Frustrated Napoleonid from ... Donetsk region and Crimea
One of the most nosy crooks who hunted in 20 — 30 in the field of the mysterious Ukrainian past was a certain Ilko Borschak, whom the runaway Bandera was revered as a “visual story”. It was this rogue who launched into the myths that Orly airport near Paris was named after hetman Orlyk, that the illiterate chieftain Sirko, who had never been abroad on Crimea, allegedly took Dunkirk as a regiment of Zaporozhians who hired French service, and that the kings of France swore on the Gospel, brought from Kiev by the daughter of Yaroslav the Wise, Anna.
In actual fact it turned out to be nonsense. The village of Orly existed under such a name in the times of the ancient Romans - a half thousand years before the birth of Orlik, who was no hetman. Instead Cirque under Dunkirk showed up, as the documents show, the French colonel Baron de Cero. And the Cyrillic Gospel, ascribed to Anna Yaroslavna Borschak, was in reality a Bulgarian work and ended up in France three hundred years after the death of this Kiev princess!
But Borshchak, who was constantly grabbed by the hand when revealing another portion of lies, did not lose heart and betrayed more and more new ones historical fantasies which, it should be noted, cannot be denied fascination. Even Soviet “academics” came across his bait - no less crooks than Borschak, only much more boring.
The pseudo-historical work “Napoleon and Ukraine” should be considered the pinnacle of Borschak’s myth-making - having the same relation to reality as the monograph published by Taras Shevchenko and the Fleet, one of the modern followers of the late Borschak, published today. Indeed, Taras Grigorievich lived for some time in Petersburg, on the shores of the Baltic Sea, and even made sketches of the Caspian and Aral seas during military service. But to turn him on this basis into a “sailor” and “naval commander” is just as wrong as calling a passenger cruise liner captain.
"THE PEOPLES OF UKRAINE, TATARIA AND KAMCHATKA". So with Napoleon. Ukraine, of course, occupied a certain place in the thoughts of the world famous Corsican. Even the exact date is known when he first thought about it - 1805 year. Then, having defeated the Russian army under Austerlitz, Napoleon declared in one of his memorandums that in this great battle on the fields of Moravia the natives of France came together - "Normans, Gascons, Bretons and Burgundians" and "peoples of Ukraine, Kamchatka, Great Tatariya", having mind of the soldiers of Emperor Alexander the First.
This phrase shows both the breadth of the geographical vision of a great man and its approximation. Putting the "peoples of Ukraine" on a par with the "peoples of Kamchatka," the European conqueror did not make much difference between them, although there was no Kamchadal, in contrast to the ancestors of the current Ukrainians, in the Russian imperial army then did not serve.
In general, that Kamchadal, that Ukrainian, that the Chukchi with a Tartar for Napoleon did not care. However, Borschak, on the basis of several similar references to Ukraine in the papers of the French emperor, concluded that Napoleon was going to “liberate” Ukraine from under the Russian “yoke” and turn it into an independent state.
Already today, this myth of Borschak has been dispelled. And they did it in Lviv, where, in 2007, the Ukrainian Catholic University published the book “A Nap, on the similarity of Europe,” by Vadim Adadurov: “The Unlike the Unlike the Understanding“ The Unlike the Unlike the Unlike the United Nations and the Eastern Europe and the United States This fat 560-page work contains both an extensive analysis of Napoleon’s true plans for Ukraine, and the publication of full texts of documents from the French archives where our land is mentioned.
So, what kind of Napoleon and what did the French emperor intend to create?
On the eve of the invasion of Russia, the French General Staff and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs tried to understand with whom they would have to deal in the territories that were to be conquered. Most of the locals, the French in these archival documents called the "natives" - the same term as described by wild tribes on the islands of the Pacific Ocean or the Indians in Canada.
It is unlikely that this honored French bureaucratic thought. After all, soon these “natives”, having entered Paris in the 1814 year, showed that they were completely unlike the Iroquois and Hurons. But such was the deplorable state of French geographical science. She lagged behind the demands of the time! So far behind that Napoleon’s phrase after the capture of Moscow remained forever in history: “Our scientists told me in vain about Russian frosts - there’s a climate like we have in Fontainebleau.” This was said in September of 1812, and already in November it blew so much that it was necessary to warm ourselves with downy Orenburg shawls taken from the women and to drape home - to Gascony and Burgundy!
