Military Review

Ambiguous hetman

31
Ambiguous hetman

And the future commander of the Cossacks was born in 1582 in Galicia, near the town of Sambor, in the family of a small Orthodox nobleman.


In those days, the old nobility, whose ancestors had risen even under Russia, were already crushed, but had not yet completely polonized, and her attitude towards Catholicism and Poland was ambiguous: between loyalty and open rebellion.

Orthodox Sagaidachny


The young man also received a peculiar education - the Ostroh Collegium. This is the place where the Orthodox taught the Orthodox under the auspices of the Ostrog princes - the leaders of the Orthodox gentry. It was education that made Sagaidachny what he eventually became, because a pronounced Orthodox position is not the best career start for a poor nobleman, of whom there were more per capita in the Commonwealth than in any other European country, and a high level of education and ambitions - not the factors that allow you to live your life quietly on your ancestral farm.

Fortunately for such people, in that era there was a way out - Sich.

The Cossacks accepted everyone, there a fugitive peasant could fight in the same ranks with a nobleman, and their comrade-in-arms, a Tatar who converted to Orthodoxy, would not surprise anyone either. There are military brains and talents - and you are a coveted candidate for the Cossacks.

Again - it's not worth romanticizing the Cossacks, Sich - it was not to fight the Basurmans, it was, but this is not the main thing, not to defend Orthodoxy, as in Taras Bulba, the Cossacks rebelled against Poland often, but just as often later they rebelled and against Orthodox Moscow. Sich is a kind of analogue of pirate republics, with the goals that neither is pirate, namely - profit.

And there was no scent of something national either - people who have chosen their profession to risk their lives for profit do not have such nonsense. At the same time, objectively, the Sich really restrained the arbitrariness of the Poles against the Little Russians and freed Christian slaves. True, it freed and restrained along the way, when it did not distract from the main task - profit.

There, our hero by the name of Konashevich received the nickname - Sagaidachny, for his talent in archery, and quickly moved up the local career ladder.

Objectively - a young, educated and trained in military craft, the nobleman clearly surpassed that of the fugitive peasants, that other freemen. People like him, in those places, are a piece and expensive product, especially since the young man turned out to be a very talented warrior and commander, who sees much further than the classic "raid - drank - died."

After 18 years and a bunch of campaigns in 1616 Sagaidachny became hetman.

That was the time of Cossack glory, when flotilla "Seagulls" went on campaigns to the Crimea, in fact, Turkey, and to the entire Black Sea coast of the Ottoman Empire. Even the outskirts of Istanbul were plundered. And even so, the government of the Commonwealth willingly hired Cossack detachments for wars on the outskirts of the great state at that time. It's time to show the talents and career of a promising Cossack. Moreover, he could not have had anything else: the Orthodox in Warsaw were not loved, and the Cossacks were doubly loved.

First success


The first success of the hetman was the capture of Kafa in 1616, the current Feodosia, which was the main slave market in the Crimea. In the same year Trebizond, Sinop and Istanbul were raided. Many Christian slaves were freed, the Ottoman Empire was weakened and thousands of Russians were saved, which undoubtedly speaks in favor of the Cossacks.

But already next year, for a modest sum of 20 thousand gold coins, the Zaporozhian Cossacks go as mercenary infantry to Moscow under the banner of the prince Vladislav and behave with the Orthodox no better than with the Ottomans. True, they are defeated near Voronezh, while the Turks are ravaging the Sich at this time.

In general, at some point, the Zaporozhye campaigns began to greatly interfere with the Poles: while fighting for Russia, it was madness to fight with the Porta as well.

As a result, Sagaidachny was offered to stop hiking in exchange for (calling things by their proper names) a bribe of 10 thousand gold pieces a year. The Cossacks did not accept this, and Sahaidachny lost the hetman's mace. True, the new hetman did not shine either, and just a few months later the mace returned to Sagaidachny. Now - for a new campaign against Moscow.

Vladislav could not calm down in any way and in 1617 reached Vyazma, where most of his mercenary troops fled. And then in Warsaw they remembered the Cossacks. And in June 1618 the Cossacks moved to Moscow.

