Military Review

Tempest rocket technologies: groundwork for the future

58

Experimental product "Tempest" on the slipway. Photo Wikimedia Commons


From August 1957 to December 1960, flight tests of the promising intercontinental cruise missile (ICR) "350" / La-350 / "Tempest" were carried out at the Kapustin Yar test site. In accordance with the tactical and technical requirements, this product had to show the highest flight performance. To accomplish this task, a lot of organizations and institutes had to be involved in the development of the project, which had to find and master promising solutions, materials and technologies.

Ready product


Development of the "Buri" began in 1954 in accordance with the Resolution of the Council of Ministers on the creation of two intercontinental-range missile systems. The development of a complex with a cruise missile was entrusted to OKB-301 S.A. Lavochkin. The chief designer of the "350" theme was N. S. Chernyakov, scientific supervisor - M.V. Keldysh. At all stages, it was planned to involve a lot of other organizations and specialists in the project.

About three years were spent on the research and development part of the project with the search for basic solutions and subsequent design. The technical documentation for the "Bure" was prepared in 1957, which made it possible to launch the production of an experimental batch of missiles for future tests.

The Tempest project proposed the construction of a two-stage ground-based missile system. The first stage included two side blocks with liquid propellant rocket engines. Marching, equipped with wings, empennage, controls and warhead, was performed using a ramjet engine. The flight was to be carried out according to the commands of the control system, which included inertial navigation means and the AN-2Sh astrocorrection system. The warhead is a nuclear charge weighing 2350 kg.

Tempest rocket technologies: groundwork for the future

Launch configuration of the rocket. Graphics Testpilot.ru

The total length of the product "350" in the launch configuration reached 19 m. The diameter of the sustainer stage was 2,2 m, of the blocks of the first stage - 1,6 m. The delta wing span reached 7,75 m. The mass of the rocket exceeded 97 tons, of which 34,68, 3,2 tons fell on the marching stage. According to the requirements, the speed of the sustainer stage on the trajectory was supposed to reach 7,5 M. The required flight range was 6,5 thousand km. During the tests, we got a range of approx. XNUMX thousand km

The problem of loads


Speed ​​requirements imposed the most serious restrictions on the strength of the structure and on its resistance to various loads, incl. thermal. To study these issues, in 1954, NII-1 developed and built a supersonic wind tunnel with the ability to study heating and heat transfer. In 1957, NII-1 began operation of the Ts-12T gas-dynamic thermal stand, in which a full-size rocket model with all the equipment could be placed. This made it possible to study the effect of loads on the entire product assembly.

Calculations and studies have shown that in flight, the leading edge of the wing and air intake, as well as the engine channel, can warm up to 420 ° C. The outer skin temperature was lower, approx. 350 ° C, which was associated with the discharge of part of the thermal energy into the environment.

Based on the results of such studies, a search for suitable materials and technologies was carried out. Several grades of titanium and heat-resistant stainless steel were chosen for the manufacture of the airframe. In VIAM and MVTU them. Bauman developed technologies for processing and welding such metals and alloys. New non-metallic materials were also developed for use in seals, glazing, coatings, etc. In particular, the Leningrad State Optical Institute has developed a technology for manufacturing large-sized quartz panels. They were intended to form a flashlight above the astrocorrection sensors.


Launcher with a rocket in position. Photo Wikimedia Commons

Taking into account the requirements, design loads and available technologies, an advanced airframe design was developed. The rocket fuselage was made cylindrical with a variable section. In the bow there was a supersonic diffuser with a conical central body, inside which there was a compartment for the warhead. The engine air duct ran along the center of the airframe, and a cooled compartment of control devices and fuel tanks were located around it.

The blocks of the first stage were supposed to provide acceleration to 3M and also faced the problem of heating. In this regard, they were built from the same materials as the marching stage, but differed in a simpler design. They were made in the form of cylindrical units with conical head fairings. Almost the entire volume was given over to fuel and oxidizer tanks; in the tail were liquid rocket engines.

