Military Review

Knights and Tactics of the Hundred Years War: Battles at Sea

80

Battle of Sluis. Engraving by Edmund Evans from the illustrated Chronicles of England 55 BC to 1485 James Doyle. 1864 g.


«It was a glorious, sturdy vessel, covered by a deck at the bow.
and in the middle and open at the stern. Single mast, it is by the nature of its rig
was a cross between a felucca and a lugger. Apparently
the skipper Arblester was doing excellently, as barrels of French wine
filled the entire hold. And in a small cabin, besides the image of the Virgin Mary,
who testified to the piety of the captain,
there were locked chests that spoke of his wealth and thrift
».
"Black Arrow" by R. L. Stevenson


Military история countries and peoples. In the XNUMXth century, the sea also became the site of fierce battles, with the greatest military activity taking place in the English Channel, although many battles also took place in the turbulent Bay of Biscay. And the most interesting thing is that the ships of the beginning of the XIV century were not intended for combat, especially defensive. Warships, if they can be called such, were designed in such a way that they could be used to attack merchant ships, as well as transport troops for raids on enemy coastal lands. Privateering and piracy were very widespread, as well as attacks on single ships or on small groups of enemy ships at anchor.

Knights and Tactics of the Hundred Years War: Battles at Sea

One of the most valuable sources of our knowledge of the Hundred Years War is the Chronicle of Froissart. Here is one of the pages of a 1470 manuscript with a beautiful illustration of the Battle of Sluis. (Their designation in the National Library of France in Paris is Français 2643-2646)

The typical ship of the northern seas at this time was the kogg - a high-sided, short but wide ship, with superstructures at the stern and bow. These superstructures also had wooden sides made of thick planks, often with battlements similar to the battlements of the towers and walls of medieval fortresses, behind which it was convenient for shooters - crossbowmen and archers, to hide, and for this reason they were called "castles" ("castles"). Thus, the warriors on the cog could, with sufficient convenience, operate at once both from the stern and from the bow of this floating wooden fortress. Another "firing point" was on the mast, where 3-4 archers could be in the "crow's nest". The large rectangular sail did not allow steep maneuvers to the wind, but these ships already had a real rudder, while steering oars were still used on the Mediterranean ships.

Both the French and their Spanish allies also sailed on galleys - more powerful sailing and rowing warships, which, however, were not adapted for sailing in the harsh northern seas. In the famous Clos de Gale in Rouen, they were also engaged in the construction of many types of ships, such as battels, battelins, barges, coca and coggs.


A thumbnail from a page from the Chronicle of Froissart, large. To the left is the English flagship "Thomas", on the deck of which we see King Edward himself in gilded armor and heraldic jupone. The battle is taking place on all three ships on the right. Archers (you can't see the crossbowmen!) Shoot at enemies point-blank. The wounded are thrown overboard. But, being in heavy helmets, they are straight head down and drown. The warriors' helmets are of the type "German salad" and "French salad", that is, a salad with a visor, there are bascinets, but without a visor. They fight with swords, only one bastard sword. Over the armor, the warriors wear multi-colored jackets made of fabric (djupons).

Naturally, all members of the ship's crew of that time were armed in one way or another. For example, the armor and weapons of the crew of a small galliot in 1330 could consist of chain mail, gambesons, shields of various shapes, bascinet helmets, and of course, he had crossbows with arrows, bows and spears. The crews of the larger nave ships were similarly armed. On the galleys, the soldiers had both heavy bascinet helmets and chapel helmets. Putting on all this was required quickly, as well as taking off, because, being in the water, being dressed in armor, the warrior did not have the slightest chance to escape and went like a stone to the bottom.


Battle at sea. Illustration from a Neapolitan manuscript of the early XNUMXth century, Italy. Anonymous artist. In this illustration, a curious fact attracts attention: knights in fully closed helmets shoot from bows. In addition to the fact that it is inconvenient, it was considered a shameful thing for a knight to use a bow in battle against Christians. Or was it allowed at sea? But then why don't they take their helmets off their heads? Most likely, the illustrator of the knights saw, but how they fight at sea - did not imagine. British Library, London

Battle of Sluis


The most famous, perhaps, in the history of naval battles of the Hundred Years War was the naval battle of Sleis, which took place on June 22, 1340.

King Edward III of England had previously assembled the maximum possible number of ships to attack the enemy. In the Chronicles of Jean Froissard it is indicated that he had 120 ships, naves and balangiers, on board of which there were 4 men at arms and 000 more archers.

Here it must be borne in mind that in the first half of the XIV century England was not a naval power, and its fleet was much inferior to the Spanish, French, and also Flemish.

Actually, this is a bunch of requisitioned coasters and fleet-that was not, moreover, it also consisted of small single-masted fishing and merchant ships. They were converted into warships very simply: they were brightly painted, and castles and battle marches on masts were arranged on the bow and stern.

The largest ships of Edward were the flagship nave "Thomas" and "Michael", but even their displacement did not exceed 250 tons. However, there is evidence that in quantitative terms the English fleet was superior to the French and that there were about 250 ships in it, although most of them were smaller in size than the French.

The British fleet approached Sluis Bay on 23 June. There was a combined fleet of the French, Spaniards, Genoese and Flemings of 200 ships, the largest of which was the nave "Christofle", by the way, previously captured from the British. Other ships were smaller, but nevertheless had on board 150-200 people in full armor. There were also very small ships. For example, the nave of the Assumption of Our Lady had only 80 sailors and soldiers on board.

In addition to ships of the cogg type, the Allies had about four dozen Genoese galleys, which made up the second line. As for the number, Froissart put it, including the Normans, Picardians and Genoese, at 40, but this is most likely an exaggeration.