“The same summer ... Shoal near Moscow ... Colonel of the Cherkasy Pan Saadachnaya from the Cherkasy, and with him the Cherkassian fighting men were 20000 besides the Koshevy people. ... Colonel Pan Soa [dacha] noy ... Livny took it by storm, and shed a lot of Christian blood, beat many Orthodox peasants innocently with wives and children, and inflicted desecration on many Orthodox Christians and returned and destroyed the temples of God [osk] And he robbed all Christian houses ... and captured many wives and children. And to the governor, the prince ... Ivanovich Egupov took Cherkaska and his wife alive, [and] brought him near Moscow, and gave it back. "

That is, they took up their usual business: robberies, murders, prisoner trade ... Only with a nuance - this time the victims were not mosques, but Orthodox churches, not the bastards with whom the "noble Robin Hood" fought, but the same Orthodox ... However, for professional mercenaries and people living by robbery, there was no difference, just in the case of the Turks there was a reason to pose as almost a holy defender of Russia, but here it is not, but it's okay, the Circassian Cossacks had such a profession, the Don during the Troubles they behaved no better. Moreover, the Poles have again dumped 20 thousand in hard cash.

Sagaidachny's army reached Moscow, and together with the Poles plundered all of its environs for several days. But they could not take the city, and following the results of the Deulinsky truce, they fled away, together with the Poles and the failed Russian Tsar Vladislav.

But upon his return to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the man, who destroyed many Orthodox Christians and turned many into slaves, took up again ... the defense of Orthodoxy. And he took up seriously, and not only fighting the Turks and Tatars. So, he invested huge sums in the Kiev Orthodox Brotherhood, it was he who restored the Orthodox Metropolitanate in Kiev, liquidated after the Union of Beresteyskaya, which actually saved Orthodoxy in present-day Ukraine.

In 1621, he saved the Rzeczpospolita (and therefore the Orthodox of Ukraine and Belarus) from the Turks, playing a decisive role in the Battle of Khotin, where the Ottoman army was defeated and Poland was saved.

And he also asked to serve in the service of Mikhail Fedorovich, whom he actively helped to overthrow the Poles.

All this was done by one person, the same Pyotr Konashevich-Sagaidachny, who died in 1622 and bequeathed huge sums for the repair and restoration of churches and Orthodox brotherhoods.


Who was he?


Hero or villain?

As for me, neither the one nor the other.

He was a man of his era and his circle. The Orthodox gentry in Rech wanted autonomy from Warsaw and the preservation of Orthodoxy, and on this Konashevich was brought up, and fought for this. The Cossacks wanted money and become, from incomprehensible fugitives, or even bandits, registered in the service of the Polish crown - he fought for that too.

And the politician has no principles, it is necessary - we save the slaves in the Crimea, it is necessary - we turn them into slaves of co-religionists. It is necessary - we serve Warsaw, but Warsaw does not want to, initiating a cut in the register from 20 to 3 thousand people (and they physically could not pull 20, and for nothing) - we offer a sword to Mikhail Fedorovich.

That was a difficult era and difficult times, and only after 32 years Little Russia-Ukraine will choose a specific side, and only a hundred years after the failure of Mazepa's adventure will this choice become irreversible.

If you do not look for heroes or traitors, and do not stretch the present over the past, hetman Sagaidachny was an extraordinary and personally brave man, however, like any mercenary, he did not particularly suffer from principles.
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  1. Lech from Android.
    Lech from Android. 11 September 2021 05: 12
    0
    This is common duplicity ... a double ... triple-bottomed person.
    He thinks one thing, says another, does the third ... there is no need to stretch the present over the past ... some of our politicians and statesmen fully correspond to the image of Sahaidachny ... in Ukraine he is a hero.
    Today, for our tomorrow, they are harnessed to the foe ... they have neither honor nor homeland.
    1. Ross xnumx
      Ross xnumx 11 September 2021 05: 34
      -3
      Quote: Lech from Android.
      in Ukraine he's a hero.

      Maybe that's why a galaxy of similar "heroes" gathered there, who
      Quote: Lech from Android.
      ThoughtЮt one, dialectЯt other thingsЮt third ...
      1. Proxima
        Proxima 11 September 2021 05: 58
        +4
        It is very fashionable now to say when they retouch negative personality traits, they say, this is a typical representative of his era. But the fact is that the eras are different, but meanness, sadism, double-dealing, betrayal and so on, we will at all times perceive with disgust stop ... If Ukraine wants to make Sagaidachny its hero - please! It means that they have no other worthy (according to their ideology) personalities.
        1. Ross xnumx
          Ross xnumx 11 September 2021 06: 08
          +4
          Quote: Proxima
          Hence other worthy (according to their ideology) they have no personalities.

