Military Review

The cause of the disaster of the Bulgarian MiG-29 was confirmed after the decoding of the flight recorder in Russia

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In the investigation of the case of the MiG-29 plane crash and the tragic death of the pilot, an end has been put. In the specialized subdivision of the Russian aircraft building corporation (RSK) MiG, they decoded the data of the flight recorder, which after the disaster was handed over to the Russian side for study by representatives of the Bulgarian Ministry of Defense.


In June of this year, the aircraft performed tasks within the framework of the joint Bulgarian-Serbian exercises Shabla-21. On the night of June 29-70, the board disappeared from the radar, the command announced the termination of training maneuvers and the start of a search and rescue operation. The wreckage of a MiG-XNUMX fighter was soon found at a depth of about XNUMX meters off the Bulgarian Black Sea coast.

The pilot - chief of staff of the squadron of the Third Graf Ignatievo airbase, Major Valentin Terziev, died during the mission. On his last journey he was carried out with honors, having awarded a posthumously high award and the rank of lieutenant colonel. Two weeks later, the flight recorder of the fighter, found in the area of ​​the fall, was raised to the surface. The device was damaged, and it was decided to transfer it to Russian specialists to extract information.

The military commission was engaged in clarifying the causes of the disaster. Initially, several versions were considered - from mistakes made at the time of piloting to equipment failure on board the aircraft. According to some data, the state of the aircraft in the Bulgarian Air Force at the beginning of 2021 left much to be desired. Only a part of the squadron of the "Soviet" times, which remained on the books of the Bulgarian Ministry of Defense, was kept in flight condition. The navigation and other equipment of 12 MiG-29 fighters and three MiG-29UB modification aircraft were considered obsolete.

Bulgarian Defense Minister Georgy Panayotov, at a specially organized briefing, announced the preliminary conclusions of the commission: the pilot's loss of spatial orientation at the time of the air maneuver. This version formed the basis of the report of the Bulgarian investigators. Subsequently, it was confirmed in the course of a thorough study of the flight recorder by Russian experts, which ended the day before. It turns out that we were not talking about any technical malfunction of the aircraft.
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  1. horus88
    horus88 16 September 2021 17: 59
    .
    So the navigation equipment is outdated, it seems to have failed, or something else. After all, if it worked well, the pilot would not have lost his orientation. We flew on it for years and nothing, it is unlikely that there was some incredible maneuver.
    1. Mountain shooter
      Mountain shooter 16 September 2021 18: 08
      +30
      Quote: horus88
      After all, if it worked well, the pilot would not have lost his orientation.

      With serious overloads, even on the simplest turns, the pilot may lose sight, let alone orientation. Father, a military pilot, called such a state "dawn-darkness", when periodically blood flows from the head and darkness, like the curtain was closed. It is dangerous at low altitudes. Devices do not help in this matter. The pilot may not see them at all ...
      1. knn54
        knn54 16 September 2021 18: 32
        +22
        I think that the main factor here is not low altitude, but the water surface. Even at night. When there are no HABITUAL landmarks, the pilot begins to orient himself to his vestibular apparatus, not paying attention to the instruments.
        In this state, the aircraft entering the air stream creates the feeling of a lifted nose for the pilot.
        And he puts him into dive mode ...
        1. figwam
          figwam 16 September 2021 20: 33
          +8
          Quote: knn54
          I think that the main factor here is not low altitude, but the water surface.

          Even before, pilots crashed over the sea at night, confusing the sky and the sea surface.
    2. pytar
      pytar 16 September 2021 19: 55
      +7
      So the navigation equipment is outdated, it seems to have failed, or something else. After all, if it worked well, the pilot would not have lost his orientation. We flew on it for years and nothing, it is unlikely that there was some incredible maneuver.

      Such a judgment takes place. Bulgarian MiG-29s from the first series, produced forty years ago. They do not have an automatic system for exiting dangerous conditions. The flight was carried out in difficult conditions, the air target fired inadvertently, the pilot was blinded by a bright flash. Despite the precarious situation, he decided to knock her down. (This is by the way to talk about the willingness of the Bulgarian pilots to take risks and fight if necessary). The effect of an optical illusion led to a misperception of the position in space and to disaster.
      The necessary new modern aircraft, 29 already need to be written off. hi
      1. not main
        not main 16 September 2021 21: 39
        +7
        Quote: pytar
        The necessary new modern aircraft, 29 already need to be written off.