The Chronicles of Froissart. English captain Robert Knolles, ship manager. National Library of France in Paris

At the head of the English fleet was King Edward III himself, as well as two admirals Robert Morley and Richard Fitzalan. The French fleet, which consisted of three squadrons, was led by Admiral Hugo Chirier, as well as Admirals Nicolas Beguchet and the Genoese Barbavera.

The French fleet, anchored, was lined up in four lines and, of course, in the very first there were both the largest and largest ships on which the Genoese crossbowmen were located. The British built a fleet in three lines, with the largest ships in the center. The flagship of Edward III's nave "Thomas" was also located here.

The battle began on June 24th.

Hugo Kirje, in the best traditions of the war of that time, decided to block the way to the Zvin Bay, where the docks of the port of Bruges exited, in chains, stretching them from one coast to the other through ships. It turned out to be a real "wooden wall", but the British, nevertheless, were not afraid of this, attacked the French head-on and began to clash with them on board. Despite desperate resistance, they managed to capture the flagship "Christofl", after which they simply threw overboard his entire Genoese team, and they themselves stationed their archers on it.


Battle of Kadsan between the British and Flemings in 1337. The Chronicles of Froissart. National Library of France in Paris

The battle, which lasted all day, ultimately ended in the complete defeat of the French. Played a role the maneuverability of British ships, not chained, which allowed 2-3 ships to lean on one "Frenchman". A significant role was also played by the significantly higher rate of fire of English archers, compared to arrows armed with crossbows, as well as slingers with slings. Various data are given on the losses of the French, but in general they are estimated at 16-000 people.

The rules of the knightly war were not observed at all.

Admiral Kirje was beheaded, Beguche was taken prisoner and ... hung, like a robber, on the mast, and Barbavere was killed, and the corpse was thrown from the ship into the sea.

"If God gave the fish the opportunity to speak, then it would speak French, as it ate a lot of Frenchmen,"

- the British joked after this battle! Although the victory did not come cheap to them either. Even King Edward III himself was seriously wounded.

It is clear that after such a defeat, the French could no longer land their troops in England, but they did not lose the opportunity to build ships and replenish their fleet with them. In addition, many ships were hired for a fee along with the crew. For example, a record from the arsenal of Claude Gale shows that in 1346-1347 a Genoese galley called "Santa Maria" was hired, which had a crew of 210 people, including the captain ("master") Chrétien de Grimaud, three officers - the comité , su-komita (souz comité) and the priest; and all the other members of her crew, sailors and crossbowmen. And ten years later, another fleet was prepared in Rouen, which consisted of ten galleys, five large barges and three small bargots, which was supposed to deliver food to the coastal fortresses.


Return of Isabella of France to England. The ship is very clearly shown. The Chronicles of Froissart. National Library of France in Paris

Nevertheless, even such a routine service could lead to naval combat clashes. Although the meeting of enemy ships at sea at that time almost always happened by chance. The battle began with a crossbow shootout, after which the ships went on boarding. Usually, crossbowmen and archers took up positions on high casts, fore and aft, since it was convenient to fire at the enemy from there. Here the advantage was given to those whose castles were higher, and their wooden sides were thicker.

In addition, from high castles it was easier to resist the enemy who seized the ship's deck, because they had to climb up high ladders. Because of the poor communication between several ships, it was difficult to control them, and the whole fleet had nothing to think about carrying out complex maneuvers. By 1377, it was considered necessary to have on board any large ship at least two large guns, which were supposed to fire lead balls instead of stone. At the same time, the guns were usually breech-loading and had several already loaded interchangeable chambers in stock at once, which made it possible to maintain a sufficiently high rate of fire and did not require pushing the guns out of the ports for loading. But stone-throwing machines, due to the tightness of the casts, were almost never installed on them.

The usual tactics of the British were large-scale raids on French territory, to which the French, for their part, responded with raids from the sea on individual coastal cities. At the same time, the French, as a rule, did not go deep into the territory.

So, in 1338, successful raids were made against the city of Portsmouth and the Isle of Wight, in 1360 - an attack on Winchelsea, then again on Portsmouth in 1369, on several ports between Portsmouth and Ray - in 1377, as well as on Gravesend in 1380. In addition, French and Scottish ships operated against the British in the North Sea and along the entire western coast of Britain.


Siege of Tournai by Edward III in 1340. Without boats - nowhere! The Chronicles of Froissart. National Library of France in Paris

In general, because of the winds prevailing in the English Channel and the harbors located in the strait, the French could not seriously threaten the British communications. The defeat at Sluis also played a role in this, and especially the capture of Calais by the British in 1347.

But France still continued to be a major maritime power and even sent sea expeditions. For example, such an expedition was the voyage of Jean IV de Bettencourt with the aim of conquering the Canary Islands in 1402.

PS



A very interesting model of the ship "Thomas" is being produced by the firm "Zvezda" on a scale of 1: 72 ...

