3
                    Well, you and the executioner's sword in hand!
                    It is good to!!! But I can't, because I'm biased.
      2. Korsar4
        Korsar4 9 October 2021 20: 41
        +2
        And what legends about the views of witches.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 9 October 2021 21: 00
          +3
          These are just legends.
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 9 October 2021 21: 25
            +2
            If there is a cross on the neck, and confidence in the soul, then everything will be fine. But Home Brutus was out of luck.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 9 October 2021 21: 33
              +2
              Home Brutus would be out of luck anyway.
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 9 October 2021 21: 47
                +1
                He couldn't avoid eye contact.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 9 October 2021 21: 51
                  +2
                  Yes, he never escaped anything! There was no good Dominican around.
        2. depressant
          depressant 9 October 2021 21: 09
          +2
          I can't remember a single legend offhand. I can't say that witches fell out of my sphere of interest, sometimes I have to deal with them. But legends?
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 9 October 2021 21: 24
            +3
            “It’s not a pity to give my soul for a glance
            Black-shaven beauties "(c).

            You can start with Lukyanenko's Dozorov. Literature is, of course, commercial. But initially solid.
            1. depressant
              depressant 9 October 2021 21: 46
              +2
              No. Lukyanenko is not interesting to me. I started reading and dropped it. The heroes seemed skinny.
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 9 October 2021 21: 49
                +2
                But the images of Gogol are more than convincing. For example, Solokha.
                1. depressant
                  depressant 9 October 2021 22: 04
                  +2
                  Solokha is a powerful image based on folk ideas. Because Solokha is colorful, close and understandable)))
      3. kalibr
        9 October 2021 21: 21
        +3
        Evil look!
        It happens that cats look like this!
        1. depressant
          depressant 9 October 2021 21: 44
          +1
          You think the witch's gaze is a squint?
          According to this version, everyone can be a witch, but since this is not so, it means that the matter is in the natural energy of the gaze, which the squint mobilizes only partially. Given or not given. And cats can. Because they got it.
        2. Sharikov Polygraph Poligrafovich
          Sharikov Polygraph Poligrafovich 21 October 2021 23: 48
          0
          So cats are simply
          minimize vulnerable
          the area of ​​the cornea of ​​their eyes in
          on the eve of the upcoming fight.
          By the way, it is for the same purpose that cats
          before the fight also as much as possible
          press their ears to the head.
          Although everyone has for real
          BATTLE cat ear tips to
          old age still turns out
          torn into noodles :-)))
  • dub0vitsky
    dub0vitsky 9 October 2021 19: 18
    +2
    Quote: Lech from Android.
    Well Vyacheslav Saturday you started in an original way what.
    And the topic is certainly interesting ...
    noble Europe itself did not disdain dirty deeds and we are still teaches something else.
    smile
    Letting out of a person tripe for the amusement of the public on the stairs is already a perversion, you know.

    However, how touchy you are. Impressive too. And read about this: https://pikabu.ru/story/linchi_smert_ot_tyisyachi_nozhey__samaya_uzhasnaya_kitayskaya_kazn_7812012.
    The Chinese slow execution of the lynch that the criminals were subjected to. There is a known case when a woman being executed died after cutting off the second thousand pieces of her body.
    1. depressant
      depressant 9 October 2021 19: 31
      +1
      I, for example, read about it in "Secrets of the XX century". And so that the executed did not die prematurely, sometimes the wounds were slightly healed. Is it not from the Chinese that the notorious "I'll cut you with belts!"
  • dub0vitsky
    dub0vitsky 9 October 2021 22: 02
    +1
    Quote: Crowe
    By the way, no one will explain to an amateur, something suddenly became interesting ... Everything seems to be clear: decorations, inscriptions, engravings, and even poems on these swords ... I can understand. But what is this for

    What decorative or yet practical role did these holes technological holes?

    Not otherwise than to pull out gold teeth. The executioner also needs a shabashka, except for the main job.
    1. Denis812
      Denis812 10 October 2021 18: 09
      +1
      If an obese person comes across, then you need to be sure that you will interrupt his neck the first time.
      Therefore, you attach a lead weight at the end of the sword. There is a small weight with an iron squiggle, which is threaded into a triangle and fixed at the corner, which goes towards the hilt. And in two holes on the sides are stupidly small pins on which wretched nuts are screwed, which just sink into the star-shaped holes.
      Well, that's it, blow - my head rolled.

      And then there are amateurs, as in Russian football - a run for a ruble, a blow for a penny.
  • Lena Petrova
    Lena Petrova 10 October 2021 16: 55
    0
    Quote: Baron Pardus
    Why did the German Nobles have German as their native language, and why the French did French, the English nobles had English, and according to the list. And why did the Russian noblemen have relatives either French or German?

