Military Review

"Black Legend" of Count Arakcheev

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"Black Legend" of Count Arakcheev
M. Astangov as Arakcheev, film "Suvorov", 1940


When studying stories of any country, you come to the inevitable conclusion that the cause of the crisis, which puts it on the brink of a national catastrophe, is always the elite.

At a certain stage of development, "high society" inevitably closes in on itself and begins to jealously protect their rights and privileges. All kinds of "rank books" appear, according to which the place at the royal table, and the state or military position, which can and should be occupied by a representative of one or another family, are determined.

The inequality is consolidated even in the appeal to the monarch. In pre-Petrine Russia, the official naming of oneself when addressing the tsar for the common people was "an orphan", noblemen and boyars called themselves "slaves." The number of changes of dishes at the dinner table and the number of horses harnessed to the carriage are strictly regulated. In medieval Europe, only members of the royal family could use gyrfalcons for hunting, peregrine falcons - dukes and counts, sparrowhawks - priests.

And even in the second half of the 1th century, when the "raznochintsy" despised by the aristocrats began to raise their heads in Russia, on July 1877, XNUMX, Minister of Education I. Delyanov formulated the famous circular "On the reduction of gymnasium education", popularly called the "Law on Cook's Children." It was jealously required to limit as much as possible
admission to gymnasium

"The children of coachmen, lackeys, cooks, laundresses, small shopkeepers and the like, whose children, except perhaps gifted with genius, should not at all strive for secondary and higher education."

It was with this circular, by the way, that V. I. Lenin argued in his article "Will the Bolsheviks Retain State Power?" (October 1917):

"We demand an immediate break with the prejudice that only the rich or officials taken from rich families are able to manage the state, to carry out the everyday work of management."

And further:

“We are not utopians. We know that any laborer and any cook are not capable of immediately taking control of the state. ”

In some incomprehensible and magical way, this quote was transformed into the famous fake about the fact that "every cook can rule the state."

And only during the breakdown of the old state system the way up opens up for people from the common people. The results are always truly amazing. The clearest example is Russia after the fall of the monarchy. The state was practically destroyed during the Civil War. The country has lost almost all of its not too numerous intelligentsia. There were not even cadres to organize a full-fledged system of general public education. And it was necessary to teach not only children, but also adults.

When they began to organize the training of the first Soviet diplomats, they had to hire some old-regime old man who simply told the students how to behave at the table during official dinners "with the bourgeoisie." The country fell to the ground in the Middle Ages, and the wolves had to howl on the ruins of the Third Rome.

But what do we see in 10 years?

The "cook's children", whom narrow-minded aristocrats tried with all their might to keep out of grammar schools and universities, took advantage of their chance to change their destiny. A whole generation of great scientists, great architects, brilliant designers, excellent engineers and outstanding military leaders has grown up. Together, they ensured large-scale industrialization and organized victory in a terrible war against the "cultured and educated" united Europe of the Third Reich. This is the most beautiful in the history of Russia, the golden generation suffered huge losses during the Great Patriotic War, in which the best of the best perished.

Their premature death has deformed the structure of Russian society. Requiem for them are the lines of the front-line poet D. Samoilov:

"They roared with lush forest,
They had faith and trust.
And they were knocked out with iron,
And there is no forest — only trees. ”

Sometimes new people break into power within the existing system.

This usually happens after coups d'état. We see this during the reign of Peter I, who actually seized power from his sister Sophia. And under Catherine II, who, having no rights to the Russian throne, relied on the stray guards of St. Petersburg.

The result was different.

Peter I, with all the contradictory personality and shortcomings of this emperor, managed to create a whole class of managers out of the “new people”, who then influenced the course of Russian history for a long time. And Catherine II, who feared a new coup, all her life tried in every possible way to please the nobility and especially the corrupted officers of the capital's guards regiments. And because the social elevators practically stopped working, the serfs turned into real slaves, but the little noble and for the most part mediocre favorites of the empress came to the royal palace and occupied the highest positions.

As a result, as one of the secretaries of Paul I later recalled,

"About 20 oligarchs divided Russia among themselves under the auspices of another favorite ... The upstarts and lovers turned out to be such hungry leeches that they had to be pumped with the purest blood of the state and the sweat of the people."

And the historian A.V. Stepanov at the beginning of the XNUMXth century gave the following description to Catherine's favorites:

"A gang of godless insolences ... have now attacked the state treasury and began to endow themselves with various insignia and honorary positions."

These words in many respects can be attributed even to G. Potemkin, who cost the Russian treasury extremely dearly. In addition, the prince's administrative talents were largely offset by his mental illness. During long periods of depression, this favorite is all business in Novorossiya
practically stopped - sometimes for several months. An exception, perhaps, can be Alexei Orlov, who was not exactly Catherine's favorite - just the brother of her lover, the mediocre handsome Grigory.

A very sad example is the last Russian pseudo-revolution, in the course of which the absolutely degraded elite of the USSR limply surrendered the country entrusted to it to a narrow circle of crooks and crooks. The same can be said about the "collapsed" and slipping under the external control of Ukraine. The accession to the throne of Catherine's unloved son, Paul, who, despising the people who surrounded his mother, lived in Gatchina, practically did not appear at her court. High officials of the state and court sycophants responded to him with "warm reciprocity." With undisguised fear they awaited the death of the Empress and until the last minute they hoped to convince her to hand over the throne to her grandson Alexander.

Paul came to power practically as a representative of another, hostile dynasty. And immediately he began to restore order both in the country and in St. Petersburg, brutally breaking the resistance of the dismissed guards and aristocrats. The years of his reign were a nightmare for the upper strata of society and a huge boon for Russia.

The emperor limited corvee to three days a week, forgave the peasants for arrears in the poll tax in the amount of more than 7 million rubles, forbade the sale of peasants without land and splitting up peasant families when they were transferred to new owners. Cossack ranks they were equated with officers. During the 34 years of the reign of Catherine II, only 12 thousand people were trained in soldiers' schools. Under Paul I, 164 thousand soldiers underwent such training in four and a half years. Old Believers in 1798 received the right to have co-religion churches, in which Orthodox priests served, but according to old books.

The Austrian ambassador Lobkowitz wrote in 1775:

"Paul is the idol of his people."

The Prussian envoy Brühl reported in 1797:

"Everyone is dissatisfied, except for the urban mob and peasants."

August von Kotzebue testifies:

"Out of 36 million Russians, at least 33 million had a reason to bless the emperor."

Decembrist M. Fonvizin (playwright's nephew) later recalled:

“In this disastrous time for the Russian nobility, the disenfranchised majority of the people throughout the empire remained indifferent to what was happening in St. Petersburg - before it did not touch the cruel measures that threatened the nobility. The common people even loved Paul. "

One of Paul's killers, Bennigsen, writes about the same:

"The emperor never did injustice to the soldier and tied him to himself."

Langeron agrees with him:

"The soldiers loved Paul."

And here is the testimony of D. H. Lieven (sister of the chief of gendarmes A. H. Benckendorff, who in London and Paris was called the "diplomatic Sibyl"):

“Everyone was in awe of the emperor. Only soldiers alone loved him. "

As a result, the palace coup on March 11, 1801 was the only one in which not a single private or non-commissioned officer took part. And most of all the conspirators were afraid that the soldiers would find out about the danger to the emperor.

The same Daria Lieven claims:

"Had Paul had time to escape and if he had appeared to the troops, the soldiers would have saved him and saved him."

With the new emperor, new people came to power, including the hero of our article - A. Arakcheev.

"Black legend" about Arakcheev


Arakcheev's reputation is nowhere worse.

Even the appearance of this official did not suit his contemporaries. NA Sandukovsky in his notes declares that "in appearance Arakcheev looked like a big monkey in a uniform" - no more, no less. Further, it turns out that Arakcheev was thin and stooped, his neck was thin, and his ears were fleshy, his head was ugly, his complexion was unclean, and the expression on this face "represented a strange mixture of intelligence and malice." In general, you can immediately see the scoundrel and the scoundrel.

Meanwhile, in the portrait presented below by Vendramini, we do not see anything particularly terrible in the appearance of Arakcheev:


The same can be said of Danielson's portrait:


Not Apollo, but it's hard to call a freak either.

If Alexei Andreevich Arakcheev had been not thin, but fat, his enemies, no doubt, would have said: "fat as a pig." And if, God forbid, he would have turned out to be a handsome man, they would have called him a soulless idol or would have come up with something else of that kind.

Memoirists, without hesitation in expressions, called Arakcheev "Gatchina corporal", "Nero" and even "Serpent Gorynych". They said that one head of the two-headed eagle in the Russian state emblem belongs to the emperor, the second to Arakcheev.

NM Karamzin called Arakcheev "the most harmful person in the state." Thus, he showed monstrous ingratitude. M. Pogodin recalled:

"All efforts and all means ended in nothing. Goodbye to Count Arakcheev, who promised to seek an audience and kept his word the next day: Karamzin was received and showered with affection and favors."

And the future historiographer himself wrote about his meeting with Arakcheev:

"I found in him a man with intelligence and good rules."

After a rendezvous with the emperor arranged for Karamzin by Arakcheev, he received funds for the publication of the "History of the Russian State" and the Order of St. Anna, XNUMXst class. But class solidarity, as you see, turned out to be higher than gratitude.

Well, two epigrams of Pushkin are always cited as a “control shot to the head”. As for the first, 1819, the researchers, however, are not sure:

“In the capital, he is a corporal, in Chuguev, Nero:
He is worthy of the dagger of Zandov everywhere. "

But the second, obscene, like Alexander Sergeevich:

“All Russia is an oppressor,
Governors tormentor
And the Council he is a teacher,
And he is a friend and brother to the king.
Full of anger, full of revenge
Without mind, without feelings, without honor,
Who is he? A devotee without flattery
B ... a penny soldier. "

(We will talk about the woman with the letter "b", whose "soldier" was Arakcheev).
But, having learned about the death of the "temporary worker", Pushkin suddenly writes to his wife:

“I am the only one regretting this in all of Russia - I didn’t manage to meet and talk to him.”

What is it? Is it just the awakened interest of a historian who regrets that he will never now be able to hear the voice of the most influential person of his era? And he will never know the secrets that he took with him to the grave? Or a rethinking of the views of a matured poet, who now looked differently at the personality of the faithful servant of the two emperors?

I must say that against the general critical (or rather even critical) background, more objective reviews were heard. At a time when the ill-wishers said that Arakcheev, delving into everything, "is engaged in trifles", others argued: the graph is "active, like an ant." Even the critical F. Wigel wrote in his memoirs:

"At a time when the powerless gerontocracy was dozing at the helm of the state ... for all the hated Arakcheev was awake."

Enemies called Arakcheev "poisonous like a tarantula," but there is evidence of people noting his "indulgence towards those below him." He is said to have repeatedly punished officers for the brutal treatment of rank-and-file soldiers.

Thaddeus Bulgarin recalled:

“The main merit of Count AA Arakcheev was, in my opinion, that he was a real hare, as we say in common parlance. Everything Russian pleased him, and everything that, in his opinion, promoted the glory of Russia, found in him protection. "

Thanks to the assistance of Arakcheev, the budget of the Russian Academy of Sciences was increased from 9 thousand to 60 thousand rubles. The President of the Academy A. Shishkov, before meeting with Arakcheev, had been unsuccessfully trying to achieve this for two years.

Archimandrite Photius Spassky wrote in his "Note on Count Arakcheev" (1824):

“Count A. A. Arakcheev ... is wise and reasonable. I will say briefly - he is the right eye of the king, the pillar of the Fatherland, and such people will be born for centuries. I saw nothing but good in it. You can trust him, and with God's help (he) can do everything. Now both the people and all states love him more than before, and everyone wants more truth from him, even the enemy».

It seems that he positively assessed the activities of Arakcheev and F. Bellingshausen, who named one of the islands he discovered in his honor (now Fangatau, French Polynesia). There is no reason to think that this was done in the hope of getting some kind of benefit: Arakcheev was absolutely indifferent to flattery. Rather, the opposite result could be expected.

A rather flattering comparison can be found in L. Tolstoy's novel "War and Peace": the writer describes the tough and demanding of Louis Nicolas Davout's subordinates as "Arakcheev Emperor Napoleon." Probably, Tolstoy wanted to offend Davout, but for someone who knows history, this is a compliment: both for the marshal and for Arakcheev. There is, perhaps, not a single spot on Davout's reputation. Stendhal called him "a great man", and Napoleon - "one of the most glorious and pure heroes of France."

In the minds of the majority of our compatriots, the activities of Arakcheev are usually associated with the period of the reign of Paul I. Meanwhile, during the reign of Paul, the career of Alexei Andreevich was just beginning and was cut short by his resignation. Some believe that it was thanks to the disgrace of Arakcheev that the conspiracy became possible, which ended with the assassination of this emperor. In full force, Arakcheev entered the reign of Alexander I.

Decembrist M. Yakushin recalled:

“Upon the emperor's return to Russia in 1815 ... he handed over almost all the administration of the state to Count Arakcheev. His Duma was in Europe; in Russia, however, most of all he cared about increasing the troops ... Shagistika entered into full force. "

F.F.Vigel wrote about how Alexander I used Arakcheev:

"At first it was used by him as a corrective measure for artillery, then as a punishment for the entire army and, in the end, as revenge on the entire Russian people."

Note:

Alexander I "punished" the army and "took revenge" on the Russian people, but not himself, but with the hands of Arakcheev.

Alexei Andreevich, perhaps, can be compared with the sharpened blade of a machete, which can be used for chopping sugar cane, or as a cold weapons... Arakcheev's trouble, not his fault, is that the emperors he served, using him as their tool, often chose the "weapon" option.

It was Alexander I who, by the way, came up with the idea of ​​creating military settlements, the first of which was founded in the Mogilev province back in 1810. He returned to this idea in 1816, stating:

"Military settlements will be founded by all means, even if I have to cover the road from St. Petersburg to Chudov (now a city in the Novgorod region) with corpses."

These are the words of the emperor, whose reign Vigel called "meek"!

Arakcheev was initially opposed to military settlements, pointing out both their economic inefficiency and the poor quality of military training of the settlers. But nevertheless, he resignedly assumed the leadership of the practical implementation of this defective idea of ​​the emperor. As a result, the infamous term "arakcheevshchina" appeared. However, in all fairness, this bloody epic should be called "Aleksandrovschina".

But let's not get ahead.

A. A. Arakcheev, childhood and early career


This man was from the "breed" of people who are called Self-Made Men in the United States. This term was first used by Henry Clay in 1842 to characterize Benjamin Franklin. Later, Frederick Douglas gave the following definition to "a man who made himself":

"A person who does not owe his success to birth, a friendly environment, inherited wealth or special methods of upbringing, and is able to achieve a high position in society, despite difficulties and unfavorable circumstances."

He also called such people "the architects of their destiny."

Alexey Andreevich Arakcheev was born into a poor noble family (20 "souls" of serfs) in the village of Garusovo in 1769. Now it is located in the Tver region, and earlier it was part of the Novgorod province.


The decaying house of the Arakcheevs in Garusovo

The local sexton Pavel Sokolov taught him to read, write and count, so he could not boast of a good education at home. Later, Arakcheev often said that his father spent only 4 rubles in copper on his education. And also that he would be a great man if he had at least a third of Speransky's mind. In a letter to the same Speransky, he called himself "a truly Russian nobleman of Novgorod" (1819). By the way, returning to the sexton Sokolov: according to legend, his grandson was DI Mendeleev.

Reading about these self-critical words of Arakcheev, as well as recalling the derogatory reviews of his ill-wishers, do not forget that the future count and minister of war with a gilded medal graduated from one of the best military schools in Russia - the Artillery Cadet Corps, whose senior courses were conducted exclusively in foreign languages. And he was left in it as a teacher.

Later he wrote extremely sensible manuals for gunners. In addition to French and German, Arakcheev knew Latin well, collected one of the largest libraries in St. Petersburg (according to various estimates, from 11 to 15 thousand volumes in four languages). But, as already mentioned, he was extremely self-critical, did not harbor illusions about his origin. When Alexander I decided to appoint Arakcheev's mother as a state lady, he did not even consider it necessary to inform her about it. The emperor, however, replied that his mother, who had spent her whole life in the village, would look ridiculous at court.


