Military Review

Main power plant of the US Navy

51

Basis and workhorses fleet US Navy - Ticonderoga-class missile cruiser and Arleigh Burke-class URO destroyer.



Drawing and diagram of the LM-2500 engine of the American company "General Electric"

Since the 70s of the XX century, a clear tendency has appeared in the world for the transition of energy to natural gas as the main type of fuel, and gas turbine units (GTU) as the leading power units for driving electric generators. The developed countries of the world are allocating substantial funding for work to improve the efficiency and fuel efficiency of gas turbine installations.

Large gas turbines with a capacity of over 400 MW are already in operation. The temperature of the working gases of modern gas turbine plants at the turbine inlet has passed the 1500 ° C mark, which is 150/200 ° C higher than in the previous generation units.

The current period is characterized by active work on the creation of third-generation gas turbine units, which are compact and at the same time powerful power plants for civil and military marine equipment.

The second generation


The second generation shipborne gas turbine engines were developed on the basis of aviation turbojet engines, taking into account the use in marine conditions. They have low specific fuel consumption, increased corrosion resistance, less weight and dimensions than those of the first generation gas turbine engine, longer service life and increased reliability. The efficiency of these engines was increased by increasing the operating pressure, cycle temperature, and the use of efficient cooling of the turbine blades.

The most stressed units and parts of such engines are made of high-strength corrosion-resistant alloys. The compressor rotor and stator are made of titanium or nickel, while the turbine and combustion chamber components are made of cobalt or nickel alloys. All GTE parts operating at high temperatures (combustion chamber, high-pressure turbine blades, guide and active blades of the first and second stages of a low-pressure turbine) have aluminized or chrome-plated film coatings, which are sufficiently reliable protection against high-temperature corrosion.

GTEs of the second generation can run on aviation kerosene, diesel and distillate fuels, and even natural gas. Unlike the first generation GTEs, they emit a small amount of smoke, which is achieved due to the use of a perfect design of fuel injectors and its complete mixing with air in axial vortex combustion chambers.

Since the mid-60s of the last century, the American company General Electric has managed to create a wide standard range of power gas turbine units of various capacities. These engines were widely used on various types of civil aircraft in the United States. Later they were used to create industrial gas turbines and marine engines.

LM-2500


Experts consider the American LM-2500 engine manufactured by General Electric to be the best second-generation marine gas turbine engine.

It is based on the TF39 aircraft turbojet engine and is a development of the CF6-6 series of the same company.

The GTE is a simple cycle twin-shaft engine that includes a 16-stage compressor, a small diameter quick-release annular combustor, a two-stage high-pressure turbine and a six-stage free power turbine. Under normal operating conditions (ambient temperature 15 ° C, pressure 1,03 kg / cm 10) and fuel calorific value 270 kcal / kg, the engine has a maximum continuous power of 24 hp. with. at 700 3 rpm. Specific fuel consumption at this power is 400 g / l. with. h and air consumption 181,9–59 kg / s. The length of the engine is 65 m, its weight is about 6,25 tons. The compressor is a single-rotor with a compression ratio of 3,8: 17.

Compared to other types of ship-borne gas turbine engines, the gas temperature in the LM-2500 engine is significantly increased, however, due to the effective cooling, its wall temperature was not much higher than that of the first generation gas turbine engine. At the same time, special attention is paid to ensuring control over the flow of cooling air, reducing its losses, as well as controlling the radial clearance.

The power turbine is a six-stage straight-through design with low peripheral speeds. The power shaft of the gas turbine engine is equipped on both sides with elastic disc clutches that compensate for inconsistent torques. It is believed that disc couplings most fully meet the requirements of ship-borne gas turbine engines, since they do not require lubrication, do not have rubbing surfaces and have high corrosion resistance. GTE bearings are lubricated with synthetic oil pumps.

The compressor and the power turbine housing are split for ease of maintenance and repair, which allows replacing the blades without dismantling the engine as a whole. In addition, there are inspection holes for monitoring the condition of the most important parts, and the entire fuel system is mounted outside the engine.

During bench tests of the LM-2500 GTE, the time of its trouble-free operation significantly exceeded the service life of the first generation engines.

During trial operation on the Admiral Collagen ship in 1972, this engine worked for more than 15 thousand hours, of which 5 thousand hours it worked in the power range of 19-21 thousand liters. with. Another feature of this gas turbine engine is that, easily removed from the ship for coastal repairs, it can be re-installed within 72 hours. The developed global corporate service allows keeping within the specified time, which gives General Electric a serious competitive advantage over other GTE manufacturers.

Having seized the leadership in the world energy market, General Electric has been producing about 30% of all gas turbines produced in the world for the last 70 years.

The company currently produces three types of ship installations:

LM-2500 series - from 22,4 to 33,4 MW,
LM-6000 series - from 42,4 to 47,5 MW,
LMS-100 series - 110 MW.


Gas turbine unit of the LM2500 + G4 DLE series with a capacity of 33 MW.

As of the end of 2018, about 2 marine engines of the LM-100 series of various modifications were manufactured, among which there are:

• General Electric LM-2500 capacity 22,4 MW,
• General Electric LM-2500 + capacity 31,1 MW,
• General Electric LM-2500 + G4 with a capacity of 33,4 MW.

The LM-2500 naval gas turbine engine is the most widespread and reliable and is used on warships from frigate to aircraft carrier. The vast majority of ships in the US Navy are equipped with this engine. The GEM LM-2500 of General Electric has been used on more than 400 ships of the Navy in 33 countries of the world since 1972. More than 1000 LM-2500 marine engines are in operation every day around the world. Since 1998, GTU LM-2500 + has been used to equip commercial marine vessels.

