It is generally accepted that the Cold War began on March 5 of 1946. It was on this day that President Winston Churchill delivered the famous speech at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri, at the suggestion of US President Truman, in which he “justified” the thesis about the threat of another general war and “tyranny” from the USSR. At the same time, he scared the listeners with the disasters coming from the East and the inevitable “iron curtain” allegedly lowered by the Soviets to Europe.
He borrowed the term from Goebbels’s editorial in Das Reich (25.02.1945).
However, friction between the allies (already allies, the events before the signing of the London Union treaty by Molotov and Eden) would not start immediately after signing: regarding the timing of the opening of the second front and the place of its opening, and then after the Tehran conference 1943-go. spheres of influence.
The Yalta 1945 conference seemed to end to the delight of all parties. While leaving Crimea 14 in February 1945, W. Churchill spoke in front of the microphone of the newsreel:
"We pray that the Russian people will never again be subjected to the ordeal of which he came out with such glory."
But whether his memory failed (the memory of Churchill, who quoted whole chapters), or maybe the prayer did not reach where it should be. Soon these words were forgotten.
"Japan was not yet defeated. The atomic bomb was not yet born. The world was in turmoil. The basis of communication — the common danger that united the great allies — disappeared instantly. In my eyes, the Soviet threat has already replaced the Nazi enemy."
(Churchill W. Decree. Op. M., 1955. T. 6. C. 538.)
No one had heard of the cold war, the allies celebrated victory, they were looking for Nazi criminals all over Europe,
The world celebrated the world.
But Kennan, a counselor at the US embassy in Moscow, seeing how Muscovites celebrated 9 Victory Day on May 1945 in front of the American embassy, declared: "They are jubilant ... They think the war is over. But the real war is just beginning."
Probably the same reason, and W. Churchill. Already on 22 in May 1945, the British Prime Minister, who, several days after Germany surrendered, ordered to prepare plans for an attack on Russia “for its destruction”, was given a report on the 29 pages, codenamed “Operation Incredible”.
What was more here: fear of Russians and Stalin? Or is the treachery of England and the Anglo-Saxons?
Argue about it still, no answer. As there is no answer to the questions:
- against whom the English instructors in April 45-th trained not disbanded divisions of the Germans, who surrendered to them as a prisoner.
-why Dresden was destroyed in February 1945 with inhuman cruelty.
I will not give here the full text of the plan in English (you can read it on http://web.archive.org/web/20101116152301/http://www.history.neu.edu/PRO2/) and one of his translations (our side) into Russian (you can read it here:https://docs.google.com/document/pub?id=1Udv-CFbRIU7snxpdvPvzQsD-iKUvJSCsy8POakGHVZM)
It is likely that the Americans about the "Unthinkable", apparently, did not know (at that time, of course).
America (and Truman) had their own thoughts on this: they were preparing for the atomic bombing of the USSR, since the atomic bomb was already ready.
There are several points of view:
1. The translation from English to Russian is not quite correct.
The Daily Telegraph "To decide it’s true
What means in translation: "This is for the Russians to decide. If they want total war, then they are able to wage it ..." ”
In the Russian version of the Plan "Unthinkable" you can meet the following phrase: "If they (Russians) want total war, then they will receive it."
ALMOST, as during the celebration of the 24 ANNIVERSARY of the GREAT OCTOBER SOCIALIST REVOLUTION, a report at the ceremonial meeting of the Moscow Soviet of Workers ’Deputies with Party and Public Organizations of Moscow 6 November 1941:
"German invaders want to have a war of extermination with the peoples of the USSR.
Well, if the Germans want to have a war of extermination, they will receive it. "(Stormy, prolonged applause.)"