Matyushin I. Portrait of Arakcheev's mother, Elizaveta Andreevna

The following facts testify to the degree of well-being of this family. In 1783, in order to raise money for the trip of the father and son of the Arakcheevs to enroll in the Artillery Cadet Corps, the family had to sell two cows and almost all the grain they had. In the capital, it took 10 days only to submit a petition to the office. Then father and son waited for an answer for almost six months, literally starving and had to turn to Metropolitan Gabriel for financial assistance, who allocated them three rubles in silver.

Arakcheev did not forget about this period of his life and in the future always gave answers to appeals to him as soon as possible (he demanded the same from his subordinates). For studying in the building, it was required to pay 200 rubles. I had to fall at the feet of its director PI Melissino, who, in an outburst of mercy, ordered the boy to be admitted to his institution.


I.-B. Lumpy the Elder. Portrait of P. Melissino

Later, Arakcheev would transfer a huge amount of 300 thousand rubles to the account of the Novgorod cadet corps: the children of the poor nobles of the Novgorod and Tver provinces studied there with interest from this capital. Another 50 thousand were donated by him to the Pavlovsk Institute for the upbringing of girls from poor families in the same provinces.

Melissino never regretted his decision: the new student quickly became one of the best cadets in the corps. Other pupils, trying to achieve good relations with teachers, constantly gave them various gifts. Young Arakcheev quickly won their favor with his academic success and exemplary behavior. A side effect was the hostility of other cadets towards him. At first, they wholeheartedly mocked the half-impoverished classmate, mistaking his diligence and efforts for sycophancy. And then, when he was promoted to sergeant for his academic success, they began to amicably complain about his exactingness, pickiness and severity.

Upon graduation (1787), the young lieutenant Arakcheev immediately received the position of a teacher of arithmetic, geometry and artillery in his corps, and also became the head of the library. It seems that this fact speaks volumes, and does not need special comments. It was then that he wrote his first textbook - "A Brief Artillery Note in Questions and Answers."

During the Russo-Swedish War, he also trained recruits in artillery (1788-1790).

In 1790, Arakcheev became an adjutant to the director of his corps, P. Melissino, who recommended him as a tutor for the son of the President of the Military Collegium N.I.Saltykov.


Johann Friedrich August Tischbein. Portrait of N. Saltykov with his wife and children

The employer was pleased and, in turn, gave Arakcheev patronage in the Gatchina troops of Tsarevich Pavel. It happened in 1792. The new officer impressed everyone with his knowledge and diligence so much that after three weeks of service he received the rank of captain and the right to dine with the heir. Arakcheev himself recalled that time as follows:

"In Gatchina, the service was difficult, but pleasant, because diligence was always noticed, and knowledge of the matter and serviceability were distinguished."


A. Chagadaev. Divorce of the guard in Gatchina

Arakcheev first headed the artillery units of the Gatchins, and then all the land formations (2399 people). In addition, fulfilling the teachings of Paul, Arakcheev led the work on the organization of the Pavlovsk military orphanage.

By 1796, Arakcheev had risen to the rank of colonel and became commandant of Gatchina.

Arakcheev and Emperor Paul I


After Paul's accession to the throne, Arakcheev's career went up sharply: he received the rank of major general and was appointed commandant of St. Petersburg. He was also granted the title of baron, to which the Gruzino estate and two thousand serfs were attached. It was not one village, but a patrimony - several dozen settlements (A.P. Yazykov claims that in 1826 there were 32 of them), among which Gruzino was the largest. The central estate was located in it.

This is the first reason for the hatred of the aristocrats towards Arakcheev: he was a stranger in their midst and took someone else's place. An excellent illustration of the jealous attitude of representatives of the highest nobility to such upstarts is Pushkin's poem "My Genealogy", in which he proudly declares:

“My grandfather did not sell pancakes,
Not waxed royal boots,
I didn’t sing with the court clerks,
I didn’t jump to the princes from Ukrainians,
And he was not a fugitive soldier
Austrian powdered squads ".

I hope you recognized in this "manifesto of class arrogance" Menshikov, who traded pancakes, the tsar's orderlies Buturlin, Rumyantsev, Yaguzhinsky, Kutaisov, "Ukrainians" Razumovsky and Bezborodko, and finally, Kleinmichel, whose grandson was "a confidant in Arakcheevnaya's poem and is mentioned road".

Let's return to Arakcheev to note: the patrimony of Gruzino is the only gift of material value that Arakcheev accepted in his entire life. Even the diamonds from the frame of the portrait of Alexander I, presented to him by the emperor, he returned to the treasury. After the death of Arakcheev, Gruzino returned to state ownership, and the Novgorod Cadet Corps began to be in charge of the proceeds from it, by order of Nicholas I.

In April 1797, Arakcheev was appointed commander of the Preobrazhensky regiment, as well as chief of the emperor's retinue, quartermaster general of the Russian army and chief of the General Staff. In January 1798 he became an inspector of the Russian artillery.

In February, this is followed by the first disgrace of Arakcheev.

The reason was the suicide of Lieutenant Colonel Lena, offended by him. He challenged Arakcheev to a duel, and when he was refused, he shot himself. But already in May of the same year, Paul I returned him to the service. The reason for this was the administrative talents of Arakcheev, who, unlike many others, somehow managed to conscientiously fulfill his official duties in all five positions.

His merits in reorganizing and strengthening the combat capability of the Russian army are very high and undeniable. Arakcheev fully shared Paul I's contempt for the capital's guards regiments that had been disbanded and corrupted by the former empress. He openly called their banners "Catherine's skirts" (a clear allusion to the active participation of their officers in satisfying the empress's considerable sexual appetites).

To be honest, Paul I inherited from his mother several “Janissary Ojaks” stationed in St. Petersburg - undisciplined and poorly controlled units, whose officers felt they were the masters of the capital. As you know, Paul could not completely take control of these "Janissaries". Having entered into an agreement with the heir to the throne, they killed the emperor. By the way, if, talking about the coup that brought Catherine II to power, replace Russian names with Turkish ones, you get a typical Ottoman story of the times of the infamous "Law of Fatih" (about which at the end of 2020 you could read in the Ottoman Empire ").

But back to Arakcheev.

Not only was he a stranger and an upstart among the St. Petersburg aristocrats, they would have forgiven him, reluctantly. The trouble was, he didn't want to "fit into the system." He encroached on the "sacred right" of the aristocrats, granted by Catherine II, without any obligation to sit on the neck of the Russian people and the Russian state.

It was the work of Arakcheev to establish elementary order in the guards units that became the reason for the hatred of the aristocrats of St. Petersburg towards him. Then the "black legend" about the "soulless tyrant" and "cruel temporary worker" was laid. And you can't argue: to make the "lieutenants Golitsyns" and "Obolensky's cornets" go to the service and fulfill their duties in the barracks was really the height of "cruelty and inhumanity."

And Paul I in 1799 appreciated the efforts of Arakcheev, assigning him the title of count with the motto "Betrayed without flattery."


Coat of arms of the noble family of the Arakcheevs


Coat of arms of Count A.A.Arakcheev with a handwritten inscription below

The envious ones immediately changed the count's motto, replacing one letter: "The demon is betrayed by flattery." But this was already blatant slander.

It is impossible to reproach Arakcheev for his love of flattery and disposition to sycophants even with a very strong desire.

In October 1799, Pavel I again dismissed Arakcheev.

This time, the cause of the emperor's anger was Arakcheev's attempt to free his brother Andrei from punishment. The fact is that during the watch of the subordinates of Andrei Andreevich Arakcheev in the arsenal, someone cut off the gold embroidery from the ceremonial artillery chariot. Defending his brother, Alexey Andreevich said that the theft had taken place earlier, but the slandered officer turned to another promoted Pavel - Kutaisov. He gladly reported this to the emperor. The incident was not very significant, but Paul was offended that they tried to deceive him.

Arakcheev left for Gruzino and returned to the service only three and a half years later - after the assassination of Paul I and the accession of his son Alexander.

In the next article we will talk about the landowner Arakcheev, his estate Gruzino, and then we will talk about the Alexander period of A.A.Arakcheev's service.
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  1. SERGE ANT
    SERGE ANT 3 September 2021 04: 47
    +20
    Thanks for the article! Here I agree with the first paragraph 100500%!
    1. Proxima
      Proxima 3 September 2021 06: 16
      +17
      A man-unmercenary, this does not say that much, but about EVERYTHING. The present grabbing officials and oligarchs, who have lost the remnants of conscience and decency, cannot understand this! Yes, and his contemporaries did not understand him, they took him for a sycophant, then for a primitive servant, and this is the cleverest figure of his era! hi Thanks to the author for the excellent article!
      1. depressant
        depressant 3 September 2021 09: 18
        +15
        Join us!
        Valery - thank you for drawing attention to the presence in our history of honest and active officials of the highest rank. But earlier the word "arakcheevschina" was perceived as something frightening.
      2. Basil50
        Basil50 4 September 2021 12: 03
        +3
        Proxima
        Aren't you surprised by the similarity of the fate of Arakcheev and others who are just as glorious in their deeds? The now more cursed statesman LAVRENTY PAVLOVICH BERIA, he is cursed for his REAL ACHIEVEMENTS even more than JOSEPH VISSARIONOVICH STALIN. Why is there so much hatred?
        As an antithesis, one can consider the deeds of Nikolai No. 2, Kerensky, Gorbachev-Yeltsin, so beloved by the church and the liberals. And there are those who ALWAYS US these (.................) as a * sample * of a statesman.
        1. an4662
          an4662 8 September 2021 12: 32
          0
          "Why is there so much hatred?" - you just have to see who hates and who curses. Most often - this is that human shit, whose opinion is not worth paying attention to. They do this in order to belittle PEOPLE and bring them down to their level.
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 3 September 2021 19: 15
      +4
      It's easier to write: I agree to "googol" percent. hi laughing drinks
  2. horus88
    horus88 3 September 2021 04: 53
    +11
    Apparently, a worthy person is never so easy to live, at all times
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 3 September 2021 07: 03
      +7
      Alas, this is how it is at all times.
  3. Okolotochny
    Okolotochny 3 September 2021 04: 53
    +7
    Good article! good hi
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 3 September 2021 07: 05
      +1
      Valery does not have a frank bucket
      1. Liam
        Liam 3 September 2021 07: 27
        .
        Quote: vladcub
        Valery does not have a frank bucket

        Only in disguise?
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 3 September 2021 09: 58
          +5
          "Where a horse with a hoof goes, there is a cancer with a claw." (with) laughing

          Maybe you will calm down, you are already tired of everyone.
          1. vladcub
            vladcub 3 September 2021 10: 26
            +3
            Kostya, hello. And if he cannot do otherwise?
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 3 September 2021 10: 41
              +3
              Well, let him go to the latrine, suddenly feel better. laughing
        2. vladcub
          vladcub 3 September 2021 10: 23
          +4
          Quote: Liam
          Quote: vladcub
          Valery does not have a frank bucket

          Only in disguise?

          It is not required to criticize the mind, but to do it poorly?
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 3 September 2021 10: 49
            +2
            There, two more offended by life appeared, plus the Romanian was given. Here are the poor, Lord forgive me. laughing
            1. vladcub
              vladcub 3 September 2021 15: 41
              +2
              Looks like he's Spanish?
              Ehh, Vadim canceled the checkboxes and you don't always know: who is who?
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 3 September 2021 18: 44
                +3
                Looks like he's Spanish?

                Romanian macaroni.
                And any flags could be hung.
                1. vladcub
                  vladcub 4 September 2021 08: 03
                  +1
                  You and I had Russian flags, not Japanese or Mexican
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 4 September 2021 08: 33
                    +1
                    I'm not talking about you and me, but because you could hang any flag, they don't ask for a passport.
                    1. vladcub
                      vladcub 4 September 2021 08: 38
                      +1
                      In my opinion, the main thing is not a passport, but who you consider yourself to be: a cosmopolitan or a Russian
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish 4 September 2021 08: 42
                        +1
                        Yes, I'm not talking about that again. I had a friend here from Latvia, a doctor, a year ago he unexpectedly disappeared with the ends, he had a Russian flag, although he lived in Riga and was a citizen of Latvia.
                      2. your1970
                        your1970 4 September 2021 15: 14
                        +1
                        Quote: Sea Cat
                        Yes, I'm not talking about that again. I had a friend here from Latvia, a doctor, a year ago he unexpectedly disappeared with the ends, he had a Russian flag, although he lived in Riga and was a citizen of Latvia.

                        If Frigate was standing - he automatically changed the IP addresses to others - the flag accordingly jumped out differently. For some reason, mine always gave out Belize and Nicaragua lol
                      3. vladcub
                        vladcub 4 September 2021 17: 08
                        +2
                        I say: "cosmopolitan or Russian" if he considers himself a cosmopolitan, then: at least 10 flags and passports, and to him about Russia and its history ..... Fioletovo
  • Pessimist22
    Pessimist22 3 September 2021 04: 59
    +16
    "A gang of godless impudent people ... now attacked the state treasury and began to endow themselves with various insignia and honorary positions."
    The same can be said about the current "nobles".
    1. SERGE ANT
      SERGE ANT 3 September 2021 05: 55
      +14
      "The villains who have robbed the people have gathered, they have recruited soldiers and judges to guard their orgies, and are feasting."
  • Catfish
    Catfish 3 September 2021 06: 11
    +12

    SERGE ANT
    Thanks for the article! Here I agree with the first paragraph 100500%


    Hmmm, I couldn’t believe my eyes, neither subtract nor add. Thank you Valery for the pleasure! good

    By the way, such a well-known pillar of domestic literature as Saltykov-Shchedrin in his "History of a City" also had a hand in defaming Arakcheev, creating the image of the governor of the city of Foolov with the "speaking" name Gloom-Grumblev.
    Moreover, the character's surname rhymes with Arakcheev, a hint of which, according to I. S. Turgenev, was understood by the readers: “everyone recognized the ominous and repulsive appearance of Arakcheev, the all-powerful favorite of Alexander I in the last years of his reign”.
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 3 September 2021 06: 38
      +8
      “Whom the rumor will exalt
      He will remember that after everyone ”(c).

      Labels. They live and continue to live.
      And then the majority still becomes.
    2. Okolotochny
      Okolotochny 3 September 2021 07: 35
      +8
      In my opinion, Pikul in "Favorite" mentioned the quality of Arakcheev - to immediately deal with complaints, petitions, etc., as he suffered through suffering when he entered in his youth. When my father and I waited for six months and starved.
      1. depressant
        depressant 3 September 2021 09: 25
        +7
        Hunger and satiety are equally taught. Only different things.
        If the well-fed does not understand the hungry, then the hungry understands everyone.
        1. Okolotochny
          Okolotochny 3 September 2021 09: 31
          +6
          Lyudmila Yakovlevna, I agree. It can be seen that the young man has eaten into the subcortex, which has become one of the character traits.
          1. depressant
            depressant 3 September 2021 10: 31
            +4
            And in the subcortex of the hereditarily well-fed group, negative selection coiled in, which clever Arakcheev had to face.
            Do you know what struck me?
            In those days, the definition of "oligarch" was already applied!
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 3 September 2021 12: 50
              +6
              Lyudmila Yakovlevna! hi
              Do you know what struck me?
              In those days, the definition of "oligarch" was already applied!