Types of warships and vessels with the GE LM-2500 power plant and its modifications



Construction of Arleigh Burke-type UDC and America-class UDC destroyers at Ingalls Shipbuilding (USA) - all ships are equipped with GE LM-2500 GTE

Ships of the Navy and the United States Coast Guard:

• Legend-class ocean patrol ship (USA) - as part of the US SOBR,
• Frigates of the type "Oliver Hazard Perry" (USA) - decommissioned,
• Destroyers of the "Spruance" class (USA) - decommissioned,
• Destroyer class "Kidd" (USA) - decommissioned,
• Destroyers URO type "Arleigh Burke" (USA) - in the Navy,
• Missile cruisers of the "Ticonderoga" type (USA) - in the Navy,
• UDC type "America" ​​(USA) - in the Navy.


Legend-class ocean patrol ship

Ships and vessels of other countries:

• Corvettes of the "Niels Huel" type (Denmark),
• Corvettes of the Pohang type (South Korea),
• Corvettes of the "Saar 5" type (Israel),
• Halifax-class frigates (Canada),
• Frigates of the type "Hydra" (Greece),
• MEKO frigates type "200" (Australia and New Zealand, Germany, Turkey, Greece, Portugal, Argentina, Malaysia, South Africa, Algeria),
• Frigates of the F-122 series "Brandenburg" (FRG),
• F-123 series frigates of the "Bremen" type (FRG),
• F-124 series frigates "Saxony" type (FRG),
• Frigates of the "Cheng Kung" type (Taiwan),
• URO-type frigates of the "Horizon" type (France, Italy),
• FREMM class frigates (France, Italy, Morocco, Egypt),
• Frigates of the type "Alvaro de Bazan" (Spain),
• Frigates of the "Santa Maria" type (Spain),
• Destroyers URO type "Asahi" (Japan),
• Destroyers of URO type "Akizuki" (Japan),
• Destroyers URO type "Takanami" (Japan),
• Destroyers URO type "Murasame" (Japan),
• Destroyers URO type "Congo" (Japan),
• Destroyer destroyers URO type "Atago" (Japan),
• Destroyers URO type KDX-I and KVCh-II (South Korea),
• Destroyers URO type "King Sejong" (South Korea)
• Destroyers of the type "Luigi Durand de la Penne" (Italy),
• Type 052 destroyers (China),
• Helicopter destroyer destroyers of the Izumo class (Japan),
• Hugo-class destroyers-helicopter carriers (Japan),
• UDC type "Juan Carlos" (Spain),
• UDC type "Canberra" (Australia),
• Aircraft carrier Cavour (Italy),
• Aircraft carrier "Principe de Asturias" (Spain).

Cruise liners like "Queen Mary 2"


The Queen Mary 2 cruise liners are equipped with a GE LM-2500 gas turbine engine (vessel displacement 79 tons, dimensions 300x345x41 m, draft 72 m, crew 10, passengers 1)

Wishes for the future of the Russian Navy


The issue of unification of the main power plants of warships and ships is also facing the Russian Navy.

There is no other navy in the world, which is one of the top ten largest maritime powers, in such a variety of naval engines as we have.

Long-term plans for the construction of new ships should be aimed at the maximum unification of most projects based on a single gas turbine engine and diesel engines.

The development of a modern domestic aircraft engine PD-14 and its more powerful modifications - PD-18 and PD-35, opens up opportunities for the creation of a new generation of marine versions of GTEs on their basis.

According to media reports, work has begun on the creation of gas turbine units for gas pumping stations (GTU GPS) based on the PD series engines. It makes sense, together with the testing of aircraft engines and gas turbine units, to start developing a new generation of marine gas turbine engines.

Also, the leadership of the Russian Navy needs to set the task for the designers to include these GTEs in all new projects of ships and vessels, where it is economically justified and expedient.


Model of the modernized frigate of project 22350M - the future of the Russian Navy (http://bastion-karpenko.ru/22350m-skr/)

A wide range of unified aircraft engines, gas installations and marine gas turbine engines will provide significant savings in their operation and repair. Joint repair and service centers will allow you to quickly resolve issues of service in Russia.

After all, wherever there are Russian naval bases of the fleet, there is a civil or military airfield nearby, which makes it possible to ensure the urgent delivery of spare parts and new replacement engines. And the supply of ships and vessels of our projects through military-technical cooperation will help to form a service network abroad.
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  1. Intruder
    Intruder 17 September 2021 11: 19
    +5
    Thanks to the author .... for the subject area in the article !!!
    It is interesting to continue in the near future, if they switch to liquefied gas of the methane group, or whatever, "colored" technical hydrogen, what will be, from promising gas turbines, specifically for marine versions! ???
    1. Bekasov Artem Andreevich
      17 September 2021 12: 30
      +6
      The issue requires detailed consideration, until it is clear what to replace the gas turbine engine in the navy from what you have listed. Significant shifts are visible only on electric motors, but kinetic weapons work well against them.
      1. Intruder
        Intruder 17 September 2021 12: 35
        0
        it is not yet clear what to replace the gas turbine engine in the navy from what you have listed.
        You do not quite understand me! bully I meant the future development of marine versions of gas turbines, but with a different type of fuel (gas fuel, as a class), in the spirit of the global environmental trend, from the region, former Soviet gas turbines using hydrocarbons, such as: NK-88 on Tu-155 !?
        1. Bekasov Artem Andreevich
          17 September 2021 12: 48
          +4
          As far as I know, such works were carried out, but did not receive their development. What is the reason, I can’t say, I don’t know. In principle, the transition to other types of fuel is possible, but how economically feasible it is is a big question. The transition costs can outweigh all the benefits. It is necessary to understand and count in detail. And this is the prerogative of specialized specialists and managers.
        2. Mikhail3
          Mikhail3 20 September 2021 18: 31
          -2
          Hydrogen is about 40 times more expensive than natural methane. The "ecological trend" has nothing to do with ecology, and most of all resembles the play "The Cherry Orchard". Her heroes will soon have nothing to eat, and they are all talking about abstract matters. Thinking about ship turbines, you should think like a practitioner, and not like a beautiful-hearted goof)
          1. Intruder
            Intruder 20 September 2021 18: 38
            0
            Hydrogen is about 40 times more expensive than natural methane
            Hmm, obviously we don't read the comments above, and before the answer! ???
            Like these words:
            GTP on hydrocarbons
            And when has methane ceased to be a limiting hydrocarbon !? lol
            should be thought of as a practitioner, not like a fine-minded goof

