Marine electronic intelligence
Historical the essay covers the period from the early fifties to the mid-nineties of the XX century: on the creation of the first domestic reconnaissance ships and their use for the purpose of conducting naval electronic reconnaissance (RER).
Systematic reconnaissance of the forces of a potential enemy even in peacetime is the most important condition for ensuring high combat readiness of the naval fleet, and reconnaissance information is one of the factors that predetermine the possibility of early disclosure of specific plans and types of threats from a potential adversary.
The requirements of the command of the Navy to identify the activities of the naval forces of foreign states grew from year to year.
Coastal radio detachments, by virtue of their specificity, could not cover the entire range of radiation of reconnaissance objects by search, interception, direction finding and analysis. At the same time, the need for reconnaissance of radio-technical means - means of radar, radio navigation, control, as well as short-range radio communications of reconnaissance forces became more and more obvious, since these emissions carried a large flow of information not only about the characteristics of the radio-electronic means themselves, but also about their activities.
In 1951 year it was decided to create a radio-technical intelligence service for the Navy. Interception of radio-electronic emissions has become the main source of information about the enemy. Almost simultaneously with these events, by order of the USSR Naval Minister, the creation of separate marine radio engineering divisions (OMRTD) began in the fleets, which included ships allocated according to this order.
The first reconnaissance ships began to arrive at the fleets, which in the initial period of their activity were called messenger ships.
The first such ships to appear in the fleets in 1954 were:
- in the Baltic Fleet - "Andoma";
- in the Black Sea Fleet - "Argun";
- in the Northern Fleet - "Ritsa";
- in the Pacific Fleet - "Kerby".
On the basis of these ships, first divisions of messenger ships are formed, then divisions of OSNAZ ships. Subsequently, the divisions in the fleets were transformed into brigades of reconnaissance ships.
With the acquisition of experience in conducting electronic reconnaissance from the coast, the need for the deployment of electronic reconnaissance equipment on mobile carriers became more and more obvious, since the coastal units could not cover the sea, and even more so oceanic, theaters of military operations to their entire depth.
In addition, early detection of a massive overflight of a strategic bomber aviation from the continental United States towards the USSR at that time could only be detected by deploying appropriately equipped ships in remote areas of the World Ocean.
The command of the fleets is seeking to transfer ships of various designs and types to the OMRTD. These ships, equipped with the forces of the personnel of the ships, having the means of RR and RTR, began to solve the reconnaissance tasks assigned to them in the operational zone fleets. The combat posts of the RR and RTR were equipped with equipment developed for coastal units.
In the HF range, these were the Krot radio receivers, in the VHF - the R-313, R-314 radio receivers, the RPS-1 “Pyramid” and RPS-2 “Pika” radio stations were used for reconnaissance of the radar stations, as well as the RTR aircraft stations: SRS- 1 and CPC-2. For direction finding of radiation - KVPS radio direction-finding attachments. The total number of combat posts ranged from 6 to 9.
At the end of the 50s In the military doctrines and strategies of the United States and NATO countries, an increasing role is assigned to the Naval Forces. The United States is building the first nuclear-powered missile submarines, aircraft carriers and large surface ships, which received new weapons. weapon, the most advanced controls and communications.
The Navy was given the task of confronting the naval forces of a potential enemy, for which it was necessary to create forces and means, including reconnaissance, capable of effectively operating in the oceanic zone. The need for information about the naval forces of a potential enemy has grown immeasurably. In the area of responsibility of the fleets, the ships of the divisions solve the assigned tasks, being constantly at sea.
By the orders of the Commander-in-Chief of the Navy on the classification of ships and vessels, these ships belonged to the group of warships until 1977, and then, with the release of a new order on classification, they were assigned to the group of special ships.
The fleet command regularly engages ships in reconnaissance missions. According to the terminology of the first years, the campaigns themselves were divided into near and far.