              Why not? The term was coined by Aristotle.
              1. depressant
                depressant 3 September 2021 12: 58
                +3
                Anton, you surprised me)))
                It means that already in those days there was a relationship that required a special designation. It is interesting what exactly Aristotle understood by this term.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 3 September 2021 13: 17
                  +2
                  Go to Wiki, there "in the axes" is given the vision of oligarchy by Aristotle.
  • parusnik
    parusnik 3 September 2021 06: 34
    +7
    The accession to the throne of Catherine's unloved son, Paul, who, despising the people who surrounded his mother, lived in Gatchina, practically did not appear at her court.
    Why a coup? Paul did not overthrow anyone. Paul's accession to the throne, from any side, is not a coup d'etat.
    1. VLR
      3 September 2021 06: 55
      +10
      Of course, the ascension of Paul I cannot formally be called a coup d'état. But, in fact, it was. Politics, both external and internal, has radically changed. Paul acted in such a way that it seems that he did not inherit the throne, but conquered it. And the high society of St. Petersburg is actively resisting this "conquest". And the first words of Alexander, after the murder of his father - which were expected of him by all the conspirators and their sympathizers, and which were uttered:
      "With me everything will be like with my grandmother."
      1. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 3 September 2021 08: 52
        +3
        "it will be like with grandmother" Alexander, perhaps, wanted so, but most likely it was his trick.
        Alexander 1 was a smart enough person to understand: the era has changed and as before it will not be
      2. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 3 September 2021 13: 20
        +7
        Ay, yes Valery! drinks Ay. yes well done! "My theme", "delicious"!
        Paul acted in such a way that it seems that he did not inherit the throne, but conquered it.

        Hmm .. I don’t quite agree, but this is my personal. hi Paul, who had waited too long for the throne, was in a hurry to rule. And fix everything that he didn’t like about mama’s order.
        Pay attention, none of the Catherine's nobility dared even look badly towards Paul during his accession to the throne! All were effaced and limp. angry
        NA Sandukovsky declares in his notes that "in appearance Arakcheev looked like a big monkey in a uniform" - no more, no less.

        I will correct - N.A. Sablukov. drinks He just wrote his notes many years later, and in English. Most likely, this is what the guards officers used to say about Arakcheev "behind the backs" - Sablukov himself was one of the horse guards. In general, a paradox - Sablukov's father was punished by Pavel, Nikolai Alexandrovich himself was slandered and removed from the guard on the evening before the murder, and in his notes - not a single bad word about the emperor, only regret, EMNIP, "that he died early and did not have time to do much good to do. " soldier
        He openly called their banners "Catherine's skirts" (a clear allusion to the active participation of their officers in satisfying the empress's considerable sexual appetites).

        An interesting fact. Before Paul, the banners were ... regimental property. It was Paul who elevated them to the rank of regimental shrines! soldier
        "Military settlements will be founded by all means, even if I have to cover the road from St. Petersburg to Chudov (now a city in the Novgorod region) with corpses."

        The emperor clearly hinted at Arakcheev - Chudovo 15-20 km from Gruzin.

        Thank you, Valery! I look forward to continuing! drinks
        1. Sling cutter
          Sling cutter 3 September 2021 22: 20
          0
          Quote: Pane Kohanku
          An interesting fact. Before Paul, the banners were ... regimental property. It was Paul who elevated them to the rank of regimental shrines!

          Hi, Nikolay! drinks
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 3 September 2021 22: 30
            +2
            Hi, Nikolay!

            Valera, healthy! drinks I think your namesake wrote an excellent article, but - ahead of me. I didn't have the strength, knowledge and inspiration. recourse Wait about Gruzino. And then I will write - about the same. Now I want to write a sequel about Pavel Petrovich ... drinks
            1. Sling cutter
              Sling cutter 3 September 2021 23: 09
              +1
              Quote: Pane Kohanku
              I think your namesake wrote an excellent article, but - ahead of me. I didn't have the strength, knowledge and inspiration. Wait about Gruzino. And then I will write - about the same. Now I want to write a sequel about Pavel Petrovich ...

              I've already appreciated! good And you write more, there are no limits to perfection.
              And you will write about Georgia, think over the title carefully, otherwise PolitAd will be here wassat This is my friendly advice !!! yes
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 3 September 2021 23: 11
                +2
                And you write more

                Valery was the first to write. I'll wait. And I will write about Gruzino in a general outline - in a year. drinks Photo - enough! I took pictures myself ...
                1. Sling cutter
                  Sling cutter 3 September 2021 23: 23
                  +2
                  Quote: Pane Kohanku
                  I'll wait. And I will write about Gruzino in a general outline - in a year.

                  What the hell year ?????? Write and that's it! That's an order! wassat
                  1. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku 4 September 2021 21: 17
                    +2
                    What the hell year ?????? Write and that's it! That's an order!

                    I can not yet! I am very anxious about the subject of writing, until I study the materials, I'm afraid to start. I am very responsible ... No mistakes! request
                    That's an order!

                    YavOl! soldier
                    1. Sling cutter
                      Sling cutter 4 September 2021 21: 24
                      +1
                      Quote: Pane Kohanku
                      I can not yet! I am very anxious about the subject of writing, until I study the materials, I'm afraid to start. I am very responsible ... No mistakes!

                      I understand .... you do not want to spoil the "brand" ... Well, "nature cannot create by order."
                      Count up, I trolled your friend Shpakovsky here a little, so they accused me ..., they accused of all the mortal sins of the site wassat So many obscenities on the tongue were spinning fellow I am amused all day laughing laughing laughing
                      1. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 5 September 2021 15: 45
                        +2
                        Count up, I trolled your friend Shpakovsky here a little, so they accused me ..., they accused of all the mortal sins of the site

                        This, Valery, is your personal relationship with him! laughing
                      2. Sling cutter
                        Sling cutter 5 September 2021 16: 12
                        +1
                        Quote: Pane Kohanku

                        This, Valery, is your personal relationship with him!

                        It's true! I'm so, for neighing))))
    2. parusnik
      parusnik 3 September 2021 18: 19
      +2
      Paul acted in such a way that it seems that he did not inherit the throne, but conquered it.
      There is no need to create a myth. Paul acted like a man who was waiting for a promotion and finally got it. What are the results of his reign? What has improved?
  • vladcub
    vladcub 3 September 2021 07: 17
    +4
    Lyosh, greetings. I myself did not like Valery's wording. Apparently, he was in a hurry and could not find another wording
    1. depressant
      depressant 3 September 2021 09: 46
      +4
      What did Valery say wrong?
      A coup is a significant change in domestic political relations. It happens peaceful and non-peaceful.
      And since we are accustomed to non-peaceful coups, Valery was forced to use the adjective "peculiar", which gave the noun "coup" a clear meaning - "legal change of order", that is, a meaning that excludes the seizure of power by an illegal military operation or a terrorist act.
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 3 September 2021 18: 44
        +2
        Did he overthrow someone? What has changed in public life, especially? The peasants began to go to corvee for three days, they were forbidden to sell them without land, they were forbidden to separate families when they were sold, but they did not stop selling them. He conducted drills in the army, his son did not cancel. For not observing his good decrees in relation to the peasants, someone was punished, and indeed someone, followed their execution. A simple example, Chichikov, buys peasants for withdrawal, without land, and Pavel is long gone Yes, and he was killed not as a reformer tsar, but for stepping on the commercial interests of the nobility, who were interested in trade with England, who were interested in high-quality English goods, and not "Chinese" French ones.
        1. depressant
          depressant 3 September 2021 19: 56
          +3
          The last sentence of your comment, Alexey, is especially valuable.
          Paul changed the usual, long-established order of things, and they did not agree with this. Yes, with rare exceptions, no one really began to observe the innovations too carefully, for it turned out to be more expensive for himself to observe carefully. But, having the formal force of law and taking into account the methods of bringing to order, which the power of the emperor gives, as well as the inflexibility of the emperor himself, these innovations strained the psyche of a huge number of people, so much so that they became very uncomfortable with life. After all, what was just familiar turned out to be illegal. And the volume of this familiar, but now illegal, turned out to be too large. There was an excessive load on the psyche. Such a load is unbearable if everything falls on a person at once and in a short time. There is a law of adaptation of a frog to heated water. This law has been violated. Paul fell victim to him.
          1. parusnik
            parusnik 3 September 2021 20: 23
            +5
            A new chief came to FSUE "Nobility", who had been waiting for this place for a long time, introduced a dress code and raised the flag on Mondays, closed social networks for employees, introduced memos. In modern terms, everything about Paul's rule.
            1. depressant
              depressant 3 September 2021 21: 00
              +4
              Exactly. He rashly hurried, relying on the imperial capabilities without taking into account the prevailing needs of the nobility. You also need to be able to reform. He acted by the standards of absolutism when this form of government had already cracked across Europe. Some other move was needed. Did the nobles want to trade? Perfectly! It was necessary to induce them to massively build production. The question with the peasants would be resolved by itself. Here Arakcheev, with his hypertrophied discipline, would be a valuable asset. But Paul, by and large, was more an absolutist than a reformer, feeling the spirit of the times.
              By the way, your example is very successful.
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 3 September 2021 06: 35
    +6
    And the story is interesting. And the preamble. And it's hard to look at an abandoned house.
    1. depressant
      depressant 3 September 2021 09: 52
      +7
      The huts are abandoned and even the palaces are abandoned. Cities that were barely rebuilt in Siberia are abandoned. And hundreds of airfields and military towns, libraries and houses of culture have been abandoned. And villages are abandoned everywhere in Central Russia.
      We do not have Arakcheevs - they are not in demand by the authorities.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 3 September 2021 13: 48
        +4
        Without the owner the house of the orphan.
    2. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 3 September 2021 13: 23
      +5
      And the story is interesting. And the preamble. And it's hard to look at an abandoned house.

      You haven't been to Gruzino (Arakcheev's estate) yet. I look forward to continuing. Let's discuss! good In 2018, I photographed there as best I could, purposefully drove. But even the locals do not know where what was then ... request I determined the remains of the embankment myself. what
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 3 September 2021 13: 49
        +4
        The face of the Earth changes, like a man's shirt. Only in time is there a greater spread.
        1. depressant
          depressant 3 September 2021 14: 30
          +4
          Sometimes an excellent costume is replaced by something from second-hand. It also happens vice versa. But now...
          Every evening I watch a video (there are such collections) of what happened on the last day with the Earth. It is as if she sheds old, burned skin, and washes continuously to soothe the pain.
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 3 September 2021 16: 57
            +2
            There is a version that the Trojan War began because it was hard for Earth-Gaia.
            1. depressant
              depressant 3 September 2021 17: 36
              +2
              All available sources mention only in passing about natural disasters as possible reasons for the outbreak of the Trojan War. Sources say "maybe". No specifics.
              But some kind of noise from the crowd, unpleasant to Gaia, was clearly taking place in those places, and due to the very rapid fall of several successful civilizations, two dark ages did indeed follow. Maybe it's a pestilence after all? Let's say the plague.
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 3 September 2021 19: 10
                +2
                What specifics can you catch in the legends? Is it a particularly sensitive ear.
                1. depressant
                  depressant 3 September 2021 20: 20
                  +2
                  And if we exclude the "people of the sea", then the former culture of the Mediterranean with its amazing technologies for that time perished almost completely, life stood still for centuries. But the beauty of the concept of a living and suffering planet runs into planetology, the laws of the Earth's orbital behavior.
                  Well, look.
                  Greece burned down, Syria dried up clean, Turkey burned out and, you know, there are floods, something in Egypt, Italy, southern France, Lebanon, Morocco, Spain are drowning. Etc. Now it will require huge funds for reconstruction, international cooperation and time. And then?
                  The Earth periodically responds with cataclysms, but not people. The climate depends on the inclination of the axis to the plane of the ecliptic - the angle of inclination is not constant! The angle changes smoothly over 24 thousand years - this is the period of precession of the earth's axis.
                  So, there is little romance here.
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 3 September 2021 21: 02
                    +2
                    And we observe that in detail only since the middle of the 5th century. If you look at the chronicles, every century there are 6-XNUMX fires that everyone noticed.
                    1. depressant
                      depressant 3 September 2021 21: 40
                      +3
                      But the glaciation of the northern hemisphere is 12 thousand years ago. Such, capital. You can't throw off climatic fluctuations. The evidence is complete. Now we have thawed out and, in theory, it should be warm for thousands of 6 years with allowable adjustments for different circumstances. And then - a gradual cooling for another 6 thousand years with a transition to frostbite.
                      The precession cycle is complete.
                      Of course, this is all pretty smooth.
                      Let's wait for the jungle if it doesn't wash away wassat
                      1. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 4 September 2021 00: 26
                        +2
                        If you stick to the glacial theory (and why not stick to it), then of course. Yes. There was a Valdai glaciation.
                        And what is the next period - who knows.

                        Even after 30 years it is interesting to look at the Earth.
                      2. depressant
                        depressant 4 September 2021 07: 40
                        +1
                        Почему нет?
                        You will live, I will try to live wassat ))
                      3. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 4 September 2021 08: 35
                        +1
                        This is the right task.

                        "We still have things to do at home" (c).
                      4. depressant
                        depressant 4 September 2021 09: 44
                        +1
                        There is no limit to optimism
                        in surviving until later years.
                        Formally, fate does not care,
                        in whose hand the pistol is served.

                        Well, or a snuffbox wassat )))
                      5. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 4 September 2021 10: 26
                        +1
                        An acquaintance of Berlioz said that no snuff-box accidentally falls.
                      6. depressant
                        depressant 4 September 2021 11: 10
                        +1
                        And even an unloaded gun hanging on the wall can accidentally shoot once every hundred years and, surprisingly, hit someone who needs to be removed by the owner of the gun!
                        And quickly cleaned and hastily erected to its original place, it becomes a mystical urban legend and gives rise to a saying.
                        Well, or that shot on stage, and on the set that killed Brandon Lee.
                      7. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 4 September 2021 13: 02
                        +1
                        At home, it's not just walls that help.
                      8. depressant
                        depressant 4 September 2021 13: 37
                        +2
                        There are walls of people that shield you from trouble, there are walls of a dwelling, there is a pre-psychological wall. So think, which is stronger.
                        I have a hurricane outside my window.
                        The wind roars evil.
                        She closed the window.
                      9. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 4 September 2021 14: 16
                        +2
                        Autumn came without a swing.
                      10. depressant
                        depressant 4 September 2021 14: 54
                        +3
                        There are such phenomena and the order of things that cannot be undone.
                        But when they are, in addition, periodic and each period is inevitable, it remains powerless to wring your hands - "What, again?"
                      11. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 4 September 2021 15: 35
                        +2
                        And who was upset by the heat? From minus 20 to plus 25, you can feel comfortable. And rejoice - how lucky the Hellenes were with the climate. And not only with him.
                      12. depressant
                        depressant 4 September 2021 16: 09
                        +3
                        I was upset with the heat.
                        The one over 30. And the hurricane was upset too.
                        But most of all - the shine of the leaves. After all, they still shine. And it should be in April, May.
                        Two plums under the window. Their foliage is partly black from the hurricane. Dried up to the branches, strewn with bunches of fruits that tried to ripen, but never ripened. Such a strange year. And the wind doesn't sound like it used to - listen to it! It's like a cappello with low male voices.
                        And the Hellenes were out of luck. Everything that can burn there.
                      13. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 4 September 2021 17: 54
                        +2
                        It's already cleared up. Sun.
                      14. depressant
                        depressant 4 September 2021 18: 00
                        +3
                        Chaos is always followed by cute static.
                        Having absorbed chaos, it begins to accumulate all its weak residual manifestations and finally, overflowing, explodes. The sun is sure to be followed by bad weather.
                      15. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 4 September 2021 20: 26
                        +2
                        Yes. But since bad weather has a limit. Yes, and it is far from catastrophic phenomena - there is joy in the world.
                      16. depressant
                        depressant 4 September 2021 20: 56
                        +3
                        Joy is the static that absorbs chaos. Almost killed by the explosion of the chaos that overwhelmed her, she is slowly reviving due to the absorption of rich deposits of the chaos that has escaped to freedom, everything is repeated from the beginning, and then the "Ode to Joy" begins to sound powerfully and irresistibly in the mind!
                        I haven't heard her for a year now. There is only a glimmer of hope to overcome the overwhelming indifference to life.
                      17. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 4 September 2021 21: 14
                        +2
                        Beautiful. Makes me think.
                        But even in the brushes of rowan, there can be a piece of joy.
                      18. depressant
                        depressant 4 September 2021 21: 32
                        +2
                        For a Russian person, joy can be regarded as paradoxical:
                        "- Something in my mood has soured!
                        - Is it with any such joy?
                        The joke is a reflection of our archetype.
                        I see through the western window a brush of red rowan and think that in winter birds will eat it. And suddenly I understand with horror: I have forgotten what kind of birds they were last winter!
                        Doves, tits, bullfinches, sparrows - who? I do not remember. This is chaos.
                      19. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 5 September 2021 00: 12
                        +2
                        “Joy is given to the rude.
                        Grief is given to the tender ”(c).

