Military Review

Russian empire. An honest look

370

Emperor Nicholas II with troops


This article was written in response to Oleg Egorov's article "Nicholas II and the Victory in the First World War."

To be honest, the article itself is of little interest, since it does not operate with facts. There is a set of clichés: "backward country", "archaic state system", "economic backwardness" ... The author has a point of view and brings evidence to it. This cannot be condemned, but if you rely on hard facts, then the point of view can change.

Therefore, we will try to assess the state of the Russian Empire before the First World War with an open mind, based on facts.

Economy


There is an American economist specializing in the economic development of the Russian Empire and the USSR, Paul Gregory. He gives the following assessment of the economy of the Russian Empire before the First World War:

“Russia on the eve of the First World War was one of the main economic powers. It ranked fourth among the five largest industrialized countries. The Russian Empire produced almost the same volume of industrial products as Austria-Hungary, and was the largest producer of agricultural products in Europe. "

Paul Gregory notes:

“In 1861, the volume of production in Russia was about half of the American, 80% of the volume of production in Great Britain and Germany, and only slightly lagged behind the French. In 1913, according to this indicator, Russia almost caught up with England, significantly surpassed France, twice ahead of Austria-Hungary and reached 80% of the production volume in Germany. "

That is, from 1861 to 1913, the growth rates of the Russian economy were higher than in France, Great Britain, Austria-Hungary and were equal to those of Germany.

Some might say that this is just the point of view of Paul Gregory. However, there is research from the Groningen Growth and Development Center led by Angus Maddison. These studies provide us with an opportunity to assess the GDP of leading countries in different eras. For example, in 1900, the GDP of the German Empire was 162 million international Giri-Khamis dollars, for the Russian Empire this figure was $ 335 million, and in 154 the GDP values ​​for Germany and Russia were $ 049 million and $ 1913 million, respectively. the calculation shows that the GDP of Germany has grown by 237 times over 332 years, and by 232 times in the Russian Empire. That is, if these figures are correct, then the Russian GDP in 351-13 grew faster than the German one.

Thus, evaluating the economy of the Russian Empire before the First World War, we can conclude that Russia was inferior in terms of economic indicators to only a few countries and developed quite dynamically, gradually catching up with its competitors.

Education



Ilya Muromets - the first heavy bomber in the world

The main capital of any country in the world is human. And the most important source of human capital formation is the education system.

The imperial government acted as the main guardian of public education. The emphasis in education was on quality. Russian classical education - a gymnasium - prepared minds for public service and the intellectual sphere. The students of the gymnasium received an excellent education that surpasses the level of modern liberal arts universities. At the same time, the gymnasium students mastered mathematics at a level better than the students of modern mathematical special schools. These were not elite educational institutions, but provincial gymnasiums scattered throughout the country.

This system allowed the Russian Empire, despite the insufficient breadth of education coverage of the population, to remain among the most developed states on the planet. Russian scientists were included in the golden fund of world science. The names of Mendeleev, Butlerov, Borodin, Sechenov, Lobachevsky, Mechnikov, Timiryazev, Michurin, Vernadsky, Pavlov, Tsiolkovsky were known to the whole world. By the beginning of the twentieth century, only the breadth of coverage of the country's population with education was insufficient.

However, under Emperor Nicholas II, this situation is radically changing.

So, according to open sources, in the period from 1896 to 1910, 57 thousand primary schools were opened. The number of primary education institutions has doubled compared to the previous time period. 1,5 thousand lower vocational schools, 600 city schools, 1 secondary educational institutions have been created, 323 men's higher educational institutions and 20 women's universities are being opened.

Under Nicholas II, a separate system of higher education for women was created. According to this indicator, the Russian Empire is far ahead of Europe, where universities set quotas for the education of women.

During the reign of Nicholas II, the total expenditures on education and culture increased by 8 times and more than 2 times outstripped the expenditures of France and 1,5 times - of England.

In 1908, compulsory primary education was introduced. By 1916, the proportion of literate youth in the Empire was at least 85%.

Also, during the reign of Nicholas II in Russia, the scale of the higher education system, outstanding for that time, was achieved: 105 universities with 127 thousand students.

The engineering school and higher education in Russia in general in terms of the number of students came out on top in Europe (second in the world after the United States).

Publishing and reading were encouraged in the Russian Empire.

In 1913, the Russian Empire published 34 thousand titles of books with a total circulation of 119 million copies. In Europe, it ranks 2nd after Germany, but Germany's 1st place is due to the fact that a third of German printing houses work on Russian orders.

During the reign of Emperor Nicholas II, the expenses of the Ministry of Public Education increased 2,5 times and, accordingly, their share in the country's budget increased from 2% to 4%.

Health


At the beginning of the twentieth century, Russia was in second place in Europe in terms of the number of doctors.

By 1915, 33,1 thousand doctors of various specialties worked in the country. According to this indicator, the country was second only to Germany (34,1 thousand) and Japan (36,6 thousand).

In 1898, free medical care was introduced in the Russian Empire. To get it, it was enough just to be a citizen of the country.

The Swiss F. Erisman wrote the following about our medicine:

"The medical organization created by the Russian zemstvo was the greatest achievement of our era in the field of social medicine, as it provided free medical care, open to everyone, and also had a deep educational value."

Welfare of the people, social sphere, rights and freedoms of citizens



Trans-Siberian Railway - construction began in 1891 under Emperor Alexander III

The national income of Russia from 1894 to 1914 increased from 8 billion rubles to 24 billion, that is, in 20 years it increased threefold. The amount of taxes per capita in Russia was two times less than in Austria, France and Germany, and four times less than in Great Britain.

The real wage of a worker in Russia (taking into account Russian prices) in 1913 was 85% of the US level and was the second in the world.

American President William Taft, who ruled America in 1909-1913, spoke about the working legislation of the Russian Empire:

"Your Emperor has created such perfect labor legislation that no democratic state can boast of."

Indeed, by 1913, the following were introduced: rationed working hours, compensation in case of accidents, insurance of workers for disability and old age.

The authorities of the Russian Empire at the beginning of the 1th century proclaimed many freedoms for the citizens of the country, including: freedom of speech, press and assembly, freedom of religion and support for various religions and confessions. At this time, there are about 000 print media in the country.

The demographic indicators of the Russian Empire at the beginning of the twentieth century were also outstanding.

So, during the reign of Nicholas II, the country's population increased by 60 million people. And this is exactly that wonderful human capital, the acute shortage of which the country is experiencing now!

Land issue


If we look at the problem objectively, we can see that by 1917 there was no dominance of landowners in the field of agriculture.

By 1917, the area under crops of peasant farms accounted for 89,3% against 10,7% of landlord farms, for cattle - 94,2% against 5,8%, for sheep breeding - 94,3% against 5,7%; horse breeding - 93,8% versus 6,2%; for pig breeding - 94,9% versus 5,1%.

The volume of production of agricultural machinery from 1897 to 1912 increased almost sixfold.

The peasantry in Siberia by 1913 was already noticeably more prosperous than in the European part of Russia, according to B. Brazol, he owned up to 100% of arable land.

Russia, according to 1913 data, was the world's largest exporter of grain, flax, eggs, milk, butter, meat, sugar.

Also, at the beginning of the twentieth century, Russia ranked 1st in the world in terms of the number of horses, cattle, sheep and one of the first in terms of the number of goats and pigs.

Finance



Golden Nikolaev ruble - introduced in 1897

In 1897, Russia officially introduced the gold standard.

Since that time, credit rubles were freely exchanged for gold coins at a fixed rate. This has significantly increased the reliability of Russia in the eyes of foreign investors.

As Paul Gregory writes:

"A distinctive feature of Russian politics in the last quarter of the nineteenth century was its deliberate pursuit of financial stability in order to attract foreign capital."

And this goal was successfully achieved.

If before the introduction of the gold standard, the inflow of foreign investment into the Russian economy in 1885-1897 amounted to about 43 million rubles a year, then in 1897-1913 it reached an average level of 191 million rubles a year. The result is an increase of almost four times.

There is a point of view that foreign investments and large loans in the foreign market were a mistake of the government of the Russian Empire, as they made the country dependent on foreign creditors. Gregory cites a figure of 11% of all net investment in foreign capital. On a national scale, this is not much. The country could have survived the fall of this figure even by 2 times.

According to Paul Gregory:
“Russia started industrialization with surprisingly high levels of domestic savings. This meant that foreign finance had to play only a supporting role in increasing the level of domestic capital accumulation ”.

Thus, the "gold standard" and the attraction of foreign investment is rather a success, and a considerable success.

It should also be noted that in 1917 the Russian gold reserve was the largest in the world and amounted to about 1 tons, and the ruble was the third currency in the world, second only to the dollar and pound sterling.

Conclusion


Paul Gregory, assessing the economy of the Russian Empire, says the following:

“Russia in the 1870s had a sufficiently balanced economy to participate in the industrial revolution. The steps to be taken were fairly obvious: land reform, railroad construction, and educational improvements. "

But it was precisely in these spheres that truly revolutionary changes took place in the country at the end of the XNUMXth and the beginning of the XNUMXth centuries.

By 1913, the Russian Empire took 2nd place in the world in terms of the length of railways.

Peasants in 1916 sowed (on their own and leased land) 89,3% of arable land and owned 94% of the livestock of farm animals.

The progress in the field of education was mentioned above ...

Thus, it can be argued that at the beginning of the twentieth century, large-scale modernization is taking place in Russia, both in the field of economics and in the social sphere.

The economy is rapidly moving from feudal to capitalist. New social strata are being formed: the intelligentsia (doctors, teachers, scientists, engineers and technicians), the proletariat, the industrial and economic elite.

Only the question of the political system remains unresolved, since the old autocratic model of power based on the class of large landowners-landowners by the beginning of the twentieth century had already outlived its own and did not find support in the public consciousness.

And in these conditions, Emperor Nicholas II takes a completely reasonable step and begins a gradual movement towards a constitutional monarchy, trying bloodlessly to solve the problem, which was resolved very dramatically in France and Great Britain. And, I must say, he almost succeeded ...

And they would have succeeded in full, if not for the war ...

But the war should have been won, which is not denied by the respected Oleg Yegorov.

There was no military defeat by 1917. There were failures, but there were also victories: in Galicia, at Przemysl, at Besovets, in the Caucasus, there was a Brusilov breakthrough. These successes should not be viewed with disdain, because it was our Motherland who fought for its future. And who knows, maybe without these victories there would have been no successes of the twentieth century, and maybe there would not have been an independent Russian state in which we still have the happiness of living ...

We need to overcome the opposition of the Soviet Union to the Russian Empire.

Both are our Motherland, and it doesn't matter what it was called and who ruled it. It is important to recognize that both versions of our country have their own achievements and disadvantages. And it is important to respect those people who, with their work, and sometimes at the cost of their lives, moved our country to progress in any era.

And one of these people is undoubtedly Emperor Nicholas II. After all, if we honestly evaluate the information that was given above, then we must admit that he left behind a completely viable country:

- with excellent demographic indicators;
- with high rates of economic growth;
- with good medicine;
- with excellent education;
- with advanced science and engineering school;
- with stable finances.

A country that, in terms of its level of development, was inferior to only a few countries in the world: the USA, Great Britain, Germany, France, but that's all. We were ahead of China, India, Japan, Korea, Turkey, Brazil ...

Where are we now?

And shouldn't we admit that the Russian Empire had a much greater weight and level of development in the world than the modern Russian Federation?

And that the economic and scientific breakthrough that was made by the Soviet Union in the twentieth century was provided with the resources that the Russian Empire was able to accumulate and, first of all, its wonderful system of education and science, which prepared excellent personnel for the new country. And cadres, as you know, decide everything ...

Let's end this article with the words of Paul Gregory:

“From my point of view, if Russia after the war had kept on the path of a market model of development, the growth rates of its economy would have been no less than before the war. In this case, the pace of its development would be ahead of the average European one.
There is, however, every reason to believe that by overcoming many institutional obstacles (by completing the agrarian reform, improving the system of legislation in the field of business regulation), the growth rates of post-war Russia would exceed pre-war indicators.
Any of the proposed scenarios theoretically defines the position of that hypothetical Russia as one of the most developed national economies - not as rich as, say, Germany or France, but close to them. "

One can only dream of such a scenario for modern Russia, because unfortunately, there are no real prerequisites for such a development today. It is hoped that they will appear over time.
Author:
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  1. alimov76
    alimov76 27 September 2021 18: 08
    +39
    Crunchy roll, crusto roll
    It's nice to crunch there
    The rest of the way in the paddock
    Quietly stand still
    After all, there are many of them, but there are few of us
    Cattle place you need to know
    1. Crowe
      Crowe 27 September 2021 18: 54
      +39
      This is yes.
      This article was written in response to Oleg Egorov's article "Nicholas II and the Victory in the First World War."
      The answer of the "crystal bakers" to the "damned komunyakam", so skat, "tit for tat", or "our answer to Chamberlain" is vice versa))
      1. Svarog
        Svarog 27 September 2021 20: 12
        +30
        Quote: Crowe
        The answer of the "crystal bakers" to the "damned komunyakam", so skat, "tit for tat", or "our answer to Chamberlain" is vice versa))

        Is this the answer? Some kind of hallucinations .. if only .. if only ..
        Here are some of the author's ridiculous arguments ..
        Economy

        There is an American economist

        Russia on the eve of the First World War was one of the main economic powers. It ranked fourth among the five largest industrialized countries.

        The link of the baker to the capitalist ... there is, they say, such an American economist ..
        And in general, what difference does it make where the country is if the country's population is poor and uneducated?
        Thus, the "gold standard" and the attraction of foreign investment is rather a success, and a considerable success.

        No specifics ... how many factories and ships were built? Liberals are still running after investments .. only to zero sense .. what then, what now .. And the USSR did not bathe .. they just took and became the second economy in the world .. and this is after the hardest three wars in fact ..
        Health

        At the beginning of the twentieth century, Russia was in second place in Europe in terms of the number of doctors

        A powerful argument .. and all the doctors served the crushers .. a personal doctor was attached to each trip .. Well, the people were dying from domestic syphilis and the infant mortality rate was the highest in the world ..
        In general, the article ........ disgusting, both in meaning and in content .. There are no numbers, comparisons .. a link to some American economist .. hmm .. Barely had to pull an owl on a globe and it looks like it all very unlikely, for people who know at least a little the history of that period ..
        1. Crowe
          Crowe 27 September 2021 20: 55
          +28
          I agree. It is strange that there is no Olgovich & K, otherwise the poor owl would have got it now. Long ago I noticed that they had the impression that just yesterday the candle factories were nationalized and the slaves fled from the estate - as much anger and aggression as the "guardians" of the locals already have ours, of today's "autocracy".
          1. Stas157
            Stas157 28 September 2021 05: 47
            +23
            ... Russian empire. An honest look

            "Now they will lie" - I thought. And for sure.

            ... let's try to assess the state of the Russian Empire before the First World War with an open mind, based on facts

            And the facts are the private opinion of some American economist.

            The article is the regrets of the crystal baker for the lost autocracy, and that country is a prison of nations.
            1. Oleg Anurin
              Oleg Anurin 30 September 2021 16: 59
              +1
              I support. For those who are interested in an alternative point of view on this topic, I suggest that you familiarize yourself with: https://felix-edmund.livejournal.com/564947.html I always thought that a well-fed and happy person would not go to war ...
          2. Region-25.rus
            Region-25.rus 28 September 2021 08: 06
            +12
            no Olgovich & K
            do not remember ... in sue laughing
        2. ziqzaq
          ziqzaq 29 September 2021 19: 03
          0
          The first bearing plant in 1932, the Soviet period - the highest peak of the development of the Russian people ...
        3. Mikhalych
          Mikhalych 16 October 2021 08: 37
          0
          Quote: Svarog
          And in general, what difference does it make where the country is if the country's population is poor and uneducated?

          You put a question mark yourself and I will answer you. I am 70 years old, my grandfather, unlike you and me, lived at that time. His father was a railway. workers - knocked on the axle boxes with a hammer, probably did other work. So I don't need to sing arias about poverty. Beggars do not make revolutions. Incidentally, I recently watched a 1910 Russian film about Moscow. In one episode, a winter Moscow bazaar was shown. I assure you there are such huge sturgeons and in such numbers you will not see even in the top five.
      2. antivirus
        antivirus 28 September 2021 08: 16
        +12
        "Petrovich" replied about the sound of crunching rolls.


        everything was good ...
        there are no words and letters for the joy of the article.
        by 1939, "" "" illiteracy "" "" was eliminated - the author was doing well already at the beginning of the century, etc.
        write empty about bias on other points

        only literate people were in the western provinces (they went on a free voyage - there was always separatism) AND THE ROS CENTER OF EMPIRE - THE CORE OF DUTY - ILLITERATE AND ILLEGAL - THE CAUSE OF REVOLUTIONS.
        and the east and south - even more illiterate - the Middle Ages and the archaic ... so lovely to modern tourists.
      3. Akuzenka
        Akuzenka 28 September 2021 10: 00
        +8
        The students of the gymnasium received an excellent education that surpasses the level of modern liberal arts universities. At the same time, the gymnasium students mastered mathematics at a level better than the students of modern mathematical special schools.
        Not even funny. From the crunch of buns behind the ears, the brain shuts down. The crystal bakers know that in those days about 5% of the population of Ingushetia lived well, about the same as now. The rest survived, as they do now. All that remains is to elevate the Emperor to the throne, and "goodness in the air" will come, so dear to the heart of the oppressors and the world eaters.
        1. kig
          kig 29 September 2021 02: 43
          +10
          Wiki:

          By 1914, there were 1000 students per 59 people of the total population: in Russia 143, in Austria - 152, in Great Britain - 175, in Germany - 213, in the USA - 148, in France - 146, in Japan - XNUMX people.

          Primary school coverage of children aged 8 to 11 by 1914 was 30,1% in the Russian Empire as a whole (in cities - 46,6%, in rural areas - 28,3%)

          According to Nikolai Yerofeyev's data, per capita spending on education was still meager compared to developed countries. In England they were 2 rubles. 84 rubles per person, in France - 2 rubles. 11 K., in Germany - 1 p. 89 k., And in Russia - 21 kopecks.


          In my opinion, these are facts. And what is great about them?
          1. andybuts
            andybuts 29 September 2021 18: 03
            +1
            Igor, you can't make an honest look on these facts
    2. Pilot
      Pilot 27 September 2021 18: 59
      +23
      Yes, I also thought about a roll, but not everything is so simple. In general, when the country is stormy and society hurts, some weak individuals begin to rush to extremes, turn to different charlatans, join sects of different orientations, etc. Here I also refer monarchists to such poor fellows, well, what can you do about them, but these are just flowers when in society there are already bulk of admirers of feudalism. ,,Everything is fine! We fall! ,, (c)
      1. bober1982
        bober1982 27 September 2021 19: 12
        .
        Quote: Pilot
        Vapshche when the country

        Quote: Pilot
        well, they are like that, what can you do

        When Noah uttered the words of a curse, Canaan turned black, he became a negro.
        The branch of the Hamites originates from him.
        1. Civil
          Civil 27 September 2021 19: 31
          +25
          80% of the illiterate population officially... Then you don't even need to crunch a bun.
          Like the stewardess, it's time to bury the crispy roll. Autocracy in1917, like the new tsars, is a dead end.
          1. Vadim237
            Vadim237 29 September 2021 01: 14
            -1
            For 22 years, the problem of illiteracy, RI, if it had not been destroyed, could have been completely overcome, whatever you may say, 22 years during which the Bolsheviks achieved this for a significant time period and it was not out of nowhere. And most likely RI would have already transformed into a parliamentary republic.
      2. Barberry25
        Barberry25 27 September 2021 21: 05
        .
        the key problem is that the communists, that the monarchists are playing Ukrainian, an attempt to prove their case in history instead of building and creating now
      3. zenion
        zenion 28 September 2021 00: 25
        +8
        As Russia began to fall after the Crimean War, it fell without interruption. The fall was stopped by the Soviet regime, which defeated Nazi Europe under Hitler. They could not forgive this. And rightly said Lenin and Stalin after such victories there will be a clash between the classes that remained in the USSR. They taught the people, they taught, but they did not teach the main thing - one must fight for the rule of one's country and not succumb to lies. But take out and put the blue pants and rubber in your mouth. Suck what they give you.
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 28 September 2021 09: 25
          .
          Quote: zenion
          The fall was stopped by the Soviet government

          The so-called "conscientious" power (never elected by anyone) led to the most terrible geopolitical catastrophe in the world91, coupons for women's panties once a quarter and the extinction of the Russian people.
          1. ivan2022
            ivan2022 28 September 2021 19: 48
            +5
            Uh-huh ... Olgovich is angry ... The red master did not give cowards to the great people.! Horrible!!!
            But about extinction, this is perhaps a claim to the white master of the Red master for 30 years as dumb ..... Since then, the extinction has gone, probably from an excess of cowards?
    3. knn54
      knn54 27 September 2021 19: 20
      +11
      Russia was an empire, but not a nation state. Like Austria-Hungary.
      Unlike Germany, Japan.UK
      Plus the Anglophiles of the Court., Who dragged into WWI the state that did not manage to move away from the revolution and the Russo-Japanese war.
      And betrayed the Emperor at a crucial moment.
      The author listed only positive aspects, which is not enough for an honest look.
      1. zenion
        zenion 28 September 2021 00: 32
        +1
        Russia is not lucky with plans. If everything went as the White Guard wanted, then it would not even have to fool around that the taiga is on fire. Wouldn't have to worry about borders. With the current politicians, the Moscow principality would have been enough.
        1. Basil50
          Basil50 28 September 2021 06: 19
          +10
          The author initially set himself the task of lying and more with obligatory links to * the world's best minds *.
          To understand that the author is lying, it is enough to KNOW that in the RUSSIAN EMPIRE there were no CITIZENS, there were PERSONS. And of course the fact that everyone was divided not only by rank but also by class. The peasants - more than 80% of the population - were OFFICIALLY registered as a * vile class *.
        2. Vadim237
          Vadim237 29 September 2021 01: 15
          -3
          Taiga should burn - without this, nature is not especially on permafrost.
    4. zenion
      zenion 29 September 2021 18: 57
      -1
      As soon as I read the word of honor in the headline, or the pure truth, as it is already clear, there will be no honor or conscience here, this is the way it is.
  2. rocket757
    rocket757 27 September 2021 18: 08
    +2
    Different opinions were, are and will be!
    The descendants do not always truthfully and reasonably assess the achievements / failures of their ancestors !!!
    IT'S STUPID AND NEVER GIVES GOOD!
    1. zenion
      zenion 28 September 2021 00: 33
      +4
      Exactly, as one smart guy said, there is my opinion and the rest are wrong.
      1. rocket757
        rocket757 28 September 2021 08: 30
        +2
        Quote: zenion
        Exactly, as one smart guy said, there is my opinion and the rest are wrong.

        It's RAKE! Some of the most ancient ... but we are also trampling on them. Very stupid.
        It is not inspiring that everyone else is jumping on the same rake no less!
  3. Vladimir1155
    Vladimir1155 27 September 2021 18: 10
    .
    the author is absolutely right in everything, he just forgot the basis of morality and conscience, that is, religion, and faith fell by 1917 against the background of prosperity and therefore the country collapsed
    1. bar
      bar 27 September 2021 18: 35
      +20
      And the author also forgot the regularly recurring droughts, crop failures and famines in various provinces. Despite the fact that the economy was "dynamically developing", and in the sale of grain, Russia was in the forefront. So not everyone got crispy buns.
      1. 210ox
        210ox 27 September 2021 18: 48
        +16
        Yes, and here's what's interesting. Why, with all these remarkable achievements, the people continued to live for the most part in poverty in comparison with other countries. And how should the "clever tsar" try to get everyone from top to bottom?
        1. Cowbra
          Cowbra 27 September 2021 19: 31
          +22
          Interestingly, let's take the army. The planes were Nyuporas with Farman, plus a couple of Muromtsev, machine guns - English, artillery - French, even helmets - and those of Adrian! And the industry is growing and engineers are dark !!! And the rolls are all crunchy and crunchy ...
          1. gansshlosser
            gansshlosser 27 September 2021 19: 53
            +15
            And now, just hurt yourself! Audi, Toyota, Airbus, Boeing. From domestic - frets, horses and what kind of AvtoVAZ from the Moscow region ..
            1. Cowbra
              Cowbra 27 September 2021 20: 08
              .
              Gazelles, Kamazes, GAZs, ZILKs, military aviation - in general, all Russian, they also sell abroad, but someone crunches everything with their rolls ...
              Percentage - production / purchase of a car
              According to the Ministry of Industry and Trade, in 2019 the volume of the car market in the Russian Federation amounted to 1,85 million units, and in 2020 - 1,68 million units.