        It's not about the plane, it's about who was there!
        1. pytar
          pytar 17 September 2021 09: 06
          +1
          It's not about the plane, it's about who was there!

          Probably both matter! The poor technical condition of the MiG-29 created problems. In 2017, it came down to the refusal of the pilots to fly it.
          24.10.2017/29/XNUMX The pilots of the Graf Ignatievo airbase canceled their flight this morning. It is reported by bTV. All pilots declared that they were insecurely flying their MiG-XNUMXs, and the planned training flights had failed.
          https://www.clubz.bg/59889-pilotite_na_graf_ignatievo_otkazvat_da_letyat
          True, after this moment they repaired, but still the plaque remains poor, and this is an undoubtedly negative factor that increases the risk! The level of competence of the flight management is also unsatisfactory! There is criticism for him too. hi
      2. Lozovik
        Lozovik 17 September 2021 08: 27
        +10
        Quote: pytar
        Bulgarian MiG-29s from the first series, produced forty years ago. They do not have an automatic system for exiting dangerous conditions.

        It is not true. The automatic control system ensures that the aircraft is steered from a predetermined dangerous altitude, in addition, there is a mode "Bringing to the horizon" (in the photo, the location of the button).

        1. pytar
          pytar 17 September 2021 09: 07
          +2
          The automatic control system ensures that the aircraft is steered from a predetermined dangerous altitude, in addition, there is a mode "Bringing to the horizon"

          It's clear. I accept the note. hi
      3. Nexcom
        Nexcom 17 September 2021 08: 31
        0
        The necessary new modern aircraft, 29 already need to be written off.

        so Bulgaria seems to have already bought F16. Now you will use American technology as a reason ...
        1. pytar
          pytar 17 September 2021 09: 12
          +4
          so Bulgaria seems to have already bought F16. Now you will use American technology as a reason ...

          The delivery of the Vipers has not started yet. And Migah will not be written off immediately. Generally, in the report of the "Military Police" about the accident, the cause is indicated as "pilot error", and not "technical problem".
          Pilots are human, they can make mistakes. Technology can fail, too. This is a dangerous profession, not everyone can become a pilot!
      4. storm
        storm 18 September 2021 03: 50
        -3
        Perhaps the time has come to write off the pilots of the Bulgarian Air Force due to the extremely low readiness.
        1. pytar
          pytar 18 September 2021 11: 07
          +2
          Perhaps the time has come to write off the pilots of the Bulgarian Air Force due to the extremely low readiness.

          August was a black month for the Russian Air Force. A series of severe air crashes happened, many pilots died. When this happens, it is not necessary to "write off the pilots", but to strengthen control over the maintenance of aircraft, and improve the training of pilots! I hope in the Russian Federation and in our country, those responsible for what happened will draw conclusions!
    3. qQQQ
      qQQQ 17 September 2021 08: 33
      +3
      Quote: horus88
      After all, if it worked well, the pilot would not have lost his orientation.

      Flew early. headquarters, most likely to confirm qualifications. The raid, based on the position, no. So I could not stand the overloads.
      1. pytar
        pytar 17 September 2021 09: 29
        +5
        Flew early. headquarters, most likely to confirm qualifications. The raid, based on the position, no. So I could not stand the overloads.