                        Apples, mountain ash and many more different fruits are the signs of autumn. And who will eat them - there will be.
                      20. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 5 September 2021 13: 33
                        +1
                        Nikolai has his birthday today.
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 5 September 2021 13: 36
    +1
    Wind, torn clouds over the bay, the sun with a stroboscope
    "Autumn has come to Mumidoll" (C)
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 5 September 2021 17: 03
    +1
    “What is autumn is the sky,
    Crying sky under your feet ”(c).
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 5 September 2021 18: 04
    +2
    "The era is burning out with a farewell bonfire,
    And we watch shadow and light "(C)
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 5 September 2021 19: 29
    +1
    "Sparks go out on the fly" (c).
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 5 September 2021 19: 34
    +1
    "And for the star that fell and falls,
    There is only a moment, a blinding moment! "(C)
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 5 September 2021 21: 48
    +1
    "Pull the guy to the mountains, take a chance" (c).
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 5 September 2021 21: 57
    +1
    "And he came, shaking all over,
    And there is again a distant flight,
    I don't remember evil, I'll take it again "(C)
  • Van 16
    Van 16 3 September 2021 06: 41
    +6
    A very good, interesting, fairly detailed article.
    About "high society", that then, that today I absolutely agree.
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 3 September 2021 07: 09
    +6
    The employer was pleased and, in turn, gave Arakcheev patronage in the Gatchina troops of Tsarevich Pavel.
    With such gratitude, no opal is needed!
    Thank you, Valery!
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 3 September 2021 13: 27
      +5
      With such gratitude, no opal is needed!

      Anton, there is a known case when three soldiers from the Petersburg garrison were detained, who ... fled to Gatchina, to be hired by the Tsarevich!
      No disgrace. In the guard, everything was already occupied by "blue bloods", and, moreover, half of the officers were only "on the list." The people of Gatchina were not born, but often they were initiative people. There were many Little Russians, Serbs (also from Little Russia) and others.
      Apparently, then it served as the best "social lift" for Arakcheev. hi The entrance to the guard was ordered to him.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 3 September 2021 13: 38
        +4
        Everything is clear with the guards, they were recorded there at birth.
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 3 September 2021 13: 44
          +3
          Everything is clear with the guards, they were recorded there at birth.

          In any case, Arakcheev would not have got there. And in Gatchina there were quite good conditions. I think the appeal was somewhat different there - the soldiers were unlikely to be robbed by their own officers. hi But yes, I had to do the preparation, and not wander about women and balls! stop
          Do you remember last year we saw the papers filled in by Arakcheev? Some kind of tables, on guard, it seems ...
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 3 September 2021 13: 47
            +2
            I don't remember, but probably. Have you photographed?
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 3 September 2021 13: 51
              +2
              I don't remember, but probably. Have you photographed?

              It was in Gatchina. Those papers, it seems, are not, I have not photographed ...
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 3 September 2021 13: 57
                +3
                It is clear that it is not in Pushkin, where you and I will never get there ... crying
        2. Mihaylov
          Mihaylov 3 September 2021 14: 32
          +3
          Quote: 3x3zsave
          Everything is clear with the guards, they were recorded there at birth.

          And how fundamentally did this differ from the earlier and widely criticized system of parochialism? hi
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 3 September 2021 14: 51
            +3
            No way, I think.
            Actually, and not only in the guard. I remember Pyotr Grinev from "The Captain's Daughter"
            Sergei! hi
            1. Mihaylov
              Mihaylov 3 September 2021 14: 54
              +3
              Quote: 3x3zsave
              No way, I think.
              Actually, and not only in the guard. I remember Pyotr Grinev from "The Captain's Daughter"

              Yes, Anton! here it is the power of age-old traditions: even now you can find echoes: the general, as you know, has his own son. hi
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 3 September 2021 15: 11
                +3
                Then a similar "tradition" passed into the navy.
  • Olgovich
    Olgovich 3 September 2021 08: 25
    -2
    The results are always truly amazing. The most striking example is Russia after the fall of the monarchy. There were not even personnel to organize a full-fledged system of universal public education.


    And where did they come from then, huh? Have the thieves brought from their Switzerland?

    No, in Russia, before the VOR, hundreds of thousands of teachers were brought up and trained in Russian universities, who continued their holy work after

    In Russia, before the thieves, there were already more than 130 thousand schools and ANNUALLY 4 THOUSAND new schools were commissioned. After the VOR, tens of thousands of schools were closed and by 1927 it was only possible to restore their pre-VOR number, not to increase, that is, public education was thrown BACK for 10 years and millions of people were educated later


    But what do we see in 10 years?

    after 10 (and even later) years, it was only possible to restore what was before 1917, i.e. 10 years of the country's development are lost
    The "cook's children", whom narrow-minded aristocrats tried with all their might to keep out of grammar schools and universities, took advantage of their chance to change their destiny. A whole generation of great scientists, great architects, brilliant designers, excellent engineers has grown up.


    If the author knew the social composition of the rapidly growing technical universities in Russia, then the stupidity about not allowing such children would have sounded.

    As for the generation of scientists and designers that has grown over 10 years: if the author asks about their biography, he learns that it grew up and was brought up in the IMPERIAL UNIVERSITIES of Russia by IMPERIAL teachers and scientists (at the same time, many of them were destroyed by thieves)

    Or did these UNIVERSITIES and teachers of thieves from their Switzerland brought?

    Or was it Marsist-Leninist teaching that made them technicians?

    Arakcheev left for Gruzino

    In Gruzino, he built a magnificent palace and a cathedral and a park: everything was destroyed after the thief, like thousands of other magnificent estates in Russia, in many ways, real monuments of architecture and architecture
    1. tatra
      tatra 3 September 2021 08: 56
      -1
      Enemies of the Bolshevik-Communists, after you seized the USSR under the cowardly incantations "and we have nothing to do with it, it's all the communists are to blame",. like demoniacs who rushed to destroy both Soviet and Russian, insolently think that the Bolsheviks were OBLIGED to preserve everything as it was before the October Revolution.
      And your "thief" is low-standard, in accordance with the low-standard mentality of the enemies of the USSR and the Soviet people.
      I did not want to translate the discussion of this article to our time, in many ways it is similar to what happened in the Russian Empire, but since you translated, I answered you.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 3 September 2021 09: 47
        -8
        Quote: tatra
        Enemies of the Bolshevik-Communists, after you seized the USSR under the cowardly incantations "and we have nothing to do with it, it's all the communists are to blame",. like demoniacs who rushed to destroy both Soviet and Russian, insolently consider

        did someone understand this nonsense? belay
        Quote: tatra
        And your "THIEF" is trashy

        so officially this action was called by the Bolsheviks BY THE Bolsheviks at the US Administration of Russia: Вfake Оct Рevol-i

        you called them ... trashy. Treason !? belay lol
        1. tatra
          tatra 3 September 2021 09: 50
          -1
          this is the official name of this action by the Bolsheviks themselves at US Ro

          Do not lie . THIEF - criminals in prison in the USSR got a tattoo on their chest and with a portrait of Lenin. Apparently, you are one of them, or a descendant of a thief.
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 3 September 2021 10: 19
            -6
            Quote: tatra
            this is the official name of this action by the Bolsheviks themselves at US Ro

            Do not lie . THIEF - criminals in prison in the USSR got a tattoo on their chest and with a portrait of Lenin.

            learn what is abbreviation.

            And then it will come to you (but not the fact) what the USSR, the UN, the CPSU, etc. are.

            and how did you live your life in a world of words that are incomprehensible and strange to you? belay
      2. Catfish
        Catfish 3 September 2021 09: 55
        +4
        ... insolently think that the Bolsheviks were OBLIGED to preserve everything as it was before the October Revolution.


        "People who do not know their past have no future" Mikhail Lomonosov.

        Argue with him if you can.
        1. tatra
          tatra 3 September 2021 09: 58
          -1
          Ha, this is just about YOUR anti-Soviet people, which generally have no positive history of their country and people.
          You all do not care about the centuries-old pre-revolutionary period, as if it did not exist, you slandered the Soviet period to justify your seizure of the USSR, by your anti-Soviet-Russophobic period, starting with your Perestroika, you all have nothing to do with it.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 3 September 2021 10: 17
            +4
            Ira, where did you get the idea that I am an anti-Soviet? Just because I brought up the statement of an undeniably smart and talented compatriot?
            For the centuries-old pre-revolutionary period, you all do not care ...

            And how would I then know about Lomonosov and the same Saltykov-Shchedrin?
            Ir, you, by God, sometimes behave like a child. smile love
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 3 September 2021 13: 30
              +2
              and where did you get the idea that I am an anti-Soviet?

              Uncle Kostya, maybe you are a Good Doctor - a soul-bearer?
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 3 September 2021 18: 47
                +3
                I am a simple Ryazan scholar and soul lover. angry
                And I just feel sorry for Irina. smile
            2. Fat
              Fat 3 September 2021 14: 25
              +2
              Uh-huh. laughing
              "I will turn the calendar over and again on the third of September ..."
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 3 September 2021 14: 32
                +2
                "I will turn the calendar over and again on the third of September ..."

                Shufutin's day! Happy Friday everyone! drinks
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 3 September 2021 19: 08
                  +4
                  Fridays, they are also different ... wink
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 4 September 2021 08: 50
                    +1
                    There must have been a glimpse in this man's life.
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 4 September 2021 09: 12
                      +1
                      Such a sultry woman ("the poet's dream"))) is a glimpse in the life of any man! good
                      But there is, of course, a fool. laughing

                      My vision of the question. drinks
                      1. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 4 September 2021 10: 20
                        +1
                        Great!
                        Restrictions - restrict.
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 4 September 2021 10: 35
                        +1
                        Beautiful. Sounds like a formula. smile
                      3. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 4 September 2021 10: 42
                        +1
                        The wording came to mind about 25 years ago. I use it.
                        Sometimes it's time to ask yourself questions.
    2. vladcub
      vladcub 3 September 2021 12: 51
      +1
      Kostya, good afternoon. Regarding this expression, I heard that these are the words of Klyuchevsky, and in Vick they talked about Lermontov
  • The comment was deleted.
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich 3 September 2021 12: 12
      -1
      Quote: Nefarious skeptic
      1st bourgeoisie - 3063 (31,56%)
      2.nobles - 2383 (24,56%)
      3.peasants - 2044 (21,06%)

      bourgeois and workers with peasants - more than half, nobles only 24% and their percentage is only falling, workers are growing

      The nonsense about not allowing the working class is obvious.

      By the way, the availability of universities for them in Russia was much higher than in England and Germany.
      Quote: Nefarious skeptic
      The growth is so rapid

      exactly the rapid growth of the student body:
      Quote: Nefarious skeptic
      technical universities were as many as 5: Petrograd Technological Institute, Kharkov Technological Institute, Moscow Technical School, Riga Polytechnic Institute, Tomsk Technological Institute.

      belay lol yes someone is just "dark as anthracite":

      Learn:

      Polytechnic institutes: Riga (1862), Kiev (1898), Petersburg (1899), Donskoy in Novocherkassk

      Technological institutes - St. Petersburg Practical Technological Institute (Technological Institute of Emperor Nicholas I) was founded in 1827 (but became a higher educational institution only in 1862).
      Kharkov Institute of Technology - in 1885.
      Tomsk Technological Institute - in 1896.
      Mining higher education institutions.
      The Mining Institute (of Empress Catherine II) was founded in 1773 in St. Petersburg as the Mining School.
      Yekaterinoslav Mining Institute (until 1912 - Yekaterinoslav Higher Mining School) was founded in 1899.
      The Institute of Railway Engineers of Emperor Alexander I was founded in 1809 in St. Petersburg (until 1864 it was called the Institute of the Corps of Railway Engineers).
      The Institute of Civil Engineers of Emperor Nicholas I was founded in 1832 in St. Petersburg on the basis of the Architectural School (until 1882 it was called the Construction School).
      The Imperial Moscow Engineering School of the Department of Railways was established in 1896, but the period of study there was only 3 years and in type it was more close to a modern technical school.
      The Imperial Moscow Technical School, founded in 1830 as a vocational school, received a new name and the status of a higher educational institution in 1868.
      The Electrotechnical Institute of Emperor Alexander III was established in 1891 in St. Petersburg on the basis of the Technical School of the Post and Telegraph Department, founded in 1886.
      The Imperial St. Petersburg Forestry Institute, founded in 1803, is one of the first higher educational institutions in Russia.

      New Alexandria Institute of Agriculture and Forestry, founded in 1816 on the outskirts of Warsaw Marimonte (now the territory of Zoliborz - Warsaw region).
      Gory-Goretsky Agricultural Institute, founded in 1840 as an agricultural school, the highest rank of which was transformed into the Agricultural Institute in 1848.
      Moscow Agricultural Institute, established in 1865 as the Petrovskaya Agricultural and Forestry Academy.
      Vologda Institute of Dairy Farming, founded in 1911.
      Voronezh Agricultural Institute, founded in 1913.
      Saratov Higher Agricultural Courses, founded in 1913.
      The Konstantinovsky Land Survey Institute, established in Moscow in 1779 in Moscow, as the Konstantinovsky Land Survey School.

      2.not MTU, but Imperial Moscow technical school, etc.

      And yes, it is these, IMPERIAL Universities, and graduated from ALL famous Soviet scientists and designers trained by the IMPERIAL PRESORAMS and teachers, some of whom were destroyed by the Bolsheviks.

      among the Swiss Bolsheviks, there were no professors and could not have been by definition, for they are stupid and lazy (they never worked for anyone)
      1. VLR
        3 September 2021 13: 20
        +4
        There are exact figures for graduates of Russian higher educational institutions of all profiles in 1913:
        2624 lawyers, 1277 factory engineers, 236 clergymen, 208 railway engineers, 166 mining engineers and architects. Somehow not very impressive. Considering that the population of the Russian Empire in that year was 164,4 million people.
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 3 September 2021 14: 00
          +2
          But an engineer was an engineer. Do all current graduates reach their level?
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 3 September 2021 14: 30
            +1
            But an engineer was an engineer.
            Cyrus Smith?
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 3 September 2021 16: 53
              +2
              Including. I rarely read The Mysterious Island. Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea was read to the point of impossibility.

              Garin-Mikhailovsky has the fourth book "Engineers". With all that people, with their weaknesses, but the country has developed.
          2. VLR
            3 September 2021 18: 32
            +1
            Well, given that a Ford representative who visited the famous St. Petersburg Putilov plant before World War I called it the most antediluvian plant ever seen, probably the tsarist engineers were not very good.
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 3 September 2021 19: 14
              +1
              The look can be different.
              But the point of view of Ataman Platov and Levsha can also take place.

              And you can always argue - what time was the golden age in any industry.
              As the peasants were looking for at Nekrasov - who will live well.
      2. Foul skeptic
        Foul skeptic 3 September 2021 14: 35
        0
        bourgeois and workers with peasants - more than half, nobles only 24% and their percentage is only falling, workers are growing

        The nonsense about not allowing the working class is obvious.

        I look in the book - I see a fig. Below in your message it is written what percentage of the peasants were in technical universities.

        yes someone is just "dark as anthracite":

        Learn:

        You are not arguing with me, but with the Minister of Public Education. Understand the gradation of educational institutions in the Russian Empire. You mixed everything up, including agricultural universities and non-university institutions.
        Technical universities - 5, engineering (which includes technical) - 15. Here is a list of them:

        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 3 September 2021 15: 44
          -4
          Quote: Nefarious skeptic
          I look in the book - I see a fig.


          this has long been understood. But why do you tell me, you spread your sick problems?
          Quote: Nefarious skeptic
          Below in your message it is written what percentage of the peasants were in technical universities.

          and it is indicated to you above
          Quote: Nefarious skeptic
          You are not arguing with me

          nobody needs you to argue.