              At the same time, the Ministry of Industry and Trade expects an increase in the production of cars in the Russian Federation this year by almost 5%, to 1,49 million units. According to the ministry, in 2019, the production of cars in the Russian Federation amounted to 1,71 million units, and in 2020 it decreased by 17%, to 1,42 million units.

              Crunch-crunch
              1. bober1982
                bober1982 27 September 2021 20: 42
                -2
                Quote: Cowbra
                According to the Ministry of Industry and Trade

                Quote: Cowbra
                Crunch-crunch

                Right leg, crunch-in half! Left - crunch, in half!
                That's what these trams bring!
              2. Asad
                Asad 28 September 2021 03: 19
                +6
                Please clarify about ZILki?
              3. Region-25.rus
                Region-25.rus 28 September 2021 08: 09
                +3
                Gazelles, Kamaz, GAZs, ZILki, military aviation - generally all Russian
                only components, especially in the civilian sector ... whose? There was a tension with the chips and ... a lot of things got up (not the same in industry).
                1. Cowbra
                  Cowbra 28 September 2021 08: 12
                  +1
                  Compared to the situation when they could not stupidly make cartridges - they bought them from the Japanese - heaven and earth. Their industry was in the Empire. Yes? And where? Why did Slashchov quarrel with Wrangel? Because the French ordered Wrangel to retake the industry. Russian, yes, only it was all French in Russia in the Donbass
              4. Turist1996
                Turist1996 30 September 2021 06: 14
                +1
                Yeah, only all of the above was created in the USSR - both GAZ and KamAZ, I generally keep quiet about aircraft (the basis of the military fleet is made up of Soviet developments). By the way, ZIL was successfully killed by modern crushers.
            2. Akuzenka
              Akuzenka 28 September 2021 12: 38
              0
              And now, just hurt yourself! Audi, Toyota, Airbus, Boeing. From domestic - frets, horses and what kind of AvtoVAZ from the Moscow region ..
              And this, colleague, is a preparation for the new generations of "crystal bakers". In 20-30 years, when the country is handed over (God forbid), there will be those who, sitting in the posts of small Gauleiters, will remember the present "blessed" times.
              1. Trapperxnumx
                Trapperxnumx 28 September 2021 13: 45
                +2
                Quote: AKuzenka
                And now, just hurt yourself! Audi, Toyota, Airbus, Boeing. From domestic - frets, horses and what kind of AvtoVAZ from the Moscow region ..
                And this, colleague, is a preparation for the new generations of "crystal bakers". In 20-30 years, when the country is handed over (God forbid), there will be those who, sitting in the posts of small Gauleiters, will remember the present "blessed" times.

                You don't follow the political situation well. The Communist Party of the Russian Federation is now in vogue, even Navalny and others like him are actively drowning for the communists, urging them to vote for them "if only not the United Russia party." So in 20 years we may again start shouting "glory to the KPSS". Although no, why is it us? More precisely, YOU will shout like that. But will this help Russia?
                1. Akuzenka
                  Akuzenka 29 September 2021 11: 21
                  0
                  You don't follow the political situation well. The Communist Party of the Russian Federation is now in vogue, even Navalny and others like him are actively drowning for the communists, urging them to vote for them "if only not the United Russia party." So in 20 years we may again start shouting "glory to the KPSS". Although no, why is it us? More precisely, YOU will shout like that. But will this help Russia?
                  And why follow the political fashion if there is an understanding of the situation and common sense? Zyuganov and his KPRF are the same cog in the state machine, as are the United Russia and the Liberal Democratic Party. Unless he added a little influence, purely representative. And that's all. He voted for raising the retirement age ?! I never shouted and I'm not going to. And to ascribe your Wishlist to me - to the garden! Judging by your comment, you are a fashionista and you yourself will shout what will be in fashion, even to Zyuganov, even to Irinovsky, or to Navalny! Good luck to you.
                  1. Alf
                    Alf 30 September 2021 20: 31
                    +3
                    Quote: AKuzenka
                    He voted for raising the retirement age ?!

                    1. Akuzenka
                      Akuzenka 2 October 2021 11: 37
                      0
                      So be it. But for some reason, the Communist Party of the Russian Federation brought people to rallies against "Platon", who beat the carriers' wallet (and ours got it), but did not bring people out against raising the retirement age.
                      1. Alf
                        Alf 2 October 2021 17: 00
                        +1
                        Quote: AKuzenka
                        So be it. But for some reason, the Communist Party of the Russian Federation brought people to rallies against "Platon", who beat the carriers' wallet (and ours got it), but did not bring people out against raising the retirement age.

                        In Samara, it was they who took people to the rallies.
          2. Aviator_
            Aviator_ 27 September 2021 20: 14
            +12
            plus a couple of "Muromtsev"

            Well, "Muromtsev" is still a little more, but they are all on foreign engines, and this airplane had lost the title of "best-most", which is very fond of crystal bakers, by 1915,
            1. Pushkar
              Pushkar 27 September 2021 20: 52
              +15
              Quote: Aviator_
              Well, "Muromtsev" is still a little more

              Specifically - Russia entered the war with 16 "Muromtsy". The Allies and Germany - with hundreds of bombers. It was just a matter of aircraft engines, which were not produced in Russia at all.
              1. Aviator_
                Aviator_ 27 September 2021 21: 08
                +8
                Estessno, there was no aviation engine building in the Republic of Ingushetia. And Muromtsy became ordinary planes very soon, no matter how proud they were in 1914.
                1. avg avg
                  avg avg 28 September 2021 04: 57
                  -5
                  And in the modern realities Muromtsy vaasche nothing!
              2. vtiper
                vtiper 27 September 2021 21: 40
                +20
                Not only aircraft engines were not produced, steam turbines for ships were not produced either. Battleships, cruisers and destroyers built after Tsushima are all on British turbines.
                All motor schools were created in the USSR, not in the Republic of Ingushetia.
                1. The comment was deleted.
                2. The comment was deleted.
                3. Dmitry from Voronezh
                  28 September 2021 01: 34
                  .
                  Aircraft engines were produced, little, of course, very little, under foreign licenses. Most of them were purchased abroad.
                  And steam turbines were being built. Read the internet.
                  “On the eve of World War I, steam ship turbines in Russia were built exclusively for warships. destroyers and light cruisers were built at the Metal and Russian-Baltic plants, in the Society of Nikolaev factories and shipyards, at the Putilov shipyard and the Russian-Baltic plant. "
                  As for propulsion schools, think for yourself: what kind of engineers created engines in the USSR: the French? Englishmen? maybe the Chinese? Not at all - Russian engineers educated in the empire. Others in the 1920s. it simply did not exist and could not come from anywhere.
                  1. EvilLion
                    EvilLion 28 September 2021 16: 29
                    +1
                    One design engineer requires dozens of production engineers and field engineers. You can tear the anus to overpower the production of power plants for ships, collecting a significant percentage of competent engineering staff for this business in order to bend someone there because of the straits, but not be able to make tens of thousands of banal trucks that are needed in the country every day and hour ... But the battleship is visible, and the truck is not very much. As in Ancient Egypt, 4-5 thousand people built a useless pyramid, which onlookers are now staring at, tens of thousands dug irrigation structures, which are now only the archelogues' business.
              3. Trapperxnumx
                Trapperxnumx 28 September 2021 13: 47
                +2
                Quote: Pushkar
                The Allies and Germany - with hundreds of bombers.

                Do not take it for work - tell me the exact figures for the number of "hundreds of bombers" AT THE BEGINNING of the war in Germany and other Europe.
          3. victor50
            victor50 27 September 2021 21: 42
            +2
            Quote: Cowbra
            pair "Muromtsev"

            like, also with foreign motors
          4. Dmitry from Voronezh
            28 September 2021 01: 17
            -9
            From 1914 to 1918, the Russian Empire produced about 7600 guns of various calibers. This is more than production in Italy and Austria-Hungary. Release of shells in 1914-1916 in RI about 46200. This is almost the same as Italy and Austria-Hungary jointly produced. For the production of aircraft - RI in 1914-1916. produced about 3700 pcs. while Italy and Austria-Hungary - about 1640 and 1080 pcs.
            1. Alex_1973
              Alex_1973 28 September 2021 07: 15
              +13
              Why are you comparing Russia with Italy and Austria-Hungary, which is not with Germany, France, the United States, Britain, probably because the comparison will turn out to be very sour. Another would be to compare with Luxembourg, so it would be just a little bit. laughing
              1. Region-25.rus
                Region-25.rus 28 September 2021 08: 15
                +8
                which is not with Germany, France, USA, Britain,
                so in this case, the "owl on the globe" will not fit! And so squeals like a cut! laughing
            2. Region-25.rus
              Region-25.rus 28 September 2021 08: 21
              +10
              about 7600 guns of various calibers.
              is it considered a lot in 4 years?
              Release of shells in 1914-1916 in RI about 46200
              also apparently a lot? That's why 3-5 German shots were answered with one. Moreover, they took receipts from the officers that "they would not release more than a specified minimum." Collocation "shell hunger" nothing to say?
              А "one rifle for three"? Oh yeah .... it was in Stalingrad, in the 42nd. There is even a true source - film "Enemy at the Gates" good Only for some reason sailors in Petrograd, in 1917, often with "Arisaks" and not with Orthodox Mosinks. Strange, huh?
            3. Akuzenka
              Akuzenka 28 September 2021 12: 42
              +8
              Release of shells in 1914-1916 in RI about 46200.
              Oh, what a power !!!!!! You at least specify how many shells were spent, during artillery preparation the French, Germans, British, and compare with RI. Are you okay with arithmetic, I hope? And then compare with the number of shells produced that you brought. And this is in 2 years. And for all guns, including naval ones, of all calibers. And be horrified by this power !!!!!
            4. EvilLion
              EvilLion 28 September 2021 16: 32
              +2
              Well, that's why Austria-Hungary lost the war. By the way, ours beat exactly the Austrians, when the German Germans themselves appeared at the front, whose materiel was much better (in the same "Schweik" it is described that the Germans looked at the Austrians as rogues), then the Russian soldiers could not do anything special to them and German losses in the east are small.
            5. The comment was deleted.
            6. andybuts
              andybuts 29 September 2021 18: 30
              +2
              here is a comparison

              slightly not in favor of RI
          5. Olgovich
            Olgovich 28 September 2021 09: 22
            .
            Quote: Cowbra
            Interestingly, let's take the army. Aircraft - polls Nieupora with Farman

            Roosia is the world leader in naval aviation: the best naval aircraft are Russian, the first AUG is Russian, the first sea bomber with a telegraph is Russian, the first flight beyond the Arctic Circle is ours.
            1. The comment was deleted.
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich 28 September 2021 14: 06
                .
                Quote: Region-25.rus
                aviamatka "this is far from an Aviation IMPACT Group.

                Led by an IMPACT aircraft carrier that can bomb a small country in the Stone Age. Well, or drown a couple of the same (hello Midway). AUG is an organized force, a squad of ships

                this AUG was created for the FIRST TIME in the world by Russia and the world's first Pearl Harbor was carried out by RUSSIA in WWI

                Learn-https: // topwar.ru/90713-tegi-samyy-pervyy-udar-russkiy-prikaz-227.html
                Quote: Region-25.rus
                the best sea planes - Russian
                which ones? Farmers, Nieuporas, Vickers, Morans ... and others?

                what a startling ignorance:
                Since 1913, a large design and construction of domestic seaplanes has been carried out. Projects of sea planes were created that surpassed the foreign ones and soon displaced them from Russian naval aviation. This was done by the Russian engineers Grigorovich, Villish, Engels, Sedelnikov, Fride, Shishmarev, as well as the design office of the Russian-Baltic Carriage Works and the Aviation Test Station.

                15% of the aircraft produced in Russia was of water purpose, this was not the case anywhere in the world, and Russia was second only to Great Britain in the number of aircraft carriers, and was the recognized leader among all countries in the success of naval aviation.

                The Russian fleet used some of the world's best seaplanes M-5 (scout, artillery spotter, bomber), M-9 (heavy seaplane for bombing coastal targets, batteries and ships), M-11 (the world's first flying fighter boat) all planes were Russian-made, designer D.P. Grigorovich, some planes had unique equipment: they were equipped with radio stations with a communication range of more than 40 km and cameras. The planes created by Grigorovich were very easy to fly and maneuverable: their models were "blown" in one of the world's best wind tunnels of that time, located in St. Petersburg.

                By the beginning of 1917, the Black Sea Aviation had 120 aircraft, almost all of them were domestic, Russian-made.
                1. Region-25.rus
                  Region-25.rus 28 September 2021 15: 13
                  +1
                  as always - "blah-blah-blah .." good Why then was the war wasted? Oh yes. Apparently the Bolsheviks distributed German money to the troops and spread it with propaganda?
                  Of course, I read the article on VO. wink
                  This was carried out by Russian engineers Grigorovich, Willish, Engels, Sedelnikov, Fride, Shishmarev, as well as the design bureau of the Russian-Baltic Carriage Works and the Aviation Test Station.
                  and I also read a book (such a fat one) about the aviation of the Republic of Ingushetia (the number of ideas and incarnations was impressive) nothing we did not have? was of course. Only in what quantities and qualities? here in the next branch one of your colleagues - a monarchist-baker compared (the military production of the Republic of Ingushetia exclusively with Austria-Hungary and Italy laughing But even with Germany, France and Britain. With which we have the number of these same weapons (almost any) differed by orders of magnitude (downward).
                  the world's first Pearl Harbor was carried out by RUSSIA in WWI
                  melted a bunch of battleships with aviation? wink Or a few 50 kilo bombs is already a universal scale? Think small laughing (apparently the crunch of buns suppresses all thoughts)
                  and in terms of the number of aircraft carriers, Russia was second only to Great Britain
                  there were no aircraft carriers)) There were air transports. And these are far from those aircraft carriers that you are trying to suck out of your finger by pulling an owl on a globe. wink
                  By the way, I'm doing someone else's work wink http://armedman.ru/korabli/1900-1918-korabli/avianostsyi-v-pervoy-mirovoy-voyne.html
                  Where is there something like Pearl Harbor? I see only a fly elephant wink
                  1. Olgovich
                    Olgovich 28 September 2021 15: 31
                    .
                    Quote: Region-25.rus
                    as always - "blah-blah-blah .."

                    the FACTS are given in response to the blank cc
                    Quote: Region-25.rus
                    Why then was the war wasted?

                    belay fool
                    your Brest betrayal was recognized only by you and your masters, the German-Turkish invaders. NOBODY has recognized this your yu anymore
                    Quote: Region-25.rus
                    But even with Germany, France and Britain. With which we have the number of these same weapons (almost any) differed by orders (downward).

                    fool lol
                    Quote: Region-25.rus
                    melted a bunch of battleships with aviation? Or a few 50 kilo bombs is already a universal scale?

                    sunk by MARINE aviation as part of AUG SHIPS in a CLOSED bay - and this is the FIRST TIME in the world
                    Quote: Region-25.rus
                    there were no aircraft carriers)) There were air transports

                    you will first learn the definition of "aircraft carriers", dunno. Then come.
                    1. Foul skeptic
                      Foul skeptic 28 September 2021 18: 02
                      +1
                      sunk by MARINE aviation as part of AUG SHIPS in a CLOSED bay - and this is the FIRST TIME in the world

                      Is there any fundamental difference in comparison with the sinking of Turkish transport and the tug at Eceabat on August 17, 2015 by seaplanes with Ben-Mai-Shri? It is not entirely clear what counts in the raid on Zonguldak as something that was not there before. Including with the participation of the Russian Empire - April 12 or October 25, 1915. Just because the journalists wrote about one event, but not about another?
                      you will first learn the definition of "aircraft carriers", dunno. Then come.

                      In the Russian Empire, were there aircraft-carrying ships with a landing deck in the First World War? Then why is this comparison with Great Britain?
                      1. Olgovich
                        Olgovich 29 September 2021 07: 11
                        -7
                        Is there any fundamental difference in comparison with the sinking of Turkish transport and the tug at Eceabat on August 17, 2015 by seaplanes with Ben-Mai-Shri? It is not entirely clear what counts in the raid on Zonguldak as something that was not there before.

                        read the recommended article again and then, maybe 3 times, it will come.

                        In the Russian Empire, were there aircraft-carrying ships with a landing deck in the First World War?

                        Avianos - a class of warships, intended for basing on board and for combat use of aviation groups in sea areas, including those remote from the base of the aircraft carrier.
                        This is what the Russian aircraft carriers were.
                      2. Foul skeptic
                        Foul skeptic 29 September 2021 10: 53
                        +1
                        read the recommended article again and then, maybe 3 times, it will come.

                        It will come ... why specifically you Do you think that there are fundamental differences from other cases of the use of naval aviation (including in the composition of formations)? There is no answer to this in the article, at least read it. It is only in your head. But you are embarrassed to show it to the world.
                        Avianosets is a class of warships designed for basing on board and for combat use of aviation groups in sea areas, including those remote from the base of the aircraft carrier.
                        This is what the Russian aircraft carriers were.

                        How could my question imply such an answer, if it were the answer to the essence of the question?
                        Because if you master Wikipedia a little further than the first sentence, then
                        A distinctive feature is that aircraft carriers are equipped with a flight deck and other means of ensuring takeoff, landing and basing of aircraft ...

                        Did the Russian seaplane transport have this distinctive feature of an aircraft carrier?
                      3. Olgovich
                        Olgovich 29 September 2021 13: 57
                        -7
                        Quote: Nefarious skeptic
                        It will come ... why do you specifically think that there are fundamental differences from other cases of the use of naval aviation (including in the composition of formations)?

                        I have no control over your post.
                        Quote: Nefarious skeptic
                        Is my question

                        me to answer your question.
                        The definition of an aircraft carrier is known and Russian aircraft carriers meet it.
                        Quote: Nefarious skeptic
                        In December 2014, an air formation was formed of 3 seaplane transports, 2 cruisers, 10 destroyers and 10 submarines to attack the base in Cuxhaven.

                        nonsense.

                        All to freedom! ...
            2. Foul skeptic
              Foul skeptic 28 September 2021 18: 09
              0
              first AUG-Russian

              British. In December 2014, an air formation of 3 seaplane transports, 2 cruisers, 10 destroyers and 10 submarines was formed to attack the base in Cuxhaven.
        2. Vladimir1155
          Vladimir1155 27 September 2021 22: 38
          -9
          Quote: 210ox
          the people continued to live for the most part in poverty in comparison with other countries
          what nonsense! false stereotype, it was always bad for the poor in all countries, read Zola, Oh Henry, Dickens
      2. Vladimir1155
        Vladimir1155 27 September 2021 22: 40
        .
        Quote: bar
        So not everyone got crispy buns.

        mind you, the tsar bought bread for the starving provinces at his own expense, an example is the incident of Gurko + Lidval
        1. bar
          bar 28 September 2021 07: 27
          +14
          Quote: vladimir1155
          the tsar bought bread for the starving provinces at his own expense

          Apparently we had a poor king, he bought little. Otherwise the people would not die of hunger.
        2. Valerikk
          Valerikk 4 October 2021 17: 31
          0
          Quote: vladimir1155
          Quote: bar
          So not everyone got crispy buns.

          mind you, the tsar bought bread for the starving provinces at his own expense, an example is the incident of Gurko + Lidval

          I suppose I invested my last money in it. You have nothing left for yourself
    2. nnm
      nnm 27 September 2021 19: 19
      +22
      It was not faith that fell, but the church that used it for its own purposes trampled it into the mud. Look at the characters-priests from Pushkin, Saltykov-Shchedrin, etc. It's not just that.
      1. Region-25.rus
        Region-25.rus 28 September 2021 08: 16
        +9
        Look at the characters-priests from Pushkin, Saltykov-Shchedrin, etc. It's not just that.
        why go far? And now there are enough examples.
        1. The comment was deleted.
          1. Region-25.rus
            Region-25.rus 28 September 2021 08: 22
            +4
            It's just that we are now talking about a different historical period.
            I know hi But the historical parallels have not yet been canceled, it seems))
            1. nnm
              nnm 28 September 2021 08: 27
              +1
              It's right. As someone said - "history teaches us only that no one learns from it" (not a quote, but close in meaning).
        2. Akuzenka
          Akuzenka 28 September 2021 12: 47
          +3
          why go far? And now there are enough examples.
          Yeah, as the USSR collapsed, the clergymen crawled out of all the cracks at once. Under the USSR there were believers, and now there are businessmen from religion. Moreover, in RI - the same picture, only the clergy had more power.
    3. bober1982
      bober1982 27 September 2021 20: 05
      .
      Quote: vladimir1155
      and faith fell by 1917

      Here are the prophecies of John of Kronstadt:
      For unbelief, drunkenness and debauchery, troubles follow troubles ...: shameful war, impoverishment of the people, revolution, hunger strike, cholera, rebellious two Dumas ...
      These are the punishments of God for apostasy from the faith ...
      1. nnm
        nnm 28 September 2021 08: 30
        +7
        "Truly I say to you: on May 4, 1925, the Earth will hit the celestial axis!"
        1. bober1982
          bober1982 28 September 2021 08: 49
          0
          Quote: nnm
          Truly I tell you

          Daria Petrovna, like any woman, was overly impressionable, how could she be put on a par with Father John himself.
          1. nnm
            nnm 28 September 2021 08: 58
            +4
            Why not?
            Note that I did not even ask for a link to the original source of the statement in the end.
            I understand that in the Russian Orthodox Church there are truly believers, but I think that they are a minority. The golden calf corrupted the church too. He corrupted along the entire vertical, corrupted hopelessly and, apparently, forever. Therefore, faith is one thing, but the church is completely different.
            1. bober1982
              bober1982 28 September 2021 09: 01
              -5
              Quote: nnm
              Therefore, faith is one

              ...... and demons believe and tremble
    4. zenion
      zenion 28 September 2021 00: 35
      +8
      Faith fell when she began to own lands and slaves. In this case, the church had more in store than the tsarist power. It was necessary for the rulers to borrow money from the church.
  4. Bolt cutter
    Bolt cutter 27 September 2021 18: 14
    +32
    Why, then, did not rotten tomatoes and curses fly at Lenin on an armored car? Obviously, the picture was not so idyllic.
    I read it - from the crunch of a French roll, my ears were already blocked.
  5. mz
    mz 27 September 2021 18: 17
    +24
    What was it? An honest look? In an article of truth, it is good if 5% ...
    1. Rakovor
      Rakovor 27 September 2021 18: 23
      +23
      This is probably a clone Olgovich wrote, the style is very much the same.))
      1. Doccor18
        Doccor18 27 September 2021 19: 20
        +23
        Quote: Rakovor
        This is probably a clone Olgovich wrote, the style is very much the same.))

        She, Olgovich, even with passion and faith ...
        And here it's so ... just ...

        There is an American economist specializing in the economic development of the Russian Empire and the USSR, Paul Gregory. He gives the following assessment of the economy of the Russian Empire before the First World War:

        Specialist for Russia ...
        But the professor of police law of the Russian Empire Nikolai Nikolayevich Belyavsky wrote that almost 27% of the total income received by the budget in 1908-1913. there were revenues from the vodka monopoly (3993 million rubles). Over 17 years (1887-1913), 2326 million gold rubles were exported from Russia, which is almost 28,8% more than was invested during the same time. Every year, almost 500 million gold were transferred abroad for interest payments and repayment of loans. rubles. The number of telephone subscribers in the Russian Empire was 8 times less than in Germany, and 32 times less than in the United States ...
        For 10 thousand people population in 1913 in Russia there were 1,6 doctors, 1,7 (1,8 according to various sources) paramedics, 1,7 (up to 1,9) obstetricians. There were 4,32 doctors in Germany, 5,6 in Britain, and 6,4 in the United States. Every 4! the newborn did not live up to the first year ...
        The backlog was catastrophic, in almost all respects. And even the incredible, surprisingly heroic work of millions of Soviet citizens was not able to neutralize this lag in everything ...
        1. Trapperxnumx
          Trapperxnumx 28 September 2021 14: 39
          -1
          In the USSR, too, approx. 30% of the budget was vodka.
          1. Doccor18
            Doccor18 28 September 2021 21: 05
            0
            Quote: Trapper7
            In the USSR, too, approx. 30% of the budget was vodka.