    They were just more educated and knew several languages. I am sure that they also knew Russian. Like Count Tolstoy, for example :))
    1. Denis812
      Denis812 11 October 2021 11: 19
      -1
      Do you understand that this is not quite true, to put it mildly? :)
      German in the nobility appeared under the successors of Peter the Great. Because there was more than a lot of nonsense at court.
      And Elizaveta Petrovna, who at first was generally prepared to be a wife to Louis or someone from the Bourbons, she generally received an education and spoke most of it in French.
      And after her, all the nobility began to drag tutors and teachers for children from France.
      And the chefs too.
      In general, this is how French filled everything. That is to say, a cultural revolution from above.
  • AB
    AB 10 October 2021 17: 01
    +1
    Thanks. Fascinating and informative.
  • Intruder
    Intruder 10 October 2021 21: 38
    0
    Thanks to the author for a great article, weekend! hi
    Add a little:
    By the 18th century, "judicial" and executioner swords generally merged into one concept. And if in English there was still some difference in terminology, then in German they began to be called the same word "Richtschwert" (literally "judge's sword"). The ceremonial sword of justice was kept in the courtroom and was solemnly carried out to the place of trial or execution. At the same time, the judge carried it right in front of him, thereby symbolizing his power over the life and death of the convicted / defendant. For example, when the verdict was announced at the Nuremberg court, the judge sat in the judge's chair, holding a white rod in his left hand, and a sword of justice in his right with two plate gloves tied to the handle. At the same time, both ceremonial and execution swords, as a rule, were richly decorated with edifying stories and instructive inscriptions.
    The executioner's sword was most often his personal property, so to speak, "an instrument of production," and was often passed from father to son. Although there are cases of acquiring swords for executioners and at the expense of the "employer". Nevertheless, in most cases, it was a high-quality and very expensive weapon of the work of famous craftsmen. Almost all such surviving swords have images and inscriptions reminiscent of their gloomy purpose. The blade often depicted a gallows, a wheel for the wheel, the Virgin Mary, St. Catherine, a crucifix, etc. Often on the sword you can find the name of its owner, the executioner. Quotations from the Bible, or moralistic poems, are no less common. After all, the executioners are not alien to the feeling of beauty ... wink
    “If I raise this sword,
    I wish the sinner eternal life;
    Struck by my fatal blow,
    He will go to the heavenly kingdom! "
    PS The famous Parisian executioner Sanson lamented that: “... after each execution, the blade of the sword is no longer in the proper condition for the production of the next. The sword must be guided and sharpened again, and if the execution is to be performed on several, then one must have a sufficient number of prepared swords. This creates great difficulties and costs. It often happened that swords broke during such executions. " Sanson also said that he personally owns two swords specially made for him, given to him by the Paris Parliament, and each of them has a value of 600 livres. Considering the price of a cow at that time in 15-20 livres, there is nothing left but to sincerely sympathize with Monsieur Sanson.
    The size of the executioner's sword was on average 800 to 1500 mm in length, although most often from 1000 to 1200 mm, the width of the blade was from 50 to 80 mm, and the weight was in the range from 1500 to 2300 grams. It goes without saying that there was no standard at all, from the word at all. Weapons were made individually, often for a specific executioner, taking into account his physical parameters and capabilities. The same Monsieur Sanson, mentioned above, described his sword in his famous memoirs as follows: “This weapon was four feet long, with a thin but rather wide blade. The end of the sword was rounded, and in the middle of the blade was a recess in which the word "Judgment" was carved. The hilt of the sword was wrought iron and was about ten inches long. "
    Sometimes a hole / holes were made at the end of the blade. According to the main version, they were intended for hanging a sword on a wall. According to the other, in the 17th and 18th centuries, executioners put a lead bullet into them to enhance the blow. Although the second version seems to be idiotic. In addition, already in the 18th century, there is a legend that an oblong cavity, partially filled with mercury, was made in the blades of some execution swords. On impact, due to centrifugal acceleration, mercury rushed to the tip of the sword blade, giving its movement additional power. It must be said at once that not a single sword with this cunning "mercury accelerator" is known to weapons experts. There was a story that after 100 executions the executioner buried the sword somewhere in a cemetery, or in a secluded place, because the weapon "who drank so much blood" becomes "black." Actual evidence of burial by executioners of an expensive tool of production does not exist at the moment.
    1. Astra wild2
      Astra wild2 11 October 2021 11: 12
      +1
      Colleague Intruder, you seem to be a doctor, but why such an interest. I have suspicions about your origin: what if Sanson is your relative?
      1. Intruder
        Intruder 11 October 2021 15: 45
        -1
        You seem to be a doctor, but why such an interest. I have suspicions about your origin: what if Sanson is your relative?
        Life, a rather strange thing, sometimes presents some surprises, and unnecessary knowledge of the "internal structure" of not only humans is not redundant in a number of situations and it is better guaranteed to know how and what works there, especially critical systems and organs, for sure defeat of the bio target ! repeat
        PS Madame hi (if you believe in the reincarnatio process - anything is possible bully )
  • Freedim
    Freedim 10 October 2021 23: 46
    +1
    What a humane people these cries are ... At first, the points were cut down, and with the invention of firearms - flies smile
  • dub0vitsky
    dub0vitsky 11 October 2021 01: 12
    0
    Quote: Denis812
    If an obese person comes across, then you need to be sure that you will interrupt his neck the first time.
    Therefore, you attach a lead weight at the end of the sword. There is a small weight with an iron squiggle, which is threaded into a triangle and fixed at the corner, which goes towards the hilt. And in two holes on the sides are stupidly small pins on which wretched nuts are screwed, which just sink into the star-shaped holes.
    Well, that's it, blow - my head rolled.