          You have been given information on technical universities Russia, according to their specialization, location and year of foundation and your golimous delirium
          about only ... five technical universities is clearly shown
          Quote: Nefarious skeptic
          Therefore, before the VOR, in the most fantastic hands, there were no more than 40 thousand teachers,

          When you say, the impression is that you are delusional (s): there were 130 thousand schools, and teachers ... 3 times less ?. fool
          Quote: Nefarious skeptic
          So let's take a look at the social makeup.

          again didn’t make it the first time?

          Bourgeois, workers and peasants - more than 50% of the total number of students (see above) and from year to year their number ROSLO.
          1. Foul skeptic
            Foul skeptic 3 September 2021 16: 58
            +1
            your crazy delirium
            about only ... five technical universities is clearly shown

            Everything is written to you above. Argue with the Minister of Public Education


            When you say, the impression is that you are delusional (s): there were 130 thousand schools, and teachers ... 3 times less?

            No not like this. Let me remind you of your words
            Quote: Olgovich
            was brought up and trained in Russian Universities hundreds of thousands of teachers

            and your answer
            Quote: A vile skeptic
            Therefore, before the VOR, in the most fantastic hands, there were no more than 40 thousand teachers trained by universities.

            A teacher, that is, a person who can teach others what he knows himself, and within the framework of a rural school program, any educated person could be a teacher, and a teacher trained by a pedagogical university are two different things. Now you yourself can understand why there is no contradiction in the figures of 40 thousand and 130 thousand?
            again didn’t make it the first time?

            Bourgeois, workers and peasants - more than 50% of the total number of students (see above) and from year to year their number ROSLO.

            It doesn't reach you that class groups are not equal in number, therefore, consideration of the number of students without comparison with the size of the class group is meaningless - out of 100 peasants in a technical university, 000 people were educated, and nobles - 158 people, honorary citizens - 14 people, etc.
            1. Olgovich
              Olgovich 4 September 2021 07: 28
              -3
              Quote: Nefarious skeptic
              Everything is written to you above. Argue with the Minister of Public Education

              all of the above is written to you - HOW MUCH technical universities (hey what is technical University graduating engineers) was in Russia.

              Therefore, your nonsense about ..5 technical universities in Russia is getting funnier ...
              Quote: Nefarious skeptic
              Teacher

              teachers were also graduated from universities, courses, SEMINARIES, etc.
              Quote: Nefarious skeptic
              meaningless

              you none , in order to judge what is meaningful and what is not, hack into his forehead.

              And the fact is that the percentage of workers and peasants in universities is continuously ROS and was much higher than in England and Germany.
              1. Foul skeptic
                Foul skeptic 4 September 2021 13: 37
                0
                all of the above is written for you, HOW MANY technical universities (learn what a technical university that produces engineers) was in Russia.
                Therefore, your nonsense about ..5 technical universities in Russia is getting funnier ...

                There is no need to replace the division of universities into categories existing in a particular era with modern interpretations. If you do not know about the conclusions adopted on January 31, 1898 by the commission for technical education of the Russian Technical Society, which were reflected in Witte's report to the State Council on February 18, 1899, then this is your gap in education and you should not make it my problem. And about the "above written technical universities" - you have already written that you mixed everything in a heap. Explain why, for example, your Forestry Institute, which graduates foresters, is ranked among technical universities? Or on what basis did you write about the Vologda Institute of Dairy Farming, which became a university only in 1919? The fact that in 1911 the law on its creation was simply signed did not automatically create the institution. Until 1919, he operated as a lower school for dairy farming of the 37st category. I can give you 19 decisions on the creation of various universities in the mid-20th and early XNUMXth centuries, which remained just declarations that were not completed for one reason or another, often financial.
                The scans are given to you above. Can you refute them?
                teachers were also graduated from universities, courses, SEMINARIES, etc.

                AND? It does not reach you that the fact that a person after graduating from the listed educational institutions could end up at work in a lower school is a matter of what 1) any educated person could teach in a lower school and 2) coincidences, in exactly the same way as And now young people after graduating from universities can work with anyone, but not those for whom they studied. And teachers were trained by specialized universities. I can list, there are not many of them. Well, if you go over your list, then: 1) what you call teachers trained by universities, these are those left at the university itself to replenish their own teaching staff. By the way, in one of the pictures I gave earlier, there is data about this - 5 technical universities of the country left 1913 of their own students with them in 9 for this purpose. These people have nothing to do with 130 thousand schools. 2) firstly, the courses preparing teachers were only in the form of a department at the general education gymnasium of A.V. Zhikulina in Kiev and the number of female students in general on the courses were 120-130 per year, namely at the pedagogical department, of course, there are fewer, secondly, the courses are private educational institutions, with the consequent and noted officials of the Ministry of Education "more commercial than educational character ". Here is a typical example of such "commerce":

                thirdly, if the listeners of any courses became teachers, then due to what was written earlier, any educated person, in case of need, could pass for a teacher in a rural school, since it was easier than finding a job in their specialty, fourthly, even advertising the name "higher courses" did not mean their correspondence with universities, they received such a privilege only in 1912, after the law of December 19, 1911 3) the seminaries were not part of the higher school, this is the level of the gymnasium.
                Here are the dry figures for the number of teachers trained by higher education in 18 years.


                20 156 in state universities. And add 17 "non-state" teachers trained by public and private institutions.
                And the fact is that the percentage of workers and peasants in universities is continuously ROS and was much higher than in England and Germany.

                What research of which researcher will you confirm this "fact"? Give a link and look at your interpretation of the information on it. And what are you trying to pass off this "fact" for? For greater accessibility for the peasants of the Russian Empire, the availability of higher education in comparison with other countries? Seriously?
                Have you forgotten by chance that these "other countries" are not agrarian, but industrial, and there weren't just so many peasants? And you haven't forgotten by chance that the number of the peasantry was also growing. Consider two periods - before and after the first revolution (figures for the number of peasants in universities, both absolute and percentage, are taken from Ivanov's work):
                During the period from 1895 to 1906, the peasant population of the country increased by 117-95 = 22 million, while the growth of university students by 1336-758 = 578 peasants.
                During the period from 1908 to 1916, the peasant population of the country increased by 139-121 = 18 million, while the growth of university students by 3337-2881 = 456 peasants.
                That is, in the first period you had 1 peasants per 38 peasant with a higher education, and in the second, already 062. Where is the increase in availability? You can, of course, start referring to the war, but this will be just one more proof of the "unequal value" of the peasantry in comparison with other estates - peasants in universities in 39 compared with 473 decreased by 1916-1914 = 13,3%, and those the number of honorary citizens increased by 13-0,3 = 12%. The same for the townspeople and the sons of nobles
                PS Well, personal attacks about "no one" ... what else remains, except to get personal when there are no arguments.
                1. Olgovich
                  Olgovich 4 September 2021 15: 18
                  -2
                  Quote: Nefarious skeptic
                  No need to substitute

                  you are NOBODY to determine what is needed and what is not.

                  There were TENS of technical universities, which is shown and proven
                  Quote: Nefarious skeptic
                  then these are left at the university itself

                  not only: for the preparation of secondary school teachers: In 1914, the newspaper "School and Life" wrote:
                  “Universities - graduated thousands of young people in the teaching field,
                  Quote: Nefarious skeptic
                  firstly, the courses preparing teachers were only in the form of a department at the general education gymnasium of A.V. Zhikulina in Kiev

                  belay lol you are as dark as anthracite: since the middle of the 1904th century, the most widespread type of pedagogical institutions in Russia was precisely pedagogical courses in MANY cities of Russia (Tikhomirov's courses, - Moscow pedagogical courses of the society of educators and teachers, courses in Vyatka, Odessa, Chistopol, Vladimir, Ruza, Nizhny Novgorod, Saratov and other cities.), Higher women's courses in Moscow and St. Petersburg in St. Petersburg, in 1906, the Stebutov higher women's agricultural courses were opened, in 1905 - the Women's Polytechnic, the Raev's Historical, Literary and Legal Courses for Women, Peskovskaya's Legal Courses, Natural science courses Lokhvitskaya. In Moscow, Poltoratskaya's Historical, Philological and Legal Courses, the Higher Women's Medical Courses, and the Higher Women's Agricultural Courses were organized. During 16-XNUMX, higher women's courses were also created in Odessa, Kharkov, Kiev, Warsaw, Dorpat, Kazan, Tiflis, Novocherkassk, Tomsk
                  Quote: Nefarious skeptic
                  What research of which researcher will you confirm this "fact"? Give a link and look at your interpretation of the information on it. And what are you trying to pass off this "fact" for? For greater accessibility for the peasants of the Russian Empire, the availability of higher education in comparison with other countries? Seriously?

                  in the monograph by DL Saprykin this is well stated, in Volkov et al.
                  1. Foul skeptic
                    Foul skeptic 4 September 2021 16: 01
                    0
                    you are NOBODY to determine what is needed and what is not.

                    There were TENS of technical universities, which is shown and proven

                    1) Attacks of a personal nature about "no one" ... what else remains but to get personal when there are no arguments.
                    2) Explain why, for example, your Forestry Institute, which graduates foresters, is ranked among technical universities? Or on what basis did you write about the Vologda Institute of Dairy Farming, which became a university only in 1919? The fact that in 1911 the law on its creation was simply signed did not automatically create the institution. Until 1919, it operated as a lower school for dairy farming of the 37st category. I can give you 19 decisions on the creation of various universities in the mid-20th and early XNUMXth centuries, which remained just declarations that were not completed for one reason or another, often financial.
                    The scans are given to you above. Can you refute them?
                    not only: for the preparation of secondary school teachers: In 1914, the newspaper "School and Life" wrote:
                    “Universities - thousands of young people graduate for the pedagogical field,

                    Do you refer to the journalist's way of presenting information as an argument? Wonderful.
                    you are as dark as anthracite: since the middle of the 1904th century, the most widespread type of pedagogical institutions in Russia was precisely pedagogical courses in MANY cities of Russia (Tikhomirov's courses, - Moscow pedagogical courses of the society of educators and teachers, courses in Vyatka, Odessa, Chistopol, Vladimir, Ruza, Nizhny Novgorod, Saratov and other cities.), Higher women's courses in Moscow and St. Petersburg in St. Petersburg, in 1906, the Stebutov higher women's agricultural courses were opened, in 1905 - the Women's Polytechnic, the Raev's Historical, Literary and Legal Courses for Women, Peskovskaya's Legal Courses, Natural science courses Lokhvitskaya. In Moscow, Poltoratskaya's Historical, Philological and Legal Courses, the Higher Women's Medical Courses, and the Higher Women's Agricultural Courses were organized. During 16-XNUMX, higher women's courses were also created in Odessa, Kharkov, Kiev, Warsaw, Dorpat, Kazan, Tiflis, Novocherkassk, Tomsk

                    You again mixed up all the courses in general, as in the case of technical universities - both those that did not prepare teachers (like, for example, Stebutov's), and those that did not belong to higher education (like, for example, Tikhomirov's) ... But in order to understand this, it is necessary to spend not 5 minutes of Internet search on it, as you do, preparing answers.
                    in the monograph by DL Saprykin this is well stated, in Volkov et al.

                    Saprykin does not have a word about comparing the social composition, he only gives figures on the number of students per 10000 population in a number of countries. At the same time, there is no calculation of how he got the numbers, no references to the literature from where they came from.

                    And referring to Volkov is generally bad manners.
                    1. Olgovich
                      Olgovich 4 September 2021 16: 25
                      -3
                      Quote: Nefarious skeptic
                      1) Attacks of a personal nature about "no one" ... what else remains but to get personal when there are no arguments.

                      1. what, in, "attacks"? fool

                      You have determined your position in the appropriation of the right to determine what is what, but I remind you that it is not for you to decide, for you, yes.

                      And yes, it is YOU who impose with your annoying useless communication

                      2. Arguments are given, UNIVERSITIES are indicated, you are in deep e with your 5 TVUZ, yes.
                      Quote: Nefarious skeptic
                      Do you refer to the journalist's way of presenting information as an argument? Wonderful.

                      universities graduated teachers. not 9 people, but THOUSANDS
                      Quote: Nefarious skeptic
                      You again

                      you are back with your stupid
                      Quote: A vile skeptic
                      firstly, the courses preparing teachers were only in the form of a department at the general education gymnasium of A.V. Zhikulina in Kiev
                      - disgrace.
                      For the courses were SEA. But in order to understand this, it is not necessary to spend 5 minutes of Internet search on it, as you do when preparing answers.
                      Quote: Nefarious skeptic
                      Saprykin does not have a word about comparing the social composition, he only gives figures on the number of students per 10000 population in a number of countries.

                      this is exactly what you were told in response to you.

                      And Volkov, according to the social structure. If you like him, no, it doesn't matter, because you are.
  • Foul skeptic
    Foul skeptic 3 September 2021 14: 23
    +5
    No, in Russia, before the VOR, hundreds of thousands of teachers were brought up and trained in Russian universities, who continued their holy work after

    In the Russian Empire at the time of its zenith, before the war, there were 3 male universities for training teachers and 4 female universities for training teachers. In 1912, only 258 people studied for men, 2056 for women. That is, even if we take only the minimum 3-year course of study, the annual graduation will be less than a thousand (excluding those who did not complete their studies). Therefore, before the VOR, in the most fantastic scenarios, there were no more than 40 thousand teachers trained by universities.
    If the author knew the social composition of the rapidly growing technical universities in Russia, then the stupidity about not allowing such children would have sounded.

    So let's take a look at the social makeup. There is an all-subject report of the Minister of Public Education for 1913. As of January 1, 1914, 9704 students studied at the Petrograd Technological Institute, Kharkov Technological Institute, Moscow Technical School, Riga Polytechnic Institute, Tomsk Technological Institute, of whom by class (I have them in descending order):
    1st bourgeoisie - 3063 (31,56%)
    2.nobles - 2383 (24,56%)
    3.peasants - 2044 (21,06%)
    4. honorary citizens - 1367 (14,09%)
    5.other - 357 (3,68%)
    6.clergy - 232 (2,39%)
    7.cossacks - 132 (1,36%)
    8.aliens - 126 (1,30%)
    And now let's see what percentage of our class will be made up by its representatives in technical universities (also in descending order):
    1. honorary citizens - 0,16307%
    2.nobles - 0,14214%
    3.clergy - 0,028%
    4.other - 0,02768%
    5.Burghers - 0,01724%
    6.cossacks - 0,00342%
    7.peasants - 0,00158%
    8.aliens - 0,00114%
    Or, in a more visual form, one peasant with a higher education had:
    1. honorary citizens - 103 people
    2.nobles - 90 people
    3.clergy - 18 people
    4.other - 17 people
    5.bourgeois - 11 people
    6.cossacks - 2 people
    That is, out of 242 people with higher technical education, the peasant will be represented in the singular or in percentage - 0,4% (!!!).
    PS In fact, the percentage will be even lower, since the age structure of the estates is not taken into account - the poorer estates have more children than the wealthier ones.
  • Daniil Konovalenko
    Daniil Konovalenko 3 September 2021 08: 29
    +6
    Paul came to power practically as a representative of another, hostile dynasty.
    .And which dynasty was hostile to the Romanov dynasty? Well, yes, Arakcheev contributed a lot to strengthening the fighting efficiency and putting things in order in the army, which in the troops, especially in the guards, was accompanied by the planting of a cane drill. Mushtra will subsequently be introduced in military settlements. The flourishing of Arakcheev's activities fell on the reign of Alexander I, under Paul he was just beginning his career. A. Kersnovsky wrote about Arakcheev in the following way: The Russian historian in general, and the military one in particular, is still in debt to the slandered memory of this prominent and incomprehensible military leader.
    1. Terran ghost
      Terran ghost 3 September 2021 10: 25
      +2
      restoring order was accompanied by the planting of a stick drill. Mushtra will subsequently be introduced in military settlements.