            Maybe it's better and more constructive - not to tell unfamiliar people what and how, they should think and about what !? yes Moreover, with such a presentation, in the form: "beautiful goof"... hi
            1. Mikhail3
              Mikhail3 20 September 2021 18: 47
              0
              If you do not want to talk about thoughts, do not communicate on a public resource. For the "sucker" perhaps I will apologize. When I was typing, I was thinking more about the Europeans, who have gotten themselves into a surprisingly stupid way, and not about you specifically.
              What does it matter that methane is a hydrocarbon? This I did not understand at all) Is it limitless or limitless, what's the difference? You are probably talking about nonsense about the "hydrocarbon footprint" ?! No, at this level I will not, this is some kind of childhood, sorry ...
              1. Intruder
                Intruder 20 September 2021 19: 12
                0
                For the "sucker" perhaps I will apologize. When I was typing, I was thinking more about the Europeans, who have gotten themselves into a surprisingly stupid way, and not about you specifically.
                Received hi
                You are probably talking about nonsense about the "hydrocarbon footprint" ?!
                In general, I asked the author of the article, specifically about the alternative (gas) fuel for marine versions of gas turbines, which can, by the way, work successfully on it, without strongly clinging to modern environmental "influences" on the masses! winked
                what is methane a hydrocarbon? This I did not understand at all) Is it limitless or limitless, what's the difference?
                Well, he's just a limiting hydrocarbon, that's it! wink
                And the cost of hydrogen to methane given by you, this was not clear to me personally, there is also a lot of other hydrocarbon and gaseous fuels, besides hydrogen and methane, on what the GTU itself can work !? hi
                1. Mikhail3
                  Mikhail3 21 September 2021 09: 38
                  +3
                  I still don’t really understand you, but okay) GTU can operate on almost any combustible gas, the question is simply in the settings and design. Roughly speaking, if the installation is hydrogen, then it can be converted to methane only at the plant, and it will not be easy.
                  Hydrogen. Firstly, it is not superfluid, but close to that. There have been no breakthroughs in hydrogen storage technologies and they are unlikely to be in the current state of what we call physics by inertia. So our fuel escapes from the cylinders almost at the speed with which we burn it)
                  And secondly. As a result of various kinds of processes occurring in the earth's interior, methane is obtained - a gas with great energy, which we use when burning. Available? We are not using the energy that we received and stored in methane.
                  Hydrogen in nature is absent in free form on planets. Too fluid. The maximum where it can be found is in a mixture with methane in the fields. To get it from there, you need to spend many times more energy than to get methane. And there is not much of this hydrogen).
                  In general, the production of hydrogen is about 40 times more expensive than methane, and this does not take into account the colossal losses during storage and transportation! That is, our energy will become 40-50 times more expensive than it is now. All this reasoning could well have taken place in a Soviet school, in a physics lesson. This was followed by a logical conclusion - such energy will require a multiple reduction in the population of the Earth. Sometime around 30. Wonderful, isn't it?
                  But it was easy to explain this to Soviet teenagers. Modern "smart" people do not understand anything like that) Alas ...
                  1. Intruder
                    Intruder 21 September 2021 18: 12
                    0
                    There have been no breakthroughs in hydrogen storage technologies and they are unlikely to be in the current state of what we call physics by inertia. So our fuel escapes from the cylinders almost at the speed with which we burn it)

                    Why, from what century did you come to us, now you honestly surprised belay , I'm starting to believe in the nonsense of journalists about time travelers !?
                    Okay, that's all the lyrics ... wink
                    Hydrogen storage is a lot of technologies, already from the last and the century before last, by the way, the first message was when aeronautics developed ... on this 3rd planet from the Sun !!!

                    1. Moreover, this gas can be stored for a long time, therefore, the speed of injection / pumping out and location are not so much important as the volume of storage facilities.
                    This technology was invented a long time ago: a lot of gas can be pumped into caves. Now hydrogen is pumped mainly into salt caves - there it is almost not contaminated with impurities, and the normalized storage cost is up to $ 0,6 per kg.
                    The second natural reservoir for hydrogen is depleted natural gas or oil reservoirs and aquifers. They are larger than salt caves, but the hydrogen in them becomes more polluted, reacting with rocks, microbes, and liquids. Hydrogen is not yet pumped into such caves, so it is too early to consider the "economy".
                    Further transport it:

                    2. In any state of aggregation (except for solid, of course) hydrogen can be pumped through the existing gas pipes, which is definitely cheaper than building a new infrastructure. The first candidate is gas networks. There are 3 million kilometers of gas pipelines and 400 billion cubic meters of underground methane storage facilities in the world. But there are technical problems with this:
                    - hydrogen has a low energy density, and the volume (or time) of its delivery through the gas pipeline will have to be increased;

                    -Hydrogen is very flammable in the air, so in order to reduce risks, you will have to change equipment throughout the supply chain;

                    - not every infrastructure for, for example, methane is suitable for hydrogen; this is especially true for consumer boilers, boilers, etc .;

                    - consumers need a different gas (one only pure hydrogen, the other - a mixture), and technologies for separating pure hydrogen from the resulting mixture will increase the final cost of gas by $ 0,3-0,4 per kg.
                    As a result, along with gaseous hydrogen, we will have to produce its liquefied and mixed versions.

