Military Review

Military reform in Europe: who seeks what

Military reform in Europe: who seeks what

Recently, the reform of the armed forces has affected not only Russia, but also other states, which, due to various circumstances, have decided on the need to transform their armies.

So, for example, the UK began to reform the armed forces. However, despite the fact that Lieutenant General Nick Cather was involved in developing the new structure, her final plan has not yet been approved by the Ministry of Defense.

The reorganization plan for the army is calculated to 2020 year. The same year is indicated as the deadline for the rearmament program and the Russian army.

The British plan assumes that the national armed forces will be largely reduced, and these reductions will also affect the ground forces. Before the 2020, all of them will be staffed in three divisions, two of them will be used for conducting intensive actions, and the third will be intended for guerrilla warfare and will be called “soft power division”.

These divisions will have 33 battalions. In two divisions, the so-called heavy, there will be three mechanized brigades, each of which will have two motorized infantry battalions, tank regiment, reconnaissance regiment and mobile motorized infantry regiment. Support will be provided by individual artillery and engineering regiments, as well as military formations of rear support. The divisions will be armed with an upgraded Warrior infantry fighting vehicle, Challenger 2 battle tanks, promising Scout SV reconnaissance vehicles, and FREA UV armored personnel carriers.

In addition to the heavy brigades, the assault force and the special forces brigade from the royal marines with two shelves of Apache helicopters will also be included in the response force.

The "soft power" brigade will have seven infantry brigades located in various districts. As for the number and armament of these brigades, it will be different. Each of these brigades may have a battalion 2-4 and several reconnaissance units. The equipment will be light armored vehicles MRAP and light wheeled armored vehicles.

Heavy divisions will be led by a single command. In addition, the security forces will also be one. They will consist of eight brigades with artillery, reconnaissance, medical and engineering units, as well as logistic and communications units. All support teams will be specialized.

In the composition of the ground forces there will be a joint helicopter command.

As for the personnel, by the year 2020 it is planned to reduce it by about 20 percent. Thus, 82 will serve thousands of people in the British Army. But at the same time, the number of reservists will double, and by the year 2020 there will be thousands of 30 people. The number of service personnel - logistics and engineers - will be reduced by 30 percent.

Such a significant reduction in the British armed forces is dictated by the need to make the budget more balanced in times of crisis and reduce government spending. Back in 2010, it was decided to reduce defense spending by 8 percent. But then it only affected fleet и aviation. The ground forces were left unchanged, as hostilities were still ongoing in Afghanistan. But until 2015, the complete withdrawal of British troops from Afghan territories, as well as the closure of British military bases in Germany, is planned.

The next step in reforming the British armed forces will be the creation of adaptable forces, which will include both regular troops and reservists. This, according to the Ministry of Defense, will create the effect of cooperation, especially in the process of intelligence activities and information gathering.

Despite the fact that reforming the army is aimed at reducing costs, there are certain risks. So, for example, before 2020, it is necessary to lay off about 12 thousands of people. Those who decided to quit voluntarily have already written a report, but about 10 thousands will need to be dismissed by the department. And this at a time when the UK is engulfed in a crisis and high unemployment.

The opposition is not satisfied with the reorganization plan. Since the dismissal of professional military men and the transfer of their functions to the reserve can cost the government much more than maintain a regular army, the reserve also needs to be paid for service, but the level of professional training will be much lower.

The Bulgarian armed forces also expect reductions. As the Minister of Defense of the country, General Simeon Simenov, declared, from July 1 on July 2012, the personnel of the Bulgarian army will be reduced to 2700 soldiers. The state budget provides funds for the payment of compensation, as well as funds for the retraining of those who fell under reduction. In total, reforming the Bulgarian army will lead to a reduction of seven thousand people, of whom 5700 thousand are military and 1300 are civil servants.

