"Quiet" life of the People's Commissar Podvoisky


Seminarist and Bolshevik, emigrant and prisoner

Nikolai Ilyich Podvoisky, a native of the Chernigov province, the son of a rural priest-teacher, was one of the first Bolsheviks. And not the oldest - by the time of the October Revolution he was only 37 years old. But it was he who turned out to be one of the first Soviet personal pensioners, although for health reasons - only 55.

Nikolai's father is Ilya Podvoisky (his surname is spelled without a short one), who taught both in parish schools and in the Nizhyn Theological School, and sent him there. Already at the age of 14, young Podvoisky entered the Chernigov Theological Seminary, where he studied for almost eight years. But unlike Stalin, he graduated from the seminary quite officially, which is confirmed by his classmate, D. Ye. Kisel, a local historian from Sednev.

Where the young Podvoisky accumulated Marxist ideas, for which he was even expelled from the seminary, is not easy to say - although access to books for a literate person was then free. Therefore, one should not be surprised that Nikolai entered the RSDLP even before graduating from an educational institution of a completely different profile.

It is interesting that the future party functionary also managed to enter the Demidov Legal Lyceum, and very far from Chernigov - in Yaroslavl. From there he knew almost everything about the Second Congress of the RSDLP and immediately joined the Bolshevik faction. He became the chairman of the student committee of the party and was admitted to its Northern Committee.

In the 1905 revolution, Nikolai Podvoisky was the organizer of fighting workers 'squads in Yaroslavl and a member of the Council of Workers' Deputies in Ivanovo-Voznesensk. He - one of the leaders of the famous textile workers' strike, was seriously wounded in one of the clashes with the gendarmes. In 1918, Podvoisky was injured again, which would cause serious health problems.

When the first Russian revolution was suppressed, Podvoisky emigrated to Germany, from there to Switzerland. Returning to Russia, he led party work in St. Petersburg, Kostroma and Baku, headed the legal publishing house "Zerno" in the capital. Podvoisky participated in the publication of Pravda, Zvezda, and even the magazine Voprosy Strakhovaniya, here he was the editor-in-chief. The latter, in fact, is not surprising, since Podvoisky became the head of the financial commission of the Russian Bureau of the Central Committee of the RSDLP.

The security service began hunting him in 1914, as soon as it got the opportunity to accuse the Bolshevik of evading military conscription. But Podvoisky could be arrested only in November 1916, and only in February 1917 he was exiled to Siberia. But then there happened the abdication of Nicholas the Bloody, absolutely unexpected for many, but not for real Bolsheviks.

Expropriator and organizer

Podvoisky's return from exile to revolutionary Petrograd, of course, was not as triumphant as that of Lenin or Trotsky, but he was also met with a whole group of comrades, but not at Finland, but at Nikolaevsky (now Moscow) station. Podvoisky was immediately elected a deputy of the Petrograd Soviet, made a member of the Petrograd Committee of the Bolsheviks, and then the head of its military organization.

Long before the seizure of power, the Bolsheviks embarked on a different kind of seizure - expropriation.

Perhaps the first thing they did, under the leadership of Nikolai Podvoisky, who took over the command of the armored division, expropriated the mansion under their party headquarters, or rather, the real palace of the retired ballerina Matilda Kshesinskaya. The very dubious, to put it mildly, reputation of the former mistress of the former emperor prevented her from recapturing her property, although she even turned to the Minister-Chairman Kerensky, with whom she was well acquainted personally.

From the Kshesinskaya mansion, Podvoisky began organizing the Red Guard detachments. He edited the newspapers Soldatskaya Pravda, Rabochy and Soldier, and Soldier, although he himself wrote very little. Despite the fact that he was at the front only as an agitator, Podvoisky was elected chairman of the All-Russian Bureau of front and rear military organizations under the Bolshevik Central Committee. He is a participant in all conferences and congresses, and in April he was elected to the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, so far only a candidate for membership.

In the October Revolution, his role simply cannot be overestimated: he was a member of the operational troika in the leadership of the armed uprising, and was also a member of the Military Revolutionary Committee. Podvoisky is one of those who directly led the storming of the Winter Palace. Antonov-Ovseenko went to report on his capture, while Podvoisky was cleaning the palace from cadets and marauders.