                    3. According to the calculations of the International Energy Agency, the most profitable option for overland delivery of hydrogen over distances of up to 3,5 thousand km. - this is hydrogen in a gaseous state through a pipeline (about $ 5,5 per kg; hereinafter, the cost of transportation). At long distances, it is already better to run a hydrogen-ammonia mixture through pipelines, which will cost $ 6 per kg (up to 5 thousand km).
                    Sea delivery does not depend as much on distance as it does on technology. The cheapest way is to transport a mixture with ammonia and organic liquid carriers (about $ 4,0–4,5 per kg). It is more expensive to ship liquefied hydrogen by sea (from $ 5,5 to $ 6,0 per kg).
                    At the same time, according to the Council for Hydrogen Energy, the lower limit of hydrogen competitiveness for trucks, buses (for long-distance transportation) and electric trains will be $ 4-5 per kg; for heating and power supply of residential buildings - $ 3-5 per kg; for forklift trucks - $ 7-9 per kg.
                    But for private and commercial urban transportation, hydrogen will remain expensive, all the more taking into account delivery (it is necessary that it be no more than $ 1,0-1,5). However, the variability of calculations is very wide, and the economy of hydrogen supplies will be different for each region and consumer.
                    1. ProkletyiPirat
                      ProkletyiPirat 21 September 2021 20: 27
                      +1
                      Denis, Mikhail, you went a little wrong.
                      1) GTE operation on methane, hydrogen, etc. possible
                      2) hydrogen storage is possible - there are technologies based on polymer-ceramics, and curing through mixing with special reagents, and banal ventilation with special sealants
                      3) the problem of hydrogen is not storage per se, but the so-called "hydrogen corrosion" or "hydrogen embrittlement".
                      4) well, the advantage of hydrogen is not in the advertised "hydrogen energy", but in the "atmospheric-recirculating hydrogen energy" (these are different things, the first is a subset of the second). It is worth remembering the comparison "in the past, we (humanity) moved from PRODUCTION of food resources (hunting and gathering), to PRODUCTION of food resources (agriculture and cattle breeding), all this radically changed our civilization, some cities are worth something, and so, exactly the same the transition awaits us in the next thousand years, but already in the energy sector, and at the moment there are as many as three possible options (in addition to the above, there are on the basis of electric energy and on the basis of synthetic radioactive substances, the latter is the coolest because it will allow us to start exploring the galaxy) "
                      1. Intruder
                        Intruder 21 September 2021 20: 44
                        0
                        and based on synthetic radioactive substances, the latter is the coolest because it will allow you to start exploring the galaxy) "
                        And this, what kind of "raspberry" reactor fission or "thermoelectric or thermal emission" of decay !?
                        storage of hydrogen is possible - here and technologies based on polymer-ceramics, and curing through mixing with special reagents, and banal ventilation with special sealants
                        Polymer-ceramic ??? Maybe just composite materials, otherwise it's just some kind of exhibition ... I hope no offense!
                        For a long time already there are composite cylinders with high walls with thermal insulation for storing hydrogen, although they are not widely available everywhere ... but this is the level of consumer demand, which always gives rise to any retail supply !?
                      2. ProkletyiPirat
                        ProkletyiPirat 21 September 2021 21: 29
                        0
                        Quote: Intruder
                        and based on synthetic radioactive substances, the latter is the coolest because it will allow you to start exploring the galaxy) "
                        And this, what kind of "raspberry" reactor fission or "thermoelectric or thermal emission" of decay !?

                        This is where the heavier substances are synthesized from lighter substances due to external energy (this is how they store energy), and then they are split in the reactor (this is how energy is released). The main feature of this method is a higher maximum maximum density of energy storage. For example: in science fiction such a thing as a "ship of generations" is described, but in practice, the calculations of scientists have shown that they are not realizable today due to the fact that classical nuclear power plants will not work so much, and even stockpiling of raw materials will not help.

                        Quote: Intruder
                        Polymer-ceramic ??? Maybe just composite materials,

                        Well, strictly speaking, a hamburger at McDonald's is also a composite, and simple plywood with chipboard is also a "polymer composite material", which is why new materials are called nano-structured, then polymer-metals, then polymer-ceramics, or something else.

                        Quote: Intruder
                        For a long time already there are composite cylinders with high thermal insulation of the walls, for storing hydrogen