A similar reduction in personnel can be observed in the Portuguese armed forces. The country's leadership decided on the need to reduce the army to 230 officers and 11 admirals and generals. All pruning processes must be completed by the end of 2013. To date, the total number of Portuguese army is 18,5 thousand people. After reductions in the composition of the naval forces, 94 personnel officers and three admirals will be abolished, and the permanent staff will be approximately equal to 8 thousands of people. As part of the air force 71 officer post will be eliminated, the generals will be less than three people, about the staff will be almost 4 thousands of people.

Least of all the reform will affect the ground forces. It is planned to dismiss only 65 officers and 5 generals, and the number of personnel will be equal to about 6,5 thousand people.

According to the government, such cuts are due to the need to cut costs.

The Italian army is also awaiting reformation. In the conditions of the economic crisis, the Italian Minister of War J. Di Paola presented to the parliament and the government a plan for a large-scale reform of the structure of the national armed forces. First of all, the reorganization of the army will be associated with a reduction in its number. In addition, it also provides for the creation of a new modern army. However, in the near future a significant reduction in the budget and investment in military construction is projected.

It is assumed that the reform will become the basis for the creation of a new model of the armed forces, which will balance the expenses for the maintenance of personnel with other expenditures of the military budget. Thus, but to the new standards, approximately 50 percent will be spent on personnel, 25 percent - on the maintenance of the army and the same amount on purchases of weapons and equipment.

Due to the reform of the Italian army in the next decade, you can save about 2 billions of dollars that can be invested in arms purchases. But for the time being, armaments programs should save as much as possible, because it was only in 2012 that the purchasing budget of the military department lost about 970 million euros. In 2012-2014, it is planned to cut another 3 billion from the military budget, which will hit primarily on procurement. And the total volume of the military budget of Italy for this period will be at the level of 12-14 billion euros.

Already, in a crisis, it was announced that the 41 unit of purchase of F-35 fighters was reduced. This will save up to 5 billion euros. There is no doubt that in the near future other procurement programs will also be significantly curtailed, in particular, programs for NH90 helicopters and U212 submarines may be affected.

The number of personnel will be reduced to 151 by thousands of people instead of the existing 190 thousand today, thousands of vacancies will fall under the reduction of 43, which will allow to save two billion already announced earlier. The number of admirals and generals will be reduced by 30 percent.

But the authorities promised that all those affected by the reform of the army would be transferred to other government agencies, in particular, to the defense industry.

With regard to the reform of the structure, it is intended to merge duplicate command structures in the three types of troops, as well as the abolition of territorial commands. In addition, the planned elimination of 2 brigades, the sale of military real estate, which is not used, and the closure of military bases. Thus, in five to six years, the military infrastructure in the form of barracks, polygons and other things will be reduced by 30 percent, the number of brigades will be equal to 9, a number of heavy weapons, helicopters and artillery units will be eliminated. As part of the naval forces will remain only 10 from 18 patrol ships, and the number of minesweepers and submarines will be equal to 4 instead of 6. The number of fighters and tactical strike aircraft will be reduced in the Italian Air Force.

Croatia still in 2008 year refused to be drafted into the army, fully becoming a contract. At the same time, the plan for the development of the army up to 2015 was adopted. The government allocated 16 million euros to reform the armed forces. In this case, in the case of voluntary replenishment of the 2 army with thousands of contract soldiers annually, the number of personnel will be kept at the level of 16 thousands. The reserve also amounted to more than 750 thousand people. The next step in reforming troops was rearmament. Kalashnikovs were replaced by the Croatian HS VHS, which are a copy of the Israeli Tavor. Finnish Patria armored personnel carriers, Lockheed Martin AN AN / FPS 117 American radars are being purchased, the cost of which was 100 million dollars. The 10 Iveco armored vehicles have already been purchased, and the process of modernizing the Yugoslav M-84 tanks has begun.

Modernization touched and aviation. Outdated models are planned to be replaced by Swedish JAS39 “Grippen” aircraft. To date, the reform of the national armed forces of Croatia is in full swing. It should be noted that, compared with its neighbors, the state greatly benefits in terms of the size and level of development of the army.