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  1. Intruder
    Intruder 6 September 2021 18: 26
    +13
    Thanks to the author!
    Great article ... good
    1. depressant
      depressant 6 September 2021 18: 43
      +14
      Denis, I support!
      Somehow, the knowledge passed by that before starting a battle on land, it was necessary to overcome the barrier built on the sea. Chained ships are something!
      1. SERGE ANT
        SERGE ANT 6 September 2021 18: 55
        +13
        The French admirals, apparently worried that the English ships would slip between them and land a landing, tied the ships together in three long lines. The commanders dismissed the restless protests of experienced French captains, who insisted on the need for the French fleet to go out to meet the British in the open sea, where there was room for maneuver, and tried to draw the attention of the admirals to the direction of the wind - and the wind blew from the sea right into the mouth of the river, which threatened mix the orders of chained ships.
        The dark prophecies came true. When the English squadron began to approach the French on June 24, Edward was in no hurry to attack, waiting until the sun passed the zenith and stopped shining in the eyes of his sailors and soldiers, that is, he hesitated until about 15.00. Meanwhile, French ships - the vast majority of which were sailboats - began to drift eastward. Soon the French ships lost the semblance of order, crowding one another, and chaos reigned among them. Then, finally, the French admirals realized the mistake and ordered the ships to be undone, which began to pull up in the western direction to their previous positions, in order to block the enemy's path there again. Thus, despite the spectacular spectacle of the French navy — the chronicler Froissard says that the ships appeared to be lined up forts — in reality the French squadron was virtually unprepared to oppose the British when they arrived.
      2. Intruder
        Intruder 6 September 2021 18: 57
        +8
        Denis, I support!
        Madame ... hi
        Somehow, the knowledge passed by that before starting a battle on land, it was necessary to overcome the barrier built on the sea.
        Any military fleet, this is a force held together by age-old traditions and valuable volitional qualities, I do not want to offend and hook the queens of the fields and falcons, but the sails and the surf are spiritually closer to me ... wink
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 6 September 2021 19: 17
          +10
          ... but the sails and the surf are spiritually closer to me ... wink


          I agree, the sea has been pulling me since childhood. smile
          I decided to insert several drawings of reconstructions of ships of that time, here, even with the prospect, everything is normal.





          The last one is later 1514.
          1. Intruder
            Intruder 6 September 2021 19: 24
            +5
            I agree, the sea has been pulling me since childhood
            Eh, I still remember the peaceful Soviet Feodosia, right ... to tears, shook now ... nostalgia !!!




            1. Catfish
              Catfish 6 September 2021 20: 21
              +5
              Once I was in Feodosia, drove a "Loaf" all over the South Coast to Kerch - beauty! smile
              But most of all he loved Sevastopol.
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 6 September 2021 21: 04
                +4
                And in Chersonesos they could not help but go even for an hour and a half before closing.
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 6 September 2021 21: 24
                  +4
                  Eh, Sergei, you need to live on the ancient Chersonesos, or at least spend the night to feel it. smile
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 6 September 2021 23: 14
                    +3
                    I add pieces. But for about twenty years. Fully realizing that by the water, but not getting drunk.
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 6 September 2021 23: 16
                      +3
                      The main thing is that there is a desire, and the rest will come. smile
            2. Korsar4
              Korsar4 6 September 2021 21: 03
              +4
              We plunged a couple of times this August into the sea near Feodosia: between Beregovoye and Primorsky.
          2. Flooding
            Flooding 6 September 2021 19: 26
            +7
            Quote: Sea Cat
            the sea has been pulling me since childhood

            Remember the set of postcard illustrations with ships?
            "History of the ship"
            chic series, great format
            publishers then hit the bull's eye with this issue

            1. Catfish
              Catfish 6 September 2021 20: 22
              +3
              Remember the set of postcard illustrations with ships?
              "History of the ship"

              Of course I remember it was a real gift! good
              1. Flooding
                Flooding 6 September 2021 20: 24
                +2
                this is a photo from the second edition, later
                it seems to me that there are some not very significant differences from what was remembered
          3. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 6 September 2021 20: 04
            +8
            Handsome men, Uncle Kostya, handsome men ...
            In his youth, he seriously thought to devote his life to the sea and go to study at a maritime university. But, unfortunately, by the time of my youth, the sailing era had long since sunk into the past and the realization of this very sad fact put an end to my doubts about choosing a profession. The sea was left outside my life. smile
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 6 September 2021 20: 25
              +8
              And after my military service, it was for this reason that I moved into divers, became an instructor, went under water on the Black and White Seas, there was a time.
              Eh, youth ... smile
              1. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master 6 September 2021 21: 08
                +5
                I first came to the White Sea in 2000 and fell in love. High tides, low tides, starfish, crabs and cod for spinning ... And what kind of water ... And in the mornings, when the calm between the islands ... It was also possible to dive there with scuba - eight meters deep, and it is light and this is in cloudy weather ... Fairy tale. Then he visited several more times, falling in love more and more. I talked with seals, fished flounder, jumped on rocks, ate mussels, even swam in spite of the cold ... And what kind of rivers, lakes are there ... Rapids, waterfalls, mushrooms, fishing ...
                Haven't been there for a long time. My comrade lived in Kandalaksha, he is no longer there. Since then I have not traveled.
                But I am still friends with water and taught my children. Kayak, hiking, rapids, drags, rafters, again, setting up a camp from scratch ... Now one of the favorite places is Ladoga. The same sea, only fresh. smile
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 6 September 2021 21: 23
                  +2
                  There is one charming creature on White - a seal. smile A terribly curious animal and was not at all afraid of people. As soon as we get together under the water somewhere away from the base, one of them here and there, charming muzzle, black eyes, will put it out of the water and carefully observe how we are going to the ground. But they never came close under the water, did not even see it in the distance, and the visibility is there - you yourself know. smile
                  1. Trilobite Master
                    Trilobite Master 6 September 2021 21: 32
                    +3
                    There is also a seal in Ladoga. But to be honest, I have not yet come across. Apparently, a little of it, or in the wrong places I go.
                    And in Kandalaksha seals are called "borman". smile
                    The local guys said that they are curious, especially about different sounds. We attracted them to the whistle. You whistle some melody, you look - you dived. I surfaced already twenty to thirty meters closer. Then he dived again, emerged - even closer ... So he swam up to us about thirty meters. fellow
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 6 September 2021 21: 51
                      +3
                      you look - you dived. I surfaced already twenty to thirty meters closer. Then he dived again, dived out - even closer ...