                        They are likewise susceptible to hydrogen and oxygen corrosion, and very strongly. As a result, all this becomes not so much a solution to the negative as its compensation. However, such compensation is not always possible and reasonable. For example, in the main pipelines with this there is a hemorrhage in the form of a short service life, and in local pipelines in the form of the complexity of planned replacement and the compatibility of safety technologies.
                      3. Intruder
                        Intruder 21 September 2021 21: 47
                        0
                        This is where the heavier ones are synthesized from lighter substances due to external energy (this is how they save energy)
                        Thermonuclear reactions, directly and only ... if on the synthesis of light chemical elements !?
                        and then they split in the reactor (this is how energy is released)
                        Duc, again nuclear ... decay and gigantic losses, first fusion, and then decay again ... all this has to be done all over again, warming up hefty, and the cold thermo-poison in this Universe is not observed for the time being - that's why the THERMO poison ??? lol , and then to remove heat and convert into another type of energy, so many different processes and "steps" and efficiency, low ... not tea, eternal second kind, engine and generator in one bottle ??? wink
                        As a result, all this becomes not so much a solution to the negative as its compensation. However, such compensation is not always possible and reasonable. For example, in the main pipelines with this there is a hemorrhage in the form of a short service life, and in local pipelines in the form of the complexity of planned replacement and the compatibility of safety technologies.
                        Hemorrhoids, in the form of a low level of desires and "tension" in materials science and resistance to materials, in the head of the designer of "pipes" and gas fittings ... and nothing more !!!
                      4. Intruder
                        Intruder 21 September 2021 20: 55
                        0
                        the problem of hydrogen is not storage per se, but the so-called "hydrogen corrosion" or "hydrogen embrittlement".
                        For almost three years I worked with gaseous and "dirty" hydrogen, with its production (in an ordinary steel cylinder) at the base weather station ... meteorological balloons were launched every morning ... there were no problems ... there was no problem as well as with oxygen technology, I use a hydrogen cutter at home, there are also no problems ... with a gas cylinder installation, in my personal opinion, the problem is more invented than real, well, there are the effects of corrosion of metal alloys and hard safety, but also with all high-pressure gas technology and cryogenic temperatures, there is its own specificity and only !!! Gasoline used to be sold in pharmacies, for a little over 150 years, and kerosene, too, different and concentrated acids, were sold in street shops to create electrolytes for filling electrochemical batteries in the classrooms of experimental physics and in the laboratories of schools and colleges in cities, this was at the beginning of the last century! And now, we are afraid and afraid of everything: nitric / sulfuric acids in glass containers and mercury to a heap, now they have reached hydrogen ... funny and sad, it is better to continue to ruin the planet, grandchildren then live in underground cities, with an artificial atmosphere and up to 40 years old !?
                      5. ProkletyiPirat
                        ProkletyiPirat 21 September 2021 21: 41
                        +1
                        Well, no need to exaggerate the negatives, and even more so cry about the death of everything and everyone. At the moment, in the next 50-100 years, there will be enough energy resources, the main thing is that the price of fuel is higher, this is useful for all inhabitants of the planet. And by the time when the explored energy resources may not be enough, the technologies of the next stage will have already been finalized.Now, most investments go into technologies for storing electricity with a storage density not lower than coal, because there are the greatest benefits in case of implementation, because there are huge markets for wearable electronics.
                      6. Intruder
                        Intruder 21 September 2021 21: 54
                        0
                        Well, no need to exaggerate the negatives, and even more so cry about the death of everything and everyone. At the moment, in the next 50-100 years, there will be enough energy resources, the main thing is that the price of fuel is higher, this is useful for all inhabitants of the planet.
                        Who ... everyone !? Africa, East Asia or South America, you have apparently forgotten about 4 billion beggars and hungry, and they are also earthlings and want to eat and sleep in warmth ... and have a legal right to this in fact ... the birth and citizenship of their local even , but we all live on a separate planet and so far .., we do not fly to Mars under the domes on a regular Starship !?
                        Now most of the investment goes into technologies for storing electricity with a storage density not lower than coal, because there are the greatest benefits if implemented, because there are huge markets for wearable electronics.
                        Who needs it, this is the most wearable one .., especially where the budget of a family of three is up to 22 bucks a month, and this is hundreds of millions of people ... Well, right, dreams of a "golden billion" !!!
                        Honestly and no offense, I hope !?
                      7. Mikhail3
                        Mikhail3 21 September 2021 22: 37
                        0
                        I didn't read your terribly meaningful dialogue) So I see how one of you is attaching a salt cave to the ship, and the second is screwing a reactor for the most complex physicochemical transformations at the speed of light) Guys, all this is bullshit. The same bullshit that is fed to most of the powers that be, so as not to give them bribes. This is done by a smaller part of those in power who did well in schools in the last century.
                        In general, you are right, many ways have been invented for storing hydrogen) And for storing gasoline - one. You pour it into a barrel and store it. Strange, isn't it? Only to you, powerful minds! Secret! Look, you are just anyone! In general, if many ways have been invented for something, then this is because none of the methods completely satisfies. It seems that something is working out, but it still needs to be redone)
                        Trying to pump hydrogen through existing pipes is a masterpiece! Draws to the level of considerations of the prime minister of any European country. Well, almost anyone. There are also a couple of smart guys there. But no more!) I have operated hydrogen cylinders and hydrogen technology. Generators in power plants are filled with hydrogen to prevent oil from being poured into them from the oil wedge bearings.
                        You are so cool))
                      8. Intruder
                        Intruder 22 September 2021 08: 33
                        0
                        You are so cool))
                        You are no less, really ... if you write that you have worked with hydrogen technology, then the last comment is surprising, honestly! yes
                        Namely, in this part:
                        I can see how one of you attaches a salt cave to the ship.
                        Gas turbine locomotives in the railway, it seems, were not created or operated in the USSR and the Russian Federation, since the last century, they are more than 50 years old, like at lunchtime !? fellow
                        Gasoline to the barrel, too ... laughing teleported and stored forever, especially with high octane and diesel fuel, with aviation kerosene, for decades !?
                        I was 6 years old, I ran after my father on fuel and lubricants of the airport, it was a funny time in my childhood .., but this is so lyrics. repeat

                        And under, the denouement ... the world is a big thing ... and if someone cannot work with hydrogen and LNG fuel, this does not mean that it is not necessary !!!
                        We look, here, a massive solution for a long time:
                        1.Powerful gas turbo engine: 6-cylinder, in-line 460-horsepower IVECO N60 ENT G spark ignition engine, which was equipped with the IVECO Stralis NP460 mainline tractor and its LNG filling:

                        In 2018, the heavy truck set a distance record by traveling 1728 km on a single LNG tank from London to Madrid without refueling. On this trip, the testers had to deal with heavy traffic on the English roads, strong headwinds in France and mountain passes on the Spanish side of the route. As a result, the average fuel consumption was 22,6 kg of LNG per 100 km of track. With this journey, IVECO Spa clearly demonstrated that natural gas is a feasible, realistic, safe and cost-effective alternative to diesel.