But Montenegro is reforming very interesting. Recall that in 2006, the country became independent. And from that very moment began the reform of its armed forces. After the collapse of the alliance with Serbia, 6,5 thousands of servicemen turned up in the Montenegrin army. Immediately it was announced that its number would be reduced to 2,5 thousand, and, as part of it will be exclusively professional volunteers. And then the government abolished the call into the armed forces.

With regard to weapons and equipment, at the time of independence in Montenegro turned 62 tank T-55, but in 2007, 61 of them was destroyed in order to reduce military spending, because this technique was recognized as obsolete. And the only tank that survived, is used as a museum exhibit.

It is also planned to reduce the size of the navy and reduce its status - the fleet will turn into coast guard troops. The air force was armed with 15 assault aircraft, but in the future it is planned to go exclusively to helicopters.

As for Russia, reform is also being carried out here, but, according to analysts, for some ingenious winding paths. Of course, the Russian military reformers would like to take an example from the NATO countries and also refuse to be drafted into the army. The government wants to have an army that will consist entirely of professionals who come to serve voluntarily on long-term contracts. On the one hand, such a desire is fully justified, because the quality of service of professional military personnel is much higher than the conscripts. But on the other hand, much more is needed to support professionals. Therefore, at present, the transition to a fully contractual basis has not yet been implemented.

Fixed assets that are allocated from the state budget to the military department will be determined for the purchase of weapons and equipment. Thus, before 2020, the provision of new equipment and weapons should reach the 70 percent indicator. Until then, the armament will contain an incomplete, which is about 30 percent.

As for the salaries of military personnel, it is significantly higher than the average indicators for the country. So, professional military personnel, according to the order signed in January of this year, will receive from 25 to 36 thousand rubles, and in some cases - 42 thousand rubles. Thus, approximately 1,3 trillion rubles will be paid out of the state budget for wages and pensions to the military. The average for the year is about 15,5 billion euros. If we consider these amounts on an international scale, it is worth noting that approximately the same amount is allocated by the Italian government for the needs of the military budget. And the rearmament program will cost even more. It is planned that prior to 2020, 20 trillions of rubles will be allocated for this purpose.

As you can see, the crisis has affected a large number of European countries. However, the reform of the armed forces, in addition to reducing costs, has other goals. As they say - everyone is committed to his ideal, but what will come of it ...

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  1. Sasha 19871987
    Sasha 19871987 7 September 2012 08: 53
    MDA, in Russia, as always, its own way)))
    1. Orty
      Orty 7 September 2012 13: 34
      Russia, too, has a different configuration of borders than the countries of Europe. We have the Caucasus, Central Asia and China. Oh yes, and Nato is unforgettable, many people don’t like us there. In Europe (hypothetically) it is possible to strike only from one direction, from the east, but do we need it?
    2. Phlegmatic person
      Phlegmatic person 7 September 2012 16: 57
      The contract, of course, is good, but we cannot cancel the call if in the future a large part of the army will be contracted, you can reduce the service life to 6 months, conduct training camps if this does not interfere with the family, and introduce some restrictions for people who have not passed service, for example, for the purchase of weapons. In cases of the beginning of major hostilities, reservists are sent to accelerated training courses.
      1. curious
        curious 8 September 2012 15: 49
        The British fleet and SAS units solve most of the tasks assigned to the country's Armed Forces, therefore the transition from the number of various "assistants" to a better-quality composition is quite understandable and reasonable
  2. Tirpitz
    Tirpitz 7 September 2012 09: 25
    Developed European countries are moving from quantity to quality. drones replace reconnaissance. airplanes, crews of ships are reduced, everything is automated, high-precision ammunition. In Europe, such an army is completely enough for colonial wars. They have no resources, a lot of people, no one will attack.
    1. Isr
      Isr 7 September 2012 13: 08
      Quote: Tirpitz
      Developed European countries are moving from quantity to quality. drones replace reconnaissance. airplanes, crews of ships are reduced, everything is automated, high-precision ammunition.