Engine issue


To obtain the required flight characteristics, the first stage needed two engines with a thrust of 68 tons each. The development of such products was entrusted to OKB-2 NII-88 under the leadership of A.M. Isaeva. The bureau already had a preliminary design of the engine with a thrust of 17 tons, and it was decided to use it in the context of the "Tempest". The new product received the designation C2.1100.

The new engine was made according to a four-chamber scheme; cameras and part of the piping were borrowed from the existing project. He had to use TG-02 fuel and AI-27I oxidizer. The supply of components to the combustion chambers was to be carried out by a turbo pump unit. Also, the engine was equipped with a separate circuit for isopropyl nitrate: it had to enter the gas generator and decompose into a steam gas, which set the TNA in motion. Each chamber of the C2.1100 engine, according to calculations, gave 17 tons of thrust - a total of 68 tons required.


The process of lifting the rocket to the launch position. Photo Testpilot.ru

The second stage ramjet engine was developed at OKB-670 M.M. Bondaryuk. Despite the seeming simplicity of the design, the creation of such an engine was particularly difficult. It was required to find materials corresponding to thermal loads from fuel combustion, to work out aerodynamic processes at the inlet and inside the engine, and also to solve a lot of other problems. By 1957, all these problems had been successfully resolved, resulting in a supersonic ramjet engine running on kerosene and giving 7,55 tons of thrust in cruising mode.

Management tools


The NII-1 MAP branch under the leadership of I.M. Lisovich and T.N. Tolstousov. This project used the existing developments of different organizations. In particular, back in the forties, research on this topic was carried out by specialists from NII-88.

The goal of the NII-1 MAP project was to create a system capable of automatically finding the indicated stars, tracking their position and determining its own coordinates from it. For this it was required to solve several auxiliary tasks, such as the creation of the so-called. artificial vertical or providing noise immunity in all conditions. We also had to develop a calculating machine capable of converting astro-correction data into commands for the autopilot.

Back in 1952, before the start of work on the MKR "350", a prototype of the astronavigation system was manufactured. Its tests on the Il-12 plane showed high accuracy of keeping the flight direction. In 1954-55. this system has been refined and retested. The flying laboratory based on the Tu-16 flew at altitudes of 10-11 km at a speed of 800 km / h, and within 5-6 hours of flight, an error accumulated within 4-6 km.


The complex is ready to start. Photo Testpilot.ru

After certain modifications, the electromechanical navigation system with inertial devices and astro-correction was ready for installation on experimental rockets. In 1957, the production of pilot batches of such equipment for installation on prototype rockets began.

Confirmed by tests


The first launch of the "Tempest" was planned for August 1, 1957, but did not take place. Malfunctions in the isopropyl nitrate supply system prevented a regular start of the first stage engine. Fortunately, the engine instrumentation worked correctly and the rocket was not damaged. After the necessary modifications, on September 1, she was again prepared for flight. This time, the rocket left the launcher, but the control system prematurely gave the command to reset the gas rudders of the first stage. The rocket lost control and fell.

Then there were three more unsuccessful launches, in which the flight lasted no more than 60-80 seconds. In May 1958, the Tempest took off for the first time in a regular manner, took a given altitude, dropped the first stage blocks and turned on the ramjet engine. The speed of the sustainer stage reached M = 3. Then there were five more launches with failures at the start or at different parts of the trajectory. The next four flights were successful and showed that the rocket can accelerate to 3,2M, fly at a range of 5500 km and perform maneuvers, incl. turn by 180 °.

In March 1960, the last flight failure occurred with the loss of a rocket. Then, in March and December, we carried out two launches at targets at the Kamchatka ranges. In the first case, "The Tempest" in 121 minutes. flew to the target area, after which it could not go into a dive. The next and final flight was completely successful. At a distance of 6425 km, the product deviated from the target by 4-7 km.


Rocket in the first seconds of flight. Photo Militaryrussia.ru

In recent flights, experienced rockets with an improved propulsion system were used. They used the C2.1150 LPRE with increased thrust and the more compact RD-012U ramjet engine.