                      Exactly! smile I didn't know about the whistle, they came to the voices anyway. But I didn’t hear the nickname “Borman”, although we worked together with the guys from Kanadalaksha, they went to their WFD, roamed around on it, left for a day or more from the BBS and the squint of the authorities, although for all of us it was purely nominal ...
                      1. Trilobite Master
                        Trilobite Master 6 September 2021 22: 17
                        +3
                        And they really are on Bormann, who Martin is somewhat similar in muzzles. Especially if you paint on the antennae. laughing
                        No, we need to soap ourselves there again ... Somewhere on the Keret archipelago. I was there once and not for long. And there are many interesting things. But this is already next year.
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 6 September 2021 23: 12
                        +3
                        Well, that's right, everything is beautiful there: both the sea and nature, and most importantly the people once or twice have gotten away with it. And the locals were very welcoming, well, while I was there, mid-seventies.
          4. VicktorVR
            VicktorVR 7 September 2021 11: 04
            +2
            Sadness :) on such vessels only to walk in the wind.
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 7 September 2021 16: 03
              0
              Why only downwind, even then they could quite successfully walk against it.
              1. VicktorVR
                VicktorVR 7 September 2021 20: 30
                +1
                At the dow - of course. I am ready to believe even that on the drakkars, turning the sail into the likeness of a luger.

                But not on these "basins" with "locks" on the poop and the tank. "Parasitic windage" is just insane.

                The proportions may be incorrect. Both on prints and on reconstructions.
                Perhaps the "castles" were collected just before the battle
          5. Fat
            Fat 12 September 2021 20: 16
            +1
            hi Konstantin. The first and last pictures show the same ship. This is a karakka very likely "Mary Rose" - an English three-deck karakka, the flagship of the English navy under King Henry VIII, was launched in Portsmouth in 1510. The karakka got its name, probably in honor of the French queen Mary Tudor (the king's sister) and the rose as the heraldic symbol of the Tudor house.
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 12 September 2021 20: 23
              +2
              Of course she is, and here is the cannon from her. hi
              1. Fat
                Fat 12 September 2021 20: 34
                +1
                Then it is clear. yes You have a professional interest ... good
    2. Basil50
      Basil50 6 September 2021 18: 50
      +10
      I would like to thank the author for the article.
      Still, there is a lot of such romanticism in us, or maybe these are echoes of novels with sea adventures read in childhood?
      After all, it is clear that ordinary robberies are written, but still addictive.
      It's a pity that they write very little about USHKUINIKOV. This is where the pros * search for prey * were, both at sea and on the coast. Especially impressive are the raids of ushkuiniks in the Baltic Sea on Danes, pigs, and Norgs. Particularly striking is the fact that the ushkuyniki with such small squads almost did not know defeat.
      But there were raids in the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. In Iran (Persia), the raids of the Cossacks are still remembered (I heard it myself). And there was so much of everything in Siberia and in the wars with the numerous empires of China. It's a pity that they write little about it.
      1. Intruder
        Intruder 6 September 2021 18: 59
        +7
        Still, there is a lot of such romanticism in us, or maybe these are echoes of novels with sea adventures read in childhood?
        Maybe we just read the right books ... wink !?:
        1. kalibr
          6 September 2021 19: 52
          +7
          And don't tell me, Alexey! Read the right books as a child! Or read them to children!
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 September 2021 21: 12
            +3
            Quote: kalibr
            Despite desperate resistance, they managed to capture the flagship "Christofl", after which they simply threw overboard his entire Genoese team, and they themselves stationed their archers on it.

            Vyacheslav Olegovich, according to A. Stenzel, the French cog was named "Christopher". Before that, he was part of the English fleet and was captured by Hugo Kirie at anchor at the mouth of the Scheldt (in the fall of 1338). By the way, the team was French. Kirie made a bet on boarding and artillery. the French had practically no crossbowmen. Throwers of stones from the tops, against the English archers were useless. And the flagship of the French was not "Christopher", but "St. George" it was his capture that broke the resistance of the French and they fled.

            From memory, the beginning of the battle was not in Edward's favor. The English fleet lost a galley and a supply vessel. But taking advantage of the fact that the French miracles were tied in chains, the British banal took advantage of their superiority in maneuver, piling two or three ships on one French.

            Once again from memory, the Genoese Barbavera, seeing that the 2nd and 3rd line of the French fled. He went for a breakthrough, which he actually succeeded in. Moreover, he remained alive and did not lose a single galley.

            With all due respect! Sorry for the tediousness !!!
            1. kalibr
              7 September 2021 07: 06
              +1
              Thanks for the additions. I read about it. But a very large amount of text is unreadable! We have to remove the insignificant facts ...
              1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                Kote Pan Kokhanka 7 September 2021 08: 40
                +2
                Quote: kalibr
                Barbavere was killed, and the corpse was thrown from the ship into the sea.

                Vyacheslav Olegovich, in your work you threw the unfortunate Genoese overboard, and Stenzel writes about the successful breakthrough of the blockade of the fourth line galley fleet under the leadership of “killed and thrown into the sea”. laughing
                1. kalibr
                  7 September 2021 08: 48
                  +1
                  Vladislav! I'm not writing out of my head. I took it all from somewhere ... And I cannot check all the sources.
                  1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                    Kote Pan Kokhanka 7 September 2021 11: 59
                    0
                    Quote: kalibr
                    Vladislav! I'm not writing out of my head. I took it all from somewhere ... And I cannot check all the sources.

                    Vyacheslav Olegovich, less Genoese, more Genoese! wink
                    I’m without any malice, just for the sake of irony! Itself periodically swoop down on the "rake" of low-quality information !!!
                    Reading you, I get pleasure, but yesterday, something pulled on boring, for which I apologize.
                    By the way, the easiest thing is not to do, check and control!
                    1. kalibr
                      7 September 2021 12: 39
                      +2
                      Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
                      By the way, the easiest thing is not to do, check and control!