Immediately after October 25, Podvoisky was assigned to the leadership of the military people's commissariat, and it was he who was instructed to deal with the old apparatus of the ministry, from which General Verkhovsky (HYPER) had just been removed and did not have time to actually replace him with Manikovsky. But before that, Podvoisky, who took command of the Petrograd military district, had to take part in the liquidation of the Kerensky-Krasnov rebellion.

How exactly Podvoisky replaced the three Antonov-Krylenko-Dybenko at the head of the military department, historians cannot figure out to this day, although there are various notes of Lenin, and even the order of the same Krylenko. Although how the commander-in-chief could appoint the people's commissar, it is also not clear. But given the then revolutionary confusion, this is not so important.

Podvoisky then, just as strangely, will leave the post of the Russian People's Commissar, about this, as well as about replacing him with Trotsky, it became known exclusively from the newspapers. Even later, and also somewhat spontaneously, Podvoisky became the People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs of Ukraine. He also learns about this from the newspapers with subsequent confirmation from Sverdlov, and only after telegraphic negotiations with Lenin.

But more importantly, Podvoisky really did manage the newly formed People's Commissariat for some time and even appointed General Potapov, a little-known general, to be the manager of the affairs of the newly-formed People's Commissariat. That, incidentally, safely and relocated the department with almost all the cadres from one capital to another - from Petrograd to Moscow.

There are researchers who are convinced that it was Potapov who actually headed the People's Commissariat of Military and Naval Affairs under Podvoisky. Podvoisky, on the other hand, must be given credit for the retention of cadres, who subsequently coped well with the tasks of organizing a new Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army - the Red Army. There is evidence that the very abbreviation was proposed by Podvoisky.

Many people write him down as the authors of the symbol of the Red Army - a five-pointed star, although the stars, in fact, were even on the shoulder straps of the officers of the tsarist army. More precisely, it is known that Podvoisky had a hand in establishing the Order of the Red Banner - the first personal award for those who distinguished themselves on the fronts of the Civil War.

"Quiet" life of the People's Commissar Podvoisky

In the post of People's Commissar, Podvoisky signed decrees on the elective beginning in the army and equal rights for all servicemen. His departure from the post of People's Commissar was very quiet, most likely because the People's Commissariat had to be directly subordinated to the newly formed Revolutionary Military Council of the republic - the RVSR, which was headed by Leon Trotsky. Nothing better than to take over the People's Commissariat, he did not come up with. Podvoisky, who was very wounded by this, remained chairmanship of the All-Russian Collegium for the Organization and Formation of the Red Army, and then - in the Supreme Military Inspectorate.

Podvoisky is fighting with all his might to ensure that even the RVSR itself is controlled by this structure, writes countless letters to Lenin, Sverdlov, Trotsky himself on this matter, outlines plans and projects. But instead, he is simply enrolled as a member of the RVSR, and then completely sent to Ukraine - so that he becomes the head of the local military commissariat. Podvoisky quickly put together an apparatus of many thousands there, using old cadres from the fronts, armies and military districts.

However, this did not bring victories, and he was transferred to different fronts, where Podvoisky often clashed with the RVSR and personally with its chairman Trotsky. It is interesting that long before that, among other things, Podvoisky very successfully sided with Stalin, Voroshilov and Mitin in a dispute with Trotsky over the commander of the Southern Front, military expert General Sytin. Apparently, the old Bolshevik subsequently reckoned all this.

And Podvoisky completed his participation in the Civil War already in a very modest post of a member of the Revolutionary Military Council of the 10th Army of the Caucasian Front.

Athlete and functionary

After the Civil War, Podvoisky, with some delay - only in 1922 was awarded the Order of the Red Banner, which, it is believed, he himself invented, and even participated in the discussion of the sketches. The old communist, who turned out to be not the best commander and military organizer, was decided to be thrown into sports.

To begin with, Podvoisky was assigned to head the Supreme Council of Physical Culture, and at the same time the notorious Vsevobuch - the state system of training future military personnel.

And already in 1921, Podvoisky was elected chairman of the Sportintern, that is, the Red Sports International, and with the ambitious task of opposing bourgeois sport, with its stake on stars and Olympic ideals, proletarian sport is massive. It is characteristic that about the development of sports and physical culture movement in the USSR, Podvoisky immediately entered into a very heated discussion with the People's Commissar of Health Nikolai Semashko.