2. Churchill's fear that the USSR would not stop in its area of responsibility.
"Churchill feared that after the day of victory in Europe 8 in May, Soviet troops could continue to move to the West and threaten England. Churchill believed that the offensive against the Soviet Union would then be the only possible solution, and it would be necessary to take it before the Americans move their forces on the Pacific theater. And he ordered his headquarters to "think about the unthinkable" and develop a draft plan. "
He perfectly remembered (and often quoted) Stalin's words:
"When departing from us, comrade Lenin has commanded us to strengthen and expand our forces in the Republic of Germany. We swear to you, Comrade Lenin, that we will fulfill with honor and this our commandment! our Red Fleet! ... Lenin never looked at the Republic of Soviets as an end in itself. He always regarded it as a necessary link to strengthen the revolutionary movement in the countries of the West and the East ... "
Did the Soviet leadership have plans at the time to advance to the shores of the Atlantic and to seize the British Isles?
Unlikely. Confirmation can serve as a law adopted by the USSR on June 23, 1945 on the demobilization of the army and fleet, their consecutive transfer to the states of peacetime. Demobilization began on July 5, 1945 and ended in 1948. The army and navy were reduced from 11 million to less than 3 million people, the State Defense Committee and the Supreme High Command Headquarters were abolished. The number of military districts in 1945–1946 decreased from 33 to 21. Significantly reduced the number of troops in East Germany, Poland and Romania. In September 1945, Soviet troops were withdrawn from northern Norway, in November from Czechoslovakia, in April 1946 from the island of Bornholm (Denmark), and in December 1947 from Bulgaria.
3. Allies' failure to fulfill their obligations (and the USSR) is the same.
Everyone knows about the "unscheduled visits" by our allies to the territories that were part of the Soviet zone of occupation.
Tactics: a quick offensive (as long as there are no units of the Soviet Army), the collection of technological equipment, finished products, drawings and specialists and a rapid retreat to "their place."
There were such "attacks" and we (Austria, for example). The USSR also, in violation of agreements, "provoked" allies, namely:
- did not withdraw its troops from the territory of another state and did not clearly explain why and when it will happen. Or will it never happen?
-increased power on the borders with Iran, hanging over it from the north.
-At a certain moment, Soviet troops in Iran not only began to stand still, but Soviet tank the columns began moving towards the borders with Turkey and Iraq, as well as to Tehran.
The Third World War was supposed to start on July 1, 1945, with a sudden strike by the Anglo-Saxon combined forces against the Soviet troops ...
At that time, the combined forces of Great Britain and the USA had a significant numerical superiority over the Soviet Union in technology: the presence of 167 aircraft-carrying ships and 7700 carrier-based aircraft (the USSR did not have them at all), double superiority of submarines, nine times that of battleships and large cruisers, 19 times more destroyers, as well as 4 strategic air forces aviationwhich included bombers with a flight range of 7300 km (the radius of the Soviet aircraft on average did not exceed 1500-2000 km). "The Allies2 exceeded us in organizing the supply, in the industrial potential of the occupied territories, in the industrial potential of the United States and England, but lost in numbers the composition and combat effectiveness of the personnel of the SA (it must be admitted that the 1945 USSR soldier was practically invincible, provided that there was a sufficient MT supply).
A drawback for the USSR would also be the cessation of lend-lease supplies and the fact that the dominant superiority of the forces of the United States and England at sea would not allow the Soviet Navy to cut off the Atlantic (which Hitler could not do with Kriegsmarine and Luftwaffe).
Note - the main allied supplies to the USSR: motor transport and high-octane aviation gasoline, locomotives, explosive materials, rubber, copper, magnesium oxide and some ferroalloys. [/ Size]
The third world war was supposed to start 1 on July 1945, with an unexpected attack by 47 British and American divisions. In the battles against the USSR, it was planned to use up to 100 thousands of aspiring Nazis, who were supposed to support the half-million British-American group attacking through North Germany.
As the authors of this plan had expected, in response, Stalin would intervene in Turkey, Greece and Norway, seize oil fields in Iran and Iraq, and also undertake subversive operations in France and southern Europe. At the same time, the authors expressed fears that the Anglo-American invasion might have no more chances of success than the Hitlerite plan Barbarossa. In any case, to achieve the results of the Germans in the 1942 year, they did not expect. But it stopped them more.