          Agree. But what is the matter, looking over the last thirty years of Russian history and discovering SUDDENLY the names of “Russian heroes” who have emerged from oblivion and even monuments to “extraordinary” personalities, I ask myself the same thought: is this all that the recent history of the Russian Federation could give birth to?
          1. sergo1914
            sergo1914 11 September 2021 06: 23
            0
            Quote: ROSS 42
            is this all that the recent history of the Russian Federation could give birth to?


            But what about the Leader and his team? Whatever surname is a legend.
            1. Ross xnumx
              Ross xnumx 11 September 2021 06: 31
              -1
              Quote: sergo1914
              But what about the Leader and his team? Whatever surname is a legend.

              Yeah, it's a pity Yegorka skipped early, otherwise he could have written the legend “New Timur and his accomplices”.
        2. astra wild2
          astra wild2 11 September 2021 08: 06
          -1
          Good morning. What I agree with you is that: "meanness, sadism, ... betrayal" has always been, is and will be a negative phenomenon.
          Although history is not taught from fiction, it is very good as an illustration. I recommend to you: Vladimir Malik "Ambassador of the Urus Shaitan" (there are audiobooks on the network) there is a vivid example of a traitor and a double-dealing man of the Many-sinful. Apparently a fictional character. I didn't find him in Vika
          There is also a real character: Yuri Khmelnitsky, so zealously ferocious for the good of the Turks that they strangled him, and threw his body into the river
        3. No name B
          No name B 11 September 2021 16: 36
          0
          Whom did he betray in Ukraine? Or did he serve the Russian tsar? In Europe at that time, Catholics enthusiastically slaughtered each other in continuous wars and did not soar with questions of religion. And Muscovy was a neighbor for Sagaidachny, the same as the Tatar Crimea and Turkey and did not care about him, only as a profit.
    2. Bar1
      Bar1 11 September 2021 08: 17
      +1
      it was a difficult era and difficult times, and only after 32 years Little Russia-Ukraine


      In the 17th century there was neither Ukraine nor Malorosia, so the inhabitants of these lands did not call themselves that. Ukraine / Little Russia was invented in the 19th century by the Romanovs and all sorts of politicians like Lenin / Hrushevsky.
      And they called themselves Cossacks, Cherkasy and Tatars?
      However, no one called themselves Tatars, Tartary is Dardaria Big and Small Darius. What did these inhabitants call themselves then? Darians?

      -Sagaydachny-se gayda / haidamak is some kind of separate name for the Cossacks, the author does not even know about it, because he does not mention the haidamaks at all.

      And the politician has no principles, it is necessary - we save the slaves in the Crimea, it is necessary - we turn them into slaves of fellow believers