Interestingly, the press got involved in the disputes, and then the country's top leadership, right up to Stalin. Apparently, it was not for nothing that he favorably accepted something like the title of "the best friend of Soviet athletes." And it is not without reason that the Olympic Games were so actively opposed by the workers of the Spartakiad and the Spartakiad of the peoples of the USSR, and usually with the participation of numerous foreign guests.

In the discussion itself, its participants literally threw from side to side, although the main debaters - Nikolai Semashko and Nikolai Podvoisky, both were more for mass character than for the notorious Olympism with its records and disguised professionalism. But both of them did not live quite a bit until the moment when athletes from the USSR finally joined the Olympic movement and went to the 1952 Games in Helsinki.

It is clear that a person like Podvoisky had interests in addition to sports. And he not only was listed, but actively worked in the Central Control Commission - the control commission of the CPSU (b), considered for a long time almost omnipotent, until the time of the omnipotence of the NKVD came and only then - the MGB and the KGB. At the same time, Nikolai Ilyich worked in Isparta, where he took part in an unprecedented "purge" of party publications even from references to Trotskyists and other deviators.

And he also starred in films - in the semi-official newsreel-art film "October" by Sergei Eisenstein. Moreover, in the role of himself (in the photo he is together with one of the Vasiliev brothers and Sergei Eisenstein).

Union pensioner

If Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin had to become the all-Union headman, then Nikolai Ilyich Podvoisky turned out to be one of the first all-Union personal pensioners. Health once again let him down, and already at the age of 55, Podvoisky was lucky to retire.

Why I was lucky is hardly necessary to explain. Already in 1935, when the competent authorities were just trying to spin the flywheel of repression, the Stalinist comrade-in-arms got the opportunity to engage in propaganda and literary journalism. He did not write much, edited more, and was also involved in organizing work in the publishing field.

Almost nothing is known about how difficult years passed for him, although he did not even try to go into the shadows. Nevertheless, at the very beginning of the war, Podvoisky began to ask for military service. He was refused, and harshly, although he nevertheless took part in the organization of the Moscow militia divisions. Several personal archives even preserved some orders and orders signed by him.

And in October 1941, when his son was already at the front, and the German threat to the capital became real, Podvoisky went to its western outskirts to dig trenches. More precisely, to direct the work, as evidenced by the then chairman of the Moscow City Council Vasily Pronin. Nikolai Podvoisky, 61, remained one of the main organizers of defense work near Moscow; he traveled around the Moscow region on suburban trains, inspecting mainly anti-aircraft gunners and radio-technical troops.

And at the same time, an experienced party member and agitator delivers posters, newspapers, books to military units, towns and villages, speaks a lot in clubs, village councils and in hospitals. So their medals "For Victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945." and "For Valiant Labor in the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945." Podvoisky deserved it honestly.

He died three years after the victory - in the summer of 1948 from a heart attack. The funeral was quiet, the old revolutionary rested in the first section of the Novodevichy cemetery. Why was Podvoisky not buried near the Kremlin wall? It's hard to say. Even his heirs preferred to remain silent about this.
  • Alexey Podymov
  • ic.pics.livejournal.com, drugoigorod.ru, pbs.twimg.com, wikimedia.com, bigenc.ru
Our news channels

Subscribe and stay up to date with the latest news and the most important events of the day.

Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. +11
    5 September 2021 05: 44
    An ideological person, today's youth, and what is there, young people, adults do not have class consciousness, and modern society is very much fragmented and divided into classes.
    1. +2
      5 September 2021 21: 04
      Quote: Pessimist22
      adults have no class consciousness

      Consciousness should not be class, but state. Class consciousness (as well as national consciousness) contributes to the division of society into correct and incorrect citizens, which leads to confusion.
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. 0
        18 September 2021 09: 51
        Quote: Obliterator
        Quote: Pessimist22
        adults have no class consciousness

        Consciousness should not be class, but state. Class consciousness (as well as national consciousness) contributes to the division of society into correct and incorrect citizens, which leads to confusion.

        State consciousness is the consciousness of the ruling class. If anyone thinks that officials are only concerned about how to preserve this very "unity of society" and the court with the prosecutor's office is put in the zone "for unity" - he is greatly mistaken. Which class won, that one aches its own ... Those who are "wrong" are sitting. The question is - why?