      Here, after all, the trouble was that drill, moreover, had no practical sense in the military sense. The soldiers were tortured with a parade ground shagistika, and little and poorly engaged in rifle training.
      1. Daniil Konovalenko
        Daniil Konovalenko 3 September 2021 10: 36
        +3
        and little and poorly engaged in rifle training.
        So that's the point
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 3 September 2021 15: 01
          +4
          So that's the point

          In Gatchina (before accession), the maneuvers of Paul's personal guard were carried out systematically. And then they tortured the St. Petersburg guards with parades - they beat out a bad spirit! request Of the gentlemen officers, first of all. hi
          By the way, Paul ordered to build new barracks for the guard instead of dilapidated wooden ones. Somewhat paradoxical was his desire to settle the Horse Guards in the Tauride Palace - along with the horses! fellow Apparently, he "loved Potemkin", the former owner of the palace so much. laughing They had a fight with him for the first time, EMNIP, in 1774 - Potemkin got into the affairs of the Life Cuirassier Regiment, of which the heir was the chief. Paul, naturally, did not like this, there was a trial with the participation of the empress, which finally strengthened the mutual hostility of the son and mother. negative Although it is known that Grigory Aleksandrovich later even lent money to the "Gatchina hermit" - for the development of the city and the park of Gatchina. hi
          At the same time, Pavel did not tolerate the "Potemkin" military uniform. stop Somehow, after the accession of his father, Tsarevich Alexander flashed a crazy idea to propose new uniforms - apparently, similar to Potemkin's. He, on his head, and showed his father his prototypes, worn by two soldiers, "dummies". lol Pavel shouted, drove the soldier out of the room, and made a stern suggestion to the heir, along the way, mentioning Potemkin with unkind words! angry drinks
          1. Daniil Konovalenko
            Daniil Konovalenko 3 September 2021 15: 36
            +5
            And the result of the drill? Is the army getting better at fighting?
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 3 September 2021 15: 44
              +4
              And the result of the drill? Is the army getting better at fighting?

              I think that discipline has been tightened, at least in the Guards ... Daniel, about "the army began to fight better" you need to look not only at the drill (which the same Suvorov sabotaged himself, while also grimacing), but the whole range of measures military reform of Paul. As far as I understand, artillery affairs have improved, which is also the great merit of Arakcheev. He was also engaged in the Gatchina artillery - and there they were trained very well in quick opening of fire and maneuvering.
              And about the drill - after the wars with Napoleon, the "grandmother's pet" will tighten the screws in a way his father never dreamed of! request The result will "explode" on December 14, 1825 ... hi
              1. Fat
                Fat 3 September 2021 17: 06
                +5
                A little earlier, in 1820, the uprising of L.G. Semenovsky regiment ...
                ... The soldiers of His Majesty's company, dissatisfied with the exorbitant severity and exactingness of the new regimental commander, gathered on the evening of October 16, voluntarily "went to the roll call", refused to go on guard, demanded the company commander and did not want to disperse, despite the admonitions of their superiors; then this company was surrounded by two companies of the Pavlovsk Life Guards regiment and put into the Peter and Paul Fortress.
                The rest of the companies decided to intercede for their comrades and showed disobedience to the higher authorities who appeared, demanded that the comrades be released from arrest or sent the entire regiment to the fortress. The authorities accepted the second option. Under the escort of the Cossacks, without weapons, the regiment proceeded to the Peter and Paul Fortress.
                These events, which lasted four days, took place in the absence of the sovereign ... Orders came from a committee made up of St. Petersburg Governor-General Miloradovich, Generals Vasilchikov and Zakrevsky.
                Every half hour, reports to Miloradovich were sent to the regiment about the events with special messengers, “all measures were taken to preserve the city. gendarmes, and the alarm was terrible ... ". Chaadaev, the adjutant of the commander of the guards corps, was sent to the sovereign with a report (after this instruction he resigned). The regiment was pacified, the "tsar's company" was driven into Petropavlovka.

                The regiment was reassigned ... Only after 3 years the reformed regiment was granted the rights of the "young guard" ...
                "After the Semyonov story, Emperor Alexander acted completely under the influence of Metternich ... In 22, upon his return to St. Petersburg, the first order of the government was to close the Masonic lodges ... receipts were taken from all employees that they would not belong to secret societies ..." - Yakushkin V.E.
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 3 September 2021 17: 13
                  +3
                  A little earlier, in 1820, the uprising of L.G. Semenovsky regiment ...

                  Yes, Andrei Borisovich, you are right, the first "swallow" ..
                  then this company was surrounded by two companies of the Pavlovsk Life Guards regiment and put into the Peter and Paul Fortress.

                  Note that the "Pavlovtsy" were quite used as a kind of "military police". The leaders of the Decembrists were also hanged when they were cordoned off. Apparently, the regiment was considered very reliable. soldier
                  Wikipedia has rather scanty information about the Pavlovsk regiment. For example, it is not mentioned that under Eylau, part of the units of Murat's famous cavalry attack "crashed" on his formation. angry Well, Klyastitsy is also not mentioned - and the regiment went first, and it knocked down the French from the crossings!
                  1. Fat
                    Fat 3 September 2021 17: 19
                    +2
                    Well, under Anna Ioanovna EMNIP in 1830 was created by L.G. Izmailovsky regiment just to counterbalance the old amusing ... If desired, about L.G. Pavlovsky regiment, you can try to dig up information from the reenactors. Interested, I'll look. yes
                    1. Fat
                      Fat 3 September 2021 17: 28
                      +2
                      There is https://runivers.ru/lib/book4744/58661/ Gouvalt Onufriy Khristoforovich "History of the Pavlovsk Regiment Life Guards" 1852 Type. Edward Weimar. SPb ...
                      1. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 3 September 2021 17: 37
                        +2
                        Type of. Edward Weimar. SPb ...

                        I'll take a look! Thank you heartfelt!
                    2. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 3 September 2021 17: 36
                      +2
                      Well, under Anna Ioanovna EMNIP in 1830 was created by L.G. Izmailovsky regiment just to counterbalance the old amusing ...

                      Also at the end of 1730 the Horse Guards regiment was named. It is believed that this regiment and the one you indicated, Izmailovsky, was created on the advice of the wise Minich. yes And yes, exactly in contrast to Preobrazhensky and Semenovsky, who have already become adept at coups. No.
                      And now for an interesting fact. wink It seems that the shelves were created "as opposed to" seasoned entertainers. But the coup of 1762 began precisely in the Izmailovsky regiment. yes And the horse guards supported him so joyfully that they went to "apologize" to their boss - the uncle of the unfortunate emperor Peter III, George Ludwig, who annoyed them with his demands. laughing They asked him to give the sword, he refused, they had to take it away by force; at the same time, the foreign prince was very well cuffed on the sides - he was almost killed. angry Along the way, mirrors and furniture were broken in the house of the "former chief". In general, we took a walk - from the heart! fellow drinks
                      1. Fat
                        Fat 3 September 2021 19: 18
                        +1
                        Everything is so, only the "seniority" of the regiments is different and the Izmailovites were immediately formed as L.G.
                        And all the same - mischievous, sir ... laughing drinks
  • kalibr
    kalibr 3 September 2021 08: 30
    +8
    Great stuff, Valery! My applause!
    1. VLR
      3 September 2021 08: 37
      +11
      Many thanks. The next two will be no worse:
      "Russian landowner Count Arakcheev" and "Arakcheev and Alexander I".
      1. kalibr
        kalibr 3 September 2021 08: 59
        +8
        Quote: VlR
        Many thanks. The next two will be no worse:
        "Russian landowner Count Arakcheev" and "Arakcheev and Alexander I".

        I, on the other hand, evaluate your work more from the emotional point of view, then from the factual point of view. That is, the manner in which the material is presented, the language is what attracts me in the first place. And then - I take off my hat ...
        1. Okolotochny
          Okolotochny 3 September 2021 09: 35
          +7
          I support, it is interesting to read, vividly, the pictures themselves pop up in my head. The same feeling from reading Pan Kohank's articles.
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 3 September 2021 13: 31
            +5
            I support, it is interesting to read, vividly, the pictures themselves pop up in my head. The same feeling from reading Pan Kohank's articles.

            Alexey, thank you very much. drinks I will write a sequel. The main thing is that Valery does not do this earlier - he chose a wonderful topic! wink drinks
            1. Okolotochny
              Okolotochny 3 September 2021 14: 52
              +4
              Nikolay, write more. hi
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 3 September 2021 15: 03
                +3
                Nikolay, write more.

                Will live! drinks
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 3 September 2021 08: 36
    +7
    Colleagues, Valery, good morning. Valery, I respect you very much, but you got a long introduction. In fact, a separate work.
    Valery, if you slightly expand your introduction, you will get a good article.
    R.
    S
    Of course, you have your own creative plans, but it would be great if you "returned" to Russia and talked about pre-Petrine Russia. We somehow forget this period.
    1. VLR
      3 September 2021 08: 47
      +8
      There will be later about pre-Petrine Russia, but at the beginning, probably, something about France during the Napoleonic Wars, and, of course, this will be connected with the history of Russia.
      1. kalibr
        kalibr 3 September 2021 09: 00
        +6
        Quote: VlR
        something about France during the Napoleonic Wars

        For Christ's sake, don't touch Austerlitz. I'm not done with him!
        1. VLR
          3 September 2021 11: 06
          +4
          No, there will be about General Joubert, then - about the Polish legions.
        2. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 3 September 2021 13: 32
          +4
          For Christ's sake, don't touch Austerlitz. I'm not done with him!

          And Gatchina! I'm not done with her either! laughing
      2. vladcub
        vladcub 3 September 2021 12: 43
        +3
        Valery, be careful: Astra, like all women, has many desires. Just satisfy one thing, and then: "mountain landslide"
      3. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 3 September 2021 13: 59
        +3
        Thank you. I will wait
  • Ilya22558
    Ilya22558 3 September 2021 08: 36
    +6
    Great article !!! I read it with great pleasure. And the first paragraph ... Right our time)))
    I'm looking forward to the continuation, very interesting about the estate in Gruzino, I had to read about it in the framework of a very curious criminal case about the murder of Nastasya Minkina (yes, yes, the one that is present as a guest at Satan's ball in the novel "The Master and Margarita") and about the behavior of Count Arakcheev.
    1. VLR
      3 September 2021 08: 44
      +9
      Yes, in the next article there will be a short story about Minkina, who received an invitation to Woland's Moscow ball.
      1. Daniil Konovalenko
        Daniil Konovalenko 3 September 2021 09: 07
        +5
        Ie. Will one more "Black myth" be exposed only now about Minkina? smile
        1. VLR
          3 September 2021 11: 03
          +5
          There are no myths about Minkina, she is still a person.
          In addition to the tyranny of serfs, she also "instructed the earl of the horns" and took bribes on his behalf. After her death, Arakcheev with great difficulty returned the "gifts" back - they did not want to take it!
          1. Daniil Konovalenko
            Daniil Konovalenko 3 September 2021 11: 16
            +4
            Well, thank God, otherwise Minkina also thought - "Black myth", by the way, when the case for her murder was being conducted, a sufficient number of people were flogged. Arakcheev and Minkina found each other.
          2. Ilya22558
            Ilya22558 3 September 2021 12: 26
            +5
            Well, there this Madame (Minkina) did a lot, not a noblewoman, communicated with the sovereign emperor with forged documents about the nobility (a criminal offense), which was unacceptable, bribes, debauchery. But with all this, Arakcheev ordered to bury her near the temple altar (apparently he loved very much), another loud scandal already with the church, since the abbot knew what Minkina was.
          3. Mihaylov
            Mihaylov 3 September 2021 14: 22
            +3
            Quote: VlR
            Besides the tyranny of serfs

            This summer I was in Polibino, the house-museum of Sophia Kovalevskaya, and noted for myself the following fact: her father, a retired general, bought this estate from an auction at a sale. And it was confiscated from a landowner (also a widow of a military man, I forgot her last name) "for cruel treatment of serfs." hi
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 3 September 2021 16: 01
              +2
              And it was confiscated from a landowner (also a widow of a military man, I forgot her last name) "for cruel treatment of serfs."

              Interestingly, and under which the emperor was withdrawn?
              Sergei, here's another question. As you remember, in Staraya Russa, near the monument to Dostoevsky, there is the Nikolskaya Church.
              Here is a sign:


              The bell tower was added in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Hmm ... the time of Paul's reign is definitely affected! what And also a nuance: the church is Old Believer! I wonder if this building is somehow connected with the fact that it was Paul who allowed the Old Believers to freely perform their rituals? drinks
              1. Mihaylov
                Mihaylov 3 September 2021 16: 07
                +2
                Quote: Pane Kohanku
                I wonder if this building is somehow connected with the fact that it was Paul who allowed the Old Believers to freely perform their rituals?

                No, Nikolai, has nothing to do with Paul, I clarified: this church was handed over to the Old Believers already in the 90s of the twentieth century, I did not understand about the reasons for such an unexpected decision. hi
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 3 September 2021 16: 10
                  +2
                  this church was handed over to the Old Believers already in the 90s of the twentieth century, I did not understand about the reasons for such an unexpected decision.

                  Aw ... what Thank God that, thank God, the co-religionists did not give back the Museum of the Arctic and Antarctic! stop They have been demanding since 1991!
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 3 September 2021 16: 20
                    +4
                    "God save the polar explorers" (c) laughing
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 3 September 2021 16: 27
                      +4
                      "God save the polar explorers" (c)

                      Have you heard about it? There even some activist from Hydromet blurted out that, they say, "this is not a museum, but a warehouse of dusty penguins." Apparently, he really wanted to get rid of the museum ... Well, you get it. negative Here, from the news for 2016:

                      https://regnum.ru/news/innovatio/2046214.html

                      A well-known deputy Milonov even suggested moving the museum to the icebreaker "Krasin" - I remember exactly his speech on TV, there, literally, a short video was there for a couple of minutes.
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 3 September 2021 16: 31
                        +3
                        I heard about Isaac. negative
                      2. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 3 September 2021 16: 40
                        +7
                        I heard about Isaac.

                        As a result, even the "voice of St. Petersburg" quit - a wonderful artist Nikolai Burov, director of St. Isaac's Cathedral-Museum. It was, EMNIP, in 2014. Nevertheless, there was also a struggle for the Museum of the Arctic and Antarctic, just now, not so famous and loud ... hi
                        Have you seen the rate at which churches are growing in my area? .. what
                        No, I do not want to offend anyone's feelings - believers, anti-Stalinists, etc., but it seems to me that there is some reason in this picture ... Excuse me if I offended anyone - and did not even think! hi
                      3. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 3 September 2021 16: 44
                        +2
                        "Not a church, not a club,
                        Kiss, lean shish you button accordion "(C)
                      4. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 3 September 2021 16: 54
                        +4
                        Kiss, lean shish you accordion

                        Therefore, Elon Musk will still fly to Mars. And our priests will baptize rockets ... hi
                      5. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 3 September 2021 17: 14
                        +2
                        And the first person on Mars will be a black bisexual transgender
                      6. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 3 September 2021 17: 15
                        +3
                        And the first person on Mars will be a black bisexual transgender

                        Quite possible. But definitely not one of ours. Unfortunately.
                    2. VLR
                      3 September 2021 18: 18
                      +2
                      Anyone other than Elon Musk will fly to Mars. He is either a swindler of the level of MegaBender, or a blessed and holy fool worse than Vasily. His project of a flight to Mars with a crew of idiot colonists who bought a one-way ticket beyond adequacy and even the rudiments of rationality. But he is a self-PR man, of course, a genius. It reminds me of an artist who, at his own auction, anonymously bought a mediocre daub for crazy money, and then presented it to a famous museum on behalf of this unknown benefactor.
                    3. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 3 September 2021 22: 13
                      +3
                      But he is a self-PR man, of course, a genius.

                      Valery, only our head of Roscosmos is worse than him. Remember the achievements over the past five years ... Was Popov invited? The module "science" hell-knows-how many-years did you do? But he sings songs, records a video of shooting, his son tried to stick it in the IL ... Il-112 fell, right? With the highest professionals in their field, who could not even escape, that even me, "jacket", is clear from the video of the fall? recourse They could NOT do anything. The speed is small. It is impossible to bring down the fire. Sitting down is also impossible.
                      That's all the "national achievements". I want to swear with good obscenities.
                      And Musk will fly. He is a dreamer. Unlike our "ilita", which you perfectly described at the beginning of the article. Who got everything for free, who knows perfectly well how to take and divide everything, knows how to be friends with each other (otherwise you will not survive!), But does not create NOTHING NEW. And which wasted everything in its own feeble mind, although it was possible to make a colossal leap in the Soviet heritage!
                      And we - to live with them. Because the "elite" have been brought up for centuries, and the majors' sons will be even worse than the criminal fathers ... We must wait until geniuses wake up from them. This is the spiral of history!
                      How do you like my three articles about Paul? What is your professional opinion?
                    4. VLR
                      4 September 2021 15: 57
                      +2
                      It was pleasant to read - without effort and strain.
                    5. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 4 September 2021 21: 19
                      +3
                      It was pleasant to read - without effort and strain.