            It is not true.
            Mikhail Blinov, Chairman of the Expert Council on State Regulation of the Production and Turnover of Ethyl Alcohol, writes in his article "The History of Vodka Excise Tax in Russia" that ...
            https://news.rambler.ru/other/38881457/?utm_content=mnews_media&utm_medium=read_more&utm_source=copylink

            During the NEP years, this part of income did not exceed 14%.
            tax receipts from the turnover of alcoholic beverages in 1985 amounted to 33,3 billion rubles (approximately 4,3% of the country's GDP). If we add to this hypothetical 4,9 billion rubles (these data are not in the statistical reports, we are guided by an approximate 13% profit from the sale of ethyl alcohol and import duties by the state), then we will receive a total revenue from the turnover of alcoholic beverages to the budget in the amount of 38,2 , 1985 billion rubles. Considering that the budget of the USSR for 372,6 was 10,2 billion rubles, the profitability from alcohol was 38881457% of all tax deductions to the treasury. https://news.rambler.ru/other/XNUMX/?utm_content=mnews_media&utm_medium=read_more&utm_source=copylink

            And then the anti-alcohol campaign began, and profitability indicators fell by more than a third the very next year ...
        2. Beregovic_1
          Beregovic_1 28 September 2021 22: 16
          +1
          The Russian Empire was 8 times less than in Germany, and 32 times less than in the United States ...
          For 10 thousand people population in 1913 in Russia there were 1,6 doctors, 1,7 (1,8 according to various sources) paramedics, 1,7 (up to 1,9) obstetricians. There were 4,32 doctors in Germany, 5,6 in Britain, and 6,4 in the United States. Every 4! the newborn did not live up to the first year ...
          The backlog was catastrophic, in almost all respects. And even the incredible, surprisingly heroic work of millions of Soviet citizens was not able to neutralize this lag in everything.
          Here I read the thread and finally found a competent idea. The author of the article compared absolute numbers, but did not compare the percentage per capita. In European countries, the population is 30-40 million, in the Russian Empire about 200.
      2. Konnick
        Konnick 28 September 2021 13: 09
        +1
        This is probably a clone Olgovich wrote, the style is very much the same.))

        They have the same stylistics, Ogorkovskaya, 90s. Monarchist myths are copied from each other.
    2. 210ox
      210ox 27 September 2021 18: 51
      +24
      This is an alternative history ...... For example, in Smolensk, a provincial town, there was one gymnasium. Alone, Karl! This is by the way about a huge leap at the beginning of the century in education ... Author, roll up your opus.
      1. Sergej1972
        Sergej1972 27 September 2021 21: 28
        +4
        On the other hand, what was the population of Smolensk during that period? Was there a real school? After grammar school, one could enter a classical university, and after a real school, one could enter a technical university. The level of education in the pre-revolutionary grammar schools was really high. The excellent students were in the minority, the marks were not overestimated.
        1. 210ox
          210ox 27 September 2021 23: 02
          +4
          By the beginning of the First World War, about 80 thousand. The real school had three hundred students. I won't say anything about the quality of education, the only thing I know is that the calligraphy was excellent. We will not argue about the availability of education at that time and in thirty or forty years. This is heaven and earth.
        2. zenion
          zenion 28 September 2021 00: 40
          +2
          So that the students would not stuff their brains with unrighteous words, there were dark closets, where they were given to such a point that when a student came home, dad was grinning his teeth out of anger. Many have not read the writers who actually wrote the way it was. At least the book "Petersburg Slums". Although these "slums" were in the middle of St. Petersburg. And the rest swore at the author Krestovsky, why write such a truth that revealed to the world what Russia is like, as if it were a police report. This is best kept secret.
    3. Hypertension
      Hypertension 27 September 2021 21: 47
      +7
      Quote: mz
      What was it? An honest look?

      An honest look. The undisguised truth. From reliable sources. According to secret documents. How it was actually... ̶G̶l̶a̶z̶a̶m̶i̶ ̶o̶ch̶e̶v̶i̶d̶ts̶a̶.̶ They hid and forbade from us for a hundred years. Was erased from the pages of history. Those involved were shot and those who were not involved were exiled. But finally we will know the truth! laughing
  6. mark1
    mark1 27 September 2021 18: 24
    +13
    The only thing I agree with is that in 1913 Russia was the 4th economy in the world (but what a gap!)
    In the XX century. the famine of 1901 struck 17 provinces of the center; according to a report for 1901: "In the winter of 1900/01, 42 million people were starving, while 2 million 813 thousand Orthodox souls died." And in 1911 (after the much vaunted Stolypin reforms): "32 million were starving, the loss of 1 million 613 thousand people."

    and this is in addition ...
    1. nnm
      nnm 27 September 2021 19: 20
      +9
      And not only the gap. Most of the new industries are owned by the West.
      1. FIR FIR
        FIR FIR 27 September 2021 19: 40
        +16
        Quote: nnm
        And not only the gap. Most of the new industries are owned by the West.


        In 1909-1914 the British riveted 64 large surface ships, the Germans 47, the French 24, the Italians 16, Russia, with attempts, completed and re-created 10 surface ships of the class battleship-cruiser. And this despite the fact that in Russia military spending in 1908-1913gg. accounted for 32 - 33% of the total state budget.

        At 24472 plants in Russia, there were only 24140 electric, steam, and diesel engines. That is, not even every plant had at least one engine. So much for the "advanced technology". In terms of power supply and mechanical equipment, Russia lagged behind the United States by 10 times, from England by 5 times, from Germany, Belgium, France by 4 times.

        Loans from the west, machines from the west, owners from the west, local princes-counts rest in the west, and many live there permanently. It reminds me of something.
        1. Pushkar
          Pushkar 27 September 2021 21: 03
          +10
          Quote: FIR FIR
          Russia, with efforts, completed and re-created 10 surface ships of the battleship-cruiser class.

          Milyukov (a conservative, not a socialist!) Shouted from the rostrum of the Duma: "Look at the palaces of Kseshinskaya - this is where our fleet is!"
          Quote: FIR FIR
          It reminds me of something.
          Me too.
          1. Sergej1972
            Sergej1972 27 September 2021 21: 30
            +4
            Miliukov was not a conservative, he was a left liberal.
        2. Olezhek
          Olezhek 28 September 2021 15: 23
          0
          Loans from the west, machines from the west, owners from the west, local princes-counts rest in the west, and many live there permanently. It reminds me of something.


          Walking is slimy
          On pebbles other
          So, that is close,
          We better keep silent

          yes
    2. citizen
      citizen 27 September 2021 20: 47
      -2
      Quote: mark1
      In the XX century. the famine of 1901 struck 17 provinces of the center; according to a report for 1901: "In the winter of 1900/01, 42 million people were starving, while 2 million 813 thousand Orthodox souls died." And in 1911 (after the much vaunted Stolypin reforms): "32 million were starving, the loss of 1 million 613 thousand people."

      These figures are inventions of the justifiers of the Bolsheviks and Stalin, who are trying to convince that under the accursed tsarism there was no less starvation than under the great helmsman. But this is a lie, the last major famine of 1891-92 killed 406 thousand people.
    3. Pushkar
      Pushkar 27 September 2021 20: 57
      0
      Quote: mark1
      The only thing I agree with is that in 1913 Russia was the 4th economy in the world.

      The fifth or seventh (according to various sources) in Europe!
      1. Dmitry from Voronezh
        28 September 2021 02: 03
        -8
        In terms of GDP, it could not be lower than 3-4 in the world. Even foreign studies, such as Angus Maddison, show this.
  7. gansshlosser
    gansshlosser 27 September 2021 18: 25
    .
    Questions. Why and why 1917? Why were the Romanovs killed? Answers. I wanted liberal freedom, damn it. The Romanovs were simply feared and hated.
    1. Kronos
      Kronos 27 September 2021 18: 31
      +8
      Naturally, people wanted freedom when 85 percent of the population bends a hat in front of the aristocracy and the rich.
    2. 210ox
      210ox 27 September 2021 18: 53
      +14
      They just hated it. If they were afraid, there would be no February 1917.
    3. Vasilenko Vladimir
      Vasilenko Vladimir 27 September 2021 19: 09
      -8
      Quote: gansshlosser
      Why and why 1917?

      and what exactly is 17 February or October?
      Quote: gansshlosser
      The Romanovs were simply feared and hated

      who and at what moment ?!
    4. nnm
      nnm 27 September 2021 19: 34
      +5
      It is very strange - how is it that people, who are actually slaves in serfdom, did not like the Romanovs, who also drove them to the slaughter, don't you understand why ?!
      Some savages! They betrayed their benefactor.
      1. Ashes of Claes
        Ashes of Claes 27 September 2021 20: 47
        +2
        Quote: nnm
        Some savages! They betrayed their benefactor.

        well, that's because
        Quote: vladimir1155
        faith fell by 1917 and so the country collapsed

        The priests are to blame. Distracted. laughing
      2. Trapperxnumx
        Trapperxnumx 28 September 2021 14: 55
        -1
        Quote: nnm
        It is very strange - how is it that people, who are actually slaves in serfdom, did not like the Romanovs, who also drove them to the slaughter, don't you understand why ?!

        Especially the Februaryists. Wow, how Nicholas II drove them to the slaughterhouse! And what a miserable and slavish situation they all found themselves in — all these Guchkovs, Milyukovs and other Kerenskys. Everywhere you look - completely a slave for slaughter.
        1. nnm
          nnm 28 September 2021 18: 20
          0
          Well, yes, these are typical representatives of an agrarian state.
    5. Valerikk
      Valerikk 4 October 2021 17: 36
      0
      Quote: gansshlosser
      Questions. Why and why 1917? Why were the Romanovs killed? Answers. I wanted liberal freedom, damn it. The Romanovs were simply feared and hated.

      The Romanovs were simply ... hated. They were already fed up with everyone by that time
  8. Sergey Nikiforov
    Sergey Nikiforov 27 September 2021 18: 31
    +7
    Sorry, but who then, in modern terms, was Lenin's grandfather's electorate
    1. citizen
      citizen 27 September 2021 20: 17
      +3
      Most of the subjects of the empire were illiterate peasants, so most of them were for the faith, the king and the fatherland. I doubt that the Bolsheviks were supported by more than 2% of the population of the empire. SRs were more supported. But these 2% were concentrated in large cities and this settled the matter. I read somewhere that the power was then lying on the streets, and Lenin's talent, that he was able to take it with rather modest resources.
      1. Sergey Nikiforov
        Sergey Nikiforov 27 September 2021 20: 20
        +1
        The article on illiteracy gives different numbers.
        1. citizen
          citizen 27 September 2021 20: 30
          -1
          I don't know where the author got 85% from. Here we are talking about 27%, I will assume that more than half of them lived in cities.
          https://scepsis.net/library/id_2163.html
          1. Sergey Nikiforov
            Sergey Nikiforov 27 September 2021 20: 43
            +4
            I don't want to climb into the jungle of numbers, but I still remember my great-grandmother, who was the 9th in the peasant's family.But she said that everyone in their family was literate, and the village was also mostly literate
            1. citizen
              citizen 27 September 2021 20: 50
              -2
              Perhaps this is a consequence of the LekBeza company, carried out by the Soviet government in the period from 1919 to 1929.
              1. Ashes of Claes
                Ashes of Claes 27 September 2021 21: 06
                +6
                Quote: burger
                LekBeza company

                каmpania lиkbeza. As soon as they started talking about literacy.
              2. Sergey Nikiforov
                Sergey Nikiforov 27 September 2021 21: 21
                +3
                No, my great-grandmother was born somewhere in 1897 and died in healthy memory 1984 She remembered everything perfectly and I, a young lieutenant who passed the history of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union at state exams, was incredibly interesting and at the same time with a certain caution to listen to her stories, which were very different from what they told us at school and military school, and then at the academy
                1. dauria
                  dauria 28 September 2021 01: 13
                  +3
                  No, my great-grandmother was born somewhere in 1897 and died in sane memory 1984


                  One maternal grandmother was born in 1903. Both she and her sister remained illiterate all their lives. Even as a kid, dictation had to write memorial notes to the church. Illiteracy in the countryside (well, the maximum ability to write in block letters with the wildest mistakes) was the norm for old women born in 1900-1913. Even in the USSR of the 70s.
                  They just didn't have time to learn. For the village, even the generation born before the war (1925-1935) was standard 4 classes. And that is all. There were no seven-year-old schools in the villages. And not everyone could be sent to the regional center to complete their studies. The usual business of this generation is a front-line widow and three grown-up children who began working on a collective farm at the age of 13.
                  These are the pies, gentlemen historians.
                  1. Sergey Nikiforov
                    Sergey Nikiforov 28 September 2021 06: 27
                    -2
                    Well, you're out of luck with the grandmothers, who is to blame.But the question was about literacy for 4 years, yes, not a higher education, but he already knows how to read, write to the downtrodden, dark peasants no sideways Yes, and for the future, you should mark your conclusions, that this is your personal opinion, you cannot pretend to be an absolute truth. History is, after all, very peculiar
                    1. dauria
                      dauria 28 September 2021 10: 23
                      0
                      Well, you're out of luck with the money, who's to blame


                      It was Russia and the Union who were lucky with my grandmothers and millions of the same.
                      Any of them has such a fate that any of the current superheroes would whine and hide under a bench from half of what they got. In this generation, the war was drawn out. Snotty.
                      1. Sergey Nikiforov
                        Sergey Nikiforov 28 September 2021 10: 45
                        +3
                        Let us remember, if you don’t remember, all the stories of grandmothers, great-grandmother, grandfathers There is a lot of things that go wrong with many official views I still remember the stories of my father-in-law front-line soldier All my chest was in the order, and a simple soldier Very rarely, under 100 grams he talked about the war.There is also a lot that does not coincide with the official point of view.Therefore, when they start talking about the generation to endure all the hardships of the war, I always say, yes honor and respect to them, people And leaving crumbs on collective farms for a workday, and taking the rest, is not the best practice Why I said at the beginning, remember
      2. vtiper
        vtiper 27 September 2021 21: 49
        +4
        If the Bolsheviks were supported by 2% in the cities, then who went to the Red Army and won the Civil War?
        1. citizen
          citizen 27 September 2021 23: 03
          +2
          Are we talking about 17? The Red Guard numbered 300 thousand throughout the country. Thousand 100 of them are Petrograd and Moscow. With a population of 181 million, this is 0,15%. The land decree undoubtedly inclined the peasantry to the side of the Bolsheviks and, in my opinion, became the main factor in the victory in the Civil War. Only, in simple terms, the Bolsheviks threw the peasantry.
  9. parusnik
    parusnik 27 September 2021 18: 35
    +10
    How intoxicating is ham in Russia, accompanied by a river of champagne and the crunch of a French roll.
  10. solzh
    solzh 27 September 2021 18: 37
    +10
    And where is the "honest look"? What is it?
    1. Waterways 672
      Waterways 672 27 September 2021 20: 29
      +6
      Quote: solzh
      And where is the "honest look"? What is it?

      Well, there was Russia, which we lost, and now it has been returned to us. Yeltsin with Gorbachev. So roughly ...
  11. The comment was deleted.
    1. Vasilenko Vladimir
      Vasilenko Vladimir 27 September 2021 19: 06
      +5
      Quote: gansshlosser
      Even socialism did not help.

      to whom and in what ?!
      By the way, will you tell me how much your working day is?
    2. nnm
      nnm 27 September 2021 19: 22
      +10
      Are you serious now? Are you comparing the Republic of Ingushetia and the USSR, and in your comparison does the Republic of Ingushetia win? Seriously ? I hope you have at least thrown Poland and Finland out of the RI figures?
      1. Dmitry from Voronezh
        28 September 2021 02: 18
        -1
        Why should Poland and Finland be removed from the statistics of the Russian Empire? These were our regions, moreover, one of the most developed regions. Their irretrievable loss by Russia is one of the sad consequences of the revolution ...
        1. nnm
          nnm 28 September 2021 07: 51
          +2
          If only because the indicators should be comparable.
          1. Dmitry from Voronezh
            29 September 2021 01: 00
            -2
            I don't see any logic here. Once again: both Poland and Finland by 1913 are already 100 years old as our regions. How can they be subtracted from statistics? Can we also subtract the Caucasus or Siberia?
        2. Mishka78
          Mishka78 28 September 2021 10: 17
          +1
          Why should Poland and Finland be removed from the statistics of the Russian Empire? These were our regions, moreover, one of the most developed regions. Their irretrievable loss by Russia is one of the sad consequences of the revolution ...

          Sorry, what kind of revolution?
          The Kingdom of Poland was completely occupied by Germany and Austria. February bourgeois the revolution and the abdication of Nikolashka delegitimized the power of the Russian Empire over the Polish kingdom. The Provisional Government announced that Russia would facilitate the formation of a sovereign Polish state after winning the war.
          The October Revolution has simply already put an end to this story.
    3. tatra
      tatra 27 September 2021 19: 31
      -1
      Ha, enemies of the USSR and the Soviet people, with the highest demands on the work of the Soviet communists and their supporters, and they themselves ruined ALL branches in all the republics of the USSR that you captured, do not understand the elementary things.
      Unlike you, the communists and their supporters had and still have a sense of their own dignity, and they compared their achievements with the BEST for the Republic of Ingushetia in 1913 - how many times, dozens of times more, they began to produce everything the country and the people needed.
      Although they could objectively compare their achievements with the state in which they got Russia, after the First World War, and after the Civil War unleashed by their external and internal enemies.
      1. Ashes of Claes
        Ashes of Claes 27 September 2021 20: 53
        -5
        Quote: tatra
        with the highest demands on the work of Soviet communists and their supporters

        And who are the "supporters of the communists"? Who are the sympathizers?
  12. seti
    seti 27 September 2021 18: 50
    .
    I completely agree with the author.
    1. tatra
      tatra 27 September 2021 19: 32
      0
      What is it? What facts in the article do you consider to be true?
      1. seti
        seti 27 September 2021 20: 14
        -7
        Yes, with almost everything he wrote. It is immediately clear that you have never studied this issue. I've read a lot on this subject.
        How industrialization proceeded in the Russian Empire. Industrial revolution.
        The position of the peasantry at the end of the century before last and the beginning of the last century and the level of its general welfare. Providing peasants with complete freedom of movement and economic activity at the beginning of the reign of Nicholas 2. Earnings of different classes, how much was earned, where was spent, purchasing power. What did the peasants own and their standard of living. The situation of the workers - how much they earned, how much they spent and where they spent. At least find out how many mechanized factories there were in the 60s and how many already during the time of Nicholas 2. Over 100 (!) And what volume of products they produced and for what amount. Take an interest in the production volumes for the last 50 years in the Empire. 10-12 (!) Times. You can write a whole article.
        Read the memoirs and biographies of Soviet leaders. At least the same Khrushchev. About his young years - how he describes his life. Stalin in his youth and their associates. Read Lenin's memoirs on how to undermine the autocracy. His memories of life in tsarist Russia are very eloquent. Well, they do not scold life in tsarist times. They oppose the regime, but they don't really complain about life.
        Memories of foreigners are also indicative. For example, the same brothers Nobiley.
        At least read The Quiet Don - how the prosperous lower Cossacks lived under the tsar and what they had in the form of property and land. How the peasants of central Russia, Poland and the Baltic States, the Caucasus lived.
        And any ignoramus can put cons.
        1. savage1976
          savage1976 28 September 2021 03: 34
          -2
          Do they need it? (read) they have enough pictures on the Internet where they compare the yield of RI in 1913 with a horse and crop and the yield of the 1980s with tractors and chemicals in the fields, and they are not at all interested in the fact that the yield has become lower. And you read about it.
  13. Vasilenko Vladimir
    Vasilenko Vladimir 27 September 2021 19: 04
    +12
    That is, from 1861 to 1913, the growth rates of the Russian economy were higher than in France, Great Britain, Austria-Hungary and were equal to those of Germany.
    one simple question, how many tractors were used in 13 year in the USA and how many in RI?
    without smearing snot, without interest and other things, IN NUMBERS, HOW MUCH?
    1. Xlor
      Xlor 27 September 2021 19: 19
      .
      how many tractors were used in 13 year in the USA and how many in the Republic of Ingushetia?

      It is not talking about the number of tractors, but about the rate of economic growth ...
      PS Then there were no tractors, or there were very few of them. There were steam engines ...
      1. Vasilenko Vladimir
        Vasilenko Vladimir 27 September 2021 19: 23
        +10
        Quote: Xlor
        It is not talking about the number of tractors, but about the rate of economic growth ...

        and this is called juggling with numbers.
        there were two tractors, there were 10, an increase of 500%
        the neighbor had 1000 became 1500 growth 50%
        where is the economy more powerful?
        1. Xlor
          Xlor 27 September 2021 19: 25
          .
          where is the economy more powerful?

          Growth of the US economy per year 3% (conditionally)
          The growth of the Chinese economy - 15% (also conditionally)
          Whose economy is more powerful?
          1. Vasilenko Vladimir
            Vasilenko Vladimir 27 September 2021 19: 31
            +6
            you write nonsense, sorry
            percentage growth does not speak of size, and if you do not understand this, then do not get involved in an economic dispute
            1. Xlor
              Xlor 27 September 2021 19: 33
              .
              growth in percentage does not mean size

              Percentage growth further leads to size ...

              you write nonsense, sorry
              1. Vasilenko Vladimir
                Vasilenko Vladimir 27 September 2021 19: 50
                0
                Quote: Xlor
                Percentage growth further leads to size ...

                Did you study math at school at all ?!
                1. Mishka78
                  Mishka78 28 September 2021 10: 26
                  +4
                  Unfortunately, people very often do not understand the phrase. low base effect.
                  Or deliberately manipulated.
                  Here one stubborn one proved to me that Germany is lagging behind us, tk. her industrial production growth is 1% per year, and in the Russian Federation 3%.
                  To answer with numbers:
                  In the Russian Federation, the growth of industrial production is 2,9%. In Germany, the increase in industrial production - 1,2%
                  We're cool.
                  Now for a simple example:
                  Car production in 2018.
                  RF - 1,5 million pieces. + 2,9% = +43,5 thousand pieces
                  Germany - 6 million units + 1,2% = +72 thousand units.
                  Are we still cool?

                  In short, they called me a crest and a foreign agent .. :)
                  1. Vasilenko Vladimir
                    Vasilenko Vladimir 28 September 2021 13: 17
                    0
                    that is why it is not necessary to give interest and real production volumes
                    1. Mishka78
                      Mishka78 29 September 2021 10: 30
                      -1
                      It is necessary to give both. This is the most correct way. And then there is extrapolation and conclusions.
          2. kalibr
            kalibr 27 September 2021 19: 43
            -6
            Quote: Xlor
            Growth of the US economy per year 3% (conditionally)
            The growth of the Chinese economy - 15% (also conditionally)
            Whose economy is more powerful?

            Of course the USA. Growth is a process. At a zero level, it can be 100%. We took out loans, bought machines ... There was not a single one - it became 100. Growth is 100%. And if you already have 100 machines? Bought 3 new ones. Growth - 3%. And there is also a system of patents. And payments on them. According to my patent, you produce 100 times more than I do. But pay me for a patent. And already 100 turns into 50. And so in everything.
          3. vtiper
            vtiper 27 September 2021 21: 52
            +1
            Now in China :)
    2. tatra
      tatra 27 September 2021 19: 38
      +9
      Yes, there was no industrial production of tractors in RI, there were only imported ones. But the Bolsheviks bought a license from Ford in 1922, and already in 1923 they began to produce the Soviet tractors "Fordson-Putilovets".
      1. Vasilenko Vladimir
        Vasilenko Vladimir 27 September 2021 19: 53
        -3
        I'm not even talking about production now, but about the mechanization of the agricultural sector
      2. Ashes of Claes
        Ashes of Claes 27 September 2021 21: 35
        -2
        Quote: tatra
        But the Bolsheviks bought a license from Ford in 1922, and already in 1923 they began to produce the Soviet tractors "Fordson-Putilovets".

        By the way, I was always offended for the Kharkiv Kommunar (aka Khanomag VD-50) - for some reason it is always in the shadow of a pop Fordzon. Although more brutal, and his story is more interesting. And come on - everyone has heard of the Soviet tractor pioneers only fordzon.
      3. Dmitry from Voronezh
        29 September 2021 01: 21
        -1
        Not since 1923, but since 1924. Under license, not proprietary. We must pay tribute to the engineers educated in RI, who were able to successfully copy the sample.
  14. Konnick
    Konnick 27 September 2021 19: 05
    +16
    In 1908, compulsory primary education was introduced. By 1916, the proportion of literate youth in the Empire was at least 85%.