      That's right, I subscribe to every word.

      Quote: Tirpitz
      In Europe, such an army is completely enough for colonial wars. They have no resources, a lot of people, no one will attack.

      But where is this from? What colonial wars? An example of some kind of colonial war. Capture part of Georgia? Or is it a national liberation war with little blood on foreign territory?
      1. Orty
        Orty 7 September 2012 13: 36
        Iraq, Afghanistan, Libya and quite possibly Syria. No, of course, no one calls them out loud the colonial wars, but in fact, by the results it is.
        1. Pimply
          Pimply 7 September 2012 14: 39
          In fact, these wars are external. There are many less visible and much more significant conflicts for Europe.
      2. Pimply
        Pimply 7 September 2012 14: 38
        Well, how would they conduct neo-colonial wars regularly. France still receives up to a third of its income from work in former colonies.
      3. Tirpitz
        Tirpitz 7 September 2012 15: 36
        Quote: Isr
        But where is this from? What colonial wars? An example of some kind of colonial war

        Libya is an example.
        1. Pimply
          Pimply 7 September 2012 19: 48
          In fact, Libya is not bad. But Libya is a high-profile war. There are quieter options, but no less iconic. Cote d'Ivoire, for example
        2. Isr
          Isr 7 September 2012 20: 21
          "Colonial war - war with the aim of conquering or retaining colonies" is the definition of colonial war. Well, where is the conquest of Libya? No troops were brought into its territory. How did Libya become a colony and whose? If they cited Georgia as an example, then it would be suitable. Troops were brought into the territory of Georgia. This territory is still controlled by Russia. There is a puppet government. An attempt to hold elections in the occupied lands was thwarted. Everything is clear here.
          So the question is: whose colony is Libya?
          1. Orty
            Orty 7 September 2012 22: 14
            Did you get a definition from the wiki? So times are changing, now instead of capturing the country and pumping resources from it free then, they act a little differently, they are bringing puppet governments accountable to themselves, like in Libya or Iraq, to ​​power in the country. It’s even more profitable, you don’t need to invest in the development of the colony, there are no national liberation movements either. All the anger of the population is directed at its corrupt government, after some time it can again be replaced by the loud slogans of the next revolution (substitute what color you like). Yes, of course you’ll have to share a little bit with puppets, but this is also relative, since this money will still be returned to the country of overlords, in the form of contracts for the supply of weapons, for example, or equipment. So I don’t need to upload the definition from the wiki here with a triumphant look, any fool can do this. No troops entered? Is this an argument? And who supplied the weapons, but bombed all that is possible with aviation? This, for your information, is war. Now Libya can be called an independent state only by a very narrow-minded person.
            1. Isr
              Isr 8 September 2012 00: 22
              That is, in Libya, a puppet accountable government? And to whom is it accountable?
              Quote: Orty
              So I don’t need to upload the definition from the wiki here with a triumphant look, any fool can do this.