Reserve for the future


In the early stages of testing, the Tempest MKR faced various technical and design problems. They managed to cope with them, and in the future, the rocket showed a high level of performance - and the ability to solve real combat missions. As a result of further refinement, improvement and introduction of new components, the 350 rocket could well become an effective and successful strategic weapons.

However, in 1960 - according to various sources, in February or December - the Council of Ministers ordered to stop work on the "Storm" theme. The country's leadership decided that intercontinental cruise missiles are inferior to ballistic complexes in terms of their capabilities and potential. The simultaneous development of the two directions was considered impossible and inexpedient.

"The Tempest" did not go through the entire process of fine-tuning and did not enter service with our army. However, even in this case, the project yielded the most noticeable results. To develop a new MCR, it was necessary to build a number of research facilities and carry out a lot of research. A large amount of information was collected on the aerodynamics of high supersonic speeds, thermal processes, etc.


Model of the complex in the museum. Photo FAS

In addition, new materials and technologies were created. Most of these results of the "Tempest" project were subsequently successfully used to create new samples. aviation and rocketry. So, titanium, heat-resistant steels and other materials for the "Buri" are still actively used in the designs of aviation and other equipment. Modern technologies for the manufacture of such structures directly go back to the developments of VIAM and MVTU in the mid-fifties.

Some solutions of the C2.1100 project were later used in new rocket engine projects. The experience of creating the RD-012 / 012U ramjet engines was also useful in the development of a number of new products, such as some anti-aircraft missiles. Some of the developments of the past can be applied to the creation of modern hypersonic weapons.

The development of the "Earth" system was of great importance for our rocket and aviation technology. Astronavigation clearly demonstrated its capabilities and, thanks to this, subsequently found application in a host of new projects. In particular, it ensures high firing accuracy of intercontinental ballistic missiles.

Thus, the Tempest / 350 / La-350 project could not solve its main task, and the Soviet army did not receive a fundamentally new strategic weapon with the highest characteristics. At the same time, this project left a lot of scientific data and technical experience, which contributed to the further development of a number of areas. This means that the Tempest - despite the unsuccessful completion of the project - was not created in vain and brought great benefits, even if indirectly.
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  1. Walking towards the light
    Walking towards the light 24 August 2021 18: 33
    +44
    I have been looking at Voennoye Obozreniye for 10 years about various articles about what was done in the USSR. I can not help thinking it was a country of titans of thought? Our grandfathers and fathers came up with so many things.
    1. paul3390
      paul3390 24 August 2021 19: 04
      +44
      It was the land of titans in all spheres .. supporting the heavens. The time when the gods lived on earth. Judging by their accomplishments ..
      1. sergo1914
        sergo1914 24 August 2021 19: 20
        +18
        Quote: paul3390
        It was the land of titans in all spheres .. supporting the heavens. The time when the gods lived on earth. Judging by their accomplishments ..


        Yeah. It is better not to draw parallels with the present.
        1. aybolyt678
          aybolyt678 24 August 2021 22: 31
          +5
          Quote: sergo1914
          Yeah. It is better not to draw parallels with the present.

          Heaven and Earth are also parallel. And two parallels will never touch laughing
          1. SKS_PRO
            SKS_PRO 27 August 2021 20: 53
            -1
            Two troll calls in one stone, but somehow sourly thrown.
            And what else do you have in parallel and does not touch?
            1. aybolyt678
              aybolyt678 28 August 2021 09: 25
              +2
              Quote: SKS_PRO
              Two troll calls in one stone, but somehow sourly thrown.
              And what else do you have in parallel and does not touch?