        Any oligarch would be imprisoned in the USSR - and what, it was "extremism" and against the unity of society?

        And to make it so that 1% of the population had 90% of the country's wealth, this means "for our unity and against the turmoil ..." yes-ah .... deep ..
  2. +13
    5 September 2021 06: 10
    Good morning friends! hi
    An interesting and rather strange fate of a person, he was at the very top and quietly stepped aside, took part in the formation of Soviet power and was not repressed. Few people know anything about him even now, I just learned from the article about Podvoisky's active participation in the defense of Moscow, for which many thanks to him. Thanks also to the author for the story about this man.

    But his associates were much less fortunate:
    ... Podvoisky replaced the three Antonov-Krylenko-Dybenko at the head of the military department ...

    Krylenko was arrested and shot on July 53 (29), 1938.
    Dybenko was sentenced to death and shot on July 29, 1938.
    Antonov-Ovseenko was shot on February 10, 1938.
    1. +4
      5 September 2021 08: 31
      Kostya, good morning. I don’t think you’re sorry: Dybenko or Krylenko.
      At that time, the more worthy perished.
      1. +7
        5 September 2021 09: 03
        Hello, Glory. hi
        And I'm not saying that I feel sorry for them, they themselves killed a lot of people, and those only in wartime. A year before, they put Tukhachevsky (also, that fruit) with his comrades against the wall, and now they themselves there, just like packs in a bank.
        1. +5
          5 September 2021 11: 10
          Generally speaking, it is dull with Tukhachevsky: a capable and brave officer is a fact. What brought him to the Bolsheviks? He was not ideological, this is also a fact. How talented is he as a commander? He did not show himself to the Polish company at all - a fact. There was a searchlight - a fact, there were some dubious "tricks" also a fact
          1. +9
            5 September 2021 11: 13
            Everything is simple with him - from lieutenant he immediately jumped into "generals", albeit into red ones. For nothing he was later accused of "Bonapartism", and as a general, as it turned out, he turned out to be very mediocre.
            1. +3
              5 September 2021 12: 00
              I say, "How talented is he in command?"
              In fact, the commander of the GV "is a completely different story" (c) and I would add "scandalous"
          2. +3
            5 September 2021 12: 09
            What brought him to the Bolsheviks? He was not ideological, this is also a fact.