The truth is that the French did not see any particular difference between Russians and Ukrainians at that time. But for some reason they distinguished Ukrainians and Little Russians. In 1812, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of France compiled the “Statistical Description of the Chernigov and Poltava Gubernias” - territories where Napoleon’s troops could soon enter.
I quote from the document in the book "Napoleonіda" on the similarity of Europe ":" By the mezhkantsyami є on the gorged malorosy, іmenovanі such rank on the antiagu Velikorosіі, і ukraїnіtsі, vіdpіvno to the camp of their edge on the cordon of Russia, and they are in the march ідпідно to the camp of their edge on the cordon of Russia, and they are in the march of Russia. Sami stinks call themselves Cherkasovs, and those of them, like you, for the service of the service, are Cossacks. In 1654, you can understand the protection of Rostea, and you can go to the Right Bank to learn more about what you need, to see what you need, and see what you need. Great is the greatness of the Great. Nіmtsі, Swedes and colonies. There is also a Serbian, Moldavian, Polish, Warmen, Hebrew, Greeks and Bohemian people, a great number of non-members. ”
As we see, the French had already noted the multinational composition of the population of Ukraine. As for the “character and customs”, as stated in the quoted document, of the Little Russians and Ukrainians, “their physical and moral character, if you are thinking about headlines, є CHARACTER OF VELIKOROSIV. That same concern, that Budova itself, that same thing, to the merry, to the good, to the small ones. ”
"LOVE WINE AND VODKA". In other words, the French Foreign Ministry did not see much difference between Russians and Ukrainians! For Napoleon and his entourage it was, in general, the same thing. Especially informers of the emperor leaned on the love of Ukrainian "natives" for strong drinks: "Stink to the extreme people love beer that mountain". Some confusion among French diplomats was caused only by the language spoken by the natives of Ukraine. In the end, the French paganels decided that "mova kozakiv є dialect of Polish".
This nice population, which differs little from Great Russians, but speaking a dialect of Polish, could, according to some Napoleon’s advisors, be a wonderful material for creating new states. By that time, the French had already chipped the Italian kingdom out of separate principalities and were going to apply the experience gained in the mysterious East. Among the designers of the future, surrounded by Napoleon, a certain Polish general, Michal Sokolnitsky, was particularly active. In his memorandum submitted to the emperor at the end of 1811 of the year, he suggested that the whole territory of Ukraine before the Dnieper be given back to recreated Poland, and at its eastern borders create a belt of dwarf limitrofs controlled by the Poles, as Napoleon’s most loyal allies.
Sokolnitsky's note was called the “Memorandum on the Policy of Russia and the Restoration of the Polish Kingdom”. It was this brave general who was the real author of "Napoleonides." This country was supposed to take its place along with the Smolensk, Poltava and Chernigov duchy in the belt of anti-Russian states, which it was planned to tighten after the victory over Russia the desiccated empire of the Eastern Slavs. The lands of the former Crimean Khanate and the Kuban — that is, that after the conquests of Catherine II — began to be called Novorossia, or Tavrida — the current Odessa, Nikolaev, Kherson, and Donetsk regions of modern Ukraine should have entered Napoleon. Plus, of course, the Crimea.
Sokolnitsky believed that the term Tavrida "tainted" Catherine II. Therefore, he proposed a more “pure” name for the new state - Napoleon. Behind every line of this document were the ears of a cunning Pole, trying to play on the vanity of the French emperor. Well, who does not want to name his whole country? This was the only “French” project invented by a Polish rogue who was already another rogue, Ilko Borschak, who in the 20th century gave out the “Napoleon’s plan to rebuild Ukraine”.
Why Sokolnitsky believed that the name "Tavrida" was compromised by Catherine II? What is wrong with the fact that these lands were taken from the Crimean Khan and the Turks who seized them once? But only that they were taken by the Russians, and not by the Poles, who had once planned their Rzecz Pospolita “from mozh to mozh” - that is, from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea. And since Catherine II, while the Poles were walking, also shared, along with the Prussians and Austrians, Poland, which was seething with discord, naturally, in the opinion of the offended Polish general, all the acts of the Empress were a continuous “compromising evidence”.