              since they called it a troll, justify smile
              My position about the parallels is that it is impossible to draw them between the USSR of the Stalin period and modern Russia, considering the pace of development. Although the paradox is that they will never touch ... they are parallel like heaven and earth but multidirectional like south and west for example. The question is - what is development? how to measure it? Does it depend on the number of books read or consumed entertainment? maybe from tons of meat per capita or stuffed cabbage? One thing is clear that the socialist vector assumed a common goal, common good or common death ... The capitalist one guarantees freedom of entrepreneurship, that is, the right of exclusively personal enrichment, but guarantees this in exact proportion to the available capital, more capital, more rights and opportunities.
              1. Sergey Stepanov_5
                Sergey Stepanov_5 9 February 2022 16: 10
                0
                You're not right ! All our modern successes are just based on the developments of those times, which means they rely on them and intersect
      2. Walking towards the light
        Walking towards the light 24 August 2021 19: 21
        +1
        "The era of dreams" like the Australian aborigines))
      3. vlad106
        vlad106 30 August 2021 20: 39
        0
        paul3390 (Paul)
        24 August 2021 19: 04

        +42
        It was the land of titans in all spheres .. supporting the heavens. The time when the gods lived on earth. Judging by their accomplishments ..

        Military review Space
        "Tempest rocket technologies: groundwork for the future" [/ quote]
        for thirty years they scratched their ass using the best practices of Soviet designers. Do we still have a "reserve for the future"?
    2. Constanty
      Constanty 24 August 2021 20: 20
      +8
      However, you can look at it differently.
      I do not deny that Russians and citizens of the USSR of other peoples were not really titans of science (as evidenced by the number of Nobel Prizes and real achievements), but it is difficult to resist the impression that by reducing the cost of weapons even by half of these 20, and 10 thousand tanks, not 45 thousand, but 22 thousand nuclear warheads would equally well defend the USSR militarily and raise the standard of living of citizens, that they would not dream of the West and would defend the achievements of the USSR in 1991. And there was something to defend!
      1. Walking towards the light
        Walking towards the light 24 August 2021 20: 33
        +20
        Nobel Prizes-slag. Most of the scientific works of Soviet scientists were classified. You and I only now read about them. Patents in the USSR were not registered at all until 1955. "The history of Rospatent dates back to the middle of the last century, when on 29.09.1955. Ministers of the USSR № 1772, the Committee for Inventions and Discoveries was formed under the Council of Ministers of the USSR. There are 90 percent stupid ideas like a hafnium isomer bomb
        1. Constanty
          Constanty 24 August 2021 21: 49
          +13
          Maybe something was wrong with the translation (while I fluently read Russian, I write with the help of a computer translator) I believe that the achievements of scientists from the USSR are enormous and international more spectacular) - although the example of the F-117 shows that the contribution of the citizens of the USSR was enormous! Then I think that too much money went into the army and the low standard of living of ordinary citizens - hence the dream of the West

          And I bought and read magazines "Tekhnika Molodyozhi" and "Modelist-Constructor" with great pleasure in childhood and adolescence!
          Very interesting and clever
        2. Proctologist
          Proctologist 25 August 2021 14: 55
          -4
          Alas, with any objective comparison method, the USSR, where 30% of the world's scientists lived quantitatively, did not give 30% of the scientific result. Nobel Prizes are one of the metrics. Citation, other measurable results also give similar numbers with Nobel Prizes.

          But the school and the atmosphere of science really existed. And so are the outstanding scientists and engineers.
      2. aybolyt678
        aybolyt678 24 August 2021 22: 33
        +15
        Quote: Constanty
        and 22 thousand nuclear warheads would equally well protect the USSR militarily and raise the standard of living of citizens