        Mr. V. Terziev has been flying the MiG-29 since 2015. Despite his position, his flying time is not so small. He is part of the Bulgarian elite. aviation. One of the most experienced pilots. Before the accident, he did not have a single flight accident. On the 6th of May, he led the formation flying over Sofia for the parade. Significantly, on June 29.06.2019, XNUMX, he participated in a demonstration on the bailout and rescue of a military pilot! Fate hinted, but did not help, at a critical moment for himself, Valentine did not have time to catapult and save!
        Video from the last interview of Mr. Terziev:
    4. EvilLion
      EvilLion 17 September 2021 08: 55
      +2
      The human body works correctly, only with the force vector to the ground, since there were no other evolutionarily, and under overload the body's sensors begin to fail. The pilot may not understand where is up and where is down.
  2. Graz
    Graz 16 September 2021 17: 59
    +3
    Probably a small raid of this pilot has recently played its evil fate due to the poor condition of the aircraft fleet
  3. pyagomail.ru
    pyagomail.ru 16 September 2021 18: 05
    0
    Immediately after the catastrophe, some Bulgarian "expert" wrote that he was shot down by the Serbs (it was at VO).
    1. Ilya Nikitich
      Ilya Nikitich 16 September 2021 19: 00
      +1
      As far as I remember, the Bratushkin experts shouted that the whole point is that the planes are Russian (Soviet), but the F-35 are generally accident-free ...
    2. The comment was deleted.
  4. Ilya Nikitich
    Ilya Nikitich 16 September 2021 19: 02
    0
    Well, where are our brothers, who told that the whole point is that the planes gov (crossed out) are bad, because the Russians ???
  5. pytar
    pytar 16 September 2021 19: 37
    +19
    Another 14.07. In 2021, the Military Police, investigating the incident, published a detailed report with a conclusion. I have translated a short summary in Russian here:

    Basic version of the military police: The loss of spatial orientation was the cause of the crash of the MiG fighter on June 29 this year, in which the pilot, Major Valentin Terziev, died. In the tragedy, the wrong assessment of the risk on the part of the command and control group and the flight management played a role. Accompanying reasons are the peculiarities of flights over the sea at night, characterized by the lack of visual cues outside the cockpit and aircraft, the need for piloting only by instruments, as well as inappropriate distribution of attention before taking a maneuver to exit an attack.
    The pilot was tasked with shooting down an air target in night conditions at an altitude of about 6 thousand. meters above sea level. It was established that the target did not work properly since the launch.
    The investigation found that the launched target suddenly began to fall faster than expected, and this required additional maneuvering for the pilot to hit it. Difficult flight conditions led to the fact that the pilot had a visual illusion that the target was above him (such an exercise - shooting at a target should be done with a decrease in relation to the target). This type of visual illusion is known as "charm".
    The pilot's attention was focused on the target, and not on the flight parameters (speed, altitude, attitude). After launching the missile, he undertook a standard maneuver to exit the attack, but most likely did not control the position of the aircraft relative to the horizon due to a visual illusion. He thought that the target was above him and fired from level flight, but in fact he was in a relatively flat dive, and the target was fired on over that, against the background of the sea.
    The height reserve that the aircraft had after the missile was launched gave additional confidence that it would exit the attack without any problems, since in the pilot's mind while the flight was controlled and controlled. The Commission believes that until the last moment of the flight, the pilot did not regain the correct orientation for the situation in space and, therefore, did not take action to get out of the emergency situation, which led to the situation turning into a catastrophic one.
    The basis for such conclusions is the fact that at the last moment before the interruption of radio communication and the disappearance of the mark of the fighter with the radar, the pilot in a calm voice launches a standard report on the disconnection of the main switch of the weapon control systems and on the normal operation of the engine.

    Several alternative versions were considered, but during the investigation they were rejected.

    Full version of the report, with all flight parameters in time for bulg. lang. in * pdf here:
    https://www.scribd.com/document/515758943/20210714-Doklad#download&from_embed


    An examination of the "black box" records made by Russian specialists confirmed the version of the Bulgarian military investigators.

    Major Valentin Terziev.
    1. Ross xnumx
      Ross xnumx 17 September 2021 04: 22
      +6
      Quote: pytar
      A short summary was translated by me in Russian here:

      Such comments are worth a thousand messages-interjections or "deep couch" reflections ...
      Thanks for the comprehensive information.
      1. pytar
        pytar 17 September 2021 09: 54
        +5
        These comments are worth thousands of interjections or "deep couch" reflections ... Thank you for the comprehensive information.

        Dear Yuri Vasilevich, I am not an expert on the topic, but I read the whole report with interest. There, the position of the aircraft and all the parameters are described every second. As I understood, the pilot started approaching the target from the altitude. 6 thousand meters, and the target was at the height. 5 thousand. m Moving on to a flat dive with a hang. 1433 m and at a speed of 948 km / h. launches a rocket. 7 seconds late, target hit. From the height. 1310 meters at the same speed, the MiG-29 starts to descend to the right. Communication with the aircraft is lost 5 seconds after the target is hit.
        For all the complexity of the situation, Mr. Valentin Terziev died, but he fulfilled the task! hi
  6. agoran
    agoran 16 September 2021 19: 50
    +12
    Loss of spatial awareness is not uncommon in aviation.
    Lertz airfield, night flights, PMU, MiG-27 aircraft, experienced pilot, flight over the Baltic, disaster.
    EMNIP, year 1980.
    The conclusion of the commission conducting the investigation is similar.
    1. pytar
      pytar 16 September 2021 20: 17
      +15
      Loss of spatial awareness is not uncommon in aviation.