            An exceptional opportunity to make a career under the new government, nothing else.
          3. 0
            5 September 2021 21: 22
            And also demanded in the early thirties to rivet 100000 (one hundred thousand !!!!) tanks.
            As for his "abilities" - there are "Selected Works", read. The polypop of the stupid is the only reasonable conclusion to read.
            PS Vasily Gavrilovich was not "ashamed" to say kind and respectful words about Kulik - but nothing was said about Tukhachevsky except for everyday details ... and the dispute about rocket weapons, where Tukhachevsky did not answer Grabin's arguments with anything - except faith. I believe Grabin ... and what a pity that only the first part of the memoirs was written.
    2. 0
      5 September 2021 11: 51
      I wonder what was supposed to be personal pensioner? Well, purely material? Car, apartment, dacha? How much is the pension?
      1. +7
        5 September 2021 21: 21
        My father was a personal pensioner. Pension 120 rubles, discounts on utility bills, free public transport (except for taxis) and commuter trains. That's it, the apartment that I managed to get while still working, no summer cottages and cars.
        But personal pensioners were also different.
        1. +2
          5 September 2021 21: 37
          Thanks. 120 r as a pension is not very bad, so in the 70s ...
          1. 0
            10 October 2021 14: 11
            Well, yes . 120 r not very poor among the poor.
  3. +9
    5 September 2021 06: 30
    Many people write him down as the authors of the symbol of the Red Army - a five-pointed star, although the stars, in fact, were even on the shoulder straps of the officers of the tsarist army. More precisely, it is known that Podvoisky had a hand in establishing the Order of the Red Banner - the first personal award for those who distinguished themselves on the fronts of the Civil War.
    Unfortunately, no accurate, documented evidence of the author of this symbol has survived. Some historians believe that the star was proposed by one of the commissars of the Moscow Military District N. Polyansky, others that it was made by a member of the All-Russian Collegium for the Organization and Management of the Red Army - K. Eremeev. front to Moscow Chairman of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee Ya.M. Sverdlov N.I. Podvoisky. The telegram is dated August 13, 1918:
    “The best revolutionary soldiers and all commanders who have tied their fate with the Soviet Republic yearn for republican distinctions. I strongly advocate the establishment of the "Mark of the Hero" and the "Mark of Heroism".
    In the literature, the author of the idea of ​​introducing Soviet orders is often called L.D. Trotsky. But he only two weeks after Podvoisky's telegram, also in a telegram, but dated August 27, for the first time mentions personal awards, proposing "the creation of an individual insignia with an inscription of something like this:" The Soviet Republic to a valiant warrior "or" The Soviet Republic to a soldier revolution. ”The authors of the most beautiful (in my humble opinion) Soviet order were the father and son of V.I. Denisov and V.V. Denisov. Before the First World War, Vladimir Vasilyevich Denisov studied at the Stroganov Art School, knew engraving and the technology of minting well. In 1918, Vladimir Vasilyevich worked in the collegium for museums and the protection of art and antiquity monuments at the People's Commissariat of Education.
    V.V. Denisov in a short time (less than a month) prepared six versions of the design of the badge of the new order. One of them was recognized by the Commission of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee as the most accurately reflecting the essence of the combat insignia. An unfolded red banner and a five-pointed red star, a plow share, a hammer and a bayonet, a crossed hammer and sickle, oak leaves of a wreath - all these symbols reflected many new concepts. The slogan "Workers of all countries, unite!" Was inscribed on the red banner. At the bottom of the order on a red ribbon were the letters “RSFSR.” The statute of the order, which appeared on September 16, 1918, read:
    "1. The insignia is awarded to all citizens of the RSFSR who have shown particular courage and courage in direct combat activities.
    2. The Order of the Red Banner is established with the insignia, with the Red Banner depicted on it, unfolded, folded or truncated in the shape of a triangle.
    3. Together with the Order of the Red Banner, citizens of the RSFSR are awarded a special certificate, the text of which should be as follows: “The All-Russian Central Executive Committee of Soviets of Workers, Peasants, Cossack and Red Army Deputies in commemoration of the fulfillment by a citizen (such and such) of his duty to the socialist fatherland in fighting against his enemies (there and under such and such circumstances) he gives him the badge of the Order of the Red Banner - a symbol of the World Socialist Revolution. A citizen (such and such) has the right to wear the badge of the Order of the Red Banner on his chest.
    4. The right of approval and award belongs only to the All-Russian Central Executive Committee.
    5. All commanders and commissars of individual units of the Red Army, Navy and volunteer detachments enjoy the right to nominate for awards. "
  4. 0
    5 September 2021 06: 57
    podvoisky survived in 1937, shopping mall. already in 1935 he completely disappeared into the shadows for health reasons and was absolutely harmless: that he is, that he is not.
    1. +2
      5 September 2021 10: 28
      Olgovich, is it you? You claimed that you repressed just about anyone, and then suddenly
      Quote: Olgovich
      ovem went into the shadows for health reasons and was absolutely harmless
      , that is, they repressed harmful
      1. +5
        5 September 2021 10: 50
        Quote: bk0010
        Olgovich, is it you? You claimed that you repressed just about anyone, and then suddenly
        Quote: Olgovich
        ovem went into the shadows for health reasons and was absolutely harmless
        , that is, they repressed harmful

        repressed competitors (it's about the tops)

        Do you know how spiders are in a jar?