        USSR lost to Hollywood and AIDS Info newspaper.
    3. EMMM
      EMMM 24 August 2021 21: 43
      +1
      The name of a scientific consultant alone should make the point.
  2. Vadim Ananyin
    Vadim Ananyin 24 August 2021 19: 00
    +20
    People were working, in such a short time they did this, created it.
    10-15 years after the war and such results! Not like today's top managers.
    1. zenion
      zenion 1 October 2021 16: 58
      0
      In 1964 he worked at the ZAS radio station and unlimited communication work. She had protection from nuclear charges, that is, from radiation. And she was not big. And they began to do it, according to the plan in 1952. Then they already understood that the army must defend itself and be alive.
  3. kind
    kind 24 August 2021 19: 25
    +21
    Low bow and eternal memory to our Soviet designers and engineers, who created entire branches of science and production, the fruits of which we are still using !!! soldier
  4. Split
    Split 24 August 2021 19: 53
    +3
    Those were the times (c) Brother 2 hi
  5. d1975
    d1975 24 August 2021 20: 19
    +3
    I watched today how VVP spoke at the congress edrosni, it just became disgusting to watch. Blah, blah, blah, well, everyone is so fluffy and awesome, but why does the people not like this party so much, if they are for the people? In my opinion, the business should be done by the pros, not by journalists, sociologists and the whole riffraff, but who will give them)))) 19 .09.21. again it will be 25 = 5 * 5
    1. sevryuk
      sevryuk 25 August 2021 01: 03
      +9
      Look at Zeltsa, Galician troll.
      1. d1975
        d1975 25 August 2021 07: 49
        -1
        What did you get that troll and Galitsky? Justify the idolater!
    2. fiv
      fiv 25 August 2021 15: 28
      +1
      And what party do the people like in your person like?
      1. d1975
        d1975 25 August 2021 22: 48
        +3
        I will not answer this question, but I know what I hate!
        1. 9lvariag
          9lvariag 8 September 2021 21: 10
          0
          And where is your vyser, to the ROC on rocket and space technology? If you don't like this party, gobble up a rotten apple.
          1. d1975
            d1975 9 September 2021 10: 01
            -1
            Eat a rotten apple yourself, since you write so. And the point is that they lie to us. EP finishes in the country and social sphere and education. Where do we get our minds from? Look for the numbers how many minds are leaving, how much money is being taken out! Am I wrong or what?
            1. 9lvariag
              9lvariag 13 September 2021 21: 41
              -2
              No, not right. How did you get vsepolivnye vsepalschiki and the same liberals. Moreover, it itself offers me what to look for in the internet? Oxtis, burned-out man: minds left under Lenin, and under Stalin, and under Khrushchev, and under Brezhnev, and even under Gorbat, how did they leave for the Bugor? And the money of the Party and under the USSR was taken out by planes and bought houses.
  6. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 24 August 2021 20: 27
    +12
    Informative article, respect to the author. For some reason, there is nothing about a similar US project "Navajo", which was being developed at the same time.
    1. Niko
      Niko 24 August 2021 23: 39
      -3
      Quote: Aviator_
      Informative article, respect to the author. For some reason, there is nothing about a similar US project "Navajo", which was being developed at the same time.