      Oddly enough, this is a common cause for accidents when driving at night! It happens both on the right road and on a winding one. Lack of contrast landmarks, blinding oncoming cars can unexpectedly lead to loss of orientation and serious disasters! I myself have found myself in such situations. I especially remember the case when I drove the car at night along a winding mountain road! Blinded, licking the bumper was followed by a wagon. The abyss is right, but nothing can be seen around! Reflections of light finally knocked down the orientation of where to the left, where to the right! The result is an optical illusion, as it were in the air, and you only see some kind of bright petno! A terrible experience, I must admit! hi
    2. Yok Migarek
      Yok Migarek 16 September 2021 22: 29
      0
      Good evening, fellow soldier! I also served in this regiment. Only a little later.
      1. agoran
        agoran 16 September 2021 22: 32
        0
        Kind. Which AE?
        1. Yok Migarek
          Yok Migarek 16 September 2021 22: 33
          +2
          As usual: I started as a summer in the 3rd, then the first. 1988-1993 Then they got out and replaced the MiG-27 with the MiG-29.
          1. agoran
            agoran 16 September 2021 22: 37
            +1
            2 AE, in 1990 was replaced in Zhangiz-Tobe.
            1. Yok Migarek
              Yok Migarek 17 September 2021 11: 23
              +1
              I am glad! So we served together for 2 years. drinks
            2. tech3030
              tech3030 17 September 2021 18: 08
              0
              In 1990, I served on a fixed-term basis in the Zhangiz-Strategic Missile Forces.
  7. Mwg
    Mwg 16 September 2021 20: 44
    +7
    The kingdom of heaven to the flyer ...
    1. tech3030
      tech3030 17 September 2021 19: 31
      0
      On the one hand, yes, and on the other hand, he is in NATO ... I hope if something happens then the Slavs (Bulgarians) will be on our side ...
  8. mvg
    mvg 16 September 2021 23: 01
    .
    This is how it happens. You ditch the equipment, you yourself will perish, and instead of compensation for damage, you will receive an extraordinary title and a medal. To increase the pension for relatives. Like our footballers. After the loss - revision of the contract in the direction of increasing (Zelimkhan Bakaev) Limit, however, Svetlolikiy said.
  9. EvilLion
    EvilLion 17 September 2021 08: 53
    -2
    Loss of orientation as well. Since there is no EDSU, then there is also a "panic button".
    1. Lozovik
      Lozovik 17 September 2021 12: 20
      +5
      Quote: EvilLion
      a. Since there is no EDSU, then there is also a "panic button".

      How is this interconnected?

      SAU-451. The "leveling" mode is designed to automatically bring the aircraft to level flight when the pilot loses his spatial orientation.
      The mode is switched on manually by pressing the button-lamp REDUCED TO HORIZON. The mode can be switched on at any values ​​of the roll and pitch angles. In this case, all the previously activated ACS modes are removed, except for the DAMPER mode.
      If at the moment of switching on the mode | γ | > 80 °, then control first occurs only in the roll channel, and when entering the roll angle zone (modulo) from 7 ° to 80 ° - in the roll and pitch channels. At roll angles (modulo) less than 7 ° and pitch angles (modulo) less than 40 °, heading stabilization is automatically activated. At roll angles (modulo) less than 7 ° and trajectory inclination angles (modulo) less than 5 °, the HEIGHT STABILIZATION mode is automatically activated with a 4-5 second delay.

      This mode is even available on the MiG-21 equipped with the AP-155 autopilot.
  10. The comment was deleted.
  11. Vyacheslav01
    Vyacheslav01 18 September 2021 14: 48
    +2
    Above the sea, with poor visibility of the horizon, the loss of spatial orientation is quite real.
  12. Metallurg_2
    Metallurg_2 19 September 2021 12: 10
    0
    Well, at least somewhere Petrov and Boshirov were not involved.