                        2. Scania recently introduced its 13-liter 6-cylinder OC13 (Euro 6) gas engine for long-range trucks. With a power of 410 hp it develops a maximum torque of 2000 Nm in the range from 1100 to 1400 rpm. Dimensions and performance are comparable to a diesel engine of similar power. Adaptation to long-haul transportation (1100 km from one filling) is possible thanks to the large cryogenic LNG fuel tank.


                        3. Volvo Trucks was later than other European competitors to introduce to the market its 12,8-liter, in-line, 6-cylinder G13C LNG Euro 6 engine running on liquefied natural gas (LNG) or biogas. It develops a power of 460 hp. and delivers a maximum torque of 2300 Nm. There is also a 420-horsepower engine (torque 2100 Nm).

                        The power units have the same performance, fuel consumption and service life as Volvo diesels of similar power. This results in cleaner exhaust gas emissions from gas engines, especially in terms of CO2. Both engines can be fitted to the new Volvo FH LNG and Volvo FM LNG. These gas carriers have already received approval and certificates according to the European standard ECE R110.

                        PS Well this is so ... of course fantastic and these pictures I drew in the editor all day today ... you can laugh now !!!
                      9. Mikhail3
                        Mikhail3 22 September 2021 08: 57
                        +1
                        Are they paying well for this plague? Can I join? Although I can't stand it. I could never hold my face, I was always silent at the exam, if I don't know, although I can talk pretty well)
                      10. Intruder
                        Intruder 22 September 2021 09: 57
                        0
                        Are they paying well for this plague?
                        Well, if you have dropped to the level of - this dirty money, as you asked !? wink And you already do not have enough, or "oilmen" do not pay extra for this pandemic ??? lol
  2. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 17 September 2021 11: 20
    +4
    Experts consider the American LM-2500 engine manufactured by General Electric to be the best second-generation marine gas turbine engine.

    It is based on the TF39 aircraft turbojet engine and is a development of the CF6-6 series of the same company.




    I wonder why the Russian Federation does not use a similar approach. After all, there are serial theaters and turbojet engines of the PS-90 or NK type .... PD-14, in the PD-35 project?
    1. Bekasov Artem Andreevich
      17 September 2021 12: 27
      +2
      Read the article to the end, there it is written about it!
      1. thekhohol
        thekhohol 17 September 2021 14: 52
        0
        There are written wishes, but information is not written.
        1. bayard
          bayard 19 September 2021 20: 46
          +1
          In the Russian Federation today, gas turbines for marine power plants have been developed and produced:
          - M90FR with a capacity of 27 l / s.
          - M70FRU with a capacity of 14 l / s.
          - M75 with a capacity of 7 l / s.
          All of them are based on aircraft gas turbine engines.
          On the 22350M project, gas turbine pairs from M70FRU (main course) and M90FR (afterburner) should be used with a torque addition to one shaft through a gearbox.
  3. Vsevolod Z
    Vsevolod Z 17 September 2021 11: 45
    +8
    Thanks to the author. Didn't know about unification with civil courts. In general, there is a lot to learn. A vivid example of reducing the cost of maintenance, delivery time of consumables, scheduled maintenance and repair time.
    1. Bekasov Artem Andreevich
      17 September 2021 12: 33
      +3
      Thank you for your feedback! A large circle of partners and allies of the United States + the formation of the dollar as a world currency + a technological gap in the post-war period allowed them to become leaders in this direction.
      1. bayard
        bayard 19 September 2021 20: 51
        +1
        But the first with the transition to GTU was the Soviet Union.
        I would like to see an article about the history of Soviet gas turbines ... although one cannot get rid of one article ... But I really would like to.
        And about the day today on ship gas turbines.
  4. prior
    prior 17 September 2021 11: 54
    +6
    But we get the most beautiful layouts. tongue
  5. Jonny_Su
    Jonny_Su 17 September 2021 12: 47
    0
    Thanks to the author for the article. Please explain why you do not consider the manufactured GTEs (M-90-FR) as a single turbine unit for the fleet, but propose to wait for the completion of the development of the PD-35?
    1. Grandfather
      Grandfather 17 September 2021 13: 49
      -1
      we are a great sea power pancake ...
    2. Bekasov Artem Andreevich
      17 September 2021 13: 51
      +2
      Thank you for your feedback! GTE M90FR is good for everyone, it has a maximum power of 27500 hp. Together with a diesel engine, diesel engines 10D49 (5200 hp) are installed on ships as cruising engines, together with a PO55R gearbox, it is part of a diesel-gas turbine unit. Total 32 hp And I honestly don’t understand why on the corvettes of the project 700/20380 it was necessary to fence 20385 diesel engines 4D10 of 49 hp each. each, a total of 5200 hp ... It was quite possible to get by with DGTA (GTE + diesel), the power would have been higher. Then the speed of the corvette would be with a margin of more than 24 knots, and not 000 as it is now. I don’t know, I didn’t ask this question, here we have to talk to the designers. But M30FR is a development of the last century, even if it is successfully working now, but the article was about the future. The transition to a single gas turbine engine will not happen quickly, and if we are to switch to a single engine for aviation, navy and gas / oil pumping, then it is better to have one gas turbine engine and the most modern one. Made according to a single standard and technology. In one plant and in one service system. While there is time to spend calmly and thoughtfully the chilling work. New engine or engines (if a whole line) for new ship projects.
      1. Scharnhorst
        Scharnhorst 18 September 2021 17: 18
        +3
        On the frigate, the gearbox does not allow summing the power of the diesel engine and the gas turbine engine, therefore, one of the following works on the propeller. On the corvette, the gearbox allows you to sum up the power of two simultaneously operating diesel engines on the propeller shaft.
      2. bayard
        bayard 19 September 2021 21: 10
        +1
        Quote: Bekasov Artem Andreevich
        But the M90FR development of the last century, even if it is successfully working now,