      It is impossible about SIMILAR PROJECTS, you read the comments: "titans of thought", etc. lived only in a union
      1. 9lvariag
        9lvariag 8 September 2021 21: 15
        0
        Your "Navaja" completely failed. The "Buran" \ "Tempest" missile defense missile system did not go into production due to the cumbersomeness of the stationary launch and not reaching the design range. And the reasons for the material consumption of such missiles are important. I strongly advise you to get acquainted with the abortion with the failure of the Oxnart Louckhid GTD-21A-D program - which the shock UAV could, but did not begin to alter.
    2. Parabelum
      Parabelum 25 August 2021 06: 21
      +14
      Probably because the article is about "The Tempest". The author wanted to tell about the development of the Soviet rocket and this is his, the author's, right. You can write about the "Navajo" project, it will also be interesting to read.
  7. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 24 August 2021 20: 58
    +4
    Alas! KR "Tempest" was late to fight! In the 50s of the last century, the United States developed such strategic cruise missiles (TFR) as the Snark, Matador ... one might say, of the same class as the Tempest! But at the beginning of the 60s, the TFR were withdrawn from service in the United States ... Their time is over! So it happened with "The Storm ...
    1. EMMM
      EMMM 24 August 2021 21: 48
      +2
      Sir,
      I would like to inform you that the word "strategic" has disappeared from the name of the weapon, but the essence remains.
      1. 9lvariag
        9lvariag 8 September 2021 21: 16
        0
        Well, once the Bold Orion MRBM was strategic.
    2. sevryuk
      sevryuk 25 August 2021 01: 05
      -2
      ahh, here it is Th Mikhalych ... and then the bloody teran added
    3. 9lvariag
      9lvariag 8 September 2021 21: 52
      0
      What's the point? Amers have the same cumbersome ground launch, not stable during TMV and a long preparation time for launch. I am aware that then the "liquid" BRs were refueled at the start of the launcher. You will probably agree that even for the first disarming strike you need an outfit of forces. And with such launchers, hundreds of them are needed to launch hordes of CDs. This is if you believe all the described methods of nuclear and conventional global strike. The same Regulus & GAM-63 Rascal & AGM-28 \ GAM-77 Hound Dog-could create an outfit of forces to attack the USSR with the first disarming strike, but these CDs (in my IMHO) could not create it.
  8. paco.soto
    paco.soto 24 August 2021 21: 06
    +4
    https://topwar.ru/37326-mezhkontinentalnaya-krylataya-raketa-burya.html
    Kirill, I hope that you will not be offended by this link to your own article with an addition on the topic. I remember her.
  9. Daniil Dmitrienko
    Daniil Dmitrienko 24 August 2021 21: 33
    +9
    A very interesting article, I read it in one breath. A vivid example of the fact that research and development and development work for one type of weapon, even if not adopted for service, can play a role in other projects. What is at least a ramjet in the 57th year, albeit on keros)
  10. Pavel57
    Pavel57 24 August 2021 22: 44
    +6
    Quote: Aviator_
    Informative article, respect to the author. For some reason, there is nothing about a similar US project "Navajo", which was being developed at the same time.


    One could also mention Buran Myasishcheva - a completely duplicate project.
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 24 August 2021 22: 56
      +3
      One could also mention Buran Myasishcheva - a completely duplicate project.

      The M-40 project was not brought to flight tests. And so, of course, duplicated this one.
  11. Pavel57
    Pavel57 24 August 2021 22: 47
    +4
    Quote: Vadim Ananyin
    People were working, in such a short time they did this, created it.
    10-15 years after the war and such results! Not like today's top managers.

    Do you agree to work 12 hours a day with 1 day off?
    1. evgen1221
      evgen1221 15 October 2021 07: 08
      0
      Believe it or not, many today plow for 14 hours with one day off
  12. Pavel57
    Pavel57 24 August 2021 22: 48
    +1
    Quote: Daniil Dmitrienko
    What is at least a ramjet in the 57th year, albeit on keros)


    What would you like to see a ramjet on?
  13. Pavel57
    Pavel57 24 August 2021 22: 51
    +2
    Quote: Nikolaevich I
    Alas! In the 50s of the last century, the United States developed such strategic cruise missiles (TFR) as the Snark, Matador ... one might say, of the same class as the Tempest! But in the early 60s, the TFR were withdrawn from service in the United States ...

    A Mace / Matador from Japan during the Cuban Missile Crisis almost fired at us by mistake. We noticed a mistake in the order in time.
    1. 9lvariag
      9lvariag 13 September 2021 21: 49
      0
      A Mace / Matador from Japan during the Cuban Missile Crisis almost fired at us by mistake. We noticed a mistake in the order in time.
      Alas, then there would be a khan and the Japs and amers. The value of plans such as Drop Shot at the beginning of the era of nuclear weapons, without sane carriers and tankers for the SAC USAF - is greatly overestimated! And their cave dwarfism is greatly underestimated by the entire world community! Well, I would have declared myself to the USSR: - wellthe victim of the use of weapons of mass destruction with all that it implies, and would have flown to the Japs and NATe. And then from them and UWB for such stupid "Nixon / Kissinger mans" and other American "light-faced" ones. But the Americans would have completely lost both Japan and Europe. Of course, the losses among the civilian population would have been considerable and would have been littered with radionuclides, everything around.
  14. jonht
    jonht 24 August 2021 23: 24
    +4
    Thanks Kirill, excellent article both in terms of content and style. You grow as an author, less repetition and more detail. hi
  15. KJIETyc
    KJIETyc 25 August 2021 01: 08
    +1
    Quote: d1975
    I watched today how VVP spoke at the congress edrosni, it just became disgusting to watch. Blah, blah, blah, well, everyone is so fluffy and awesome, but why does the people not like this party so much, if they are for the people? In my opinion, the business should be done by the pros, not by journalists, sociologists and the whole riffraff, but who will give them)))) 19 .09.21. again it will be 25 = 5 * 5