                      What is there to apologize for. That's what the comments are for ... to find out. I took material from the book by D. Nicolas. Well, that means that old Nicole lied ... He is 10 years older than me ...
                      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                        Kote Pan Kokhanka 7 September 2021 17: 02
                        0
                        Quote: kalibr
                        What is there to apologize for. That's what the comments are for ... to find out. I took material from the book by D. Nicolas. Well, that means that old Nicole lied ... He is 10 years older than me ...

                        I used A. Schnitzel's “History of wars at sea”, he colorfully describes the breakthrough of the Genoese galleys of the “drowned man”. Who is right? I think it's worth checking on the BES! Behind her in this regard, jambs were not noticed.
                      2. kalibr
                        7 September 2021 17: 11
                        +2
                        I didn't read Schnitzel, only ate. You see how it happens: you have your source, I have mine. Watch in TSB? You can and see ...
      2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 September 2021 19: 30
        +6
        Vyacheslav Olegovich, a definite thanks!
      3. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 6 September 2021 19: 31
        +4
        Also, I want to join the words of gratitude. The illustrations were also impressive. What bright colors.
        1. kalibr
          6 September 2021 19: 51
          +7
          My wife is constantly looking through my finds of miniatures and never ceases to admire the brightness of the colors. I've only seen one such book ... under glass. And then ... amazing, although the pages look like ... craft paper in which the herring was wrapped!
      4. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 6 September 2021 19: 54
        +9
        Ushkuyniks swam along the rivers, not the seas. And they acted for a very short time - about a century. First, they went from Novgorod to the east for booty, then settled in Vyatka, began to descend along the Volga, robbing everyone in a row, including Russian cities. There is no question of any campaigns against the Scandinavians or the Persians, of course. These are the inventions of debels with RenTV. Ushkuyniks are ordinary river robbers - criminals and robbers, for whom the main thing is profit. And who to cut for the sake of the dough is the tenth thing for them. They were hanged equally by both Russian princes and the Horde khans. And they did the right thing.
        Although you are right - it would be interesting to read about the Vyatka robber republic. A sort of prototype of the Cossacks.
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 6 September 2021 21: 05
          +6
          Does the gang of Vasily Buslaev belong to the ushkuyniks?
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 6 September 2021 21: 23
            +3
            Probably to the same extent as Koschey to the Rurik. smile
            Buslaev is an epic character, not a historical one ...
            I consider the beginning of the XIV c. And finally, Ivan III finished with them, defeating Vyatka in some 1480 year, or something ... There will not be enough for two centuries ...
            After all, the ushkuiniks are a special social stratum of Novgorod, which was formed only by the XNUMXth century, not earlier.
          2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 September 2021 21: 26
            +3
            Quote: Korsar4
            Does the gang of Vasily Buslaev belong to the ushkuyniks?

            Probably yes Sergei than not! Taking into account the history of the emergence of the epic itself, the late period of the Tatar-Mongol yoke is reflected, and this is exactly the heyday of the Ukshuiniks. Perhaps emotionally and culturally the most, which is not a reliable image of the Novgorod ukshuinik, who was not afraid of God, the circumlocutors of his mother, and then every other time. However, the dislike of the authorities, for such individuals, is just as clear. Do you need to give the Horde exit? Necessary! And where to get it, if trade along the Volga is worth it because of such ukhars.
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 6 September 2021 23: 12
              +3
              This is how I would like to present. Only not from the position of a merchant who turned up at the wrong time.
  2. Flooding
    Flooding 6 September 2021 18: 32
    +6

    the methods of conveying perspective among the artists of that time now look childishly awkward
    warriors on the platforms of Mars (I don't know what to call it more correctly) are drawn disproportionately small (viewer, feel the height of the mast)
    but still clearly visible in the javelins in his hands
    effective weapon to defeat crowded enemy from above
    probably optimal when boarding
    1. SERGE ANT
      SERGE ANT 6 September 2021 18: 57
      +9
      The tactical rules for the conduct of hostilities at sea in that era required naval teams and soldiers on board to intensively fire at the enemy with all available means during the descent of ships, in order to then hook with hooks on the enemy ship, the crew of which was already pretty battered and, due to the large number of killed and the wounded on board, partly devoid of the ability to counter. In this sense, the British forces at Sluis enjoyed a significant advantage. On their ships there was a landing, which included many heavily armed "gendarmes" and - more importantly - shooters from Welsh bows, and therefore in terms of "firepower" the British were many times superior to the French enemy. While the French did not lack people who could throw stones or darts at the enemy from the tops of masts and superstructures, such weapons began to operate effectively from a distance of no more than 10 m, while there were only 500 professional crossbowmen on the sides of the squadron. But even these crossbowmen were inferior to the English archers in the rate of fire, so important in the process of rapprochement.
      English archers not only beat more accurately, confidently wounding and killing the enemy's manpower already from 80 - 100 m, but in an environment where the pace of "fire" was of great importance, arrows from Welsh bows had the ability to fire up to 12 arrows per minute, significantly exceeding this indicator of crossbowmen. What is also important in naval combat, the bowstrings of English bows exposed to moisture were not difficult to replace at any time, which turned out to be not so easy in the case of crossbows, given the more complex mechanisms of these weapons.
      1. Flooding
        Flooding 6 September 2021 19: 10
        +8
        about the superiority of bows in naval combat is absolutely correct
        when firing at crowded groups of the enemy in a state of convergence or boarding combat, it is not so much accuracy or penetrating ability of the shot that gains special importance, but rather the rate of fire
        1. SERGE ANT
          SERGE ANT 6 September 2021 19: 26
          +9
          about the superiority of bows in naval combat
          The Battle of Sluis was the first large-scale test of the effectiveness of English Welsh bows outside of England, which convincingly proved their superiority over the more complex and slower-firing crossbow. Thus, we can say that this battle served as a kind of prelude to the Battle of Crecy in 1346, when a similar tactic was successfully used on land against heavily armed cavalry. And in general, the French had little chance in that battle. and when the cold-blooded Flemish allies of King Edward, who at first only watched what was happening from the banks of the Zwaine River, but were in no hurry to take part in the battle after the British superiority became obvious, the Flemish ships left the harbors on the Zwaine River to attack the third the line of French ships from the rear, they did not have the slightest chance at all. The battle broke up into local foci of confrontation between individual ships and turned into a massacre. By 22 o'clock, the fighting had largely ceased, but the fierce fighting between the two ships continued until dawn. Froissart says that when the British took the last French ship, 400 corpses remained on its deck.
          1. Flooding
            Flooding 6 September 2021 19: 31
            +6
            Quote: SERGE ant
            The Battle of Sluis was the first large-scale test of the effectiveness of English Welsh bows outside England, which convincingly proved their superiority over the more complex and slower-firing crossbow.