Russophobia of Michal Sokolnitsky was aggravated by the fact that he was a beaten general. And all the same Russian Catherine II. From the time he was young, he managed to make war against Suvorov’s troops, was captured, under Pavel I was released, went to France and formed legions of Polish immigrants there. On the Russians, the general had an old aching tooth, which appeared at any mention of the “northern barbarians” who had fallen so hard on the Polish “hero”.
Like any beaten general, it was difficult for Sokolnitsky to admit that the winners are better, stronger and smarter than he. He was eager for revenge - at least with French hands, and even claimed that Russian officers were cowards. “A Russian officer always strives to hide behind someone’s back,” said Michal Sokolnitsky in his memorandum, based on “combat experience,” and among Russian generals, he assures, “there is not one who would confirm his talents in practice.” And even Suvorov himself, if you believe the statements of the beaten Pole, preserved in the French archive, only “had the reputation of the most fearless warrior. In fact, he pretended to be such only to encourage soldiers to rush into battle. ”
It was in such a head (besides, not very young - the 52 year went to the general) and the plan was born for the reorganization of Eastern Europe. Literally, he wrote to Napoleon the following: “It would be possible to reliably protect Poland from Russia with the help of a chain of federated duchies, which would have the exact same Constitution as in Poland and would be under its direct protection, but whose governments would be personally appointed by the Great Emperor ... In case this proposal was approved, I would dare, solely for the sake of form, to give a brief and existing so far only in my imagination overview of the forces and boundaries of some of these duchy. ”
CHAINS OF ANTI-RUSSIAN DUTIES. Further, Sokolnitsky lists the “states” invented by him: the Duchy of Livonia, Polotsk, Smolensk, Mstislavl, Chernihiv, Poltava. And, finally, it comes to the most interesting: “Then various Cossack hordes would go - mainly those known as Zaporizhia, that is, located beyond the rapids, as well as those that inhabit the valley of the Donets.
These latter, being united with the Crimean Tatars, could form a single state, whose sonorous name Tavrida, now defiled, would be replaced by another — Napoleon. This state would consist of: 1) Zadniprovsky part of the governorate of Yekaterinoslav; 2) of Tavrid Governorate; 3) of the Donets Valley before the confluence of this river with the Don, which would have served as its borders in the south from the place where the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea flowed to the mouth of the Dnieper.
As we see, about any independent, especially “conciliar” Ukraine, the talk in these truly “Napoleonic” plans was not only about buffer tiny states. On the territory of present-day Ukraine, Napoleon’s adviser was going to cut them three at once! And everything else - to give Poland. And at the same time he assured that "Zaporozhye Cossacks ... may be the first to raise a rebellion."
In reality, everything turned out exactly the opposite. Nineteen Cossack regiments formed on the territory of Ukraine by the Russian government reached Paris! General Sokolnitsky himself ended his life under rather comical circumstances. After the victory over Napoleon, the former Duchy of Warsaw was incorporated into the Russian Empire under the name of the Kingdom of Poland with the rights of very broad autonomy. The Kingdom of Poland had its own constitution, parliament, and even the army, which was now considered part of the Russian! In its composition, Alexander I allowed to include all the Poles - veterans of the Napoleonic wars, who had recently fought against Kutuzov, and the Ukrainian Cossacks!
The most foolish and short-sighted decision of the imperial government! Indeed, in the 1830 year, the Polish army will rebel against Russia, and in order to suppress it, it will be necessary to again form the regiments of the Little Russian Cossacks and appoint Field Marshal Paskevich at the head of the Russian forces. But it was so! From the story you can not throw anything away.
General Sokolnitsky also joined the army of the Kingdom of Poland. True, he served in it not for long - in 1816, at the parade his horse dropped. The general fell out of the saddle, hit hard with his head overflowing with ideas on the hard surface of the parade ground and ... died. And born of his fantasy, Napoleonid drowned like Atlantis. But unlike Atlantis, gone, according to Plato, under the water, Napoleonid disappeared into the abyss of bureaucratic papers left by Napoleonic France.
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