    So your brothers in 91 are such a riffraff, only overseas, and processed through, as mentioned above, Hollywood and AIDS info. And now, and even more so through social networks, they process shkolota. Again, without the "riffraff", only your own, you will lose the fake war on the Internet and the current students will sell their ass for another analogue of chewing gum, which, however, will not have a day again))
    1. Pilat2009
      Pilat2009 25 August 2021 16: 19
      +2
      Quote: KJIETyc
      and current students will sell their ass for another analogue of gum, which, however, will not be used again))

      It is strange to reproach people with brains in an effort to make money. War communism haunts you? Not those days, my friend. Now no one will curry for 35 thousand rubles. If you want to build a normal state, then pay the builders accordingly
      1. Terran ghost
        Terran ghost 26 August 2021 11: 10
        +2
        It's strange to reproach people with brains for making money

        Yes, it is strange in general to blame any people for the desire to ensure the well-being of themselves, their families and their loved ones. This is a natural and normal desire.
        War communism haunts you?

        Well, you really are. The average "scarecrow of the brain" usually assumes that his adept makes a mental reservation that he and his family will be included in a limited number of those who will have a decent (or even luxurious) level of personal consumption "due to their status" so that they can special problems "to be proud of military power." Let the "tempting" prospect "be content with an iron bowl of rice (or even eat grass), but be proud of the military power" is usually left to a neighbor ...
      2. KJIETyc
        KJIETyc 31 August 2021 20: 57
        0
        you are probably not very smart or you are deliberately twisting the meaning. In this case, it was written about a donkey with a carrot, to which he will strive all his life, while the owner of the donkey carries the privatized good on him hi
  16. interceptor58
    interceptor58 25 August 2021 08: 53
    +5
    The tests took place not in KapYar, but at the Amur site of the 8th State Research Institute of the Air Force, now 929 GLITs of the RF Ministry of Defense. Now only ruins remain from the Amur site.
    1. Ponchik78
      Ponchik78 27 August 2021 18: 24
      0
      The concrete base of the starting position is quite well preserved. But all the iron and the failed railway, alas, were taken away.
  17. Ilya_Nsk
    Ilya_Nsk 26 August 2021 11: 07
    +2
    An error of 5 km, even for a charge power of 200 kt, is large - it is simply possible not to achieve the set task
    1. Mikhail3
      Mikhail3 29 August 2021 13: 57
      0
      Electronics in the USSR was shitty. What we didn’t cope with, we didn’t cope with, there’s nothing to say.
  18. Mikhail3
    Mikhail3 29 August 2021 13: 56
    -1
    That is, all this is ... a hypersonic warhead. In the early 60s of the last century. And I wondered how our current "science", burdened by the incredible management of our indescribable managers, turned out to be a good product! How is it, coach ... did you manage to count the brainchild of Keldysh into modern materials? For what is left of "the land of dreamers, the land of scientists" and this is a great achievement, yeah.
  19. anclevalico
    anclevalico 1 September 2021 07: 58
    0
    Surely, in the "holy 90s" all the information was leaked to amers. And why are they not allowed to call them here?
  20. Aleksandr Ivanov
    Aleksandr Ivanov 11 September 2021 21: 32
    -1
    All developments ended with the death of Lavochkin and his design bureau. And at that time, pits for the S-500 were already being built near Leningrad. But the undercover war for grants from KB leaders devoured all Lavochkin's projects.
  21. lelik613
    lelik613 25 September 2021 07: 36
    0
    Closing works error. It was worth finishing the topic to the bottom in order to benefit from new developments.