    You don't have to read further. It's a myth.
    In fact, the law of May 3, 1908 bears the title "On the leave of 6.900.000 rubles for the needs of primary education," and there is not a single word about the introduction of universal compulsory primary education on the territory of Russia. The text of this law can be found in the database "Complete collection of laws of the Russian Empire" (page 228, No. 30328).
    1. kalibr
      kalibr 27 September 2021 19: 22
      -7
      And that the economic and scientific breakthrough that was made by the Soviet Union in the twentieth century was provided with the resources that the Russian Empire was able to accumulate and, first of all, its wonderful system of education and science, which prepared excellent personnel for the new country. And cadres, as you know, decide everything ...
      Of course, the new always builds on the old and usually takes the best out of it, not the worst. But if we compare the same education system in Japan and in Russia in those years, and there is such data, it will be seen that with talented scientists up to the average Japanese level, we had to plow and plow. And in general, one cannot be equal to individual achievements. It is necessary to look at the averaged indicators. "It entered, developed" is the whole process (continuing), not the result. And in general - good things don't break! This also applies to tsarist Russia, and the same USSR. For all the individual achievements, something very important was missing on average!
    2. nnm
      nnm 27 September 2021 19: 24
      +6
      Agree. Sheer nonsense. Apparently, the author is not aware of the LIKBEZ program, populism, and so on, which were not conducted at all by the house of the Romanovs.
      As well as the fact that during medical examinations during mobilization in WWI, 2/3 of the villagers had whip marks on their backs.
  15. Galleon
    Galleon 27 September 2021 19: 17
    +1
    For some reason, the article caused the following association from memory:
    Once the famous actress of the Maly Theater Yablochkina at one of the meetings with the audience was asked:

    - Alexandra Alexandrovna, how do you imagine communism?

    The actress, without hesitation, began to answer:

    - It will be a wonderful, wonderful time! Everywhere there is an abundance of food, everyone has their own homes, no one will huddle in communal apartments, people will be polite, the streets are tidy and clean! In general, as under the tsar ...
  16. tatra
    tatra 27 September 2021 19: 19
    +3
    And why do we need this anti-Soviet agitation perestroika? So many lies. And by education, by industrial production, and by this
    So, during the reign of Nicholas II, the country's population increased by 60 million people.

    The large increase in the population of RI was not caused by the wonderful life of the people, as the enemies of the USSR want to sell to justify their capture of the USSR, but by the fact that RI was a backward agrarian country in which 85% of the population were peasants, and peasant women gave birth to 7-10 children, not there were contraceptives, there were criminal penalties for abortion, the peasants lived in communities where the land was distributed according to the number of eaters.
    And the population of Ingushetia in 1913 or 1917 is unknown, the calculation was carried out ugly, the numbers from 166 million to 184 million citizens of Ingushetia.
    And there are many more anti-Soviet lies to create the myth "how everything was wonderful before the communists, Russia fed the whole world and tore ahead of the rest of the world."
  17. Vasilenko Vladimir
    Vasilenko Vladimir 27 September 2021 19: 21
    +6
    Russia on the eve of the First World War was one of the main economic powers. It ranked fourth among the five largest industrialized countries. The Russian Empire produced almost the same volume of industrial products as Austria-Hungary and was the largest producer of agricultural products in Europe

    the yield in 1913 from tithing was
    pounds: wheat rye
    Russia 55 56
    Austria 89 92
    Germany 157 127
    Belgium 168 147

    Wheat consumption per capita, pounds / kg:
    France - 15/240
    USA - 11/176
    Great Britain - 8/128
    Italy - 8/128
    Germany - 4/64
    Russia - 3/48


    In 1913, there were 165 tractors in tsarist Russia.
    by the end of 1913, there were only about 6,5 thousand tractors with an internal combustion engine in the United States.
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich 28 September 2021 09: 03
      .
      Quote: Vasilenko Vladimir
      yield in 1913

      yields of 1913, the following "successful growers" caught up only after ... FORTY years by 1956, but later there were years with less.

      It is difficult to imagine a greater shame ...
      Quote: Vasilenko Vladimir
      Consumption of wheat per capita, poods / kg

      there were the most CHILDREN in Russia, and they eat less
      1. Mishka78
        Mishka78 28 September 2021 10: 38
        +7
        there were the most CHILDREN in Russia, and they eat less

        Here you are right. Children ate so much less that every 4th child in the Republic of Ingushetia did not live to be 1 year old.
        A remarkable indicator. The peasants ate meat 2-3 times a year. And so it was a very healthy diet. Porridge, rye bread, grass, some vegetables. And the way of life is healthy. Outdoor work. True, the average life expectancy was 30 years. But this is even good. He died young and glorious.
        And then the damned commies came and started (((
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 28 September 2021 11: 57
          -9
          Quote: Mishka78
          Here you are right. Children ate so much less that every 4th child in the Republic of Ingushetia did not live to be 1 year old.

          of course, right: Soviet children ate much LESS Russian children for another FORTY years! Soviet children of the 1930s weighed less and were smaller in height than Russian children (read Demoscope)

          And they died due to diseases, nevertheless, mortality in Russia decreased, as did the number of sick people. At the pace of Russia, the indicators would have been better in Russia than in the USSR - and yes, they did not eat their children in Russia, as it happened during the regular regime in PEACEFUL 1932-33 - read the OGPU councils
          Quote: Mishka78
          The peasants ate meat 2-3 times a year. And so it was a very healthy diet.

          They ate much more and more often than Soviet peasants, see. Istmath
          Quote: Mishka78
          True, the average life expectancy was 30 years.

          Yes, your 17 years of life expectancy in 1933 is such a disgrace that the "successful people" were afraid to say
          Quote: Mishka78
          And then the damned commies came and started (((

          absolutely right, more than 13 million people died of hunger alone (over several hunger strikes) - unheard of anywhere in the world before
          deaths-1918,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,38,29,30,32,33,34,36,36,46,47, 200 abortions, the first place in the world for alcoholics, tebilam, divorce and suicide, the extinction of the Russian people
          1. Vasilenko Vladimir
            Vasilenko Vladimir 28 September 2021 14: 05
            0
            Quote: Olgovich
            They ate much more and more often than Soviet peasants, see. Istmath

            crunches the roll further, unlike you, I communicated and communicate quite closely with the Soviet peasantry
            Quote: Olgovich
            200 abortions

            will you forgive me for smoking? !!!!
            or is it from the series
            1. Olgovich
              Olgovich 28 September 2021 15: 22
              -7
              Quote: Vasilenko Vladimir
              crunches the roll further,

              and, lovers of crunching the bones of the queens and rokossovsky appeared.
              Quote: Vasilenko Vladimir
              unlike you, I communicated quite closely with the Soviet peasantry and communicate

              belay.sovpeasantry has long ceased to exist.
              And it envied the Russian peasantry to the pain of taxes, freedom, income.
              Quote: Vasilenko Vladimir
              will you forgive me for smoking? !!!!

              I don’t forgive: you don’t know the elementary
              Quote: Vasilenko Vladimir
              that is, do you agree that the level of industry in Ingushetia was at an extremely low level?

              yours only caught up with him after 10-12 years.

              And the yield of 1913 was reached only after 43 years with all their muhonizatsii
              Quote: Vasilenko Vladimir
              are you generally aware of infant mortality in RI?

              you are in general Kursk, which in the 15th year of the so-called. the Soviet "so-called" power of children died many, many more than in Russia, where mortality was constantly decreasing (
              Quote: Vasilenko Vladimir
              about the stupidity that they say we had more children because I ate less I will not mention

              this is from your "big" mind
              Quote: Vasilenko Vladimir
              as well as hunger among the rural population

              with yours, the rural population died in the PEACEFUL years by many, many millions, with cannibalism, corpse-eating and eating patali, which in Russia had never been heard before.
              Or do you think that since your newspapers LIE about the wealthy peasants in 1933, when they were dying in the millions, is that really true?
              1. Vasilenko Vladimir
                Vasilenko Vladimir 28 September 2021 21: 53
                -1
                Quote: Olgovich
                and, lovers of crunching the bones of the queens and rokossovsky appeared.

                you know by the time I was born, neither the first nor the second was already alive
                By the way, do not remind me why the queen was put in prison ?!
                Quote: Olgovich
                I don’t forgive: you don’t know the elementary

                what exactly I do not know, they give you numbers, and you, as a sectarian, a "holy" scripture
                Quote: Olgovich
                yours only caught up with him after 10-12 years.

                Production of tractors in the USSR: 1923 - 42 units 1924 - 74 units 1925 - 7322 units
                can you say how many tractors were produced in the Republic of Ingushetia?
                Quote: Olgovich
                you are in general Kursk, which in the 15th year of the so-called. the Soviet "so-called" power of children died many, many more than in Russia, where mortality was constantly decreasing (

                and the numbers are weak?
                Quote: Olgovich
                with yours, the rural population died in the PEACEFUL years by many, many millions, with cannibalism, corpse-eating and eating patali, which in Russia had never been heard before.
                Or do you think that since your newspapers LIE about the wealthy peasants in 1933, when they were dying in the millions, is that really true?

                respected hunger in RI has been CONSTANTLY DURING IT'S ALL HISTORY
                a small private trader is not able to feed Russia by definition, I tell you this as a person living in a "village"
                famine in the country disappeared with the emergence of large agricultural formations and the development of storage technologies for agricultural products
                1. Olgovich
                  Olgovich 29 September 2021 07: 42
                  -5
                  you know by the time I was born, neither the first nor the second was already alive
                  By the way, do not remind me why the queen was put in prison ?!

                  and how does this cancel the love of crunching the bones of the queens and rocossos?

                  The queen was imprisoned illegally, like many millions of other fellow citizens who have long been rehabilitated

                  what exactly I do not know, they give you numbers, and you, as a sectarian, a "holy" scripture

                  what are your "numbers"? one empty chatter, in response to my numbers and facts.

                  Production of tractors in the USSR: 1923 - 42 units 1924 - 74 units 1925 - 7322 units
                  can you say how many tractors were produced in the Republic of Ingushetia?

                  and spaceships, do not? lol
                  Nna: before the First World War, tractors did not leave the stage of experiments, so in 1908 there were only 600 tractors, Got it, don’t?

                  but comparable concepts: Russia back in 1906 produced 1266 steam locomotives, and the "superpower" was able to almost repeat it only in 1934: 1210 steam locomotives, before that, a full step, yes.

                  and the numbers are weak?
                  Is it too little to know them yourself? 300/1000 born in 1933 in the Peaceful year, versus 240/1000 born in the MILITARY 1915

                  respected hunger in RI has been CONSTANTLY DURING IT'S ALL HISTORY

                  Dear, the famine in the USSR was PERMANENT until the MID-1950s, and the years with deaths from hungera 1918,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,28,9,30,32,33,34,36,37,46,47, years of million deaths with cannibalism 1921-22,1932-33,46, 47-XNUMX.

                  There was no such thing in Russia, as in the world before 1933
                  1. Vasilenko Vladimir
                    Vasilenko Vladimir 29 September 2021 10: 48
                    -1
                    Quote: Olgovich
                    The queen was imprisoned illegally, like many millions of other fellow citizens who have long been rehabilitated

                    it is quite legal for the misuse of state funds, it's a pity that they don't do it now, you see a heavy hangar would already fly from the east
                    Quote: Olgovich
                    Is it too little to know them yourself? 300/1000 born in 1933 in the Peaceful year, versus 240/1000 born in the MILITARY 1915

                    like bun crunches like to juggle with numbers, you bring the year of hunger, but at the same time do not pretend that in the next year the infant mortality rate was significantly lower than in 15
                    Quote: Olgovich
                    and spaceships, do not?
                    Nna: before the First World War, tractors did not come out of the experimental stage, so in 1908 there were only 600 tractors in the United States.

                    and here are the comparable concepts: Russia produced 1906 steam locomotives back in 1266, and the "superpower" was able to almost repeat it only in 1934: 1210 steam locomotives, before that, a complete step, yes.

                    By the end of 1913, there were only about 6,5 thousand tractors in the United States.
                    in RI 165
                    world production tables 13 year
                    https://aftershock.news/?q=node/360251&full
                    1. Olgovich
                      Olgovich 29 September 2021 13: 52
                      -3
                      Quote: Vasilenko Vladimir
                      completely legal for misuse of public funds,

                      he is completely REHABILITATED for lack of corpus delicti. It is a pity that the tebils and animals that crushed his bones
                      not nailed.
                      Quote: Vasilenko Vladimir
                      how bun crunches love to juggle numbers, you bring the year of hunger

                      how the costokrusta do not like their "achievements" in the PEACEFUL years of 1933,1936, XNUMX, when MORE children died during their time than in Russia during the WAR
                      And it does not come to their head that this is a CATASTROPHE, which under Russia would have been impossible in principle, because the death rate in it steadily DROPPED to the thieves and in 1930 there would have been not 300 deaths, but already 150
                      Quote: Vasilenko Vladimir
                      https://aftershock.news/?q=node/360251&full

                      there are no tractors in the tables and they, once again for a tanker, are NOT an indicator before WWI, because before the First World War, tractors did not leave the stage of experiments, so in 1908 there were only 600 tractors in the USA,

                      and here are the comparable concepts: Russia produced 1906 steam locomotives back in 1266, and the "superpower" was able to almost repeat it only in 1934: 1210 steam locomotives, before that, a complete step, yes.

                      And the most significant "achievements" of the Kostokhrists in the 1930s are several million sdie of hunger with cannibalism and corpse-eating unprecedented in normal Russia. millions of peasants robbed and exiled without trial and hundreds of thousands of fellow citizens shot without trial.

                      There was nothing like this ANYWHERE in the world.
                      1. Vasilenko Vladimir
                        Vasilenko Vladimir 29 September 2021 21: 11
                        -2
                        Quote: Olgovich
                        there are no tractors in the tables and they, once again for a tanker, before PMV -NO

                        Why?
                        data on the number of tractors in the Republic of Ingushetia and other countries in sufficient quantity in open sources
                        Quote: Olgovich
                        And the most significant "achievements" of the Kostokhrists in the 1930s are several million deaths from hunger with cannibalism and corpse-eating unprecedented in normal Russia. millions of peasants robbed and exiled without trial and hundreds of thousands of fellow citizens shot without trial.

                        tell me my dear and who were your ancestors before the age of 17?
                      2. Olgovich
                        Olgovich 30 September 2021 10: 45
                        -4
                        Quote: Vasilenko Vladimir
                        Why?

                        it is new and not yet typical, in contrast to steam locomotives, where Russia is the world leader in TECHNOLOGY and production was before the thieves. Then a wild collapse for decades.
                        Quote: Vasilenko Vladimir
                        tell me my dear and who were your ancestors before the age of 17?

                        this prevents you from assimilating the FACTS that the most significant "achievements" of the Kostokhrustists in the 1930s were several million deaths from hunger with cannibalism and corpse-eating unprecedented in normal Russia. millions of peasants robbed and exiled without trial and hundreds of thousands of fellow citizens shot without trial?

                        Then the peasants
                      3. Vasilenko Vladimir
                        Vasilenko Vladimir 30 September 2021 11: 49
                        0
                        Quote: Olgovich
                        this is new and not yet typical

                        Well, yes, the plow is more familiar, the problem is systemic, low education, lack of money, etc. and so on
                        in the us this new thing was almost 600 SIX HUNDRED times more than in the Republic of Ingushetia, despite the fact that we had 90 percent of the rural population
                        Quote: Olgovich
                        this prevents you from assimilating the FACTS that the most significant "achievements" of the Kostokhrustists in the 1930s were several million deaths from hunger with cannibalism and corpse-eating unprecedented in normal Russia. millions of peasants robbed and exiled without trial and hundreds of thousands of fellow citizens shot without trial?

                        that's enough, unlike you, I think a little and not just a crunchy roll, despite the fact that I am a convinced monarchist, I perfectly understand the perniciousness of the policy of the top of the empire practically from Peter the Great himself for this entire period, more or less two adequate emperors, Nicholas I and Paul I, the rest with manic tenacity brought 17 years closer
                      4. Olgovich
                        Olgovich 1 October 2021 09: 59
                        -4
                        Quote: Vasilenko Vladimir
                        Well, yes, the plow is more familiar, the problem is systemic, low education, lack of money, etc. and so on

                        education and today you do not have, since you declare this: the number of schools that existed in Russia before the thieves, the following destroyers have only been restored already ... after 10 years! And Russia before them introduced FOUR thousand schools a year, i.e. forty thousand schools were not built, i.e. millions of people received their education later than they would have received in Russia.
                        As for the "plow", it is appropriate to recall the so-called. The "great" construction sites of the Bolsheviks (the White Sea Canal, etc.) where, like in ancient Egypt, slaves did unthinkable amounts of work by hand, and the concrete of the Dnieper Hydroelectric Station was compacted ... with bare feet.
                        Quote: Vasilenko Vladimir
                        in the us this new was almost 600 SIX HUNDRED times more than in the Republic of Ingushetia

                        here is TSB for you:
                        "As a branch of industry Tractor construction has existed since 1917when the mass production of tractors began at Ford plants in the United States. "
                        memorize this teaching of the SOVIET Bible.
                        Therefore, compare steam locomotives.
                        Quote: Vasilenko Vladimir
                        enough, unlike you, I think a little and not just a crunchy roll

                        not enough, what yours have done, will never be forgiven, apologize and will not correct, like love crunching the bones of queens, rokos, hunchbacks
                        Quote: Vasilenko Vladimir
                        , the rest with manic tenacity brought 17 years closer

                        under the Romanovs, Russia lived as freely, successfully, prosperously and powerfully as never after
                      5. Vasilenko Vladimir
                        Vasilenko Vladimir 1 October 2021 10: 57
                        0
                        Quote: Olgovich
                        you still lack education today

                        I understand that you do not associate yourself with Russia
                        Quote: Olgovich
                        memorize this teaching of the SOVIET Bible.
                        Therefore, compare steam locomotives.

                        Forgive me, you are clearly a sectarian, can you once again give the number of taktars used in the USA, European countries and Ingushetia in 1913 ?!
                        no snot, crunchy rolls and the like, NAKED NUMBERS
                        Quote: Olgovich
                        under the Romanovs, Russia lived as freely, successfully, prosperously and powerfully as never after

                        sectarian, not otherwise
                      6. Olgovich
                        Olgovich 1 October 2021 11: 13
                        -5
                        Quote: Vasilenko Vladimir
                        I understand that you do not associate yourself with Russia

                        what kind of education, so is "understanding"
                        Quote: Vasilenko Vladimir
                        Forgive me, you are clearly a sectarian, can you once again give the number of taktars used in the USA, European countries and Ingushetia in 1913 ?!

                        Quote: Vasilenko Vladimir
                        Forgive me, you are clearly a sectarian, can you once again give the number of taktars used in the USA, European countries and Ingushetia in 1913 ?!

                        didn't make it the first time? ONCE AGAIN, without snot: TSB:
                        "Tractor construction has existed as an industry since 1917, when mass production of tractors began at Ford plants in the United States.":
                        Quote: Vasilenko Vladimir
                        sectarian, not otherwise

                        FACT statement: under the Romanovs, Russia lived so freely, successfully, prosperously and powerfully as never after
                      7. Vasilenko Vladimir
                        Vasilenko Vladimir 1 October 2021 11: 43
                        +2
                        Quote: Olgovich
                        FACT statement: under the Romanovs, Russia lived so freely, successfully, prosperously and powerfully as never after

                        do you know what is our difference? !!!
                        I see the advantages and disadvantages of the USSR and the Republic of Ingushetia
                        and you are only the advantages of RI and the disadvantages of the USSR

                        80 percent of RI lived in poverty and hunger, after Catherine II the nobility turned into a class of parasites
                        Quote: Olgovich
                        didn't make it the first time? ONCE AGAIN, without snot: TSB:
                        "Tractor construction has existed as an industry since 1917, when mass production of tractors began at Ford plants in the United States.":

                        clear
                        specially for cultists
                        By the end of 1913, there were about 6,5 thousand tractors with an internal combustion engine in the United States.
                        AGAIN NOT PRODUCED, but WORKED in industry in the Republic of Ingushetia at the same time there were 165
                        39 (THIRTY NINE) times less
                        I don't want to deal with your education, the reference books 1913-1914 raise the stat, they are in the public domain
                      8. Olgovich
                        Olgovich 1 October 2021 11: 50
                        -4
                        Quote: Vasilenko Vladimir
                        do you know what is our difference? !!!
                        I see the advantages and disadvantages of the USSR and the Republic of Ingushetia
                        and you are only the advantages of RI and the disadvantages of the USSR

                        80 percent of RI lived in poverty and hunger, after Catherine II the nobility turned into a class of parasites

                        we are talking about COMPARING the lives of the people of Russia and the USSR: and Russia wins unambiguously.
                        Quote: Vasilenko Vladimir
                        clear
                        specially for cultists
                        By the end of 1913, there were about 6,5 thousand tractors with an internal combustion engine in the United States.
                        ONCE AGAIN NOT PRODUCED, BUT WORKED

                        for tankers: for WORK, they must be PRODUCED first.
                        A TSB:
                        "Tractor construction has existed as an industry since 1917, when mass production of tractors began at Ford plants in the United States.":
                      9. Vasilenko Vladimir
                        Vasilenko Vladimir 1 October 2021 11: 59
                        +1
                        Quote: Olgovich
                        for tankers: for WORK, they must be PRODUCED first.
                        A TSB:

                        that is, what I am writing about the number of tractors operating from the USA is a lie?
                        can you give "true" information and name the REAL number of working tactars in the USA in 1913?
                      10. Vasilenko Vladimir
                        Vasilenko Vladimir 1 October 2021 12: 02
                        0
                        Quote: Olgovich
                        the lives of the people of Russia and the USSR: and Russia wins unambiguously.

                        you write from a durke ?!
                        working day-10-12 hours with a 6-day working week, no sick leave, vacations, pensions, free medical care
                      11. Olgovich
                        Olgovich 1 October 2021 13: 19
                        -6
                        Quote: Vasilenko Vladimir
                        working day-10-12 hours with a 6-day working week, no sick leave, vacations, pensions, free medical care

                        an individual from a durka does not know that the OVERWHEING majority of the inhabitants of Russia (peasantry) lived after the thief for FIFTY years: WITHOUT days off, working day 12 hours, in slavery, lack of sick leave, vacations, pensions, passports
                        Quote: Vasilenko Vladimir
                        In Russia - 30,5 years.

                        IN USSR 1933 - 17 years old. full pa
                      12. Vasilenko Vladimir
                        Vasilenko Vladimir 1 October 2021 13: 28
                        0
                        Quote: Olgovich
                        after the thief, and lived FIFTY years: WITHOUT days off, working day 12 hours, in slavery, no sick leave, vacations, pensions, passports

                        Where have you read this nonsense?
                        Quote: Olgovich
                        In the USSR, 1933 - 17 years. full pa

                        take your time, you are already difficult to understand, and when in a hurry it is not at all real
                      13. Olgovich
                        Olgovich 1 October 2021 15: 39
                        -5
                        Quote: Vasilenko Vladimir
                        Where have you read this nonsense?

                        this is the history of our country, about which you neither hear nor spirit
                        Quote: Vasilenko Vladimir
                        take your time, you are already difficult to understand

                        the understanding does not cope, yes.
                        OPZH 1933 - 17 years old - see the PUBLIC graphic - and this is in the PEACEFUL years, in the middle of the 20th century in the heart of Europe.


                        A disgrace that in Russia, with its growing life expectancy before the thieves, could not even be dreamed of
                      14. Vasilenko Vladimir
                        Vasilenko Vladimir 1 October 2021 18: 57
                        -1
                        Quote: Olgovich
                        OPZH 1933 - 17 years old - see the PUBLIC graphic - and this is in the PEACEFUL years, in the middle of the 20th century in the heart of Europe.

                        let's compare with the death rate in hunger in the Republic of Ingushetia
                      15. Olgovich
                        Olgovich 2 October 2021 09: 53
                        -6
                        Quote: Vasilenko Vladimir
                        let's compare with the death rate in hunger in the Republic of Ingushetia

                        NEVER in Russia or in the world have there been such mortal horror and victims as during your "successful people" in 1932-33
                      16. Vasilenko Vladimir
                        Vasilenko Vladimir 2 October 2021 13: 30
                        0
                        Quote: Olgovich
                        NEVER in Russia or in the world have there been such mortal horror and victims as during your "successful people" in 1932-33

                        1900-1903, covering 40 million, 3 million adults died; 1911, after the notorious reforms of Stolypin, which covered at least 30 million, when another 2 million adults died ...
                      17. Olgovich
                        Olgovich 3 October 2021 07: 37
                        -3
                        Quote: Vasilenko Vladimir
                        1900-1903, covering 40 million, 3 million adults died; 1911, after the notorious reforms of Stolypin, which covered at least 30 million, when another 2 million adults died ...