        It follows from your article that the United States has had one type of gas turbines since the beginning of the 70s. Why do you think?
        Because they do not seek the good from the good, but follow the path of improving what is available.
        In the Russian Federation, the production of M90FR has just been mastered, and this will be the main turbine of such power.
        The power plant 22350M will use turbopairs from M70FRU (cruising) 14 l / s, and M000FR (afterburner) 90 l / s, with the possibility of adding torque to a single shaft.
        If you need a warship with a larger VI, say, of the order of 12 - 000 tons, then you can use two turbopairs with two M14FRs.
        For frigates 22350, it would be wiser to use a power plant from turbopairs on the M75 (7 l / s) and afterburners M500FR. In this case, its cruising speed would have grown to quite acceptable parameters, and the maximum speed would have exceeded 90 knots (I think in the region of 30 - 31,5 knots). And it would be a completely competitive ship in terms of navigation capabilities.
        For the 20380 corvettes, a power plant of two M70FRU with a gearbox was originally proposed, which made it possible to operate the turbines alternately on both shafts, and both for maximum stroke.
        In this case, the maximum speed would be about 30 knots (now 5200 x 4 = 20 800 l / s ... although they write about 24 000 l / s). But the choice was made in favor of economy ... and since we were refused in German diesel engines, they put diesel Kolomna diesels.
        In future projects, it is necessary to categorically abandon such a pernicious practice - to sacrifice speed and dynamic capabilities in favor of ... economy and weak diesel engines.
        Diesel engines have always been our weak point.
        On the other hand, GTU is strong.
        hi
        1. Bekasov Artem Andreevich
          20 September 2021 12: 08
          0
          Not really, colleague!
          I pointed out in the article that in addition to the marine LM2500, two more types are produced - the LM-6000 series - with a capacity of 42,4 to 47,5 MW and the LMS-100 series - with a capacity of 110 MW. And the LM2500 itself has 3 power options for different types of ships and ships. As for diesel engines, as I recall, there are 3 types, low, medium and high speed - the first, the slowest and most economical. So on supertankers of the Crimea type DWT180 tons of the Kerch plant "Zaliv" diesel engines D000 were installed, but they differ in the number of cylinders a tanker - 49D20, and on domestic warships - 49D10. So the speech about unification was just about this, that together with a single gas turbine engine to put single diesel engines, which differ in power only when changing from the type of ship and displacement. And not like now - what is not a project, then a complete technical variety! If production capacity is not enough, and this is immediately a bottleneck, it is necessary to maximize production and increase output. It's best to release everything yourself, but is it possible ?! Now there are more than two dozen manufacturers, and normal diesel engines for sailors in the required volumes are a big problem. The Germans and Chinese are still partners! Passed and will hand over again at once! The Finns and South Koreans have very good diesel engines, maybe it makes sense to work with them to land the missing diesel types in the line here ?! This is as an idea, here the state approach needs a clear understanding of our capabilities and bottlenecks in this area.
          1. bayard
            bayard 20 September 2021 14: 46
            +2
            Quote: Bekasov Artem Andreevich
            I pointed out in the article that in addition to the marine LM2500, two more types are produced - the LM-6000 series - with a capacity of 42,4 to 47,5 MW and the LMS-100 series - with a capacity of 110 MW. And the LM2500 itself has 3 power options for different types of ships and ships.