            Stop it!
            With your juicy comments, you drive me into shame for your insufficient historical knowledge.
            1. SERGE ANT
              SERGE ANT 6 September 2021 19: 37
              +8
              Just an undeservedly underestimated battle, and while it is fair to say that the battle was the biggest battle of the Hundred Years War, success at Sluis was overshadowed by other events, largely due to the outlook and military priorities of the time. Despite the description of the encounter by the chronicler Froissart, it did not receive the same deep attention from authors of other sources. In a word, Sluis did not enter the memory of his contemporaries as firmly as the smaller and less significant land battles at Crécy, Poitiers and Agincourt. Sluis, despite the personal leadership of the battle of Edward III, was basically a battle of the lower classes, where there was no place for the romanticized personal duels of the leaders in subsequent eras in the spirit of European chivalry, designed to perform bright feats on the battlefields. Modern authors repeat the mistakes of medieval chroniclers, paying only a little attention to the large-scale military contact of the Hundred Years War and the greatest victory of England in the Middle Ages. I'm just very glad that the Author remembered about it.
      2. kalibr
        6 September 2021 19: 14
        +8
        Wonderful comment!
        1. SERGE ANT
          SERGE ANT 6 September 2021 19: 30
          +8
          The Battle A direct consequence of the Battle of Sleuis was the unopposed landing of troops by Edward III, which gave him the opportunity to build on his success and embark on a summer campaign against the French. Such a convincing victory of the British, of course, served to strengthen confidence and strengthen relations between Edward and the Flemish allies, who received very convincing evidence of the military power of the British. In reality, the main result of the defeat of the French at Sleuis was the actual elimination of the danger of their invasion of England, which in itself determined the geography of the Hundred Years War, which was henceforth destined to take place on French, and not on English soil.
      3. Kerensky
        Kerensky 10 September 2021 08: 37
        +2
        arrows from Welsh bows had the ability to fire up to 12 arrows per minute, significantly surpassing crossbowmen in this indicator.

        This is hard work. It may look good in movies, but there are scenes of 10 seconds each ..
    2. Evil troll
      Evil troll 6 September 2021 18: 58
      +6
      the methods of conveying perspective among the artists of that time now look childishly awkward

      But what attention to detail!
      1. kalibr
        6 September 2021 19: 13
        +6
        And this is what captivates. Everything is so realistic and reliable that it can be considered as ... a historical monument. Although ... although it is necessary to make a discount on the timing. They painted it all in 1470, but the battle itself was more than a hundred years earlier! That is, we see the armor of the XNUMXth century, not the XNUMXth!
        1. Flooding
          Flooding 6 September 2021 19: 37
          +4
          Quote: kalibr
          Everything is so realistic and authentic that it can be considered as ... a historical monument

          I am only confused by full armor on all participants in the battle without exception
          including even those on the masts
          it is rather a tribute to convention
          1. kalibr
            6 September 2021 19: 47
            +4
            Quote: Flood
            I am only confused by full armor on all participants in the battle without exception
            including even those on the masts
            it is rather a tribute to convention

            First, keep in mind that the year the miniature appeared is 1470, that is, more than 100 years have passed since the battle. Secondly, of course, the artist thus added drama to what is happening.
    3. depressant
      depressant 6 September 2021 19: 27
      +8
      the methods of conveying perspective among the artists of that time now look childishly awkward