                        Do not be RUNNING: not a single conscientious (that is, already deceitful by definition) scientist or even a propagandist said this nonsense.

                        Not a single monograph, not a single TSB has even a trace of this, ignoramus.
                      18. Vasilenko Vladimir
                        Vasilenko Vladimir 3 October 2021 09: 29
                        0
                        zadolbal, I have the wrong numbers, bring yours, or fuck off, except for the stupid crunch of buns until you can get anything from you
                        Quote: Olgovich
                        those. already deceitful by definition) a scientist or even a propagandist.

                        you are the most truthful with us, though you don’t know a damn thing, and apart from "God Save the Tsar ..."
                      19. Vasilenko Vladimir
                        Vasilenko Vladimir 1 October 2021 14: 37
                        0
                        Quote: Olgovich
                        In the USSR, 1933 - 17 years. full pa

                      20. Vasilenko Vladimir
                        Vasilenko Vladimir 1 October 2021 11: 54
                        0
                        Quote: Olgovich
                        FACT statement: under the Romanovs, Russia lived so freely, successfully, prosperously and powerfully as never after

                        in 1913, Russia accounted for 4,4% of world industrial production, while the USA - 35,8%, Germany - 14,3, Great Britain - 14,1, France - 7,0%

                        In 1900, production per capita in Russia was equal to 1/8 of the United States and 1/6 of Germany; before the war, these figures were 1/10 and 1/8, respectively. In 1913

                        In 1913, life expectancy in various countries was: Great Britain - 52 years, Japan - 51, France - 50, USA - 50, Germany - 49, Italy - 47, China - 30, India - 23 years. 56 In Russia - 30,5 ,XNUMX years.
      2. Vasilenko Vladimir
        Vasilenko Vladimir 28 September 2021 13: 57
        0
        Quote: Olgovich
        yields of 1913, the following "successful growers" caught up only after ... FORTY years by 1956, but later there were years with less.

        that is, do you agree that the level of industry in Ingushetia was at an extremely low level?
        Quote: Olgovich
        there were the most CHILDREN in Russia, and they eat less

        are you generally aware of infant mortality in RI? as well as hunger among the rural population, about the stupidity that they say we had more children because I ate less I will not mention
  18. samarin1969
    samarin1969 27 September 2021 19: 24
    -1
    For believers in "class solidarity" to sleep better, the author should have mentioned hunger and literacy. And then those who like to study history by labels were very excited. laughing
    The only fatal problem for the Empire was the ethnic diversity of the territory. Other powers escaped this. In the XNUMXth century, the Romanovs were too carried away by the "liberation" of completely hostile territories. This killed them. In addition, Nicholas II turned out to be a pathological Anglomaniac and a strikingly infantile person.
    Technologically and industrially, Russia lagged behind the "top three". But was that the reason for the revolution and civil war ??? .... Hindus with Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, Turks with Persians and Brazilians, according to this logic, should have simply hanged themselves. wassat
    1. Dmitry from Voronezh
      28 September 2021 02: 28
      .
      Nicholas II was not an infantile person. An infantile man could not lead the army at the most critical moment in 1915 and by 1917 stabilize the situation on the fronts. This requires extraordinary ability.
      1. samarin1969
        samarin1969 28 September 2021 05: 19
        +4
        Quote: Dmitry from Voronezh
        Nicholas II was not an infantile person. An infantile man could not lead the army at the most critical moment in 1915 and by 1917 stabilize the situation on the fronts. This requires extraordinary ability.

        I believe that Nicholas II could have taken up more civil matters. He is not Napoleon, and not Caesar. He was untenable as a Ruler. His personnel policy, enthusiasm for ritual functions, methods of fighting revolutionaries did not correspond to the times. An exemplary family man and a supporter of the English way of life is not something that could preserve the autocracy. Most of the “Greats” were the exact opposite of the selfie lover and paper birdie. In this regard, the murdered man was hopelessly childish.
  19. Poru4ik
    Poru4ik 27 September 2021 19: 26
    +10
    Russian empire. An honest look. Perhaps it was. But there was such a thing - "Dogs and lower ranks are not allowed to enter"
  20. nnm
    nnm 27 September 2021 19: 29
    +11
    - with excellent demographic indicators;
    - with high rates of economic growth;
    - with good medicine;
    - with excellent education;
    - with advanced science and engineering school;
    - with stable finances.

    What was it? Is this from the "humor" section?
    - with excellent demographic indicators;
    - and about the age of survival, about the mortality of children, the author does not want to write anything?

    - with high rates of economic growth;
    - percentages by industry and in comparison with other countries, if possible.


    - with good medicine;
    - in the area of ​​the imperial house. Apparently, even the crown prince was treated by Rasputin for good medicine.


    - with excellent education;
    Would you like to read Gorky, for example, on this topic? And he is not yet writing about the village ..

    - with advanced science and engineering school;
    Implementation in practice? 0.x%

    - with stable finances.
    Apparently, therefore, RI was already denied loans, and the only country that agreed to lend - France simply set onerous terms on loans.
  21. Aleksandre
    Aleksandre 27 September 2021 19: 30
    +7
    By 1915, 33,1 thousand doctors of various specialties worked in the country. According to this indicator, the country was second only to Germany (34,1 thousand) and Japan (36,6 thousand).

    Well, yes, it's so convenient to distort it: write in absolute terms and completely forget to mention that the population of Ingushetia in 1915 was three times larger than in Germany or Japan. After all, it suddenly turns out that there were three times less doctors per capita.
    1. Sergej1972
      Sergej1972 27 September 2021 21: 40
      +1
      More than in Germany, it was twice, not three times.
      1. Aleksandre
        Aleksandre 27 September 2021 22: 11
        +1
        Quote: Sergej1972
        More than in Germany, it was twice, not three times.

        Well, if the accuracy of the numbers is so important to you, then they wrote down the population for 1915: 2,5 times more than in Germany, and 3,2 times more than in Japan. The point is not in this, but in the frank stretching of the owl onto the globe by the afftor.
  22. Kittymoore
    Kittymoore 27 September 2021 19: 31
    +3
    It seems that the author of the article has the same “excellent education” for which RI is so “known”.
  23. Cartalon
    Cartalon 27 September 2021 19: 33
    -2
    The agitation was answered with agitation
  24. parusnik
    parusnik 27 September 2021 19: 43
    +4
    To be honest, the article itself is of little interest, since it does not operate with facts.
    This article, frankly speaking, is also of little interest, although it operates with rigged facts.
  25. Alf
    Alf 27 September 2021 19: 49
    +15
    In 1898, free medical care was introduced in the Russian Empire. To get it, it was enough just to be a citizen of the country.

    The Swiss F. Erisman wrote the following about our medicine:

    "The medical organization created by the Russian zemstvo was the greatest achievement of our era in the field of social medicine, as it provided free medical care, open to everyone, and also had a deep educational value."

    Urya-I-I! Tsarist medicine is rushing! But what about SUCH figures from PRE-REVOLUTIONARY sources?

    Maybe the population simply did not know that there is such a wonderful medical system in the Republic of Ingushetia? Dark they are, what to take from them ...
    1. Aleksandre
      Aleksandre 27 September 2021 20: 36
      +6
      Quote: Alf
      Maybe the population simply did not know that there is such a wonderful medical system in the Republic of Ingushetia? Dark they are, what to take from them ...

      The source was forgotten: S.A. Novoselsky. "Mortality and Life Expectancy in Russia" 1916.
      And now some lovers of crispy buns will say that they themselves painted in Photoshop.
      1. Alf
        Alf 27 September 2021 21: 22
        +7
        Quote: Aleksandre
        The source was forgotten: S.A. Novoselsky. "Mortality and Life Expectancy in Russia" 1916.

        Thank you!
        Quote: Aleksandre
        And now some lovers of crispy buns will say that they themselves painted in Photoshop.

        You are right, by the way, something Olgovich is not visible. What does that mean? And the author does not comment on his tale ...
  26. Vladimir Lenin
    Vladimir Lenin 27 September 2021 19: 51
    +12
    To be honest, the followers of the "GDP Growth in the Economy" sect are already beginning to annoy! The only evidence-based statement that the Russian Empire was among the five economically developed world powers is: "The Russian Empire produced almost the same volume of industrial products as Austria-Hungary, and was the largest producer of agricultural products in Europe." That is, this is the production of grain, cloth, tobacco and something else there. That during the war, of course, is good, you can not die of hunger yourself and at the same time feed the enemy who seized your territory in case of defeat! But unfortunately no heavy engineering, the introduction of labor mechanization, metallurgy, shipbuilding, that is, thanks to which weapons are created for victory! And there was no money for the modernization of weapons and the army, as well as the desire! Therefore, what happened, it happened, in the end!
    1. Bolt cutter
      Bolt cutter 27 September 2021 20: 19
      -4

      Vladimir Lenin
      You got WiFi belay ?
      1. Vladimir Lenin
        Vladimir Lenin 27 September 2021 20: 28
        +10
        Well no! I write in the old fashioned way, with milk in a bread inkwell! Then the courier picks up!
        1. Bolt cutter
          Bolt cutter 27 September 2021 20: 34
          0
          Have you reached an agreement with Kautsky?
          1. Vladimir Lenin
            Vladimir Lenin 27 September 2021 20: 43
            +2
            Unfortunately no!
        2. Alf
          Alf 27 September 2021 21: 30
          +4
          Quote: Vladimir Lenin
          Then the courier picks up

          Straight from the dungeon damp? laughing
          How about an anecdote about an inkwell, milk, and a cellmate? laughing
          1. Vladimir Lenin
            Vladimir Lenin 27 September 2021 22: 19
            +1
            And this is interesting, you can listen!
    2. Alf
      Alf 27 September 2021 21: 29
      +9
      Quote: Vladimir Lenin
      And there was no money to modernize weapons and the army,

      There was money, but with the difference in the cost of the projectile at a state plant and a private

      no money will be enough.
      1. Aleksandre
        Aleksandre 27 September 2021 22: 17
        +5
        Quote: Alf
        There was money, but with the difference in the cost of the projectile at a state plant and a private

        I dare to suggest that the owners of private factories were "exemplary sons of the fatherland and patriots" who never missed an opportunity to publicly declare their tough position in this regard, as well as to lament that they would not regret their lives for the sake of Mother Russia, the Tsar, the people and Orthodoxy?
  27. for
    for 27 September 2021 19: 52
    +5
    Honest взгляд

    It can be honest for the author, as a personal opinion.
  28. Victor Tsenin
    Victor Tsenin 27 September 2021 19: 57
    +8
    > We need to overcome the opposition of the Soviet Union to the Russian Empire.

    Why overcome the insurmountable, these are two opposite systems and they will always be compared.

    > Both are our Motherland, and it doesn't matter what it was called and who ruled it.

    Who ruled and how, it is important for me, as well as for many others. It is enough that critical analysis and knowledge of native history, great / harmful personalities are always a plus.

    > And that the economic and scientific breakthrough that was made by the Soviet Union in the twentieth century was provided with the resources that the Russian Empire was able to accumulate, and above all its wonderful system of education and science, which prepared excellent personnel for the new country. And cadres, as you know, decide everything ...

    With all due respect to the people of labor and science of the Russian Empire, a breakthrough in production and education was created in the USSR, and, to be honest, on the accumulated socialist country, we are living now and will live for a long time. Those. conventionally, looking out the window, I see a lot of Soviet buildings or something new, created at the former Soviet enterprises, based on the Soviet technical school.

    I came across a brief analysis of the breakthrough, industrialization and related things.
    You can read it here.
    https://burckina-faso.livejournal.com/160754.html

    > Since 1928, when the USSR restored pre-revolutionary indicators, until 1940, the pace is phenomenal: an increase in 12 years by more than 6 times. 6 times in 27 pre-revolutionary years and 6 times growth in 12 years of Stalin's industrialization. If before the revolution the Russian Empire was the 5th industrial power after the United States, Britain, Germany and France, then thanks to the industrial breakthrough of the 30s, the USSR became the second industrial giant in the world after the United States.

    There is no point in comparing the coverage of education in late RI with the USSR, I'm sure.
    1. Alf
      Alf 27 September 2021 21: 33
      +6
      Quote: Victor Tsenin
      > Since 1928, when the USSR restored pre-revolutionary indicators, until 1940, the pace is phenomenal: an increase in 12 years by more than 6 times. 6 times in 27 pre-revolutionary years and 6 times growth in 12 years of Stalin's industrialization.

      Now the crushers will tell you once again that this growth was achieved only due to the GULAG, the famine of the peasants and the export of grain from the country.
      1. Victor Tsenin
        Victor Tsenin 27 September 2021 21: 43
        +2
        Well, the most scandalous crystal bakers are still at the stage - the whole country was sitting, as a rule, they are pierced)
      2. Dmitry from Voronezh
        29 September 2021 02: 03
        -1
        Growth was achieved by squeezing all the resources out of the people: robbery of the wealthy strata of the population (for example, dispossession of kulaks), forced collectivization. The peasantry was herded into collective farms, forced to sell grain to the state at a fixed price. The state received cheap bread and sold it on foreign markets for a decent price. The difference was directed to their own needs. Few cared about the fact that the peasantry did not receive enough money for a normal life. Hence the famine of the 1930s. These are facts you cannot argue with them. The life of workers in factories was also much worse than before the revolution. After all, they also saved on them for the sake of "great goals". And a very shameful page is a massive sale of cultural property. Works of art were exported to the west at very modest prices. If you look at the average level of economic growth from 1918 to 1940, you get about 3,5% per year, given that the USSR reached the level of 1913 only in 1928. So, if we evaluate the gross indicators, it turns out that without the revolution, the Russian Empire would have achieved the same indicators, and maybe even surpassed them.
    2. Olgovich
      Olgovich 28 September 2021 08: 05
      .
      Quote: Victor Tsenin
      From 1928, when the USSR restored pre-revolutionary indicators, until 1940 the pace is phenomenal

      definitely phenomenal - a complete BAD in food, clothing and housing consumption, Millions of corpses from hunger in 1929,30,32,33,3,4, 36 and in the "triumphant 1937 (the year was built by the social network), people are also Dying of hunger, eating patal and surrogates."

      Wild endless queues with stampedes for the most elementary, wild repression for no one knows why, and so on.

      It remains to wish the admiring ones to live there, with that phenomenon "
      1. Victor Tsenin
        Victor Tsenin 28 September 2021 11: 16
        +3
        Why remind such adversity, about the white movement with the support of the West, about intervention, about isolation and attacks? So despite all the hardships, through aggression, hunger and invasion, the young Soviet state was built and successfully developed. Until the tops began to rot, but that's another story.

        It seemed to me that you were somewhat emotional, I agree that, of course, there were negative aspects, but the new system gave the citizens much more benefits than tsarism in history.
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 28 September 2021 12: 40
          -6
          Quote: Victor Tsenin
          Why remind such adversity, about the white movement with the support of the West, about intervention, about isolation and attacks?

          so would not suit the anti-popular coup of the thief and the dispersal of the people's US-and there would be nothing
          Quote: Victor Tsenin
          So despite all the hardships, through aggression, hunger and invasion, the young Soviet state was built and successfully developed.

          so you about those "successes and said: -complete FAILURE in the consumption of food, clothing and housing, millions of corpses from hunger in 1929,30,32,33,3,4, 36 and in the" triumphant 1937 (the year was built by the social) also DIE of hunger, eat patal and surrogates.

          Wild endless queues with stampedes for the most elementary, wild repression for no one knows why, etc.

          Only "successes" can be called - who should be ...
          1. Victor Tsenin
            Victor Tsenin 28 September 2021 13: 05
            +4
            And the coup, on the contrary, is a popular one, the elimination of tsarist and minions.

            The terrible things you mentioned are a consequence of what I briefly described above, and not a consequence of the fact that the people took power under the banner of the Bolsheviks.

            Best of all and succinctly, the attitude of the people was described, in my opinion, by Blok:
            ... Why are they making holes in the ancient cathedral? - Because for a hundred years here an overweight priest, hiccupping, took bribes and sold vodka. Why do they shit in the dear to heart noble estates? - Because the girls were raped and flogged there ... Why are they knocking down centenary parks? - Because for a hundred years under their ... lindens and maples, the gentlemen showed their power ...

            For this I propose to end the polarized polemic)
            1. Olgovich
              Olgovich 28 September 2021 14: 17
              -6
              Quote: Victor Tsenin
              And the coup, on the contrary, is a popular one, the elimination of tsarist and minions.

              the people in the NATIONAL elections lowered the Bolsheviks, below the plinth.
              Quote: Victor Tsenin
              The terrible things you mentioned are a consequence of what I briefly described above, and not a consequence of the fact that the people took power under the banner of the Bolsheviks.

              nothing of the kind: by 1928, the 1913 indicators were almost established (thanks to the NEP cap).

              But the described horrors were 100% the result of precisely the subsequent policy under the banner of the Bolshevik
              Quote: Victor Tsenin
              Best of all and succinctly, the attitude of the people was described, in my opinion, by Blok

              Blok did not live to see the horrors of the 1930s, when parents in some places their children in peaceful, non-war years, and the peasants were tortured, raped, humiliated and exiled by the millions. And Blok's was just an innocent prank against the background of what was happening.
  29. citizen
    citizen 27 September 2021 20: 01
    +2
    By 1915, 33,1 thousand doctors of various specialties worked in the country. According to this indicator, the country was second only to Germany (34,1 thousand) and Japan (36,6 thousand).

    What is called there are lodges, there are large lodges, and there are statistics. This indicator would be relevant to the figure per 1000 people.
  30. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 27 September 2021 20: 01
    +9
    At the same time, the gymnasium students mastered mathematics at a level better than the students of modern mathematical special schools.

    A controversial statement, to put it mildly. Gymnasiums trained humanities, for which they were hammered into a lot of dead languages ​​- Greek, Latin, etc. Where can we do planimetry and algebra here. So the article seems to have been written by Olgovich (or by his order).
    1. Alf
      Alf 27 September 2021 21: 33
      +5
      Quote: Aviator_
      So the article seems to have been written by Olgovich (or by his order).

      And for some reason he cannot be seen or heard ...
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 27 September 2021 21: 48
        +7
        And for some reason he cannot be seen or heard ...

        Afraid to pass himself off as the author - they (the authors) are highlighted in green in the comments.
        1. Alf
          Alf 27 September 2021 21: 49
          +6
          Quote: Aviator_
          And for some reason he cannot be seen or heard ...

          Afraid to pass himself off as the author - they (the authors) are highlighted in green in the comments.

          That's what I'm talking about green.
      2. Olgovich
        Olgovich 28 September 2021 07: 55
        -1
        Quote: Alf
        And for some reason he cannot be seen or heard ...

        Fishing has not been canceled ... yes
  31. nikvic46
    nikvic46 27 September 2021 20: 02
    +2
    I hate it when they say about some kind of social system that everything was perfect there. And they say there was no need to rebuild anything. Russia lived with a kerosene lamp
    and everything seemed to be good. And the fact that among the children born a tiny survivor is also not bad. And this is in cities, but what can we say about villages and villages? This is what medicine was like. Maybe we dream about it?
    1. Alf
      Alf 27 September 2021 21: 37
      +6
      Quote: nikvic46
      Maybe we dream about it?

      I don't know what we are dreaming of, but this is what the regime dreams of, you can see on the graph.

      Successfully "caught up" in 1913.
  32. Eug
    Eug 27 September 2021 20: 16
    +5
    If everything was as good as the author describes, where did the people get such a rejection of the tsarist power?
  33. Siegfried
    Siegfried 27 September 2021 20: 37
    -3
    if not for the defeat in the First World War and as a result of this revolution and as a result of this forced industrialization and militarization of the 20-30s, then the chance for the imperial army of the tsar to stop the Wehrmacht would have been no more than that of Poland. But the attitude of other countries towards Russia would be different. Anyway, the appearance of Hitler might not have happened. In general, the paths of history are as uncertain as the fate of a person
    1. Victor Tsenin
      Victor Tsenin 27 September 2021 21: 42
      +5
      It's too much to compare with mighty Poland)
  34. Undecim
    Undecim 27 September 2021 20: 49
    +10
    This article was written in response to Oleg Egorov's article "Nicholas II and the Victory in the First World War."

    To be honest, the article itself is of little interest, since it does not operate with facts. There is a set of clichés: "backward country", "archaic state system", "economic backwardness" ... The author has a point of view and brings evidence to it. This cannot be condemned, but if you rely on hard facts, then the point of view can change.

    Therefore, we will try to assess the state of the Russian Empire before the First World War with an open mind, based on facts.

    The attempt to make a non-biased, fact-based assessment, declared by the author, was unsuccessful.
    The author immediately began to manipulate these facts.
    The students of the gymnasium received an excellent education that surpasses the level of modern liberal arts universities.

    Such a fact, sucked out of the finger by the author, can only be believed by someone who does not at all understand the difference between a gymnasium and a university.
    By 1915, 33,1 thousand doctors of various specialties worked in the country. According to this indicator, the country was second only to Germany (34,1 thousand) and Japan (36,6 thousand).

    Again juggling with numbers that are nothing in themselves.
    The population of Russia in 1915 was 165 million people, and in Germany - 65 million people, in Japan - 52 million.
    In Russia there is one doctor for 5322 people, in Germany - one doctor for 1911 people, in Japan - one doctor for 1420 people. Now you can compare.
    And so for all the author's "facts".
    So your article, mister author, is really "of little interest".
    1. Alf
      Alf 27 September 2021 21: 38
      +3
      Quote: Undecim
      The students of the gymnasium received an excellent education that surpasses the level of modern liberal arts universities.

      But here the author is irreparably right. Now the level of education has dropped below the plinth.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 27 September 2021 21: 39
        +1
        In what way is it right that a high school graduate in knowledge surpassed a university graduate?
        1. Alf
          Alf 27 September 2021 21: 43
          +2
          Quote: Undecim
          In what way is it right that a high school graduate in knowledge surpassed a university graduate?

          A PRESENT graduate is very possible.
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 27 September 2021 21: 45
            +1
            Can you imagine the difference between a modern university and a gymnasium at the beginning of the XNUMXth century?
            1. Alf
              Alf 27 September 2021 21: 48
              +1
              Quote: Undecim
              Can you imagine the difference between a modern university and a gymnasium at the beginning of the XNUMXth century?

              I won't say about technical ones, but about all kinds of philologists and historians ...
              1. Undecim
                Undecim 27 September 2021 21: 59
                +3
                Even philologists, even historians, even physicists and mathematicians. You cannot compare the incomparable.
                The program of the classical gymnasium provided for the study of the following subjects for seven years: Latin, Greek, ancient literature and history, the Law of God, Russian with Church Slavonic, literature, mathematics, physics, cosmography, geography (general and Russian), history (general, Russian, mythology), natural history ("... a brief visual explanation of the three kingdoms of nature ..."), German and French (optional), calligraphy, drawing and sketching.
                And in what subjects will we compare a graduate of the physics department of Moscow State University and a graduate of a gymnasium - according to the Law of God or according to the Greek language?
                Or physics?
                1. Alf
                  Alf 27 September 2021 22: 02
                  +4
                  Quote: Undecim
                  And in what subjects b

                  I met HSE owners at work - they write in Russian with errors. Many times to the damned Soviet school, almost everything was written correctly by the third grade.
                  1. Undecim
                    Undecim 27 September 2021 22: 11
                    +3
                    Many times to the damned Soviet school, almost everything was written correctly by the third grade.

                    I also studied at a Soviet school. When back in elementary school there was arithmetic, not mathematics. But I remember that they wrote competently even in the tenth grade at best ten percent.
                    And the graduates of the gymnasium, do you think, all the polls knew Russian at the level of philologists?
                2. Freeman
                  Freeman 28 September 2021 01: 47
                  +4
                  Quote: Undecim
                  e. And in what subjects will we compare a graduate of the physics department of Moscow State University and a graduate of a gymnasium - according to the law of God or in Greek?
                  Or physics?


                  It is you who should compare not the students of the Physics Department of Moscow State University, but the students of the Department of Theology at MEPhI.
                  I don’t know how things are with them with the "Law of God", but in Greek they will lose to high school students in all respects.

                  Remind
                  In 2013, the Department of Theology began its work at the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI), the leading university in Russia that trains nuclear physicists. wassat

    2. Sergej1972
      Sergej1972 27 September 2021 21: 46
      0
      In the newspapers of the times of the war, in the speeches of the Duma members, they constantly talked about "XNUMX million Germany."
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 27 September 2021 22: 06
        0
        I trust the Statistischen Bundesamtes, they know the issue better than the "Duma members".
        1. Sergej1972
          Sergej1972 27 September 2021 22: 23
          -1
          I mean the deputies of the pre-revolutionary State Duma. And, for example, the Chairman of the Council of Ministers Sturmer, in his speech before the Duma, spoke about "the eighty million people of Germany." Where did this information come from?
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 27 September 2021 22: 24
            0
            I mean the deputies of the pre-revolutionary State Duma.