      It is unlikely that Christianity was spread in those lands, so to say that he "turned into slaves of confederates" is an obvious arbitrariness in assessing the situation in those days.
    3. The comment was deleted.
  2. lelik613
    lelik613 11 September 2021 06: 37
    +3
    Quite unambiguous. Ivan the Terrible, nicknamed Vasilievich for his cruelty, would call THIS stinking dog... Orthodoxy to him was like a golden loaf or a golden toilet bowl of other worthy fellow countrymen.
  3. Cartalon
    Cartalon 11 September 2021 07: 23
    +8
    The comments are encouraging, in the 17th century people thought in other categories different from the 20th century, her some kind of nonsense.
  4. north 2
    north 2 11 September 2021 07: 28
    +3
    It is not for nothing that Sagaidachny, together with Mazepa, is the idol of Ukrainian nationalists. It was Mazepa who later, for his own benefit, betrayed the Polish King and the Russian Tsar and wanted to outwit the Swedish King and the Turkish Sultan for the same lie. And before Mazepa, hetman Sagaidachny distinguished himself with lies and treason. But in Ukraine now he is praying for traitors and learning from them.
    By the way, about studying. So, Sahaidachny was brought up and taught by another traitor, Konstantin Ostrozhsky. During the Russian-Lithuanian war, Ostrozhsky, defeated by Russian troops, fell into the hands of the Moscow sovereign Vasily the Third. In Moscow, the captive hetman Ostrozhsky took an oath and a kiss of the cross to be loyal to Vasily the Third and the Russian state, for which he received the rank of close boyar. But not even a year has passed since this favorite of Vasily III despised his oath of allegiance and kissing the cross, fled again to Lithuania and later fought again against Russia without a twinge of conscience.
    It's not for nothing that I emphasized twice about kissing the cross by a traitor. Sahaidachny also kissed the cross from the beginning for loyalty, and then betrayed it. And this one who betrayed the Cross, in Ukraine today is honored by the schismatic Ukrainian Church, and not only by the nationalists-Bandera.
    Probably, in hell for traitors from Ukraine, a whole artel of devils makes them the Order of the name of Judas Iscariot ...
  5. ee2100
    ee2100 11 September 2021 07: 37
    0
    Sahaidachny is considered the national hero of Ukraine, as Zelensky said.
    And should you be proud of such a hero? Sahaidachny did not consider himself a Ukrainian and lived by robbery and robbery. Ukraine needs heroes, albeit such.
  6. Xlor
    Xlor 11 September 2021 07: 46
    -5
    Was the Skakuas warship named after this?
  7. astra wild2
    astra wild2 11 September 2021 08: 11
    +4
    Colleagues, good morning.
    I would compare Sagaidachny and the Cossacks with the condottieri: they could bravely fight for the Poles, for the Russians. For everyone who pays
  8. Olgovich
    Olgovich 11 September 2021 08: 35
    +2
    It is not for nothing that the ukrovlast erected a monument to this ghoul in Sevastopol, a Russian city, for an edifying reminder, apparently, of his campaigns against Moscow.

    In the Sevastopol people this monument was nicknamed "The Devil" for its savagery.

    Naturally, when Crimea returned to its homeland, "Devil" was returned to Ukraine
    1. Smoke
      Smoke 3 December 2021 01: 08
      0
      Why didn't you like Sagaidachny so much?
  9. TermNachTer
    TermNachTer 11 September 2021 14: 02
    +4
    The author's article is very ambiguous))) Sahaidachny was proclaimed Hetman by the Cossacks themselves. Officially, this position was not recognized by either the Polish king or the Russian tsar. Officially, he is the chieftain of the Zaporizhzhya Sich. The Sich's autonomy is also quite relative. It depended on the supply of bread, lead and gunpowder, first from Warsaw, then from Moscow. As well as the Don Cossacks. Warsaw and Moscow could also influence the elections of the Kosovo Ataman. Therefore, the desire or unwillingness of Sagaidachny to march against Moscow meant little in that particular situation. It is possible that the alignment was such that he simply could not get away from participating in this campaign.
  10. demiurg
    demiurg 11 September 2021 14: 04
    -4
    The ability to change shoes in flight brings glory to some. But fortunately only a few.
    For the majority, however, only contempt for centuries. And descendants spit at the mention of traitors.
  11. iskanderzp
    iskanderzp 11 September 2021 16: 42
    +4
    The personality is very extraordinary. And yes, a man of his era. As for the alleged double-dealing and betrayal. Forgive me, but whom did Sagaidachny betray? Your Cossacks? No? Local residents? also no. And, well, yes, I went on a campaign to Moscow. This is enough for a stigma. With regret, I note that any name associated with Ukraine is not perceived objectively by some readers, from the word "absolutely". But man was really an outstanding commander of his time. If not for Sagaidachny, the Khotyn battle could have ended in a completely different way. And, who knows, perhaps somewhere in Warsaw, instead of churches today, mosques would rise. Respect to the author for a balanced assessment, without "branding" labels.
    Sincerely, Alexander.
    1. Senior seaman
      Senior seaman 11 September 2021 17: 06
      +4
      Quote: iskanderzp
      Forgive me, but whom did Sagaidachny betray? Your Cossacks? No?

      Yes!
      Yakov Nerodich-Wart won't let you lie.
      And he was not the only one. See Rastavitsky Agreement.
      Quote: iskanderzp
      With regret, I note that any name associated with Ukraine is not perceived by some readers

      Here you are right.
      Quote: iskanderzp
      But man was really an outstanding commander of his time.