        And at the bottom - suspicious. It is especially funny that almost the entire society of political prisoners was killed: they survived the tsarist penal servitude, prisons, wars, they were so happy, but then, as it was not ...
      2. +1
        5 September 2021 14: 32
        that anyone was repressed, and then suddenly
        old anecdote - "What did you do during the oscillations of the party line? Answer - oscillated along with the line" laughing The government will change and the general line of the party, such as Olgovich, will water the previous system with foam at the mouth with a known substance.
  5. +6
    5 September 2021 07: 29
    ideological commissar of the times of Lenin-Stalin. Honor and praise to such people for their selfless devotion to the country they were building and to the ideals by which such people created a new society and built a new country.
    Were those people wrong about what? Probably wrong. But only those who do not build are not mistaken. Moreover, there were no textbooks or blueprints on how to build the world's first socialist state. Incidentally, a certain Chubais who destroyed the old system and undertook to build a new country, when he dies, then billions will be left to his relatives, stolen by him for himself from the destroyed USSR. And when Podvoisky and Stalin died, they inherited only a couple of cloth jackets. Such people did not appropriate anything for themselves, although they had no less opportunity for themselves to plunder in Tsarist Russia after the destruction of the Russian Empire than for Chubais after the destruction of the USSR.
  6. +7
    5 September 2021 07: 53
    And Podvoisky completed his participation in the Civil War already in a very modest post of a member of the Revolutionary Military Council of the 10th Army of the Caucasian Front.
    There was a "modest" post of a member of the Revolutionary Military Council of the 7th Army, during the battles with Yudenich near Petrograd. And the 10th Army also contributed to the defeat of Denikin.
  7. +1
    5 September 2021 08: 46
    After the words "October coup", you don't have to read any further.
    1. +9
      5 September 2021 10: 21
      Well, why, even the Bolsheviks themselves called the revolution a coup at first.
      If memory does not fail, at the end of the 20s they called it a revolution.
      Little was really known about Podvoisky, he didn’t even know that he had survived the Second World War, and took some part in the defense of Moscow.
      1. 0
        5 September 2021 11: 32
        The question is that the correct assessment of the event is not given immediately, it takes time, therefore the more correct classical name for this is revolution, because the structure of society and the state has changed. I think so.
        1. 0
          22 September 2021 06: 24
          Quote: AlexGa
          n a more correct classical name for this is revolution, because there has been a change in the structure of society and the state. I think so.
          - if we proceed from the changes in the structure of society and the state, then in 1991 we had a revolution. This is according to your logic ...
          1. +1
            22 September 2021 07: 49
            No matter how sad it was, yes, there was a revolution, as the state system changed. What is called the bourgeois revolution.
    2. +5
      5 September 2021 10: 31
      Ask on the Internet: October Revolution. Title and ratings.
      There, not only Lenin and Stalin called the revolution a coup. Read it, I wonder how the opinion changed.
      1. 0
        22 September 2021 07: 54
        I accept what you mean, but I believe that an academic definition of the term should be used to avoid misunderstanding the event.
  8. +2
    5 September 2021 09: 01
    The "funeral was quiet" in contrast to the funeral of the recent past.
    If you do not take into account the General Secretary and famous military leaders, and ordinary members of the Central Committee or Politburo. Almost all of them have no special merit.
    If you impartially look at the biographies of the funeral at the Kremlin wall, and Podvoisky. In my opinion: Podvoisky had more merit.
    His relatives should have known or guessed: why is this?
  9. The comment was deleted.
  10. +5
    5 September 2021 10: 09
    He did not fall under repression because he stepped aside in time and did not get involved in politics. He knew his ceiling, his capabilities and did not climb where he does not understand.
  11. +9
    5 September 2021 11: 00
    The author missed one interesting moment in the activities of Podvoisky - the implementation of one of the first Soviet urban mega-projects, the construction of the XNUMXth International Red Stadium on Vorobyovy Gory (then still). The project itself is quite worthy of an article.

    True, the construction had to be stopped - the initial geological exploration of the construction site gave erroneous results on the bearing capacity of the soils, so the cost of the project became unaffordable.
    One of the first high-profile Soviet financial scandals is associated with this construction - Podvoisky's deputy, Babin, who was directly in charge of the construction, "took kickbacks" corresponding to the scale of the construction.
  12. +3
    5 September 2021 12: 06
    And it is not for nothing that afterwards the Olympic Games were so actively opposed by the workers of the Spartakiad and the Spartakiad of the peoples of the USSR,