                      Thank you. soldier Honestly. Mutually - you know about my attitude to your articles. We come to them with joy anyway. drinks
                    6. Phil77
                      Phil77 5 September 2021 09: 41
                      +2

                      Kolya! Dear buddy! Happy birthday !!!! Everything, everything, everything!
                      Thank you ... for you! I respect, appreciate, proud of you! drinks drinks drinks
                    7. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 5 September 2021 15: 47
                      +3
                      Thank you ... for you! I respect, appreciate, proud of you!

                      This is for you, Sergey, thank you for everything! What would I do without you! I am even more proud of you! good drinks
                      And our company is very good. I would venture to suggest - the best on the site. Guys, heartfelt thanks to everyone! drinks
                    8. Liam
                      Liam 5 September 2021 16: 02
                      +3
                      Congratulations. Health and Good Luck! drinks
                    9. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 5 September 2021 18: 34
                      +2
                      Congratulations. Health and Good Luck!

                      Victor, thank you very much! Will live! drinks When do you have?
                    10. Liam
                      Liam 5 September 2021 19: 08
                      +2
                      I have a couple of weeks ago)
      2. ycuce234-san
        ycuce234-san 3 September 2021 23: 03
        0
        There are hopeless cancer patients and not only patients, for example, who do not have time to get medicines, because they are being developed more slowly than the disease progresses.
        Therefore, the flight is possible, if only because it is easier for such patients to find funds for flight than to defeat the disease. As a result, even now, not just all rich buratin girls who want to fly, but volunteers sponsored by foundations and organizations with such diagnoses, can fly. Although, just by waiting 20-30 years, you can get much more advanced and reliable technologies, like nuclear engines. And then it will become just a "long diplomatic trip" - diplomats, doctors have been living in other countries for several years, sailors go for 9 months on a voyage ...
      3. DenVB
        DenVB 4 September 2021 16: 49
        0
        Quote: VlR
        an artist who at his own auction anonymously bought mediocre daub for crazy money

        Such an operation will be very costly, because the auction house takes a considerable percentage for its services. Let us recall the episode from Ilf and Petrov: "Fifteen percent of the commission fee is included," the young lady replied.
  • Mihaylov
    Mihaylov 3 September 2021 16: 29
    +3
    Quote: 3x3zsave
    "God save the polar explorers" (c)

    There is no Mauser Papanin on them drinks
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 3 September 2021 16: 32
      +3
      Each Mauser Papanin has its own Krenkel. laughing
  • Mihaylov
    Mihaylov 3 September 2021 16: 09
    +3
    Quote: Pane Kohanku
    Interestingly, and under which the emperor was withdrawn?

    Well, since Sophia's father bought it in 1850, it turns out under Nikolai Pavlovich, it is unlikely that this estate stood unrealized since Alexander Pavlovich. hi
  • vladcub
    vladcub 3 September 2021 16: 11
    +2
    I don’t remember one at Woland’s ball.
    All my attention was given to the naked Margarita. She was the decoration of the ball, not some kind of impostor
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 3 September 2021 16: 17
      +3
      All my attention was given to the naked Margarita. She was the decoration of the ball, not some kind of impostor


      We are in awe! yes

  • Bagatur
    Bagatur 3 September 2021 09: 30
    +3
    As our singer Hristo Botev wrote, "We are holy, it is supposed to be considered crazy ..
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 3 September 2021 16: 05
      +2
      Bagatur, you are the third Bulgarian who * lived "or" lives "on the site
  • Fat
    Fat 3 September 2021 09: 41
    +6
    hi A wonderful article turned out. It is readable in one breath with pleasure and the illustrations are excellently selected. An abandoned house with a mezzanine, well, just the way of life today ... In general, thanks to Valery yes
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 3 September 2021 09: 51
      +6
      Yes, Andrei, the house has scratched to the heart ... And how many more of them are there in Russia.
      1. Fat
        Fat 3 September 2021 10: 16
        +6
        hi Konstantin. There are a lot of such houses and it is doubly insulting when you know the places where the old houses are treated much more carefully.
        However, the house in Garusovo is most likely "new", that is, it was built around 1860 ...
        The destruction of the old house in Garusovo and courtyards lasted for about 40 years (1813-1850). After the death of the count and his brother Peter, the construction of a new house in Garusovo was probably carried out by the children of Ivan Vasilyevich Arakcheev, who had his own similar decaying estate in neighboring Sigovo. Surely the archives contain some documents describing logging and the progress of building a house. In the working folders of the Department of Culture of the Udomel urban district, descriptions of the monuments of the Udomel district are stored. On the sheet describing the house of the "Arakcheevs" in Garusovo it is written:
        "p 2. Date of construction of the house: about 1860" This is probably close to the truth.
        New house. In the late 19th - early 20th centuries, the children and grandchildren of Ivan Vasilyevich Arakcheev lived in this new house: two sisters Nadezhda, Ekaterina and brother Mikhail Mikhailovich Arakcheevs. The artists Levitan (1893–1895), Moravov (from 1903), Bogdanov-Belsky (from 1908), Stepanov (1901–1914) have visited and periodically lived in this house.
        In the 1960s, the house was empty. In 1964, a young artist Konstantin Kirillovich Ivanov appeared in these parts, who began to come several times a year to the Seagull dacha. In early 1972, the leaders of the Udomel region offered him to rent an empty house in Garusovo, which once belonged to Arakcheev's distant relatives. Four young painters rented a house for an art workshop and summer practice for students of the Leningrad art school, to create a museum named after V.I. Levitan. In the summer, the first practice of the students took place, and the collection of local history materials began. However, in June 1974, the house had to be vacated as a hostel for workers. During this time, K. Ivanov discovered on the walls of the house under the wallpaper, pasted in several layers of letters and documents of the brothers Ivan and Andrei Arakcheev, Alexei Arakcheev and other relatives. The letters are kept in the artist's studio in St. Petersburg.
        1. depressant
          depressant 3 September 2021 11: 49
          +2
          Good afternoon, Andrey Borisovich! )))
          On your recommendation, I read Frank Herbert's "Annoying Experiment".
          I found nothing new in the book.
          The study of the peculiarities of the absolute power of the bureaucracy ends with the same brief conclusions given by the author himself, as in the books of the "Dune" series. To be convinced of this, I specially reread The Dune Chapter.
          I liked that, according to the law, a citizen subject to Consent and acquitted by the court could be killed by an angry crowd when leaving the hall. A lot of funny things happened there. The main message is the need for humanization. Otherwise, you will raise a monster that will bury you.
          And since Herbert is a product of his society, it means that such thoughts wandered in this society, he simply concentrated them and gave them an artistic form.
          1. Fat
            Fat 3 September 2021 12: 57
            +3
            hi Lyudmila Yakovlevna. I had more in mind the novel "Creators of the Gods".
            Try to understand: the world is a state of your soul. Self-discipline of one person and the whole civilization. It must be born within you. By creating an external force in order to preserve the world, you thereby give it unlimited power. And the inevitable comes in the form of explosion, destruction, chaos. This is the way of our universe. Only by creating paired opposites, you restore a delicate balance.
            ----------
            "There is a rather ancient proverb:
            The more powerful is the god, the stronger is the devil,
            more flesh - more worms,
            more property - more anxiety
            tighter control means more people who need it. "
            1. depressant
              depressant 3 September 2021 13: 35
              +1
              So I read "Creators of the Gods")))
              I suffer without good literature yes )))
              Thanks for the recommendation!
              1. Fat
                Fat 3 September 2021 13: 44
                +3
                Yes, not at all. I will not spoil yes But I will say "on the surface" this is the story of a spy. Enjoy.
                With respect.
  • Terran ghost
    Terran ghost 3 September 2021 10: 32
    +4
    The emperor limited corvee to three days a week, forgave the peasants for arrears in the poll tax in the amount of more than 7 million rubles, forbade the sale of peasants without land and splitting up peasant families when they were transferred to new owners.

    The only problem was that the progressive undertaking turned out to be ... actually sabotaged by the landowners, who "re-interpreted" the "Manifesto on the three-day corvee" of 1797 from a binding normative act to a "recommendatory act". That is, into a useless "filkin literacy".
    However, this was facilitated by the fact that the Manifesto, alas, did not contain any measures of responsibility for violators or methods of suppressing violations.
    1. Daniil Konovalenko
      Daniil Konovalenko 3 September 2021 11: 23
      +4
      In our country, when "myths" are exposed, they usually write about what they have accepted, and in most cases they prefer to remain silent about what has been adopted. Destroy one "myth" and create a new one. Or that
      forbade selling peasants without land and splitting up peasant families when they were transferred to new owners.
      it was simply not respected.
  • vladcub
    vladcub 3 September 2021 10: 55
    +3
    "rethinking the views of a matured poet"
    Valery, almost always adolescence is characterized by radicalism, and rethinking is characteristic with age.
    So Pushkin: with age he became a monarchist, and Arakcheev was a knight of the throne. + In Pushkin, the historian spoke
    1. Daniil Konovalenko
      Daniil Konovalenko 3 September 2021 11: 25
      +3
      So A.S. Pushkin was not a republican either smile
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 3 September 2021 15: 37
        +3
        Not so much a Republican, but rather a Liberal.
        1. Daniil Konovalenko
          Daniil Konovalenko 3 September 2021 15: 41
          +2
          If he were not a liberal, then all his work would have had a different color, and the pilot Pushkin would not have been our everything ... Perhaps we would not even know him as a poet.
    2. depressant
      depressant 3 September 2021 11: 51
      +4
      Well, yes.
      Who was not young was not stupid wassat )))
  • vladcub
    vladcub 3 September 2021 12: 37
    +2
    Quote: kalibr
    Quote: VlR
    something about France during the Napoleonic Wars

    For Christ's sake, don't touch Austerlitz. I'm not done with him!

    Q. Oh, you and Valery Austerlitz will share: one will take the French, and the other will take allies.
    Seriously, you need to correlate your work, perhaps complement each other, or vice versa, someone will have a "zest"
    1. kalibr
      kalibr 3 September 2021 13: 47
      +3
      Quote: vladcub
      on the contrary, someone will have a "zest"

      What for? It is not interesting. I wonder when unexpected ...
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 3 September 2021 15: 34
        +2
        Perhaps you are right: the surprise is more interesting
        1. kalibr
          kalibr 3 September 2021 15: 54
          +4
          You see. Recently there were interesting articles by Valery "about Indians". I was tempted and ... now I'm preparing my own version. How and about what? Find out. But Valery will definitely not annoy me, because he does not write such materials. How can I not write materials in his style. This is so.
          1. vladcub
            vladcub 4 September 2021 08: 35
            0
            It will be interesting to compare. Who has * tastier carrots *
  • Mihaylov
    Mihaylov 3 September 2021 13: 44
    +3
    The reason was the suicide of Lieutenant Colonel Lena, offended by him. He challenged Arakcheev to a duel, and when he was refused, he shot himself

    From the point of view of a modern person, a rather unusual reason for settling accounts with life.
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 3 September 2021 13: 58
      +5
      From the point of view of a modern person, a rather unusual reason for settling accounts with life.

      Sergey, what about Arakcheev's refusal? Wasn't it unexpected in those times? Especially when compared with the irrepressible sideburner - A.S. Pushkin. wassat
      1. Mihaylov
        Mihaylov 3 September 2021 14: 03
        +4
        Quote: Pane Kohanku
        Sergey, what about Arakcheev's refusal? Wasn't it unexpected in those times?

        Well, probably a certain challenge to society in this was the second important factor: the right lawyer cannot break the law hi
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 3 September 2021 14: 38
    +4
    "thanks to the disgrace of Arakcheev, the conspiracy became possible" dad read the book of Kutuzov and there is something like this
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 3 September 2021 15: 20
      +3
      "thanks to the disgrace of Arakcheev, the conspiracy became possible" dad read the book of Kutuzov and there is something like this

      Yes, Rakovsky wrote that there. And how he described the last supper of the emperor!
      I would venture to suggest that for the first time Pavel was shown as a man, and not as an evil clown ... in the film "Assa"! hi

  • vladcub
    vladcub 3 September 2021 15: 01
    +5
    "at the expense of the Novgorod cadet corps" in Pushkin read that Nicholas 1 appointed the cadet corps the successor of the Arakcheevs. Arakcheev wrote in his Testament that the emperor would be pleased to choose an heir for him.
    Gaidar's story: School "has an episode of a meeting: Golikov and a cadet. Golikov drew attention to the letters:" Gr. ANNKK "
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 3 September 2021 15: 06
      +3
      Gaidar's story: School "has an episode of a meeting: Golikov and a cadet. Golikov drew attention to the letters:" Gr. ANNKK "

      The corps was then transferred to Nizhny Novgorod. Apparently, "N.N." - "Nizhegorodsky". Georgian became "a suitcase without a handle" and ceased to belong to the corps. Let's wait for an article about him! There are a lot of interesting nuances! drinks
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 3 September 2021 15: 32
        +2
        It would be something to wait, but we know how to wait
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 3 September 2021 15: 15
    +2
    Valery, in fairness: the so-called "parochialism" and "category books" were abolished before Peter 1. If Katka was not on vacation, perhaps she would have said: who canceled
    1. VLR
      3 September 2021 15: 50
      +3
      Discharge books were burned on the orders of Fyodor Alekseevich, the elder brother of Peter I. Some of Fyodor's initiatives and undertakings were later attributed to Peter.
      1. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 4 September 2021 09: 18
        +1
        If in all fairness, then: Alexei Mikhailovich was the first of the Romanovs to start thinking about modernizing Russia, the ruler Sophia was also a supporter of reforms, but unlike Peter, they carried out a leisurely reform
        R.
        S
        It was always interesting: why did the first Romanovs in history go not with a serial number, but by their patronymic?
        1. DenVB
          DenVB 4 September 2021 15: 49
          0
          Quote: Astra wild2
          Why do the first Romanovs in history go not with a serial number, but by their patronymic?