            And me too.
            1. Sergej1972
              Sergej1972 27 September 2021 22: 33
              0
              I read materials on the population of Germany at that time. Indeed, 65 million. The most interesting is why Russian journalism often overestimated the number of Germans. Maybe they considered the Austrian Germans?))
              1. Undecim
                Undecim 27 September 2021 22: 42
                +1
                According to the 1910 census, 12 million people named German as their native language in Austria-Hungary. Approximately converges.
  35. citizen
    citizen 27 September 2021 20: 54
    +4
    If everything was so good in the empire, why did it collapse as a result of the rather modest riots in Petrograd?
    1. Alf
      Alf 27 September 2021 21: 41
      +14
      Quote: burger
      If everything was so good in the empire, why did it collapse as a result of the rather modest riots in Petrograd?

      Don't you know? Lenin arrived in a sealed carriage, brought another carriage of money with him, distributed it to the proletarians, and they rushed to the Winter Palace. It is true that in February there was neither Lenin as the main Bolshevik, nor the Bolsheviks themselves ... but these are such trifles ...
      1. citizen
        citizen 28 September 2021 01: 45
        0
        I wonder what would have been done to Lenin if he had rode in a sealed carriage through enemy territory, accompanied by intelligence officers during Stalin's time.
  36. businessv
    businessv 27 September 2021 21: 34
    +2
    One can only dream of such a scenario for modern Russia, because unfortunately, there are no real prerequisites for such a development today. It is hoped that they will appear over time.
    Yes, of course, as soon as the entire current elite is demolished, the country will have a lot of prerequisites for the scenario you described! Thank you for a rather optimistic article about the past, reconciliation must happen and it must unite all Russians, otherwise - torba! For the future of Great Russia! drinks
    1. Alf
      Alf 27 September 2021 21: 46
      +6
      Quote: businessv
      reconciliation must necessarily take place and it must unite all Russians,

      1. businessv
        businessv 29 September 2021 15: 25
        0
        I wrote about the demolition of the existing "top" and the unity of the so-called. "white" and "red" ie For us, the people, therefore, apart from bewilderment, your caricature to oppose me nothing else. wink hi Although, haipanuli, judging by the pluses, with which I congratulate! laughing
        1. Alf
          Alf 29 September 2021 19: 55
          +1
          Quote: businessv
          and unity of the so-called. "white" and "red" ie us the people

          Perfectly.
          On the left, "white", on the right, "red".


          Are you suggesting that the one on the left unite with the one on the right? And the one on the right agrees to unite?

          Quote: businessv
          with which I congratulate you!

          Do you think that the answer to my post about the unification of robbers and robbers should cause a flurry of minuses?
          1. businessv
            businessv 30 September 2021 00: 03
            0
            Quote: Alf
            Do you think that the answer to my post about the unification of robbers and robbers should cause a flurry of minuses?

            I count to 10 and back when communicating with people like you, and I also think that writing nonsense to people over 15 years old is not permissible. If you are controversial with me, then at least read what I am writing, and do not throw slogans that are not related to the essence of the conversation, this is stupid, although sometimes it is effective. Thank you for clarifying that it is pointless to have a conversation with you! hi
            1. Alf
              Alf 30 September 2021 20: 33
              +1
              Quote: businessv
              Quote: Alf
              Do you think that the answer to my post about the unification of robbers and robbers should cause a flurry of minuses?

              I count to 10 and back when communicating with people like you, and I also think that writing nonsense to people over 15 years old is not permissible. If you are controversial with me, then at least read what I am writing, and do not throw slogans that are not related to the essence of the conversation, this is stupid, although sometimes it is effective. Thank you for clarifying that it is pointless to have a conversation with you! hi

              It is just perfectly clear from communication with you that when in fact there is nothing to object, verbal diarrhea begins.
  37. vtiper
    vtiper 27 September 2021 22: 06
    +11
    1987 Ogonyok magazine level article.
    Korotich was the head of the editors there.
    Fucked up the USSR and dumped to live in the states.
  38. WayKheThuo
    WayKheThuo 27 September 2021 22: 58
    +3
    The students of the gymnasium received an excellent education that surpasses the level of modern liberal arts universities. At the same time, the gymnasium students mastered mathematics at a level better than the students of modern mathematical special schools.

    And how did the distinguished Author make the comparison?
    Is it possible to give a ride to the studio for any proof?
    1. Dmitry from Voronezh
      28 September 2021 02: 41
      -3
      This is the opinion of the historian Alexander Muzafarov. You can easily find his speeches and publications on the net.
  39. Baron pardus
    Baron pardus 27 September 2021 23: 08
    +9
    I love crystal bakers. I ask them the following questions:
    a) Please tell me not the number of doctors in Russia, but their ratio to the population
    b) Please tell me how many aircraft engines were put into mass production in the First World War and how many were made.
    c) Please tell me at how many factories in Khrustobulochnaya could produce Maxim machine guns
    d) Please tell me how many heavy guns of our own design were released in the Republic of Ingushetia during WWI and ammunition for them.
    e) You bring absolute tons of grain and steel - praise. Only when country A with a population of igrek produces 2 tons of wheat, and country B with a population of igray / XNUMX produces the same amount of grain, this speaks far not in favor of country A.
    f) If the bakery (by the way, to say "crunch of a French roll" is politely to say "to blow the wind") was so advanced, then why did they buy old rifles from Japan, including their own pro ... pooped ones during the ROE? Why all of a sudden, all of itself, the RI crunchy bakery was forced to order Winchesters and Mosins in America, because everything was great. Why were there plans to arm one of the 10 infantrymen with a cane instead of rifles?
    G) What was the state of the chemical industry?
    h) Of the factories and manufacturers, how many belonged to RI, and how many were built by foreign (English and French) engineers for OWN (not Russian) companies.?

    Well, further down the list. I love to watch how they are sore.

    There was no scent of honesty in this article.
    These are honest eyes, these eyes do not lie, they tell everyone at once that their owner is a cheat.

    By the way, the Russian Empire may be THEIR homeland, but not mine.
    1. Daniil Konovalenko
      Daniil Konovalenko 28 September 2021 12: 27
      +3
      In Soviet times, the question was popular at exams, when admitting to the Komsomol, how many members of the Komsomol participated in the storming of the Winter Palace; today, the crushers can be asked how many Russian tanks participated in the Brusilov breakthrough. laughing
    2. businessv
      businessv 30 September 2021 00: 11
      +1
      Quote: Baron Pardus
      By the way, the Russian Empire may be THEIR homeland, but not mine.
      By the way, Motherland is written with a capital (capital) letter! You'd better write an article about "crushers". otherwise you criticize everything, but you ask questions, it will be interesting to read. wink
  40. Evil troll
    Evil troll 27 September 2021 23: 12
    +1
    This is some kind of agitation ...
  41. Intruder
    Intruder 28 September 2021 00: 36
    +2
    1.
    then the Russian GDP in 1900-1913 grew faster than the German one.

    Provided the size of the population:
    German Reich - 67 people. (790), against the Republic of Ingushetia - 000 1914 178 people.
    The author himself is not funny !? wink

    2.
    Nicholas II. After all, if we honestly evaluate the information that was given above, then we must admit that he left behind a completely viable country:

    - with excellent demographic indicators;
    - with high rates of economic growth;
    - with good medicine;
    - with excellent education;
    - with advanced science and engineering school;
    - with stable finances.


    - on the first point: at whose expense is such a boom, if you look at the almost deserted Far East and the sparsely populated Siberia-mother, separate regions of the deserted North at that time, and namely: "before the Great Autumn-Winter Revolutions and the bachelor Aurora" !?
    - on the second: the agricultural economy is quite possible, due to the area, but the level of agriculture per manpower was low ... but what about industrialization and the next boom of the technical revolution at the beginning of the 20th century, we are looking at international exhibitions in Paris, since the 1890s, and what achievements did RI exhibit there and among other countries and Empires !? Everything is on the net, even with photographs of the exhibition days of that time, "true without paints";
    - on the third: for what groups of social strata, and even now it is not bad in urban areas, in comparison with the Russian countryside, and 110 years later, the situation, by the way, is very similar ... Apparently even then the tsar's decrees were not carried out on the ground !? lol
    - on the fourth: see all the first three points and peep into the network;
    - on the fifth: but only, this science ... for some reason was torn to Europe (if not for Mendeleev's profitable marriage, our half-hungry grandfather Tsiolkovsky interrupted our genius from dry land to water for years ... in poverty, but created overcoming everything hardships of "Russian science" ... Sikorsky, who spat on everything ... and beyond the Ocean went to his bright future with the first steamer, and about loans for the construction of an armored fleet at the shipyards of the ASPnet, you can not even talk about ... from the word at all ! crying ), and did not develop much in the Republic of Ingushetia, and the dominance of the projects of German / English and Swedish oligarchs (from Siemens to Erickson) literally cut off all the local undertakings of the Russian "Kulibins" (just in that era, foreign industrialists were tightly budget and did not try to get off it even in the face of the fear of the death penalty in Execution Ground ... for business and large), which also existed, but compared to the German / English / Swedish lobby in the immediate imperial environment, this is laughter through tears!
    - debts to France and other European countries, are they stable finances !? belay ... Witte on this, it can be seen "not one castle, with a yacht on the Adriatic" bought when he was building the future CER (at that time the Manchurian road), with excellent multi-pass schemes of this respected and "genius in the Russian economy and budgetary finance" person: in December 1895, the Russian-Chinese Bank was created with an initial capital of 6 million rubles. For its formation, 15% of the funds were provided by the St. Petersburg International Commercial Bank, and 61% came from 4 French banks. wink
    Cosmodrome Vostochny now, this is laughter ... and a sin, just ridiculous, a very small amount of what flows out of the federal budget, and then they were robbed, really on a large scale and on a grand scale ... even gold and other valuables, such as furs and etc ... and this, not only grandmothers, "... but also valuable fur" !!! yes
    1. Iskazi
      Iskazi 28 September 2021 02: 03
      +3
      The peak of emigration from Russia fell on the reigns of Alexandrov on the 2nd and 3rd ..., 15% of the US population spoke Russian ... what are the achievements of this pseudo-empire? Completely corrupt and totally corrupt. The groans of the Bolsheviks Bolsheviks about the inheritance of Tsarism are completely justified and legitimate.
    2. Dmitry from Voronezh
      28 September 2021 03: 41
      -3
      In terms of GDP growth, look at China and India. They have a huge population and the ratio between them and the countries of Europe is much greater than between the Republic of Ingushetia and Germany. But, nothing, they do not complex about this, the main thing is that the economy is growing rapidly. And if the RI GDP grew faster than the German one, why not accept this as an achievement?
      I will not comment on the first point, since the essence of the issue is not clear. I can only say that the population grew and grew rapidly. Is it bad?
      On the second point: in 1900, about 2,5 thousand Russian manufacturers took part in the world exhibition in Paris. The largest exposition area was allocated for the Russian department - 24 sq. M. Still, separate buildings were erected for some parts of the Russian exposition, since the allocated area was not enough. Russia spent about 000 million rubles for participation in the exhibition, about half of this money was allocated by institutions and exhibitors. DI Mendeleev, who was vice-president of the International Jury, took an active part in the exhibition. As a result of the exhibition, the Russian exposition received 6 awards: 1 highest (Grand Prix), 589 gold medals, 212 silver, 370 bronze and 436 honorary reviews.
      The highest award, in particular, was awarded to a number of structures of the Great Siberian Railway. The Transsib was presented in the form of a panorama.
      In the electrical engineering section, the first Russian telephones and the first operating prototype of the radio were presented, which was personally represented by its inventor Alexander Popov (awarded the gold medal for the development of radio communications).
      Russian engineer Lavr Proskuryakov received the Gold Medal of the exhibition from a special committee headed by Gustav Eiffel. The medal was awarded for the project of the Krasnoyarsk railway bridge.
      It seems to me that this is quite a good result.
      On the third point, the country really did not have enough doctors, but their number was growing rapidly.
      On the fourth point - read the article carefully. There is enough said about the development of education.
      On the fifth point I will say only for Sikorsky (their Nobel Prizes speak for Mechnikov and Pavlov). Igor Sikorsky in RI was a general designer, had state awards and was loyal to the Emperor. The government appreciated the person who multiplied the power and glory of the country. At the age of 25, Sikorsky became a knight of the Order of St. Vladimir, IV degree, equal in value to the Order of St. George, but in the civil sphere. By the age of 28, he was already a national hero. Only fear of the Bolsheviks forced him to emigrate.
      Finances are discussed in the article. The share of loans is no more than 11% of total domestic capital investments. Debts during the war are another story.
      1. Alf
        Alf 28 September 2021 19: 45
        +1
        Quote: Dmitry from Voronezh
        In the electrical engineering section, the first Russian telephones and the first operating prototype of the radio were presented, which was personally represented by its inventor Alexander Popov (awarded the gold medal for the development of radio communications).

        Fine ! Then why in the Russian army and navy ALL radio stations were Dukret systems?
        Quote: Dmitry from Voronezh
        The government appreciated the person who multiplied the power and glory of the country. At the age of 25, Sikorsky became a knight of the Order of St. Vladimir, IV degree, equal in value to the Order of St. George, but in the civil sphere.

        Appreciated very much. But the Russian army flew on French and British aircraft motors.
        Quote: Dmitry from Voronezh
        Debts during the war are another story.

        And how many credits did the USSR get in WW2?
        How many cars did Puzyrev make? And Frese? And they also shone at exhibitions ...
        Why the FIRST plant for the production of light machine guns in the Republic of Ingushetia only began to be built in 1916? And that Swiss one?
        Why before WW1 did the Russian Empire buy scythes and sickles in Europe ???
        How many "little things" such as bearings were produced in RI?
        And you can also compare the number of engines and aircraft produced in WW1 with the amount of the same in the Entente and the Second Reich ...
  42. Iskazi
    Iskazi 28 September 2021 01: 54
    +5
    another fan of the crunch of French rolls ..., a follower of the backside and a seeker of "Lost Russia", another burp of the "light" of Korotich, in the 80-90s there was a lot of such turbidity ..., we swam, we know ... Fierce plagiarism and graphomaniac. ...
  43. The comment was deleted.
  44. Edvid
    Edvid 28 September 2021 02: 17
    +2
    Putilovsky plant, turbine workshop, 1912.
    1. Baron pardus
      Baron pardus 28 September 2021 17: 57
      +2
      Let's compare similar factories in other countries? How many such factories were there in the USA, England, France, Germany, Austria Hungary and Italy? How many TURBINES were produced by factories of these countries per year. And now let's compare with how much the "advanced" Russian Empire produced. Let me remind you. England, France, Germany, USA, Austria Hungary and Italy did not order battleships and cruisers in other countries, but built them themselves. And "RI" - no. I couldn’t support myself. What kind of advanced can we talk about when the rotten backward semi-feudal Republic of Ingushetia could not provide itself with not only aircraft motors (NONE of them reached serial production), not just machine guns, not just artillery, but even banal RIFLE. I had to buy Arisaki from JAPAN, and the mosinki that Japan captured in the RYAV. In the USA, they ordered both Mosinks and Winchesters Mod 1895 (cool rifle, shot from this one). I mean, technology and industrialization were not even enough to provide the soldiers with a rifle. No need to laugh at Austria Hungary and Italy in the First World War. There is the Russian Empire. The "backward" Austria Hungary and Italy provided themselves with small arms. And Austria Hungary provided itself with machine guns, heavy artillery, and aircraft motors. Italy built its own ships.
      Yes, by the way, neither the Italian nor the Austro-Hungarian admirals were going to put "our cheap, wax" ones on the submarines instead of the "expensive" French spark plugs.
      When a country cannot even provide itself with rifles, it is not a superpower, it is the level of Mexico, Ecuador and Bolivia. What RI was. See consumption of meat, or grain for the SOUL of the population. Well, you can see the life expectancy in the Republic of Ingushetia. and compare with Italy and Austria (I am silent about the German Empire at all).
      1. Dmitry from Voronezh
        29 September 2021 02: 36
        0
        RI in the period from 1914 to 1917. produced about 2175 thousand rifles. This is the third figure among the belligerent countries after Germany and Austria-Hungary. It should be borne in mind that Russia had the largest land army of the belligerent countries and sometimes there were not enough rifles. Hence orders abroad. For 1914-1916. Russia was superior to Austria-Hungary in the production of machine guns. As for artillery, I quoted the figures above - Austria-Hungary and Italy were inferior to us in this component. But, if you look more broadly, these numbers are by no means the main thing. The main thing is that by 1917 the war was essentially won. And if so, then who produced how much is of secondary importance.
        1. Baron pardus
          Baron pardus 29 September 2021 04: 37
          0
          In 17, yes, the War was essentially won - BY THE ENGLISH AND THE FRENCH. And that was "in perspective". The Russian Empire was losing more battles than it was winning. Which is natural. When you have 27% literate, it is difficult to maintain even howitzers of that time. "What should a sailor do in a modern battle? Competently maintain his mechanism, and I struggle for half a year to at least drive a charter and a letter into a recruit" - "Port Arthur" Stepanov. Moreover, due to constant hunger and malnutrition, the soldiers of the recruits even BEFORE training had to be FEEDED OUT. There was no such squalor neither in the German Kaiser Army, nor in the Austro-Hungarian, nor in the Italian, and even less so in the English, American and French. Even in the Mexican Army, recruits did not have to be fattened. Indeed, the wrong country was called Honduras. EMNIP in terms of meat consumption per capita, the same Honduras exceeded RI. I can be mistaken. By the way, you say that Russia has produced more machine guns than Austria Hungary - please prove it. In Russia, emnip, machine guns were produced by ONE plant, which was significantly inferior in size to the same Skoda. Indicate your sources, please do not quote "Bulkokhrustov" and "Russia which we have lost."

          Ogrebaya not sickly (and well-deserved) kicks from the Japanese who recently emerged from the Middle Ages, it is somehow absurd to proclaim "We almost won" against the advanced Kaiser Germany. Your proclamations “We practically won the war in 1917” are about the same as Hitler and Goebbels yelled “We almost won in 1943” about the same. Yes, the Army of the Republic of Ingushetia was huge and completely useless. A poorly trained crowd, led, for the most part, by mediocre officers and generals, with RARE exceptions. And if the middle-ranking officers were even less competent, the overwhelming majority of senior military personnel were more useful to Kaiser's Germany and Austria-Hungary than to the Russian Empire, so they "led".
          Losses of RI in WWI according to Cornish 2 million military casualties killed and died from wounds. 1.5 million civilians, 2.5 million POW. 2.5 million prisoners is more than England and France lost together. That is, the Russians surrendered more than they fought. Only the Austro-Hungarian army (the Loser) can compare in the number of prisoners of 2.2 million, and this is given that the whole Czech regiments surrendered together with the officers. MNDA, RI still those foiteli .. pfe ... In the navy - samotopes, in the army - a bayonet into the ground and taken prisoner. By the way, I read the memoirs of some prisoner that they were fed better in German captivity than in the Russian Army, moreover, they were beaten much less than Russian officers.
          Ogrebaya from tiny Japan it was just idiocy to fight the Germans and Austrians. Russia was also lucky that the Western Front pulled off most of the German Army.
          Very rightly, NikaLashka was slapped, together with the whole family it was only necessary to do this in 1905, after an unnecessary and lost war with Japan, and even if the Brazenly French themselves would deal with both the Kaiser and the Austrian Army. And the doctor and his servants shouldn't have been used up. Doctors are a piece of material. Nikalashka followed the lead of his wife, who ALWAYS remained loyal to the British crown and, in fact, was an agent of influence of ENGLAND.
          And from their generals bought in bulk by France (one of the reasons why RI was left without serious heavy artillery, having terminated the contract with Krupp).

          It is not surprising why the Germans during the Great Patriotic War expected easy victories. They remembered that the enemy of the Republic of Ingushetia was an order of magnitude weaker than the British. And only thanks to the leadership of Stalin and the Communist Party, victory in the Great Patriotic War was achieved.

          No, I understand that you quite agree with the Press Secretary of Putin who said "Our goal is Russia in the times of Nicholas II". Ideology, sir, but there is no smell of "truth" and "tears of the veil" in your opus, just another set of crumbled stamps. RI fell quite naturally. It is a pity that she did not fall 2 years earlier. It is a pity that in Russia, unfortunately, neither Oliver Cromwell, nor his own Napoleon Bonaparte was found. His own Giuseppe Garribaldi was also not found.
          1. Trapperxnumx
            Trapperxnumx 29 September 2021 09: 28
            -3
            M-daaa Dmitry, I have not seen such a tendentious and absolutely ridiculous outline for a long time. Is it okay that RI fought against three states at once in WWI? We had more prisoners than on the Western Front - so the maneuverability was much higher. To move 10 km there is a tremendous success. You forget that on the Western Front TWO leading powers fought against ONE Germany at once - and could not overpower it. And here Russia fights alone against three - and fights quite well. AB was practically knocked out of the war. Success after success in Turkey.
            We lost to Japan? Remind you that after that, Japan alone successfully bend two of the largest naval and technological powers at once? And in order to cope with it, the United States had to turn on its production at full power and recruit an army? And this despite the fact that the Japanese held large forces in China, attacked in Indochina, seized half of the Pacific Ocean and several times harshly attacked the "hegemons".
            Although you, as I understand it, do not care deeply and all my words are an empty phrase for you, because you have already decided everything for yourself, firmly believe in your "only correct" views.
      2. Trapperxnumx
        Trapperxnumx 29 September 2021 09: 06
        -1
        Quote: Baron Pardus
        Let me remind you. England, France, Germany, USA, Austria Hungary and Italy did not order battleships and cruisers in other countries, but built them themselves. And "RI" - no. I couldn’t support myself.

        Well, tell me the battleships that RI bought abroad?
  45. gorenina91
    gorenina91 28 September 2021 03: 31
    0
    Russian empire. An honest look

    - Again the "honest look" ... - Who needs this "honest look" ??? - And where is he ... - this "honest look" ???
    - It starts again ... - Russia was already producing it then; now Russia has already achieved; Russia was already capable then; here Russia already could and so on and so on ... - And where is the result ??? - And the results at that time (and probably even today) - were evaluated then only according to the same criteria ... - this is the ability to wage a successful war ... - To wage a war with an army that the state has armed; supplied with military professionals (or non-professionals); literate soldiers (or not literate)
    - And what's the point ... - with a gun decorated and inlaid with gold and silver; if ... if ... if - this gun doesn't fire ...
    - So why, then, the Russian gun did not constantly "shoot" then ??? - And the whole 19th century didn’t shoot and the whole beginning of the 20th century didn’t shoot ???
    - For me personally, there are many riddles ... - And one of them is a fact ... - a fact that simply causes absolute bewilderment ... - this is a question ... - Why did Russia fight so badly, unsuccessfully and failed in WWI? ??
    - What hindered, what was missing, what Russia did not have ... - to act successfully ???
    - Let's not invade the economic and industrial jungle of Russia and the comparative economic characteristics of Russia with the characteristics of the leading economic powers of that time ... - It's just that you can get lost in these comparative jungles and get lost - and everyone is "lost" in them ...
    - - Let's just discard it .. - But if we take even only one indicator that Russia had during WWI ...
    - This is something that in those days had such an advantage that others never dreamed of ... - Namely:
    1. gorenina91
      gorenina91 28 September 2021 04: 10
      -1
      - Namely :
      The total number of horses in 1914 appears in the following approximate figures: Russia - almost 35, USA - 000, Germany - 000, Austria-Hungary - 25, France - more than 000, Great Britain - 000 6 500. The number of horses in Russia exceeded their number in all the great powers of Europe combined.
      - Figase ... - And we are all here "iron smelting", steel, etc. we compare everything (and according to these indicators, Russia has already progressed) ...
      - And what about the horses ??? - Ha, yes, all of Europe fought the entire WWI on horse-drawn vehicles; and in WWII - horse traction played a huge role both for the Red Army and for the army of Nazi Germany ... - And already in WWI - so the "equestrian factor" in the field ... - it was the leading factor ...
      - And Russia (with its huge pastures, fodder base) - had such an equestrian park; which Western Europe could only dream of (Europe did not have - no pastures, no fodder, no other fodder base ... - This is such a huge (even "decisive") advantage Russia had ...
      - Moreover ... - Russia at that time had very well-trained Cossack equestrian units; which, by today's standards, can be compared with the shock landing parachute units (with the Airborne Forces); who could act independently and very quickly and efficiently carry out the assigned tasks ... - could move quickly; and when it was necessary - dismount and perform the functions of the infantry; and unexpectedly strike ... - No, all the belligerent states had cavalry then ... - And Russia then - apart from and separately from the Cossack units, there was also cavalry ... - But such equestrian "paratroopers-professionals" then ... - no one had ... - True, then the stupid military Russian leadership - and could not use them "for their intended purpose" (like the Russian cavalry) ... - they just threw these "paratroopers" on German machine guns - as well as all their other troops ...
      - So they blew off the PMV ... - And they did not help Russia - neither the "production of pig iron", nor the production of grain, and so on ...
      - In addition to all this, you also need to be able to fight ...
      1. EvilLion
        EvilLion 28 September 2021 08: 58
        0
        If instead of 10 horses there is 1 normal tractor, or an artillery tractor, how is it to be counted?