              Due to the fact that fools didn’t write wikis, one can use these definitions, otherwise fools come up with the hell if you break your leg. White is called black and vice versa. The Russians pump Iraqi oil, but for some reason they think that the Americans have taken their resources in their hands. The truth is that Americans are buying it.
              1. Orty
                Orty 8 September 2012 08: 10
                It is characteristic that the question was asked about Libya, and not about Iraq, apparently you yourself understand who is essentially managing there. In Libya, the same thing, of course, like in Iraq, there is its own government, but in fact it is a country with external governance, the States, the Angles and the Franks rule there. Well, not directly, but through their oil corporations. Regarding the wiki, if you read carefully my previous post, you might understand that I meant that the definition on the wiki is already out of date? Well, you know, the era of sailing galleons is over, other times, other methods. You can call it the promotion of democracy, but in fact it’s colonial or neo-colonial war.
                Paying for oil? I wrote will be a little bit divided in order to maintain the appearance of decency. Well, yes, they allocated a small piece of the cake for a while to ours, but it was not the government of Iraq that decided whether to allow ours to oil.
                1. Isr
                  Isr 8 September 2012 16: 29
                  You can repeat the same question about Iraq, but I did not want to touch a sore subject, because Russia won from the war in Iraq. Russian corporations are mining Iraqi resources, not American ones. So, if we use the "newest" and "undocumented" definitions of what colonies are, then Iraq is now a colony of Russia. By the way, it is typical that you asked the question about Iraq, and you diligently bypass the accumulated territories of Georgia. These pseudo-countries also fall under the definition of colonies, both wikino and yours.
                  1. Orty
                    Orty 8 September 2012 17: 48
                    No, neither Ossetia nor Abkhazia falls; firstly, both of these people themselves did not want to be part of Georgia. Secondly, in both of these countries there are no strategic resources that we could produce there. The entire 888 war is a completely different phenomenon compared to the occupation of Iraq and the violent coup in Libya. If only because the Georgians started first. Regarding what Russia has benefited from Iraqi oil production: CNPC, Petronas, Total, British Petroleum, ENI, Occidental, Exxon, Shell, Statoil is that all Russian companies? All these firms produce oil there, with the exception of CNPC, they are all western. Of course we will not be cunning, there are Lukoil and Gazprom, but their share in the total pie is small. Yes, even about Georgia, even if you take your point of view as truth, hypothetically, we are still right, because we just take our own, all these lands have been part of the Russian state for hundreds of years and their citizens would have better lived in a big and strong a country with great opportunities, and not in a miserable fragment of the former empire.
  3. Ruha
    Ruha 7 September 2012 10: 48
    In my opinion, this is not the best time for the old woman of Europe to reduce the sun. While in other regions there is a rapid buildup of military muscles, and the world is in a period of redistribution of spheres of influence. Or do they think their Americans will protect?
    Such reductions in professionalism will not add, but the influence in the world will diminish.
  4. Follow us
    Follow us 7 September 2012 11: 27
    If you don’t want to feed your army, you will feed someone else’s. Old as the world.
  5. Berkut_64
    Berkut_64 7 September 2012 11: 27
    Very interesting, Especially instructive for our GS, there is a small remark: The Brigade “Soft power” cannot be composed seven infantry brigades.
    1. Brother Sarych
      Brother Sarych 7 September 2012 13: 05
      In the source, there was a division of soft power, there was a typo ...
    2. Varnaga
      Varnaga 7 September 2012 14: 45
      for your GSH, which one? Ukrainian galleries?
  6. Brother Sarych
    Brother Sarych 7 September 2012 13: 04
    But how can one be compared with Europe? Who is really threatening the UK? Why do they need an army at all? You can do well with the police ...
    Not very many who threaten the same Italy, well, maybe blacks sailing from Africa on motorboats, but take off the police will do just fine ..
    1. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 7 September 2012 14: 25
      Quote: Brother Sarich
      Who is really threatening the UK?