    And they did the right thing, otherwise humiliations like the present ones would have begun even then.
  13. +1
    6 September 2021 15: 06
    Sea Cat (Konstantin), dear, you correctly wrote about the benefits of personal pensioners. "But the personal pensioners were also different." - in this you are absolutely right. If anyone is interested, the Council of Ministers of the USSR on December 19.12.1977, 1128 issued Resolution No. 1 "ON APPROVAL OF THE PROVISION ON PERSONAL PENSIONS" ... In Moscow, for example, the widow of a Hero of the Soviet Union received an apartment on the XNUMXst floor in the building of the Central Committee of the CPSU on Leninsky Prospekt , the whole family had a pass at the Novodevichy cemetery, where the husband, father, grandfather are buried ...
    In the 30s of the last century, how Podvoisky survived is a mystery. His cousins ​​are entirely "enemies of the people": the Artuzov family, the Kedrov family ...
    At the end of the 60s of the last century, I myself learned about Nikolai Ilyich Podvoisky, having received as a gift a book written by his son, Lev Podvoisky, "With Lenin in the Car." The book was thin, paperback, black and white, like a photo. open car.
    1. 0
      16 September 2021 15: 23
      Quote: Tests
      Lev Podvoisky "With Lenin in the Car". The book was thin, paperback, black and white, like a photo. open car.

      Wow, how the commissioners fattened .... a car, an apartment! I suppose both repression and the struggle for power were then to join the great material wealth ..... Why else? There is no need to stand in queues, they will bring sausage to the house ..... But Yeltsin weaned them-bastards from privileges, it was not in vain that he, the favorite of the Russian people, waved his three-ruble travel pass at rallies!
    2. 0
      2 October 2021 15: 22
      It is interesting that the son of the repressed old Bolshevik Kedrov was a famous Soviet philosopher, and he was actively publishing already in Stalin's times. By the way, Kedrov Sr. was officially acquitted by the Supreme Court of the USSR in 1941 and was supposed to be released from prison. However, by order of Beria, he was shot.
  14. -1
    15 September 2021 05: 38
    The article is a set of liberal clichés;
    "Party functionary" - in a political party with a democratic charter, where all positions are elected by meetings and congresses? ..... In the West, "establishment" is a nice decent word. And our "party nomenclature" is almost a curse word.
    The "October coup" is actually a change of government by the 2nd All-Russian Congress of the highest legislative body.
    Well ... well .... if the 1st Congress approved the Kerensky government, which came to power as a result of a military coup, then this is democracy. And if the 2nd congress is already a coup.
    And if Kornilov started a military mutiny in August 1917, then this is, of course, "patriotism." If Denikin or Kolchak successfully create entire armies in 1918 in territories occupied by the Germans or the Japanese (and Denikin even receives a British order for his merits), this is also "Russian patriotism" ...... understandably.
  15. 0
    23 November 2021 17: 41
    An ordinary apparatchik, he always fanned this apparatus, which corresponded to the technology of Stalin's control. A mediocre organizer - well, what elections in the army, ethozh its collapse. Here he was pushed where it was less harmful from him. Of course he distinguished himself in executions and reprisals, otherwise what kind of Bolshevik he was.

"Right Sector" (banned in Russia), "Ukrainian Insurgent Army" (UPA) (banned in Russia), ISIS (banned in Russia), "Jabhat Fatah al-Sham" formerly "Jabhat al-Nusra" (banned in Russia) , Taliban (banned in Russia), Al-Qaeda (banned in Russia), Anti-Corruption Foundation (banned in Russia), Navalny Headquarters (banned in Russia), Facebook (banned in Russia), Instagram (banned in Russia), Meta (banned in Russia), Misanthropic Division (banned in Russia), Azov (banned in Russia), Muslim Brotherhood (banned in Russia), Aum Shinrikyo (banned in Russia), AUE (banned in Russia), UNA-UNSO (banned in Russia), Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People (banned in Russia), Legion “Freedom of Russia” (armed formation, recognized as terrorist in the Russian Federation and banned)

“Non-profit organizations, unregistered public associations or individuals performing the functions of a foreign agent,” as well as media outlets performing the functions of a foreign agent: “Medusa”; "Voice of America"; "Realities"; "Present time"; "Radio Freedom"; Ponomarev; Savitskaya; Markelov; Kamalyagin; Apakhonchich; Makarevich; Dud; Gordon; Zhdanov; Medvedev; Fedorov; "Owl"; "Alliance of Doctors"; "RKK" "Levada Center"; "Memorial"; "Voice"; "Person and law"; "Rain"; "Mediazone"; "Deutsche Welle"; QMS "Caucasian Knot"; "Insider"; "New Newspaper"