      This does not mean a good person.
      1. iskanderzp
        iskanderzp 11 September 2021 23: 06
        0
        As for the Wart, you are somewhat right, although there is rather a usual struggle for power, which any rulers have sinned. The Rastavitsky agreement was a good pretext for an attempt to change the government. But Yakov could not hold the mace, for which he paid with his head. As for the agreement itself, it was successfully denounced by the war. Could Sahaidachny, knowing the tendencies, feeling that the world would not last long, play on this? Probably, although unprovable.
        But with the fact that an outstanding commander does not mean a good person, I absolutely agree. Alexander Filippych and Temuchin Esugeevich are vivid examples of this. But I didn’t say this about Sagaidachny.)))
        Sincerely, Alexander.
        1. Senior seaman
          Senior seaman 12 September 2021 18: 58
          0
          Quote: iskanderzp
          there is more of an ordinary power struggle

          The struggle for power happens between the elites, and Wart belonged to the lower classes and expressed their interests. I'm talking about the very bottom who were regularly betrayed by the Cossack foreman.
          Yes, Sahaidachny, who only took a bribe from the Polish magnates in order to "forget" about the interests of his comrades in arms, is not alone here. This happened all the time, and ended up with the petty officer in the end simply crushing them. Moreover, even before Mother Catherine.
  12. Kozak Za Bugra
    Kozak Za Bugra 11 September 2021 16: 51
    0
    Hello everybody! Well, here everything is not unambiguous, history is one thing and analysis of these events and the politics of the present days is another.
    It is a deep mistake to evaluate Zaporozhye through national interests. In those days, Ukraine did not exist (the idea of ​​the Ukrainian nation appeared already in the XNUMXth century) as a nation, if in Russia the idea of ​​a state was already being created in Ukraine, there was still a feudal system, therefore, the assessment of national heroes does not make sense in this case.
    Zaporozhye itself, of course, appeared as a resistance to Polish arbitrariness, but not as a liberation movement, but for their rights in the Polish Lithuanian state.

    As for the actions of Sagaidachny himself, if you evaluate him from the point of view of feudalism, then there is no special betrayal and double-dealing, remember how in any feudal "state" wars were fought among themselves, in England, Russia or Germany, let's say there was no state, then there was no betrayal. Another thing is that even in the XNUMXth century in Ukraine there was still feudalism, and in Russia there was already a concept of high treason.
    Well, Sagaidachny is better than, say, Mazepa, Mazepa does not deserve a single kind word at all, and he is the first hero of Ukraine, like Vygovsky, and these two already committed perjury and enslavement of their people and betrayals for real.
  13. Senior seaman
    Senior seaman 11 September 2021 17: 08
    +1
    Our neighbors of their hetmans are not opposed to news from the times of Konon the Barbarian, but in reality the first hetman was Khmel. Since only the king could make a hetman.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 11 September 2021 18: 25
      +3
      There are many nonsense in modern Ukrainian history, but everything is fine with the hetmans, no one leads them from Adam. The first hetman is B. Ruzhinsky, who was appointed by the Polish king Stefan Batory in 1575.
  14. Looking for
    Looking for 11 September 2021 21: 39
    -3
    author. "in Galicia."
  15. Mike_E
    Mike_E 12 September 2021 22: 32
    0
    The last paragraph is great. If the authors adhered to this principle, the History section would be less like the Opinions section.
  16. DWG1905
    DWG1905 12 September 2021 22: 43
    0
    Quote: Seeker
    author. "in Galicia."

    That's right, for Russians you are in Ukraine, i.e. on the outskirts. And the rules of the Russian language are not for you to establish.
  17. Ovsigovets
    Ovsigovets 13 September 2021 02: 06
    0
    In short - I remind you - Konashevich is Orthodox (therefore, a campaign against the Tatars and Turks) and a subject of the Polish king ... for campaigns against the Turks, nor for campaigns against the Russian kingdom
  18. Ingvar K
    Ingvar K 14 September 2021 08: 48
    0
    The article is sensible, the author correctly defined the essence of that era, but due to the modern political situation he did not reveal the dual approach of Sahaidachny to Orthodoxy. And there is a clear division into our own - Ukrainian Orthodox and strangers. That is, already in the 17th century there were two, albeit close, but different people. And each nation had its own Cossacks.