        And Russia (with its huge pastures, fodder base)


        I’ll tell you one secret, but don’t be surprised, but a wild horse has never lived on the territory of European Russia, it has nothing to eat corny in our area, because the territory is covered in many ways by forests with swamps, there are not so many flat steppes. At the same time, the total duration of the period when the grass grows in general is very small in comparison with the same Germany, and to feed monster horses weighing a ton in Russia, which breeds are available in Zap. Europe is simply unrealistic in our country, for a short summer they cannot eat off. And for almost its entire history, Russia bought war horses from the same steppe dwellers, and the Polish heavy cavalry, which was delayed for a long time in comparison with Europe, ordered the Russian armies with regular stars when a couple of hundred hussars broke into their battle formations. Some horse archers on actually ponies, since they are several times cheaper than a war horse, simply did not stand against such a thing. Somehow, the issues of the equestrian park began to be resolved under Catherine II, but according to natural conditions, Russia is an extremely disgusting place for horse breeding.
        1. gorenina91
          gorenina91 28 September 2021 19: 47
          -1
          I’ll tell you one secret, but don’t be surprised, but a wild horse has never lived on the territory of European Russia, it has nothing corny to eat in our area.

          - In order to discover something for someone - you first "discover" something for yourself ... - In order to at least not write such nonsense ...; and even "poke" at the same time ... - did the horse kick you ... - or fell from the horse ??? - Most likely - from a circus pony ...
          because the territory is covered in many ways by forests with swamps, there are not so many flat steppes

          in comparison with the same Germany is very small, and in Russia to feed monster horses weighing a ton, which breeds are available in Zap. Europe is simply unrealistic in our country, for a short summer they cannot eat off.

          - Yes, I see that you are a "connoisseur" ... - Hey, you ... - "Connoisseur" ... - And about the "Oryol breed of horses" --- have you ever heard something? ?? - No ??? - Why then - you spread such nonsense here ...
          And for almost its entire history, Russia bought war horses from the same steppe dwellers,

          - And from what "steppes" Russia bought horses ??? - Probably from the American prairies, bypassing the oceans and seas ... - they brought mustang caravels to Russia ... - And then the Indians taught Russian peasants "arable business" ... - how to cultivate fields and plow the land ... - Thanks to Chingachguk. .. - at least he taught the Russians ... how to "plant and grow" ... - It was then that Russia began to supply grain to Europe ... - They are horses for us; and we give them "pyshenichka" ... - Hahah ...
          - Reading such a thing ... is the same as ...
          - Damn ... - Well, today what ??? - In the circus arena ... - clowns, or what ??? -Hahah ...
          1. Baron pardus
            Baron pardus 28 September 2021 20: 19
            +1
            How many "magnificent" Oryol horses have Russia supplied ... but to anyone before WWI? Nobody, no cavalry needed "Orlovtsy", not even for nothing. In Russia, the Orlovites were valued because there were NO OTHERS. Before the English or even the American Quarterhorse, orlovtsu is roughly the same as BT5 to T-34-85. By the way, the greatest success in WWI was achieved by the BRITISH cavalry, on their own horses and not on "Oryol" nags. What did the Russian Empire exported? Raw materials. Honey, Fur, Hemp. Like any African or Latin American banana republic. The "backward" Austria Hungary exported weapons, machine tools, and steam locomotives. Unlike "Penko fur" of the Russian Empire. Even Mexico exported Tequila. Even Jamaica exported rum. There were few people who wanted Russian vodka in Europe and the USA when there was whiskey, cognac and scotch.
            1. gorenina91
              gorenina91 28 September 2021 20: 33
              -1
              Before the English or even the American Quarterhorse, orlovtsu is roughly the same as BT5 to T-34-85. By the way, the greatest success in WWI was achieved by the BRITISH cavalry, on their own horses and not on "Orlov" nags.

              - Ha ...
              - Yes ... what's the matter ??? - Personally, I have already written the same; what ... what ... what the "victorious BRITISH cavalry" ... - vaulted on ... on mules ... - to the sounds of Scottish bagpipers ... in plaid skirts ...
              - Like this ... - sit in ... in pubs ... - and then jump up ... on ponies and to the mournful sounds of bagpipes ... - and forward ... - and whiskey, brandy and scotch ... - "to help" them ... - Who can resist such ...
              - Okay ... - Goodbye ...
      2. Baron pardus
        Baron pardus 28 September 2021 18: 04
        +2
        There are many horses, but the quality of the horses is very doubtful. For some reason, "Russian breeds" were not in demand. And these were not horses, but nags. Moreover, what's the point in the fact that you have a lot of horses if you CANNOT MOBILIZE them - there is nothing to plow. And these horses are so badly fed that they cannot pull guns. At the same time, in the same Germany, farmers plowed on ... TRACTORS. They just didn't need horses in such quantities. And for some reason, grain per capita AND produced and consumed more in Austria Hungary, Italy, Spain, France, USA, and even in Brazil and Argentina. The Cossacks did not show themselves otherwise than looting and banditry at all. "Cossacks do not fight, they finish off the wounded" - this proverb did not just arise. The Cossacks turned out to be absolutely useless both in the Russo-Japanese and in the First World War.
        Well, you need to know how to fight. What the Russian Empire forgot how to do after the Napoleonic Wars. Whom did Russia defeat after Napoleon? Oh yes, the already completely weakened Ottoman Empire. The navy could offer nothing but self-indulgence. Foiteli ... phe ...
        1. gorenina91
          gorenina91 28 September 2021 20: 05
          -1
          For some reason, "Russian breeds" were not in demand. And these were not horses, but nags. Moreover, what's the point in the fact that you have a lot of horses if you CANNOT MOBILIZE them - there is nothing to plow. And these horses are so badly fed that they cannot pull guns. At the same time, in the same Germany, farmers plowed on ... TRACTORS.

          - This is how it turns out ... - Who would have thought ...
          - Everything is exactly the opposite ... - The same German "bityugi-heavy trucks" very badly "showed themselves" ... - as horse-drawn and scrap transport ... in Russia ... - They simply could not adapt in more severe conditions ... - During the civil war (times of intervention), the "Anglo-Saxons" even had to bring mules to Russia ... - in order to use them as a "draft force" ... - Well, about horses personally. another comment ... - I don't want to repeat myself ...
          The Cossacks did not show themselves otherwise than looting and banditry at all. "Cossacks do not fight, they finish off the wounded" - this proverb did not just arise.

          - You confused this with the "Wild Division" ... - which was formed by their Caucasians ... - And during WWI and then during the Civil War ... - performed more and more punitive functions ... - and more and more - against "their own" - the tsarist Russian units and against the civilian Russian population ... - Until they were very severely and justly punished ... - by the peasant "warriors" of Batka Makhno ... - This is a special topic ...
        2. gorenina91
          gorenina91 28 September 2021 20: 09
          -1
          Well, you need to know how to fight. What the Russian Empire forgot how to do after the Napoleonic Wars. Whom did Russia defeat after Napoleon? Oh yes, the already completely weakened Ottoman Empire. The navy could offer nothing but self-indulgence. Foiteli ... phe ...

          - Yes ... - Personally, I have already spoken about this ... - Namely:
          - And what's the point ... - with a gun decorated and inlaid with gold and silver; if ... if ... if - this gun doesn't fire ...
          - So why, then, the Russian gun did not constantly "shoot" then ??? - And the whole 19th century didn’t shoot and the whole beginning of the 20th century didn’t shoot ???
          - For me personally, there are many riddles ... - And one of them is a fact ... - a fact that simply causes absolute bewilderment ... - this is a question ... - Why did Russia fight so badly, unsuccessfully and failed in WWI? ??

          - So they blew off the PMV ... - And they did not help Russia - neither the "production of pig iron", nor the production of grain, and so on ...
          - In addition to all this, you also need to be able to fight ...

          - I don’t want to repeat myself ...
      3. Dmitry from Voronezh
        29 September 2021 02: 41
        +1
        The war was not lost. The Brest-Litovsk peace (humiliating and shameful) was concluded not by the tsarist or even the provisional government, but, unfortunately, already by Soviet Russia. This is a fact, there is no way to dispute it. And so, by 1917, all the fronts were stable. During the war, several major victories were won: in the Galician battle, at Przemysl, the Lutsk breakthrough, in the Caucasus. There was no military defeat. It is a fact.
    2. EvilLion
      EvilLion 28 September 2021 08: 59
      0
      The war was blown away - excuses are not accepted.
      1. Trapperxnumx
        Trapperxnumx 29 September 2021 09: 33
        -1
        Quote: EvilLion
        The war was blown away - excuses are not accepted.

        You are possible. Empire is not.
  46. sleeve
    sleeve 28 September 2021 05: 58
    -4
    The article is correct, written concisely and with correctly structured statistical material. Indeed, WWI was an attempt to "dunk" two birds with one stone, a Russian and a German. And this is in addition to trying to solve their emerging problems (especially the political stagnation of the USA). The almost compelling argument: “if everything were so beautiful, the people would not have supported either February or October” easily breaks down on what we are seeing now. The people, even in a well-fed Libya, were able to convince them to stand under the banner of "freedom" and rattle the country to smithereens. This also applies to other "projects of changing" stability for chaos. Especially if such tools are used against the background of a fairly undeveloped literacy of the population in terms of not writing skills, and if I can put it this way, the "cynicism of social thinking" acquired by generations of the educated population, which is what our "Soviet-Russian" electorate is famous for, which still managed once deceive, but seriously. And here it is not necessary either to exclude, not to transfer all the blame to the factor of external interference. The conditions and prerequisites for demolition are in each system; the whole question is how they correlate with the current political and historical agenda. And what is not unimportant is what kind of "fasteners" the society is connected with at the moment of this correlation. The most "lagging" part of the body of the Russian Empire was its ruling elite. All the data given in the article was achieved in many respects "in spite of". And in this case, the saying about the "bad boyars" will become the most correct. Exactly to the point. So we see in this historical knot a confluence of several conditions: external influence (both in military and revolutionary issues), which is a usual thing at all times, exacerbated internal contradictions (which are always and their acuteness and the extent of coverage of "sympathizers" again the same historical conjuncture) and the inability of the ruling elites to either resist or lead the current internal processes. Boom and chaos. Well, and the transformation into the required, albeit grotesquely bloody, both in the process of birth and in the first stages of life, a state association that has become a superpower.
  47. teptyar
    teptyar 28 September 2021 07: 13
    -3
    Purely everyday, from the stories of a great-grandmother. Before the First World War, there were two large stores in our village, and so oranges were even sold in them ... then they appeared back only in the late 90s. The people lived well, and the village was very numerous. There were 3 mosques.
  48. Olgovich
    Olgovich 28 September 2021 07: 31
    -6
    And one of these people is undoubtedly Emperor Nicholas II. After all, if we honestly evaluate the information that was given above, then we must admit that he left behind a completely viable country:

    - with excellent demographic indicators;
    - with high rates of economic growth;
    - with good medicine;
    - with excellent education;
    - with advanced science and engineering school;
    - with stable finances.


    Exactly! And everything that had the following regime was laid down and achieved BEFORE it - ALL scientists and designers of the USSR were trained in IMPERIAL UNIVERSITIES, and hundreds of thousands of teachers and schools were also trained and created DOVOR, as well as district doctors

    And it must be added - it was a FREE country of FREE people - with freedom of speech, assembly, conscience, elections, movement, travel, with a jury and a humane system of punishment, and it was a real fairy tale in comparison with the wild medievalism that came later and brought, only for 70 years, to extinction, soldering people, non-competitive economy, coupons for cowards and the destruction of the country.

    THANKS to the author, keep it up, we look forward to continuing! good hi
    1. tatra
      tatra 28 September 2021 07: 38
      +1
      Ha, but before the October Revolution there was not such a large-scale development of the country as it was after it?
      And why did you, the enemies of the USSR and the Soviet people, turn out to be unable to work the same way as the Soviet communists and their supporters worked, and ruined ALL industries on the territory of the USSR you captured?
      And what did you yourself do for the good of the country and the people with your freedom from the communists? Or is it not for this that you so longed for freedom from the communists?
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 28 September 2021 09: 35
        -9
        Quote: tatra
        Ha, but before the October Revolution there was not such a large-scale development of the country as it was after it?

        it was: at pre-VORrv rates, by 1940, there were the SAME results as during the USSR, but without millions of corpses from hunger and cannibalism, camps and "enemies" of the people
        Quote: tatra
        And why did you, the enemies of the USSR and the Soviet people, turn out to be unable to work the same way as the Soviet communists and their supporters worked, and ruined ALL industries on the territory of the USSR you captured?

        You left the old non-viable non-competitive economy, unable to deliver on the promises of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and that's why you collapsed.
        Quote: tatra
        And what did you yourself do for the good of the country and the people with your freedom from the communists? Or is it not for this that you so longed for freedom from the communists?

        You didn’t leave enough people behind you: you gave the people a drink, the youth was rapidly declining, weaned women to give birth, but taught them to abortion, etc.
        1. tatra
          tatra 28 September 2021 10: 11
          0
          So AGAIN I ask the question - why before the October Revolution there was not the same rate of development as after it?
          And you, the enemies of the communists, having ruined ALL industries in all the republics of the USSR you captured, have not been able to create any of your best industries for as long as 30 years, turned the republics of the USSR you captured into poor, backward, dying out States.
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 28 September 2021 12: 14
            -7
            Quote: tatra
            So AGAIN I ask the question - why before the October Revolution there was not the same rate of development as after it?

            from the FIRST time did not reach again ?!

            AGAIN: with the pre-VORrv rate of development of Russia and after the VOR, by 1940, there would have been the same results as under the USSR in 1940

            Quote: tatra
            And you, the enemies of the communists, having ruined ALL industries in all the republics of the USSR you captured, have not been able to create any of your best industries for as long as 30 years, turned the republics of the USSR you captured into poor, backward, dying out States.

            A Russian person after you lives LONGER, dresses better, lives in a much larger amount of housing (and can CHOOSE it, and not use the humiliating handout of the authorities in the Khrushchev chicken coop where they will appoint), has a lot more cars and does not spend precious decades of life on DEADLESS queues for a dead blue chicken, underpants and a TV.
            1. Alf
              Alf 28 September 2021 19: 53
              0
              Quote: Olgovich
              panties and TV.

              Here are just a problem, and cowards and TVs do not belong to Russia.
              Quote: Olgovich
              Khrushchev chicken coop

              Yes, Khrushchev is cramped, but it is strong, but modern "buildings" fall apart in 5-10 years, and some of them do not stand idle for a year. By the way, all the damned Khrushchevs, Stalin's and Brezhnevkas received free of charge, and the current, God forgive me, apartments guarantee a noose around the neck in 10-15 years and the bank will absolutely perform an act of defecation for the borrower's problems.
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich 29 September 2021 07: 53
                -4
                Here are just a problem, and cowards and TVs do not belong to Russia.

                , ahh, you in the queue for TV were warmed by the fact that it was old-fashioned domestic.

                But normal people are somehow disgusted with coupons for women's panties once a quarter to come to the so-called. shop.

                Yes, Khrushchev is cramped, but it is strong, but modern "buildings" are crumbling in 5-10 years, and some of them do not stand idle for a year.

                The standard service life of the stinking kennel-Khrushchev is 40 years. When new ones are massively scattered, come and discuss

                By the way, everyone got the damned Khrushchevs, Stalin's and Brezhnevkas for free

                This is NOT YOUR apartment absolutely and it could have been lost, but they took what the state threw like a bone - wherever and whatever it pleases.

                Today -work and earn for YOUR apartment- whatever you want and where you want and own it.
                1. Alf
                  Alf 29 September 2021 19: 59
                  0
                  Quote: Olgovich
                  The standard service life of the stinking kennel-Khrushchev is 40 years.

                  And my Khrushchev has been standing since the 62nd year and is not going to crumble, unlike modern "elite" buildings.
                  Quote: Olgovich
                  and she could have been lost

                  Give at least one such case, so that in Soviet times the state took away an apartment, Mr. Sovramshi.
                  Quote: Olgovich
                  and own it.

                  Tell the bank about this, which in case of problems in you will kick you out of "your" apartment. By the way, if you don't know, the apartment will become yours only after you pay off the mortgage.
                  1. Olgovich
                    Olgovich 30 September 2021 10: 39
                    -3
                    Quote: Alf
                    And my Khrushchev has been standing since the 62nd year and is not going to crumble, unlike modern "elite" buildings.

                    unlucky, in normal cities they are demolished.
                    Although, some are interested, of course, who, with whom and how the neighbors sleep, eat and go to the toilet (everything is perfectly audible), freezing rotten corners and smelly flooded basements. In normal cities they were demolished
                    Quote: Alf
                    Give at least one such case, so that in Soviet times the state took away an apartment, Mr. Sovramshi.

                    merchandise Neznamshi, loss of registration (if one) - loss of an apartment, for example. inmates, a lonely deceased parent with living children with housing in other cities - the loss of his apartment, etc., etc.
                    Read more for nonsense not to speak
                    Quote: Alf
                    Tell the bank about this, which in case of problems in you will kick you out of "your" apartment. By the way, if you don't know, the apartment will become yours only after you pay off the mortgage.

                    WHAT is scary for a young WORKING person? He wants, can and should earn and LIVE choosing, and not wait for handouts from the kennel who knows where and what.
                    Yes, in the USSR, tens of millions of people would go for this, but no one gave them such an opportunity (except for scanty cooperatives)
                    1. Alf
                      Alf 30 September 2021 20: 28
                      +1
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      He wants, can and should earn and LIVE choosing,

                      So what's stopping you?

                      Is a third of the country lazy and unwilling to live well? And this is without taking into account the stalinkas and brezhnevoks.
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      loss of registration (if one)

                      How is it to lose your registration if you live alone?
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      single deceased parent with living children with housing in other cities - loss of his apartment

                      Elementary, I was discharged from there and registered with the parent. Absolutely legal.
                      At the inmates? Absolutely correct decision - you knew what you were doing and knew what the consequences would be.
    2. EvilLion
      EvilLion 28 September 2021 08: 47
      0
      A free country in which people could be flogged. True, not all, there were people, but there were not quite people. Because the class society. It is immediately obvious what kind of freedom you are for.

      You wouldn't write nonsense about freedom of conscience, visiting churches in Ingushetia was obligatory, people were driven there by force, they demanded certificates of communion. Tellingly, as soon as it was canceled, 90% of people stopped going to church, and then they were knocking down churches, mostly because there was no one to go there, the former parishioners looked at the demolition with pleasure, or converted the church into a useful building.

      Although it's useless for you to explain, even if you get the texts of the laws of those years.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 28 September 2021 09: 42
        -9
        Quote: EvilLion
        A free country in which people could be flogged. True, not all, there were people, but there were not quite people. Because the class society. It is immediately obvious what kind of freedom you are for.

        In the free country of RUSSIA, it was impossible to torture, rape, humiliate people, throw the cannibals Nazino on the island without food from vacation, and shoot without trial (we read Istmat and Sholokhov), as it was in the next unfree country
        Quote: EvilLion
        You wouldn't write nonsense about freedom of conscience, visiting churches in Ingushetia was obligatory, people were driven there by force, they demanded certificates of communion. Tellingly, as soon as it was canceled, 90% of people stopped going to church, and then they were knocking down churches, mostly because there was no one to go there, the former parishioners looked at the demolition with pleasure, or converted the church into a useful building.

        In a non-free country, 90% of churches were destroyed and closed by blunt violence, tens of thousands of priests were shot, millions of believers were repressed, in a free country they were restored according to the WILL of the people.
        Quote: EvilLion
        Although it's useless for you to explain, even if you get the texts of the laws of those years.

        this is at least a stake on your head
        Quote: EvilLion
        you
        1. tatra
          tatra 28 September 2021 10: 19
          +2
          Yes, there is such a "freedom" that women who had abortions were sent to hard labor. According to § 34 of the Regulations of August 14, 1881, a special body was formed under the Minister of Internal Affairs - a Special Meeting, which consisted of four people - two high officials of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and two of the Ministry of Justice. A special meeting could subject to administrative expulsion any person recognized as unreliable, "suspicious" or "harmful to public order" to "a certain area of ​​European or Asian Russia for a period of 1 to 5 years."
          From a letter from Leo Tolstoy to Nicholas II "A third of Russia is in the position of increased protection, that is, outside the law. The army of police officers - overt and secret - is increasing. Prisons, places of exile and penal servitude are overcrowded, in excess of hundreds of thousands of criminal. The censorship has reached the absurdities of prohibitions, to which it did not reach in the worst time of the 40s. Religious persecution has never been as frequent and cruel as it is now, and is becoming more and more cruel and more frequent. Everywhere in cities and factory centers are concentrated troops and are sent out with live ammunition against the people.In many places there have already been fratricidal bloodsheds, and everywhere new and even more cruel ones are being prepared and will inevitably be.
          And as a result of all this strenuous and brutal government activity, the agricultural people - those 100 million on which the power of Russia is based - despite the unreasonably growing state budget, or rather as a result of this increase, is becoming impoverished every year, so that hunger has become a normal phenomenon. ... And the same phenomenon was the general dissatisfaction with the government of all estates and hostility towards it. "
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 28 September 2021 12: 21
            -7
            Quote: tatra
            Yes, there is such a "freedom" that women who had abortions were sent to hard labor. According to § 34 of the Regulations of August 14, 1881, a special body was formed under the Minister of Internal Affairs - a Special Meeting, which consisted of four people - two high officials of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and two of the Ministry of Justice. A special meeting could subject to administrative expulsion any person recognized as unreliable, "suspicious" or "harmful to public order" to "a certain area of ​​European or Asian Russia for a period of 1 to 5 years."
            From a letter from Leo Tolstoy to Nicholas II "A third of Russia is in the position of increased protection, that is, outside the law. The army of police officers - overt and secret - is increasing. Prisons, places of exile and penal servitude are overcrowded, in excess of hundreds of thousands of criminal. The censorship has reached the absurdities of prohibitions, to which it did not reach in the worst time of the 40s. Religious persecution has never been as frequent and cruel as it is now, and is becoming more and more cruel and more frequent. Everywhere in cities and factory centers are concentrated troops and are sent out with live ammunition against the people.In many places there have already been fratricidal bloodsheds, and everywhere new and even more cruel ones are being prepared and will inevitably be.
            And as a result of all this strenuous and brutal government activity, the agricultural people - those 100 million on which the power of Russia is based - despite the unreasonably growing state budget, or rather as a result of this increase, is becoming impoverished every year, so that hunger has become a normal phenomenon. ... And the same phenomenon was the general dissatisfaction with the government of all estates and hostility towards it. "

            all this was an unattainable FAIRY TALE and FREEDOM compared to the unheard-of Middle Ages that reigned after the THIEF
        2. EvilLion
          EvilLion 28 September 2021 16: 43
          +2
          Yes, in the USSR, this could not be done, but the RI empire could. One could simply send soldiers to fire several volleys into the crowd.

          So many churches were blown up in the USSR that Moscow is still overflowing with them. They could not repress for their faith, due to the absence of such a law. And the nonsense about the millions of repressed somehow does not really fit with the fact that even in 1937, at the height of the repressions, it was rather unclear for the people what was happening, well, a black funnel came to someone, why why. It practically did not affect ordinary hard workers, I have no repressed in my family, and none of those whom I asked either. It's just that in a country with a population of less than 200 million people it is impossible to repress even a couple of million without causing panic, since it will affect everyone. In fact, before the Second World War, a smaller percentage of the population was sitting in the USSR than is now sitting in the "free" USA, where there is such savagery as private prisons.