      My question is: Are I interested in England having its own analogue of explosives? 320 000 rifles L85-85A2 where to go?
    2. Varnaga
      Varnaga 7 September 2012 14: 45
      Indeed, who threatens her and why does she need the Trident SLBM?
      It’s just that it’s time for our Poetreots to understand what nuclear weapons are and why they are needed before building scenarios for an attack by NATO or China on the Russian Federation.
  7. Orty
    Orty 7 September 2012 13: 30
    And I think all this is preparation for the creation of a unified EU army. If you think about it, all this looks rather strange, almost all EU countries are reducing their armed forces, but no one directly threatens them. Now. And what will happen if these "evil Russians" are trampled across the border? After all, this is how they are frightened, right? This is, of course, nonsense, but it is quite easy to stir up the hype in the newspapers, especially if the newspapers are pocket-sized. Embed in the text something like "No EU army is capable of standing alone fighting the Russian bear! While the European countries were pursuing a peaceful policy of reducing military spending, Russia was heavily arming. Only by combining the forces of the EU countries ..." and stirring up the armed forces for this forces of the European Union, already without the Yankees.
    1. Cosmonaut
      Cosmonaut 7 September 2012 14: 31
      Not everything is so uniform in Europe. Each pulls its strap.
      1. Orty
        Orty 7 September 2012 14: 34
        So it is, but the EU policy is mainly determined by the countries of old Europe and clearly by their elite. They will give the command to the Eastern European people "To the foot!" and they won't go anywhere!
        1. Aaron Zawi
          Aaron Zawi 7 September 2012 15: 29
          Well, the same Poles will not agree with such a statement of the question. Poland is also quite a large state.
          1. Orty
            Orty 7 September 2012 17: 40
            Not so big, of course, against the background of other Eastern European countries, it really looks powerful, but if Poland, Germany, France, Italy and England start twisting their hands, then it will not go anywhere! There is not enough potential, moreover, a significant part of the Polish elite is oriented precisely to Europe, and not to the USA, and their position will be stronger from year to year. Recently I just read a translation of a Polish article, so there was a whole cry about Poland being the most faithful ally of the United States and there was no visa-free regime! And damned and totalitarian, and yet pay five times less for a Yusov visa, and they don’t have to have an invitation! In general, the Poles begin to realize that for the United States they are a supplier of cannon fodder and nothing more, in Europe Poland has a much stronger position.
            1. Pimply
              Pimply 7 September 2012 19: 50
              They are not so much oriented towards Europe in terms of "to the foot" as they want to be as influential as possible. And they constantly prove this by their actions.
    2. Yeraz
      Yeraz 7 September 2012 16: 00
      In the future, their armed forces will unite.
  8. Igoriok222
    Igoriok222 7 September 2012 18: 03
    It is a pity that they did not write anything about Germany.
  9. warrior
    warrior 7 September 2012 19: 10
    if you want at least something to understand, start from this site - NATO In the Russian Federation -
    Then you can familiarize yourself with what is called the NATO Strategic Transformation Command. Here are made plans for those changes that are discussed in the article. NATO optimization began even before the economic crisis. Decisions on this were made in 2003. and confirmed at the last shoot.
    The essence of optimizations is to transform NATO from a system of regional defense of Europe and the United States into a base of expeditionary forces, capable of acting everywhere on the globe. Optimization does not only reduce the shields of non-expeditionary forces, but also transforms the shields of the rear and logistic structures into expeditionary forces. For example, in Bulgaria, the 61st Strymsk mechanized squad received the Expeditionary Force team in May 2012. 900 new vacancies at the expense of officials of the Moscow Region and civilian structures
    How transformation success is measured. If in the next three years NATO becomes capable of simultaneously carrying out three operations of the Afghan type at the same time, then this will be considered a success. The news in this area is the integration of military forces with internal forces of all kinds. This year, such exercises were conducted at the national level for the first time.
    And finally, I explain to the author of the article - the gene. Simeon Simeonov (and not Simenov) holds the position of Head of the selected on the Republic of Bulgaria. This is a hanging military position in the Bulgarian army, something like the chief of the general secretary. The Minister of Defense is called Anyu Angelov, a retired general. By NATO standards, a minister is always a civilian, even a retired general.
  10. Stasi.
    Stasi. 7 September 2012 19: 11
    Let the Western armies shrink, and the Russian Armed Forces build muscle. Of course, Europeans are striving to reduce quality by reducing the amount, only I doubt something that they will succeed. In order to provide a small army, you need a lot of money for the purchase of precision weapons and equipment. And all this is very expensive. Will the crisis allow these purchases to be carried out or will the armed forces still have to be reduced? As for the united European troops, the idea is good, only the united Europe itself is bursting at the seams, for example, in Germany they want to get out of the euro and again return the Deutschmark as the national currency. And in other countries there are the same moods.
  11. Darck
    Darck 10 September 2012 07: 59
    Reform in Africa))))