            I paid attention to this. But I'm talking about the fact that on ships of the main classes - frigates, destroyers, cruisers (corvettes under question), it is necessary to put gas turbine engines, as they have the maximum power density, compactness and are able to add their torque on a single shaft through a gearbox. For this today, the Russian Federation has developed (in fact, duplicated) three types of turbines:
            - M75 power 7 l / s,
            - M70FRU power 14 l / s,
            - M90FR power 27 l / s.
            A very wide range of power plants can be combined on the basis of these turbines:
            - Power plant for the corvette - two M70FRU with the ability of each turbine to work on both shafts alternately in cruising mode,
            - GEM for the frigate - two M75 + two M90FR,
            - one more power plant for the frigate - four M70FRU (two per shaft with the ability to operate one turbine on both shafts alternately in cruising mode,
            - Power plant for the frigate destroyer 22350M - two M70FRU + two M90FR,
            - Power plant for the heavy destroyer / cruiser VI 12 - 000 tons - four M14FR / FRU (power max. = 000 l / s).
            Any other combinations are also possible.
            Summarizing the torque on a single gearbox for turbines of the same or different capacities is much easier and more reliable than trying to marry a low-speed diesel engine and a high-speed turbine on one gearbox. In the best case, it will be possible to organize their work in turn. Therefore, it is wiser to use the basic set of turbines on the BATTLE ships.
            Yes, the diesel is more economical and more convenient at low speeds, but loses in everything else. All the main ships of the NATO fleet are equipped with gas turbines - this is the richest experience gained in practice. It was the same in the Soviet Navy, which was the first to start transferring its fleet to gas turbines. Therefore, all this tossing between non-existent or unsuitable diesel engines ... or with diesel engines, the production of which the industry cannot establish in any way ... we must stop.
            And build the Fleet on a single basic set of gas turbines.
            If we lose something in economy at low speeds, then we will certainly win in speed, reliability, uniformity (unification), ease of use, construction rates and the final quality of the Fleet itself as a whole.
            Low-speed diesel engines should be installed on some types of landing ships, supply vessels, tugs, minesweepers and other auxiliary ships of the fleet.
            but COMBAT ships must have sufficient (and sometimes redundant) running, speed, dynamic and operational characteristics.
            Now Gazprom will order a GTU based on PD-14, a fairly large batch. If such a GTU shows itself well, nothing will prevent installing one on the ship.
            There were statements of intent to obtain a gas turbine unit with a capacity of 35, 000, 45 l / s. - this is for ships of already heavier classes - aircraft carriers, large UDC, heavy cruisers.
            You just need to stop dancing with tambourines and start building not a "fleet of prototypes", but laying high-quality projects in a sufficient series.
            ... True, it looks like it's about another state ... in the Russian Federation they can't do that anymore.
            1. Bekasov Artem Andreevich
              20 September 2021 15: 06
              +1
              I see no objection and agree with your statements. I hope the Commander-in-Chief of the Navy and his subordinates will hear us.
      3. 911sx
        911sx 20 September 2021 00: 27
        0
        Diesel is the most efficient heat engine. However, the GTE is far behind in terms of power, dimensions and weight. On corvettes with VI up to 3000 tons, it is more profitable to use diesel (you need to have less fuel on board at the same cruising range, the diesel itself is cheaper than a gas turbine engine, and the fuel costs are incommensurable). But everything that is larger is, yes, turbines. Developing modern gas turbine engines, one should not forget about diesel engines. Kolomensky D 500 does not go into production for a very long time, but in vain, the motor must be good.
        1. Bekasov Artem Andreevich
          20 September 2021 11: 44
          0
          Unification implies that the same engine or its modification will be used both on small ships and on large ones. The same applies to civilian ships of different displacement.
  6. Undecim
    Undecim 17 September 2021 14: 34
    +4
    Since the 70s of the XX century, a clear tendency has appeared in the world for the transition of energy to natural gas as the main type of fuel, and gas turbine units (GTU) as the leading power units for driving electric generators.

    The author, do not mislead the readers. Nowhere has a gas turbine become the leading powertrain in power generation. The steam turbine is out of competition so far.
    1. Bekasov Artem Andreevich
      17 September 2021 15: 11
      0
      Perhaps you are right, we were talking about gas turbine stations, which are built on the basis of aircraft gas turbine engines and are used for pumping gas and oil.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 17 September 2021 16: 26
        +3
        The word "possibly" is superfluous in this case.
      2. Zaurbek
        Zaurbek 17 September 2021 21: 16
        0
        Probably, up to certain kW, a gas turbine is simpler ..... And then a steam one.
  7. Motorist
    Motorist 17 September 2021 21: 56
    -1
    They have low specific fuel consumption

    Specific fuel consumption at this power is 181,9 g / l. with. h

    This is almost 250 g / kWh. Two-stroke SDVs are still very far away ...

    in 1972 this engine worked more than 15 thousand hours

    I have an engine at work that has worked 61 thousand hours - more than one ring has not been replaced yet.
  8. VicktorVR
    VicktorVR 18 September 2021 18: 55
    0
    Large turbines do not use fuel-lubricated bearings?
  9. Sahalinets
    Sahalinets 19 September 2021 00: 00
    +1
    It is difficult to find data on the GTE resource. All that I found on the Internet is an article that indicates a resource for industrial gas turbine engines. At the same time, Zorya-Mashproekt engines are given 100 hours of total life and 000 hours before overhaul. And for the LM-2500, 2500 hours are given and 160 hours before overhaul.
    Obviously, the numbers will be lower for ship engines, but the difference is impressive.
    1. Bekasov Artem Andreevich
      20 September 2021 11: 42
      0
      If we can agree with the difference in the total resource, then the data on overhaul are in great doubt - 2500 versus 40 hours. It seems that Zarya-Mashproekt forgot to add zero!
  10. Vikxnumx
    Vikxnumx 19 September 2021 14: 55
    0
    Gentlemen, isn't it time for us to get away from defining URO for modern ships? Who do we have without "controlled" ...
    1. Bekasov Artem Andreevich
      20 September 2021 11: 39
      0
      Two options come offhand - an attack destroyer and an air defense destroyer
  11. Bekasov Artem Andreevich
    20 September 2021 11: 37
    0
    ONME
    Quote: bayard
    I would like to see an article about the history of Soviet gas turbines ... although one cannot get rid of one article ... But I really would like to.

    I would, but alas, I do not want to look pale. The topic is not mine at all. Here you need a specialist with experience in the industry.
  12. Bekasov Artem Andreevich
    22 September 2021 12: 32
    0
    Quote: Intruder
    In general, I asked the author of the article, specifically about the alternative (gas) fuel for marine versions of gas turbines, which can, by the way, work successfully on it.

    There is still no such verified and reliable data in the open press. You probably observed the situation with domestic submarines of project 677 - the project was supposed to reduce costs by 1/3 compared to projects 636.3, were they prepared for VNEU and where is it? The first one was recently accepted into the Federation Council, the next two will also go with conventional diesels and electric motors. And about VNEU silence! Either they cannot bring to mind the hydrogen technology of their diesel fuel, or their VNUE technology is not in any way tricky from the Swedes and Koreans. Maybe something is being done, but in complete silence. Perhaps (wang) and marine gas or hydrogen gas turbines are also in operation, but there is still no result and there is nothing to show yet.