          I, as a representative of the people, the construction of temples for the state. I don’t support the account, and it pisses me off that after the chicken-bar around the mosque in the center of the city everything is littered with a sheep's doctor. If a Jesus or Mohammed fan club wants a temple, the state is not obligated to sponsor it more than it sponsors a Star Wars fan club, or My Little Pony. Drop off and build without disturbing others. Oh, no money? Why, the chief chairman does not serve up there?

          Religion is a very dangerous thing.
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 29 September 2021 08: 11
            -5
            Quote: EvilLion
            Yes, in the USSR, this could not be done, but the RI empire could. You could just send soldiers to fire several volleys into the crowd.

            In the USSR, it was possible to shoot at the crowd, torture, rape, humiliate, throw Nazino's cannibals on the island without trial, without food from vacation, exile millions of CHILDREN without trial, shoot without trial HUNDREDS of thousands. (we read Istmat and Sholokhov), there was no such thing in free Russia.
            Quote: EvilLion
            So many churches were blown up in the USSR that Moscow is still overflowing with them.

            About 40 thousand were destroyed, including world masterpieces and it's none of your business, how many are needed.
            Quote: EvilLion
            They could not repress for their faith, due to the absence of such a law.

            uvas according to the law "elections" were, but they were NEVER
            Quote: EvilLion
            And the nonsense about the millions of repressed somehow does not really fit with the fact that even in 1937, at the height of the repressions, it was rather unclear for the people what was happening, well, a black funnel came to someone, why why.

            there are many oddities in the world for tebils, and millions of people deny
            , including millions of exiled CHILDREN, from peasants, peoples, workers, only such can.
            Quote: EvilLion
            It practically did not affect ordinary hard workers, I have no repressed in my family, and none of those whom I asked either.

            but it doesn’t come to my head that those who were shot and putrefied at the “great” construction sites (and these are many millions) did not leave because of what the “superpowers” ​​did to them and therefore you cannot know them?
            Quote: EvilLion
            It's just that in a country with a population of less than 200 million people it is impossible to repress even a couple of million without causing panic, since it will affect everyone.

            just chatter at you
            Quote: EvilLion
            In fact, before the Second World War, a smaller percentage of the population was sitting in the USSR than is now sitting in the "free" USA, where there is such savagery as private prisons.

            stupid lies: millions of exiled were NOT enumerated by the court, but rotted and died at logging sites
            Quote: EvilLion
            I, as a representative of the people

            mandate from the people to the table! what? No? So what?
            Quote: EvilLion
            it makes me mad

            bromine and hitting the wall, yeah.
            Quote: EvilLion
            Religion is a very dangerous thing.

            Roosia, thank God, the country is now FREE, so you can relax
          2. Trapperxnumx
            Trapperxnumx 29 September 2021 09: 39
            -2
            Quote: EvilLion
            One could simply send soldiers to fire several volleys into the crowd.

            You mean Novocherkassk, probably, right?
            Oh yes, in the USSR it was not like that, for sure.
            Quote: EvilLion
            They could not repress for their faith, due to the absence of such a law.

            Of course they couldn't. They simply took and took away "to the southern coast of the Barerntsev Sea." What kind of repression is this? This is the usual development of new lands.
        3. Alf
          Alf 28 September 2021 19: 59
          0
          Quote: Olgovich
          destroyed and closed 90% of the temples,

          In the "blessed" RI, the churches were kept by believers, and as soon as the revolution shied away, the believers also disappeared somewhere, and the revolution was FEBRUARY, so the churches began to fall apart.
          Quote: Olgovich
          in a free country they were restored according to the WILL of the people.

          WHAT people? This one?

          The one who first fought and then became a zealous Christian?
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 29 September 2021 08: 15
            -4
            Quote: Alf
            In the "blessed" RI, the churches were kept by believers, and as soon as the revolution shied away, the believers also disappeared somewhere, and the revolution was FEBRUARY, so the churches began to fall apart.

            leave these stupid fairy tales for your 1970s, but today it is already known HOW people stood for temples and Faith and HOW the beast exiled and destroyed them
            Quote: Alf
            WHAT people?

            RUSSIAN the people that you destroyed, bent, spread rot, made drink to drink, but did not completely ruin
            1. Alf
              Alf 29 September 2021 20: 00
              0
              Quote: Olgovich
              HOW the beast banished and destroyed them

              Exactly, half of the population was sitting, and the other half was guarding. Hello, Mr. Solzhenitsyn!
    3. Intruder
      Intruder 28 September 2021 14: 53
      +1
      ALL scientists and instructors of the USSR were trained in IMPERIAL UNIVERSITIES, and hundreds of thousands of teachers and schools were also trained and created DOVORovtsy, as well as district doctors
      Where and who, on nuggets of the Russian land, went while they were still ... after all, who studied at the universities of the Republic of Ingushetia from these national geniuses: the Pole Tsiolkovsky - September 5 [17], 1857, Izhevsk, Ryazan province, studied for four years at the Vyatka gymnasium and I was engaged in self-education for three years; Ukrainian Korolev - December 30, 1906 [January 12, 1907], Zhitomir, Volyn province, in 1915 Sergey entered the preparatory classes of the gymnasium in Kiev, in 1917 he went to the first grade of the gymnasium in Odessa, Korolev did not study at the gymnasium for long - it was soon closed; then there were four months of a unified labor school. Then he was educated at home - his mother and stepfather were teachers, and his stepfather, in addition to teaching, had an engineering education ... in 1922-1924 he studied at a construction vocational school, studying in many circles and in different courses, and only in 1924 he entered in the Kiev Polytechnic Institute in the profile of aviation technology, Korolev mastered general engineering disciplines in it in two years and became an athlete-glider. In the fall of 1926, he transferred to the Moscow Higher Technical School (MVTU) named after N.E.Bauman ...
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 29 September 2021 09: 22
        -5
        Quote: Intruder
        Ukrainian Korolev

        Russian scientists Korolev and Kurchatov, like all other creators of the atom, rockets and aircraft, were trained in the IMPERIAL UNIVERSITIES OF RUSSIA by IMPERIAL teachers and professors.

        The stupid Bolsheviks themselves could not give birth to a single teacher in their ranks (except for the so-called "teachers" lol Marxism) do not bring any of their Switzerland,
    4. Dmitry from Voronezh
      29 September 2021 00: 06
      +1
      Thank you, Andrey! Since there are at least a few people who are able to adequately perceive this information, then it makes sense to continue. hi
  49. EvilLion
    EvilLion 28 September 2021 08: 29
    +3
    Yes, indeed, being the second longest railroad in the world is an undoubted achievement. If we forget that only in the European part Russia is several times larger than any European country, and for equal indicators this length should be many times greater. And yet Siberia.

    - with excellent demographic indicators;
    - with high rates of economic growth;
    - with good medicine;
    - with excellent education;
    - with advanced science and engineering school;
    - with stable finances.


    All this is a lie, including on the first point, since the population only multiplied in villages, the village was overpopulated since the end of the 19th century, people did not have enough land, and they had nothing to do there.

    Well, once again they pulled this disgrace called "Ilya Muromets", then once again I will kick him with great pleasure.
    1) How does the author explain that almost all built "Ilyushki" used imported engines? The plane was then made of sticks and rags, the most difficult thing is the engine. And even in the years of WWII, the engine could be half the cost of an aircraft.
    2) As the author will explain, only 80 units of Ilyushek were produced, although hundreds of multi-engine bombers were even manufactured by such "powers" as Italy during WWI. And how will the author explain why the developed countries in the years of WWI produced 40-50 thousand aircraft, and the crisp-baked race 3.5-5 thousand?

    But this is the high-tech of that time. And even now, only a developed country can build combat aircraft, and the bar has even risen, just buying a motor and assembling it in the garage is not rolling now. And the fact that Sweden can make its own Gripen, even by purchasing some of the components, speaks of a very high level of its industry.

    And the answer is obvious, in RI, as far as there was, 150 million people of EMNIP, maybe 10 million had access to good education. And here it doesn't matter how good this education was, these 10 million can give rise to intelligent scientists and engineers, but that's all. their research simply cannot be carried out in a country where half of the population is considered literate just because they can sign. In the country, there is simply no one to work in factories and rem. bases, and everyone who understands sinuses is worth its weight in gold. The lag behind the west was such that even the migration to cities of 34 million people in the 30s did not allow to equalize production capacity with Germany by the beginning of WWII.

    And shouldn't we admit that the Russian Empire had a much greater weight and level of development in the world than the modern Russian Federation?


    No, the modern Russian Federation is generally the only country in the world capable of sending even the United States to hell. Yes, at the expense of a huge stockpile of nuclear weapons, which makes it possible to ignore serious military threats. But this is just hi-tech. Well, in 1913 it would be worth looking at the British Empire. "Half of the world speaks English to this day."

    We were ahead of China, India, Japan, Korea, Turkey, Brazil ...


    And at least one decent country, and not someone's colony (Korea did not exist as a state from 1905 to 1945, it was occupied by Japan, and what was the then China ...) were we ahead?

    And that the economic and scientific breakthrough that was made by the Soviet Union in the twentieth century was provided with the resources that the Russian Empire was able to accumulate and, first of all, its wonderful system of education and science, which prepared excellent personnel for the new country. And cadres, as you know, decide everything ...


    Yeah, on this occasion, you can recall the GOERO plan. Who developed it? That's right, there were still tsarist engineers who understood people. When was it developed? Yes, with the king still. As well as spelling reform. The question is why for the implementation it was necessary to overthrow the tsar, blow through the First World War, break down what was still left in the civil war, and only then, when it was good that something was left of the country, Lenin was a genius, as a manager, since he managed to do almost everything back rake, these same tsarist engineers got the opportunity to implement what they have been developing for a long time? Not in the stable RI of 1913, but in the newly formed USSR, ravaged by a chain of wars and the collapse of all power institutions.

    Multi-engine TB-1 bombers, and already on their own engines (they were able to copy), by the way, too, for some reason, for some reason, they went into series in large quantities already in the USSR, and not when they were needed on the WWII fronts. Even Fedorov's assault rifle, and the one that went into the series, had the Tsar kicked in the ass, along with the bourgeoisie.

    Well, how was the tsar-father going to solve the land issue?
    1. Intruder
      Intruder 28 September 2021 15: 06
      +1
      This is a disgrace called "Ilya Muromets", then I will once again kick it with great pleasure.
      Well, why, an elderly car of old age and "kick something" .., but its name is - after all, primordially Russian and our brace, the great mythical hero of the lands of Russia !? what
      How will the author explain that almost all built "Ilyushki" used imported engines? The plane was then made of sticks and rags, the most difficult thing is the engine. And even in the years of WWII, the engine could be half the cost of an aircraft.

      And surprisingly, they produced under an American license and not only American ..., motors for the air fleet of the Republic of Ingushetia and the Red Army, even before FDA and even WWII, and many types of small arms were purchased from Europe and North. America: Maxim, Lews, Nagant, Thomson, Berdan, etc.!? Schaub we are without these Yankees, our ancestors would do it ???
      But I didn't say that, this is my neural network and autobot !!! request
      To a pile of and so ardently beloved Russian Railways, how many steam locomotives were there with import substitution (nowadays a buzzword), or ships and ships ... with their steam turbines and machines ...!?
      1. EvilLion
        EvilLion 28 September 2021 16: 49
        +2
        In the USSR, they were released under license, but what can you do, the tsarist designers, it turns out, did not leave their own.

        The efficiency of the "Muromets" is really low; building 4 single-engine aircraft instead of it would be more useful.
        1. Intruder
          Intruder 28 September 2021 18: 20
          +1
          The efficiency of the "Muromets" is really low
          Well why, here are some glorious moments:
          1. First flight - December 10 (23), 1913. The Ilya Muromets set a number of world records for carrying capacity and flight range, including the St. Petersburg-Kiev flight in June 1914;
          2. Was built serially in 1914-1918 in various modifications (series B, C, D, D, E); a total of 73 units were built. It was used in World War I and the Civil War as a bomber, attack aircraft and long-range reconnaissance aircraft (on a wheeled, ski and float landing gear). In December 1914, the Ilya Muromets aircraft were consolidated into the Air Squadron, the first heavy aviation unit. After the Civil War, the surviving Ilya Muromets planes organized mail and passenger transportation on the Moscow - Orel - Kharkov line;
          3. There were wicker chairs in the cockpit. Heating of the enclosed spaces was provided by exhaust gases (from pipes acting as radiators and leading from internal engines). Electric lighting was provided by a special wind generator. In addition to the pilot's cabin, there was a passenger room, a bedroom and even a toilet on board. (not every passenger at that time could boast of such cockpit equipment ...);
          4. On the eve of the war, Russia had the largest air fleet among the belligerent powers: 244 aircraft in 39 squadrons. By the beginning of hostilities, there were 221 pilots in the Russian air fleet: 170 officers, 35 lower ranks and 16 volunteers (volunteers). In the second half of 1914, before the completion of comprehensive tests, heavy bomb carriers were sent to the front. Taking into account the experience of combat operations, Sikorsky promptly made changes to the design. From series to series, the aircraft was rapidly improved;
          4. With the formation of the Ilya Muromets Aircraft Squadron, for the first time in the world a tactic and strategy for the use of large formations of heavy bombers and a system for their support were developed.
          The plane could take on board bombs of unprecedented calibers up to that time - up to 25 poods (410 kg).
          "Ilya Muromets" had strong defensive weapons, practically without "dead zones", and therefore losses at the front amounted to only one vehicle. For such a defensive capability, the enemy called "Muromtsy" - "hedgehogs".
          5. Combat practice has shown that bombing strikes against targets of the enemy's operational rear were the main task of heavy aviation. Carefully studying the experience of the war, the father of Russian aviation, Professor N. Ye. Zhukovsky and his followers developed the work "Theory of bombing from an airplane", which served as the basis for a developed new branch of aviation science - aeroballistics;
          6. The heavy ship commander A.N. Zhuravchenko. Taking part in combat flights, he was simultaneously engaged in experimental, scientific research work. Zhuravchenko developed a method for determining navigation data in flight, created a windmill - a device with which navigation data are calculated in flight, laid the foundations for compass navigation, theories of bombing and aerial fire.
          So, Sikorsky's product has a lot of merit, now there are few designers and their machines who can boast of the discovery of new industries and "instrumental" technologies (see: p. 5 and p. 6) !?
        2. Alf
          Alf 28 September 2021 20: 02
          +2
          Quote: EvilLion
          In the USSR, they were released under license,

          Yes, and "release under license" and "assemble with a screwdriver assembly" are completely different things.
  50. Illanatol
    Illanatol 28 September 2021 08: 41
    +4
    The Russian Empire is a country of peripheral capitalism, a "great hemp power". They had excellent scientists-chemists, but not their own chemical industry, chemical plants controlled the German capital, about which Mendeleev wrote with bitterness. They created "Ilya Muromets", but the engines for it had to be bought over the hill, first from Germany (from Germany, Karl!), Then from the Britons.
    "Everything for the front, everything for Victory!" And this "all" was still not enough, chronic shell hunger. Despite the fact that long-range artillery, "God of War" was also small.
    The result is known. However, the objective reasons for the defeats are not so significant. Russia was obliged, from the point of view of "foreign partners", to lose the WWI, as it lost the Russian-Japanese one, and it would have lost in any case, allowing the United States to take another step towards world domination.
    The next in line is the British Empire in a second combination - World War II. An example of how a military victory can lead to a massive geopolitical collapse.
    I see no reason to shed tears over the fascisoid project "Russian Empire", which was doomed to collapse from the very beginning. A snake devouring its own tail cannot exist for long.
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich 28 September 2021 09: 55
      -6
      Quote: Illanatol
      A snake devouring its own tail cannot exist for long.

      Therefore the country RUSSIA has lived and continues to live for more than a THOUSAND years, and the short-lived regime, devouring its tail and people, decomposed and disappeared without a trace.
      1. tatra
        tatra 28 September 2021 10: 27
        -2
        Only now you, enemies of the USSR and the Soviet people, have dismembered centuries-old Russia into your separate evil anti-Soviet-Russophobic States, in which, including the Russian Federation, you destroy not only the Soviet, but also the Russian, including the Russian people. Only between the censuses in the RSFSR in 1989, and in the Russian Federation in 2010, the number of Russians decreased by 8 million people, and the supermortality rate after the capture of the RSFSR by you was more than 15 million people, this is more than the Nazis killed the citizens of the RSFSR.
        And throughout the captured USSR, the supermortality rate amounted to more than 25 million people.
        And you still have such meanness that you pretend to be "philanthropists" in your slander about everything Soviet, which is the only justification for your seizure of the USSR in 30 years.
        And by totalitarianly imposing religion, having threatened religion with huge money earned by the people, you yourself proved that you do not care about all "God's commandments".
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 28 September 2021 12: 59
          -6
          Quote: tatra
          Only now you, enemies of the USSR and the Soviet people, have dismembered centuries-old Russia into your separate evil anti-Soviet-Russophobic States

          this was done by the communists in 1918-1940, cutting off 5 million km2 from RUSSIA and creating on them the SOVEREIGN STATE-15 ANTI-RUSSIA.

          None of the leaders of the communists EVER called the USSR-Russia and did not consider it to be it. -never
          Quote: tatra
          Only between the censuses in the RSFSR in 1989, and in the Russian Federation in 2010, the number of Russians decreased by 8 million people, and the supermortality rate after the capture of the RSFSR by you was more than 15 million people, this is more than the Nazis killed the citizens of the RSFSR.
          And throughout the captured USSR, the supermortality rate amounted to more than 25 million people
          .
          The Russian people missed a minimum of SEVENTY million people as a result of the "successful" activities of the "superpowers" - more than 13 million people died of hunger alone - with cannibalism and corpse eating - unheard of in Russia before the thieves.

          Latent depopulation (extinction) since 1964, and already in 1990, a THIRD region in Russia is living in extinction conditions.

          The Bllsheviks captured a fast-growing young people full of strength with a VOR, and just 70 years later they left the old, broken, drunken people, without youth, a people where there are a lot of old people and few young people who were taught abortion like seeds (200 abroots are the world leader ssssr in this!), and weaned to give birth, so all claims are against them.
          1. Illanatol
            Illanatol 28 September 2021 13: 28
            +2
            Another set of stamps.
            In fact, demography in the USSR was better than in many Western countries.
            Reducing population growth and other negative consequences of urbanization, a general trend.
            And the rapid growth of the population and a high percentage of young people - in the "Bangladesh", as you know.

            Smiled about abortion. Of course, in the West, there is no abortion, like drugs. By the way, aren't Western "progressors" like Soros imposing such "freedoms" on us?
            1. Olgovich
              Olgovich 28 September 2021 14: 31
              -5
              Quote: Illanatol
              In fact, demography in the USSR was better than in many Western countries.

              a set of clichés: demography in Russia was MUCH better than not only the West: the USSR, even in terms of population growth rates, was not even a candle to a candle, but it rapidly went and came to extinction
              Quote: Illanatol
              Reducing population growth and other negative consequences of urbanization, a general trend.

              trend, yes.

              Only the West managed to grow during the transition and then go into a trend, while the "superpowers" in the transition immediately led Russia to extinction
              Quote: Illanatol
              And the rapid population growth and a high percentage of young people - in the "Bangladesh", as you know

              so it was Upper Volta, but with missiles and a dying population
              Quote: Illanatol
              Smiled about abortion. Of course, in the West, there is no abortion, like drugs.

              Ignorance has eluded: in the "superpower" they aborted more per year than in ALL countries of the world taken together, because she could not produce the usual equipment in the required quantity.
              Quote: Illanatol
              Aren't Western "progressors" like Soros imposing such "freedoms" on us?

              how Soros and Bolsheviks coincided, yes ...
              1. Illanatol
                Illanatol 29 September 2021 09: 04
                -1
                a set of clichés: demography in Russia was MUCH better than not only the West: the USSR, even in terms of population growth rates, was not even a candle to a candle, but it rapidly went and came to extinction


                Nonsense. Extinction began only after the collapse of the USSR. Thanks to democratic reforms.

                trend, yes.


                Pluralism in one head is called schizophrenia. You refute yourself. If this is a general trend, it has nothing to do with ideology.

                Only the West managed to grow during the transition and then go into a trend, while the "superpowers" in the transition immediately led Russia to extinction


                Lie. The decline in population growth in Western countries began long ago, despite the bonuses from colonial plunder. In the USSR, the population in 70 years has grown from 150 million to 290 million.
                1. Olgovich
                  Olgovich 29 September 2021 10: 31
                  -4
                  Quote: Illanatol
                  Nonsense. Extinction began only after the collapse of the USSR. Thanks to democratic reforms.

                  Complete illiteracy and savagery: not a single a generation of Russians born after 1910 and entering an active reproductive age, starting from the era of the “great turning point”, from the late 1920s to the beginning of the 1930s, did not reproduce itself.

                  In 1964, the total fertility rate ceased to provide a simple replacement of generations, the net reproduction rate dropped below unity .
                  The country entered the period latent depopulation-, read DEMOGRAPHERS, even Soviet ones - Vishnevsky, Perevedentsev, etc.

                  In 1990, a THIRD of Russian regions ALREADY lived in the conditions of EXTINCTION (mortality exceeded the birth rate) - read DIN Denisova
                  Quote: Illanatol
                  Pluralism in one head is called schizophrenia.

                  and why do we need your problems? Leave it to yourself, otherwise what will happen here?
                  Quote: Illanatol
                  You refute yourself. If this is a general trend, it has nothing to do with ideology.


                  general trend, different losses
                  Quote: Illanatol
                  Lie. The decline in population growth in Western countries began long ago, despite the bonuses from colonial plunder. In the USSR, the population in 70 years has grown from 150 million to 290 million.

                  And in the USA from 90 to 300 million.
                  1. Foul skeptic
                    Foul skeptic 29 September 2021 11: 30
                    0
                    In 1964, the total fertility rate ceased to provide a simple replacement of generations, the net reproduction rate dropped below one.
                    The country entered a period of latent depopulation

                    Do you not understand why the net ratio dropped below one in the 60s? You have already been explained. As well as the fact that it later (in contrast to the Western countries) managed to grow back to unity before the collapse of the country.
                    1. Olgovich
                      Olgovich 29 September 2021 14: 22
                      -4
                      Quote: Nefarious skeptic
                      Do you not understand why the net ratio dropped below one in the 60s? You have already been explained. As well as the fact that it later (in contrast to the Western countries) managed to grow back to unity before the collapse of the country.

                      only you are incomprehensible here: the n-coefficient has collapsed as a result of the illiterate, ichiotic, cannibalistic, anti-people, man-hating policy of the so-called power, for a couple of years has risen a little (people thought that the power turned its face-aha!) and collapsed again even before collapse.

                      and -For freedom!
                  2. Illanatol
                    Illanatol 6 October 2021 14: 14
                    0
                    Complete illiteracy and savagery: not a single generation of Russians born after 1910 and entering an active reproductive age, starting from the era of the “great turning point,” the late 1920s - early 1930s, has reproduced itself.


                    And the population was growing, yeah. Attacked from the sky.
                    We will keep silent about the demographic losses of the Second World War.

                    In 1990, a THIRD of Russian regions ALREADY lived in the conditions of EXTINCTION (mortality exceeded the birth rate) - read DIN Denisova


                    In fact, the liberalization of our country began under Khrushchev, the philistine spirit began to triumph with an emphasis on personal consumption. So the fruits have arrived.

                    general trend, different losses


                    Of course. In Western European countries, demographic indicators were much worse than in the USSR, despite the stimulation of immigration. As a result, France, for example, is increasingly turning into "Frangistan". A general trend for Europeans, however.

                    And in the USA from 90 to 300 million.


                    Hitler did not visit them. On the contrary, WWII immigration even increased.
                    Well, the land of immigrants, as you know. When foreigners of reproductive age come to you in droves, it is possible to increase the population in a different way.

                    By the way, what about the population dynamics in other Western countries? France, Germany, Italy, England ... have these nations grown a lot during the same period?
      2. Illanatol
        Illanatol 28 September 2021 13: 07
        -1
        It is not correct to put the country and the regime in the same row. Do not compare warm to soft. Over a thousand years, many regimes have changed, and a country with the name "Russia" simply did not exist a thousand years ago.
        The era of EBN, about which liberals are nostalgic, turned out to be really short-lived. :)
      3. EvilLion
        EvilLion 28 September 2021 16: 53
        -3
        Vali teach history. There was no Russia in 1000 years, there was Kievan Rus, then feudal fragmentation and many Russian states, in addition to Moscow, the latter was liquidated only in the 18th century, then the end of the Rurikovichs came, then the Romanovs sat down, then 300 years later they kicked them. Objectively, as Ivan the Terrible died, so Moscow Russia ended, then another regime, and another dynasty, during the reign of which Russia was generally proclaimed an empire.