    And then there are amateurs, as in Russian football - a run for a ruble, a blow for a penny.

    Quote: Denis812
    If an obese person comes across, then you need to be sure that you will interrupt his neck the first time.
    Therefore, you attach a lead weight at the end of the sword. There is a small weight with an iron squiggle, which is threaded into a triangle and fixed at the corner, which goes towards the hilt. And in two holes on the sides are stupidly small pins on which wretched nuts are screwed, which just sink into the star-shaped holes.
    Well, that's it, blow - my head rolled.

    And then there are amateurs, as in Russian football - a run for a ruble, a blow for a penny.

    You described this case so colorfully that it becomes scary to talk to you. It involuntarily comes to mind that you ... (just kidding).
    1. Denis812
      Denis812 11 October 2021 10: 56
      -2
      Yes, no, my grandfather in the village just had exactly the same thing to beat a pig.
      Certainly not a sword, but the meaning is exactly the same and looks exactly the same.
      An iron pin, at the end there are the same holes where you hang the weighting.

      Well, then, I have been living in the EU for the seventh year. And for a year now, my program has been a trip to medieval castles. I have already reviewed about twenty of them, and there is a mandatory part - this is a medieval weapon.
      Well, I've seen enough of this case and read a little of everything.

      But I want to point out your wild imagination. :) I can reassure you, I work in an IT office and have nothing to do with the butcher's craft.
      "The executioner does not know how to breathe! ..
      But still, damn it
      Work in the air
      Working with people. "(C) Vishnevsky
      :)
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 11 October 2021 11: 00
    0
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, colleagues. I was only able to find today. I didn't have a link "Armament".
    Today with "hunger" I climbed to look for something "tasty". And then ..... brrr
  • dub0vitsky
    dub0vitsky 11 October 2021 11: 14
    0
    Quote: Denis812
    Well, I've seen enough of this case and read a little of everything.

    But I want to point out your wild imagination. :) I can reassure you, I work in an IT office

    Especially. The person is not visible behind the figure. There is no worse profession. Don't get carried away, please. And the number in your nickname is suspicious. No, to write 1814, still more optimistic.
    1. Denis812
      Denis812 11 October 2021 11: 31
      -1
      812 is the dialing code of Peter where I am historically from. It's simple :)
  • tank64rus
    tank64rus 11 October 2021 18: 02
    0
    There is a dark pond in the count's park. And it was not without a sword.
  • Daddy pig
    Daddy pig 12 October 2021 01: 35
    0
    Some of the respected experts will be able to tell what kind of garment the executed people have?
    1. acetophenon
      acetophenon 13 October 2021 13: 23
      0
      Presumably the upper part of the jumpsuit (how can they have it there ...) The sleeves remained inside. Buttons visible.
    2. Sharikov Polygraph Poligrafovich
      Sharikov Polygraph Poligrafovich 21 October 2021 23: 24
      0
      You also noticed that all those executed in some
      strange ... PUMPERS ???
      Maybe this is really for
      noble sirs stupidly DO NOT scoff @
      in public, headless ?! :-)))
  • fuffi
    fuffi 13 October 2021 10: 09
    0
    Quote: Astra wild2
    "I'm just in love with the executioner" indeed, the executioners had families. I can't imagine: how can you touch such a person ?!

    see the film "The Last Executioner" in 2005. Times are different, but the essence does not change.
  • Sharikov Polygraph Poligrafovich
    Sharikov Polygraph Poligrafovich 21 October 2021 23: 16
    0
    And if we assume that a retired mercenary
    (landsknecht) got a job as an executioner on retirement ?!
    Well, don't buy him for a new job
    a new working tool, if it is for
    the time of the previous service has already
    get used to your beloved
    weapon and learned to wield it in
    perfection ?! :-)))