      Thanks to the zeal of churchmen for the Early Middle Ages, the traditions of ancient art were almost forgotten, the artistic style of miniatures really resembles children's drawings - artists learned to draw on the go, barely keeping up with events that had to be hastily displayed.
      Hence - the flat figures of people and the free treatment of perspective, allowing the combination in one drawing of the frontal image of the ship with a bottom view of the "crow's nest" located on the mast. To emphasize the height of the location of the "nest", the artist reduced it so that in reality the "nest" had to be much higher than the mast supporting it, that is, to hang in the air. Or the mast had to have an unrealistically high height.
      But, you see, how much charm there is in medieval miniatures! )))
      1. Intruder
        Intruder 6 September 2021 20: 06
        +2
        Thanks to the diligence of the churchmen ...
        Eh, yelling over them crying lonely ...
        Or the mast had to have an unrealistically high height.
        Well offhand, you can easily figure out:
        The highest mast has always been the mainmast. Its height for three mast ships with direct armament was determined by the length of the ship along the gondek, folded with its greatest width and divided in half. The height of the fore and mizzen masts, together with their tops, was determined by the height of the mainmast. So the length of the foremast was 8/9, and the mizzen mast was 6/7 of the length of the mainmast. These proportions were often changed at the discretion of the builder.
        1. depressant
          depressant 6 September 2021 21: 03
          +4
          Denis, well, you and the sadiuga! wassat )))
          Well, imagine, the church disappears as an institution for planting a cultured, hmm, cult, as a way of transferring the knowledge accumulated by the cult to subsequent generations of people.
          So what? Do you think people will want to be left without the protection of the gods like that? Or will there not be those who will immediately create new cults? Or, which is really bad, do they not declare themselves as gods?
          Sects, often cruel, and all kinds of dissimilarity will pour out in a stream. Isn't that the case with you in the USA? )))
          1. vladcub
            vladcub 6 September 2021 22: 09
            +3
            Bravo, Lyudmila Yakovlevna. "A holy place is never empty". Taking the example of the Orthodox Church: yes, its hierarchies are far from holiness, but compared to the near-Christian sects: Khlysty, Jehovah's Witnesses and others, they are almost "lambs"
            I know very well that the ROC is not perfect, but it is better than sects
          2. Intruder
            Intruder 7 September 2021 08: 32
            +2
            Isn't that the case with you in the USA?
            Well ..., honestly, talking about religions is not accepted in my environment, as well as about money in the account and politics, except for democratic tendencies and rainbow-black demonstrators, Christian Republicans, they are such a people !!! lol
            Denis, well, you and the sadiuga!
            Yes you hi and there was no thought, only gently on the board and lightly jabbing the blade in the back, towards the naval tie, only voluntarily and with the approval of the senior officer !? laughing
            Well, imagine, the church disappears as an institution for planting a cultured, hmm, cult, as a way of transferring the knowledge accumulated by the cult to subsequent generations of people.
            Less smart people, they will hammer themselves in their brains and spend financial resources on fees, there was one "father-pastor" here, so he smokes in the backyard and cries that: "... the flock is in a pandemic, it’s not the same .. . ", like the fees are small per month, but you have to pay taxes! winked
            as a way of transferring the knowledge accumulated by the cult to subsequent generations of people.
            Directly, the Vatican archives are still shared with the public, there is access to scientists: 1 out of 100 applications are approved once a year, and then ... only in the specified area, adjacent ones are not allowed to look, what if they think of something, there are many interesting things on old treatises for 3000 - 4000 years !? I have a good friend - a historian of Christian (ancient) culture, by the way a black, but smart and well-mannered person, so he tells me a lot of interesting things when I'm visiting him, for a couple of books "secrets of the Vatican" will be enough, but for now It's too early to do such things, I still want to live a whole piece above the ground! yes
      2. vladcub
        vladcub 6 September 2021 21: 58
        +4
        "how much charm" the first miniatures are really awkward. They reminded me of Anderson: "The Ugly Duckling": the same awkward, but later miniaturist artists reached perfection
      3. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 7 September 2021 07: 50
        +1
        Thanks to the diligence of the churchmen
        A delusion repeated a thousand times does not become true.
        Thanks to the diligence of the churchmen, the Proto-Renaissance was born.
      4. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 7 September 2021 08: 11
        +1


        Photos from the Hermitage Exhibition "Art of the Middle Ages. Masterpieces from the Collection of the National Gallery of Umbria"
        1. depressant
          depressant 7 September 2021 10: 53
          +3
          Anton, yes, once, in my former life, I had an album with these icons, I know them. And I looked at them for a long time.
          By the way, the term rinascita, implying rebirth, was coined by Giorgio Vasari. Thus, opposing the art that revives the ancient culture, the "dark Middle Ages". Representatives of the Renaissance art themselves consolidated the epithet "dark" for the time, creating in subsequent generations the idea that in the Middle Ages there was a complete failure, there was nothing good there. This belief, which has survived to this day, as well as widespread modern atheism, lead to the fact that the adoption of such an attitude towards icon painting of the Middle Ages deprives modern man of the tool with which one can discern the special beauty of the captured spirituality of icons from the Umbrian collection.
          This instrument is the attitude to the medieval icon as to the liturgy, which it, in fact, was called to serve.
          How many are able to enter a state of prayer before looking at the icon of the Early Middle Ages? Or looking at it? I guess not. But this is the main condition for communicating with the icon.
          Therefore, the canons of such painting - elongated figures, faces, small mouths, asceticism, etc., excluding everything worldly, are perceived as the ineptness of the painter.
          The icons of the Late Renaissance evoke a spirit of a different type, closer to modern man. And this is not much like a desire to pray. Such an era - if only it is not stressful.
  3. SERGE ANT
    SERGE ANT 6 September 2021 19: 05
    +7
    The rules of the knightly war were not observed at all.
    This is due to the peculiarities of war at sea, where, unlike land battles, it was not customary to spare the crew of an enemy ship taken on board, and the psychological impact of hot hand-to-hand combat cannot be disregarded. If a sea battle resembled a battle on land, it was more like an assault on a fortress rather than a battle in the field, where the winners, in the event of a successful attack, usually did not spare the vanquished. In general, those who lost on the deck of the ship had, in fact, only two ways: either they had to look so rich that, in the heat of battle, the enemy thought about the attractiveness of the prisoner as a source of ransom, or they should just jump into water. However, in this particular battle, even such a ghostly hope of swimming to the shore did not guarantee salvation: the Flemings occupied the western bank of the Zvein River and cut or killed all the French who reached the land.
    The runner was taken prisoner and ... hanged
    He had every chance of surviving and subsequently gaining freedom for a ransom, but Edward learned that the admiral was leading a series of devastating raids on the English coast, and therefore ordered Beyusha to be thrown on the neck of his own ship.
  4. depressant
    depressant 6 September 2021 20: 51
    +4
    Since Vyacheslav Olegovich paid great attention to miniatures as an illustration of distant military incidents, I wanted to dwell in more detail on the question of why the miniatures of the Middle Ages are so different from the excellent illustrations of Korovkin, who is close to us and other contemporary artists, as well as from the frescoes and mosaics of Antiquity.
    The main factor influencing the formation of medieval art was the destruction by the barbarians who put an end to the Roman Empire, the masterpieces of Antiquity as art objects alien to the barbarian culture. And also the formation of Christianity. Which in turn also led to the active destruction of the art of Antiquity, but already as sinful.
    However, asceticism and spiritual perfection cultivated by the Christian Church, combined with arts and crafts and legends of barbarian tribes, gave rise to an unexpected effect that ruled out the idea of ​​the Early Middle Ages as an era of cultural silence, as a stage that did not give the world any masterpieces.
    The Middle Ages were not silent! It created its masterpieces in the form of book miniatures, heroic epics, new architecture, various genres of church music, a specific theatrical genre of mystery, and the relationship of the suzerain and vassal, established by the hierarchy of feudalism, was reflected in literary works of the 13th - 15th centuries ... For example, we know "Song of Roland", "Song of my Side", "Song of the Nibelungs". And then, already in the Late Middle Ages, the institution of chivalry, which originated in the 8th century, gave rise to secular, courtly and palace cultures, which led to the creation of such famous works as Tristan and Isolde, or, say, the Romance of the Rose.
    And as a result, it turns out that the specific, in comparison with the ancient or modern art of the Middle Ages, including the Early, is in no way inferior to both. It's just different. Completely different. But that is why it is no less beautiful.
    And a book miniature ... If you take an interest, you will be surprised - there is such a thing! Artists quickly learned to bypass church prohibitions, Bosch did not appear from scratch)))
  5. vladcub
    vladcub 6 September 2021 21: 46
    +4
    V.O., thank you for the interesting material. No longer hoping for good material. And "zhanki * was going to crack
    Comrades, remember: Furmanov "Chapaev", when V. I. Chapaev talks about his childhood?
  6. Undecim
    Undecim 6 September 2021 21: 54
    +4
    The rules of the knightly war were not observed at all.