Did Moscow know about the British plans for a war against the USSR? With high probability, yes.
Soviet intelligence in England was one of the most effective.
A prominent expert on this period, a professor at Edinburgh University D. Erickson wrote that Churchill’s plan helps explain “why Marshal Zhukov suddenly decided to regroup his forces in June 1945, received an order from Moscow to strengthen the defense and examine in detail the disposition of the Western allies”.
The Red Army unexpectedly changed its deployment. This somewhat cooled the hot heads of the Allies and forced them to delay the attack on the USSR.
Later, the plan had to be abandoned altogether - in July, 1945, Churchill was defeated in the elections and resigned as prime minister.
Churchill’s course of confrontation with the USSR was undoubtedly one of the reasons for the conservative party’s loss of the parliamentary majority in the 1945 election of the year and Churchill’s loss of the post of prime minister.
According to public opinion polls, in 1945, about 70 percent of the British were friendly towards the USSR.
Realizing the mistake of 7 on November 1945 of the year, on the anniversary of the October Revolution, Churchill delivered a speech in the House of Commons and where he gave Stalin his unbridled praise:
"I personally can not feel anything other than the greatest admiration for this truly great man, the father of his country, ruling the fate of his country in times of peace and its victorious protector during the war." Two days later, this speech appeared on the pages of Pravda.
Stalin, who rested in the Caucasus, responded immediately:
“I consider it a mistake to publish Churchill’s speech about praising Russia and Stalin,” he said in the latest “Letter from the South” to the Quartet left on the farm (Molotov, Malenkov, Beria and Mikoyan).
“Churchill needs all this to calm his unclean conscience and disguise his hostility towards the USSR."
Churchill was not a very simple person: cunning, calculating, Pharisee and schemer, he had a phenomenal gift to confuse others and his own. But it cannot be denied that this was a patriot of his homeland, a brave man who was not afraid to take on enormous responsibility at the most difficult time, he rallied the nation, allowed her to perk, after the strongest defeats and at the same time was respectful to his opponents.
When the Soviet Union launched a campaign to expose the cult of the personality of Stalin himself, Churchill himself, this campaign deeply jarred on.
Having survived his military associate in the “Big Three” for twelve years, until the end of his life he did not agree with diminishing his role in the victory over fascism.
Other unfulfilled plans (some) former allies:
Returning to the cruiser "Augusta" from the Potsdam Conference in the United States, Truman gives Eisenhower the order: to prepare a plan for waging a nuclear war against the USSR.
The United States at the end of 40-x - the beginning of 1950-x according to the plans of “Hafmun”, “Fleetwood” and “Doublestar” was planned to launch a series of nuclear strikes on major cities and strategic enterprises of the USSR.
So, during the operation “Doublestar” it was planned to drop around the 120 atomic bombs on the USSR.
According to American historians, Eisenhower had orders on a preemptive strike on the USSR twice on the table. According to their laws, the order comes into force if it was signed by all three chiefs of staff - naval, air and land forces. Two signatures were, the third was missing. And only because the victory over the USSR, according to their calculations, was achieved if in the first 30 minutes the 65 million population of the country would be destroyed. The chief of staff of the land forces understood that he would not provide this.
In 1955, at the initiative of the British Admiralty, an operation will begin under the code name “Kadzhel” (“Dubina”).
According to “Dubin”, the United Kingdom planned to launch a series of nuclear strikes on the territory of the USSR in 1959 year. Among the priorities were the port cities of Murmansk and Arkhangelsk. The explosions were supposed to be carried out with the help of a timed fuse, and the bombs themselves should be delivered “to the objects” with the help of the latest weapons At that time - fiberglass mini-submarines.
Respublika newspaper, Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus, No.17 (4440), 29.01.2008
Daily Telegraph (October 1 1998)
Executive Intelligence Review (October 1998)
"Rossiyskaya Gazeta", №3854, 2005
magazine "New and Newest история"(1999, #3)