          Not only the first ones. Anna Ioannovna, Elizaveta Petrovna.
  • vladcub
    vladcub 3 September 2021 15: 58
    +3
    "class solidarity" I do not know whether it is true or not, but it seems like Karamzin is also a minor nobleman?
    Regarding the "social elevators": in the Republic of Ingushetia there were so-called: "Velvet books" of noble families, and most of them were from the so-called "service" nobles: who, with intelligence or courage, were produced in the nobility. Example: I.N.Ulyanov is one of those who advanced intellectually, and A.I.Denikin is one of those who achieved the nobility with a sword
  • Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 3 September 2021 16: 28
    +7
    Still, it seems to me that Valery is steadily reducing the exactingness of his materials - they contain more and more polemics, personal assessments and less and less objectivity. If at the beginning of his author's career in VO he simply often sinned by giving out stories and legends, for the sake of brilliance, as reliable, confirmed historical facts, now he is actively imposing his own, subjective vision of history.
    Arakcheev is an ambiguous personality and to mold a purely positive (as well as a purely negative) hero out of him is to sin against historical reliability. Valery makes a straight cherub with wings - honest, loyal, disinterested, energetic ... From one extreme we are pushed to another.
    Let's remember that he was a callous and cruel person, despotic and not used to understanding any subtleties and difficulties.
    One of the brightest traces left by him in history can be considered the creation of the foundations of a police state, and the frenzied retrograde, the fight against any attempts at reforms that our state so needed, in fact, provided an increase in Russia's backwardness from the leading European states, which, under the Romanovs, could be overcome or it was not even possible to cut even a little.
    It was Arakcheev that I would consider the founder of the deplorable political line pursued by the Romanovs, with the exception of Alexander II, which ultimately led to the turmoil at the beginning of the twentieth century.
    Energetic, honest, loyal, selfless - yes.
    But at the same time, he is shortsighted, cruel, conservative and stereotyped in all endeavors.
    Here, it seems to me, is a more objective portrait of the hero of the article.
    1. parusnik
      parusnik 3 September 2021 19: 02
      +5
      hi Michael, removed from the tongue laughing I wanted to write almost the same thing, but most importantly, you made it more delicate and softer. I agree with your comment. Exactly. Debunking some myths, Valery creates others.
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 3 September 2021 20: 25
        +2
        Yes, that's what I meant. And most of all it is upsetting that from time to time the author goes further and further along this curved path under our stormy approval. Alas. sad
        1. parusnik
          parusnik 3 September 2021 20: 29
          +3
          the author goes further and further along this curved path under our stormy approval. Alas.
          Like a "star" disease, a promising footballer. Played a season, praised and .... that's all.
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 3 September 2021 20: 42
            +3
            Creative people are often selfish, vulnerable and naturally have very high self-esteem. Criticism for such people can be simply deadly, as it paralyzes creativity, but it often happens that they do not perceive it at all. It's like a defensive reaction.
            1. Liam
              Liam 3 September 2021 20: 50
              0
              Quote: Trilobite Master
              People of creativity

              This happens when history is transformed from science into creation
        2. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 3 September 2021 20: 41
          +3
          Michael! hi
          Any author is biased in his judgments. And you too.
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 3 September 2021 20: 52
            +3
            Anton, at least I try to be objective, even when writing comments. And when writing articles, even more so, I check the sources, explore different points of view and only after that I form my own opinion and state it as carefully as possible, trying to avoid categorical conclusions.
            From this, of course, the imagery suffers, but nevertheless, for a popular science article, it seems to me that the content is more important than the form. Or, to put it another way, it is better not to let the reader remember anything after reading it than to remember a lie or form an unreliable idea of ​​the subject.
            The end point of the path along which Valery is now moving confidently is Samsonov. And how quickly this, still a very significant distance, will be overcome, depends not only on Valery himself, but also on you and me, on our assessments and on our criticism. I hope.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 3 September 2021 21: 05
              +4
              Nothing depends on our criticism.
              "I won't write better, even for you, Anton" (V.O. Shpakovsky)
              1. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master 3 September 2021 21: 39
                +2
                Firstly, not all authors treat criticism in the same way, but it seems to me that the creative process of Ryzhov and Shpakovsky takes place in completely different ways, and accordingly, the attitude to ritual should be different.
                Secondly, it seems to me that Vyacheslav Olegovich is still somewhat disingenuous in this case. Where all creative people are alike is that they seek approval in one way or another for their creativity. I am talking now about creativity, not about craft.
                Valery reacts to criticism rather painfully and this gives me certain hopes personally. However, if criticisms are drowned in applause, then, of course, they will be of little use.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 3 September 2021 22: 10
                  +3
                  The applause is due to the general sensory hunger of our crowd. However, regarding me, if you noticed, I never (well, almost) express my gratitude to the author unless I have questions or criticism. "Anton, don't start at least!" (V.O.Shpakovsky)
                  1. Trilobite Master
                    Trilobite Master 3 September 2021 22: 42
                    +3
                    I thank the author if the article seemed to me useful, interesting or provoked an interesting discussion. Well, sometimes just so that the person was pleased. smile
                    So Vaschenko, Shpakovsky and Ryzhov almost always deserve gratitude, for they collect a certain quorum. smile
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 3 September 2021 23: 00
                      +2
                      or provoked an interesting discussion
                      Why didn't you thank Samsonov yesterday? tongue
              2. Sling cutter
                Sling cutter 3 September 2021 22: 27
                +2
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                Nothing depends on our criticism.
                "I won't write better, even for you, Anton" (V.O. Shpakovsky)

                He is a conjuncturist))
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 3 September 2021 22: 46
                  +3
                  Who is not without sin?

                  "What is autumn? These are branches,
                  Sawed branches underfoot
                  I started the chainsaw and walked through the yards
                  Autumn, I forgot to take my pills ... "
                  1. Sling cutter
                    Sling cutter 3 September 2021 23: 04
                    +3
                    Quote: 3x3zsave
                    "What is autumn? These are branches,
                    Sawed branches underfoot
                    I started the chainsaw and walked through the yards
                    Autumn, I forgot to take my pills ... "

                    It's funny laughing laughing laughing
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 3 September 2021 23: 28
                      +2
                      Yes, sad, in fact, Valera!
                      1. Sling cutter
                        Sling cutter 3 September 2021 23: 34
                        +2
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        Yes, sad, in fact, Valera!

                        Are you sure that the man with the saw is you ?! belay
                      2. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 4 September 2021 00: 02
                        +2
                        Sure! I prefer power tools.
                        But I confess, a couple of times, at the end of the XNUMXs, the "youngsters" pestered: hello, Yuri Yulianovich! ...
                      3. Sling cutter
                        Sling cutter 4 September 2021 00: 09
                        +3
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        Sure! I prefer power tools.
                        But I confess, a couple of times, at the end of the XNUMXs, the "youngsters" pestered: hello, Yuri Yulianovich! ...

                        But I knew he would jump, he would end up felling. winked
                      4. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 4 September 2021 00: 18
                        +2
                        "Blessed are those who jump, for they jump over" (C)
                      5. Sling cutter
                        Sling cutter 4 September 2021 00: 32
                        +3
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        "Blessed are those who jump, for they can jump" (C) (C)

                        Anton! Well, not the same! Blessed are those who know that "Blessed are those who jump, for they will jump over" (C) wassat
                        So my wife says ........ you jump ... but I don't know where and when I jump. request
        3. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 3 September 2021 22: 49
          +7
          He is a conjuncturist))

          He can be anything ... You don't know him like I do? And I have known him for more than five years ... Without embellishment, whatever you want, think about him. This is a personal matter for everyone, with respect!
          But let's have a philosophical question - remove Shpakovsky and Ryzhov from the site ... What are we going to read with you? "Hype" by Samsonov, Frolova, Zyryanov, Ivanov and others? In principle, I do not write surnames with a capital letter, because these are the ones who litter the site with low-quality crafts. negative Yes, they collect emotions from dunduks! To whom the wife did not give, with work it is bad, the children study poorly - so, they come to VO, throw out their thoughts ... They then put the disadvantages to all of us indistinctly - in chorus! Hence the frequent dominance of clinical idiots on the "history" branch! What is the pop - such is the flock, such is the parish, Valery! request
          Valery, you are a front-line soldier. My sincere respect for the "jacket", for you! For all! Sincerely! drinks
          1. Sling cutter
            Sling cutter 3 September 2021 23: 03
            +3
            Quote: Pane Kohanku
            But let's have a philosophical question - remove Shpakovsky and Ryzhov from the site ... What are we going to read with you?

            Nikolay, you don't need to remove anyone, you just need to make the site more meaningful.
            I have already told admins 100 times to make the section "Smoking room", everything is possible, but without swearing and insults, everyday-army stories, jokes, just laugh and talk, you will see, many will open up from the other side yes
            Thank you sincerely for the kind words drinks
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 3 September 2021 23: 08
              +5
              make a section "Smoking room"

              And that's how we communicate! And thank God! drinks We have created the best company on the site - where everyone chatters and no one swears! yes
              Thank you sincerely for the kind words

              We communicate thanks to you ... you and your colleagues ... soldier I don't know how I would behave if I were in your place. But I hope I would be devoted to the Motherland ... soldier
              1. Sling cutter
                Sling cutter 3 September 2021 23: 20
                +3
                Quote: Pane Kohanku
                And that's how we communicate! And thank God! We have created the best company on the site - where everyone chatters and no one swears!

                I go to you to rest, as if you were visiting for tea from a samovar. yes And as for my modest person, Duc is very flattering of course, but you know I have a lot of "friends" here, they'd better not read wink
                Honestly, a lot of hunting to you in St. Petersburg, take a walk, talk, sing songs. good drinks
                PySy. Where did that disappear? And tell your friend Anton that he squeezed the letter sad tongue
              2. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 3 September 2021 23: 36
                +2
                I didn't squeeze anything! The day after tomorrow the router will be changed, I will send it.
              3. Sling cutter
                Sling cutter 3 September 2021 23: 42
                +2
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                I didn't squeeze anything! The day after tomorrow the router will be changed, I will send it.

                Count how quickly Nikolai worked! good laughing
              4. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 4 September 2021 00: 07
                +2
                If he finds out what I'm going to send you, I will be deprived of my citizenship altogether! laughing
              5. Sling cutter
                Sling cutter 4 September 2021 00: 12
                +2
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                If he finds out what I'm going to send you, I will be deprived of my citizenship altogether!

                Shhsssss! The main thing is to contact. after all, even the president is not always aware of what he is asked about, and we will Eat some earth as a sign of non-disclosure yes
              6. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 4 September 2021 00: 16
                +2
                I don’t want to eat the land. He bequeathed to scatter my ashes from the Trinity Bridge.
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 3 September 2021 23: 46
      +2
      SchA burst into tears from pathos! Kolya, a person called up for an "urgent" first of all, "pulls the strap", exploits in the SA, this is primarily from the slovenliness of the command and the awareness of the doom of personnel.
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 3 September 2021 21: 18
    +6
    No. I disagree. Maybe a living word, or maybe a set of stamps. In one case, you want to read, you can argue. And in another - close the page.
    1. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 3 September 2021 21: 55
      +2
      Valery and I recently, somewhere from the cycle about French mercenaries, do not want to argue at all. And the rest of the articles no longer come so vividly - the information does not inspire confidence, and in most cases I do not share the author's interpretations, but in order to arrange discussions, it is necessary to check everything written, how much it corresponds to reality, what other opinions there are on this matter than supported ... A lot of time, and given Valery's rather painful reaction to objections and criticism, the discussion itself will be tense and not entirely friendly.
      So personally, for the reasons stated above, I am beginning to lose interest in Valery's work, which I sadly inform all my colleagues about. sad
      This is in no way a verdict on my part, just an inner feeling. I hope for positive changes.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 4 September 2021 00: 31
        +1
        The novelty effect disappears. Quote from the film about Aesop: "You get used to ugliness, as well as to the beauty of your beloved woman."
        1. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 4 September 2021 09: 36
          0
          If you read Valery's first articles and the current ones, the difference will become obvious.
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 4 September 2021 10: 24
            +1
            This would have to be done on purpose.

            In any case, a problem may arise - to issue a certain number of articles by a certain date.

            Valery's erudition is remarkable. But there is a limit to everything.
            It's like the difference between a writer and a journalist. Although in their best manifestations, these hypostases can close.
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master 4 September 2021 14: 17
              0
              I assess the author, first of all, on the reliability of the information presented. The syllable, composition, intrigue, in my opinion, are secondary. Nauch pop implies that "nauch" is more important than "pop". Valery's obvious bias towards "pop" is the object of my criticism.
            2. Korsar4
              Korsar4 4 September 2021 15: 33
              +1
              Sometimes it is not so easy with the assessment criterion. What happened is a given. And the color of the event can be different. Another thing is that it is not always easy to get to the primary sources. And mistakes can creep in - at any stage.

              "Lieutenant Kizhe" and stuff of all stripes. And to feel all epochs on all continents is not at all easy.
            3. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master 4 September 2021 15: 42
              0
              If you get down to business, do it honestly. Excuses for complexity are not accepted. If you do not know how to quickly delve into different topics, you can take one era and study it thoroughly, no one forces you to be a wide multi-source.
              But if you took up a tug - if you please, correspond. My opinion.
            4. Korsar4
              Korsar4 4 September 2021 15: 51
              +1
              You can't argue with that. You touch on any question - so many related ones touch.

              Another thing is that there can be many shelves in the closet, but not indefinitely.
      2. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 4 September 2021 15: 35
        -1
        I will add that from a promising popularizer of historical science, Valery is now confidently turning into a mediocre publicist, joining the gray mass of authors who have filled the network with their amateurish opuses. This makes me very upset.
  • ycuce234-san
    ycuce234-san 3 September 2021 23: 26
    +2
    Energetic, honest, loyal, selfless - yes.
    But at the same time, he is shortsighted, cruel, conservative and stereotyped in all endeavors.


    Arakcheev was not a politician-legislator, despite the fact that he regulated narrow military issues - but he did not draw up national global bills, that is, he was an executive branch, which the legislative branch turns as a tool. Therefore, the fight against reforms and the police are more likely to address the political elite.
    1. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 4 September 2021 14: 22
      -1
      He was the second person of the state with the powers of the deputy king, in fact. He was responsible for everything.
      His powers allowed him to determine the vector of the country's development and he did not use this opportunity in the best way.
      1. ycuce234-san
        ycuce234-san 5 September 2021 01: 25
        +1
        Not a single global draft law is known for the authorship of Arakcheev (narrowly professional army regulations do not apply to them) - and he did not have precisely political opportunities outside the soldiers' regulations: his class environment, with great difficulty and resistance, even allowed them to be implemented - even, in fact, Ordinary disciplinary orders of the type "by 8-00 - by all means be on duty." In our times, this is the disciplinary level of a strict school head teacher ...
        Try to imagine what kind of reaction Arakcheev’s bill on interference with serfdom would have caused, for example - to overcome such resistance, he would have to become the second Genghis Khan, in terms of personal and political qualities; - he would have, for example, the sun of Russian poetry - A.S. Pushkin - to gnaw thoroughly, so as not to interfere with personal libel to carry out modernization reforms.
        1. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 5 September 2021 13: 49
          -1
          The role of Arakcheev still needs to be understood. But the fact that he was a semblance of a counterweight for the reformers under the tsar is beyond doubt. And so was his victory in this confrontation. And the fact that in the end it was he who won, to a large extent predetermined the presence and deepening of problems that eventually led to unrest in a hundred years.
  • Charlie
    Charlie 3 September 2021 22: 16
    +3
    Chet didn't get it. Refused to participate in a duel and fell into disgrace for it?
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 3 September 2021 22: 28
      +4
      What is there to understand? Normal boys showdown, refused to "go out", turned out to be "m"
  • Saxahorse
    Saxahorse 3 September 2021 23: 21
    0
    Interesting article. When it came across that Arakcheev asked Kutuzov, then still a jaeger colonel, his handwritten charter for jaeger battalions. And supposedly it was on its basis that he wrote the first infantry charter of the Russian army.
  • DenVB
    DenVB 4 September 2021 13: 45
    0
    As a result, as one of the secretaries of Paul I later recalled,

    "About 20 oligarchs divided Russia among themselves under the auspices of another favorite ... The upstarts and lovers turned out to be such hungry leeches that they had to be pumped with the purest blood of the state and the sweat of the people."

    What is Paul's secretary? I would like to know the source.
    1. VLR
      5 September 2021 07: 47
      0
      Especially for you, I found the primary source:
      MEMOIRS SECRETS SUR LA RUSSIE, ET PARTICULIEREMENT SUR LA FIN DU REGNE DE CATHERINE II ET LE COMMENCEMENT DE CELUI DE PAUL I

      I always try to respond to comments that are "on the case" smile
      1. DenVB
        DenVB 5 September 2021 09: 01
        0
        Quote: VlR
        MEMOIRS SECRETS SUR LA RUSSIE, ET PARTICULIEREMENT SUR LA FIN DU REGNE DE CATHERINE II ET LE COMMENCEMENT DE CELUI DE PAUL I

        Thanks. According to Wikipedia, Charles Masson, the author of these memoirs, was not Paul's secretary, but Alexander Pavlovich's. By the way, the book was published in Russian translation, I'll try to read it.
  • The comment was deleted.
  • Gunther
    Gunther 4 September 2021 18: 41
    0
    literate article, and framed - excellent.
    I look forward to continuing.
  • an4662
    an4662 8 September 2021 12: 37
    0
    Good article. Allows you to take a different look at the "bad" and "good" nobles. They were not always the "conscience of the nation", no matter how much the lovers of the "French roll" would like it. It's not just that the Reds won. Probably there were other reasons - depending on the then "elite" (or maybe - crap?).