    Admiral Kirye was beheaded, Beguche was taken prisoner and ... hanged like a robber

    Beguchet two years before the events described, after the Battle of Arnhemuiden, ordered the execution of all English prisoners.
    That's why they hanged him.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 7 September 2021 04: 44
      +3
      Quote: Undecim
      Beguchet two years before the events described, after the Battle of Arnhemuiden, ordered the execution of all English prisoners.
      That's why they hanged him

      As far as I remember, it took place in France on the tax side. So few people remembered him with a kind word! laughing
  7. depressant
    depressant 6 September 2021 22: 06
    +4
    And then I suddenly discovered that I had forgotten the reasons for unleashing the Hundred Years War. I forgot them! Clean!
    An episode was immediately composed.
    The French King Philip the Sixth and the English King Edward the Third dined in honor of each other's reception at the same table. The Frenchman gracefully cut a piece of meat from a boar's ham, but the poorly sharpened knife slipped awkwardly out of the cut, and hot meat juice splashed into the Englishman's face. Oh, you scoundrel, it’s you on purpose! - he exclaimed. Yes, I did not mean anything like that, - the Frenchman was confused. Didn't have? - screamed the Englishman, rubbing his eyes with a handkerchief, trimmed, by the way, with Velancienne lace. - You will pour tears in my eyes for a hundred years! A hundred years!
    So, it turned out that it was not so. Both shed tears, and the heirs cried out especially loudly - according to the economic and political results of that feast ... Ugh! There was no feast!
    And so it was.
    In 1328, the last direct descendant of the Capetian clan, Charles the Fourth, died. The new ruler of France was Philip the Sixth of the Valois family. According to the set of legislative acts "Salicheskaya Pravda", Edward the Third could also claim the crown; Territorial disputes over the Gascony region, one of the main economic centers of France, also became a stumbling block. Formally, the region was owned by England, but in fact - by France. Edward III wanted to get back the land that his father had previously owned; Philip the Sixth wanted the English king to recognize him as a sovereign ruler. Edward the Third took such a step only in 1331, since his native country was constantly torn apart by internal troubles ...

    Well, and so on. Events like "I can't eat already!" went one after the other and an avalanche formed, which could no longer be stopped. Covered both diners.
    Again, not so!
    They did not dine together. And if they dined at the same table, drank Burgundy, as expected, then maybe they would have found a peaceful solution to the problems. But demanding peace for the king is a sign of weakness.
  8. sivuch
    sivuch 7 September 2021 10: 12
    +3
    A small clarification - the allies of the French were the Castilians. There were no Spaniards then. And the same Franco-Castilian team piled on the British at la Rochelle in 1372.
  9. depressant
    depressant 7 September 2021 11: 41
    +1
    A thumbnail from a page from the Chronicle of Froissart, large. To the left is the English flagship "Thomas", on the deck of which we see King Edward himself in gilded armor and heraldic jupone.

    She looked with all her eyes.
    I did not see wassat )))
  10. Danil Scufas
    Danil Scufas 8 September 2021 03: 38
    0
    And, well, yes, the battle of Slace ... Then, however, the entire fleet that the Britons had at that time in full force was defeated and partly burned, partly captured (not a single English ship was able to escape) by Castilian galleys in the devastating sea for the British the battle of La Rochelle in 1372.
    After this pogrom, within the framework of the same 100-year war, major military clashes at sea somehow ... uh, withered away.

    URL:
    https://www.france.promotour.info/histoire/histoire-134.php
  11. Keer
    Keer 2 December 2021 20: 47
    0
    On the miniature "Battle of Slays", from left to right, an Englishman, side to side - a Spaniard? , then a Frenchman, and who is green on the right? Enlighten, pzhlst.