Hikes to the adjacent seas lasting up to 30 days were considered closest. Preparation of ships for going out to sea took place in conditions of special secrecy. Equipping the crews of the ships in civilian clothes was carried out. The teams were provided with civil and sanitary passports.
Legendary ships have existed from the very beginning of the ships' voyages. In the initial period - under the fishermen with the red flag of the country of the Soviets, under the hydrographic vessels with the flag of hydrography and a strip with a hammer and sickle on a pipe, then under communications ships with a naval flag.
They handed over everything that could arouse suspicion about the ship's belonging to the navy, and at night they unanchored and went on a campaign.
Legendary ships provided not only for the presence on board of the appropriate fishing props, but also the ability of the crew to use this. All ships had legendary names that changed from time to time.
At the beginning of the 60's a situation arose when ships, united in divisions, but not having full-time intelligence specialists, could only act as "cabbies", since reconnaissance forces and means were concentrated in the OMRTD of the fleets.
Therefore, the next natural organizational step was the unification in 1961 of the divisions of the OSNAZ and OMRTD ships of the fleets into a single organizational structure, called the Marine Radio Engineering Detachment (MRTO).
The created units were able to independently extract the materials of the RR and RTR, process them competently, generalize the data obtained and develop intelligence documents.
By this time, new technical means of reconnaissance began to enter the armament of the ships, specially designed for operation in naval conditions - panoramic radio receivers "Chernika", radio receivers of the "Trap", "Vishnya-K" type, radio direction finders of HF and partly of the CB-bands "Vizir", for RTR - portable stations "Malyutka (MPR - 1-7)."
By the beginning of the 70s the fleet reconnaissance included OSNAZ ships of various projects. These were sea vessels of various types. They were built in different years in the GDR, Finland, Sweden and the USSR.
The undoubted advantage of these ships was the presence of large free areas in the holds, which made it possible to place reconnaissance equipment there and equip the required number of berths for the ship's staff and OSNAZ groups. These ships had approximately the same speed of 9-11 knots and an autonomy of 25-30 days with a staff of ships assigned to the fleet's reconnaissance of 25-35 people. The number of regular berths was the same.
However, the autonomy of ships when going to sea was determined, as a rule, in the same 30, and sometimes more than days. Often, refueling at sea took place after a longer amount of time, if the situation required it - being in a designated reconnaissance area or while tracking certain objects.
This created certain problems in sanitation and hygiene, which were tolerated by the personnel of the ships. There were practically no desalination plants on the ships of the first generation. Sailing often took place in tropical latitudes, when the sun was burning mercilessly on the deck, the temperature in the engine rooms reached 50 degrees, in the cabins up to 35 degrees, the lack of fresh water was felt especially acutely.
But the sailors came out of this situation with honor. To wash the personnel, tropical showers were used, to increase the water supply, the commanders, at their own peril and risk, took water into containers that were not intended for this, for example, in the forepeak, which reduced the stability of the vessel and made it difficult to control the ship in stormy weather.
Small capacities of refrigerating chambers (1,5–2,0 cubic meters) did not make it possible to place sufficient stocks of perishable foodstuffs. The potatoes, usually stored in a damp hold, had to be dried on the deck and sorted out almost weekly under curious glances and constant photographs from foreign planes and helicopters. On the ships of the first generation, there was no ventilation and air conditioning of living and office premises.
Technical difficulties consisted in the impossibility of centralized creation in a short time of documentation for the re-equipment of ships of these projects. Therefore, in the early years, the ships were re-equipped according to the plans of the commanders and engineering services of naval radio units.
This was done simply: in a free hold, one- or two-tier rooms were equipped from boards, and reconnaissance equipment was fastened in them with all available means. Lack of ventilation, dampness, frequent rearrangement of equipment from ship to ship, directly at sea during rough seas, led to its frequent breakdowns. But gradually these problems were also solved by equipping stationary combat posts.
With 1962 year ships OSNAZ of the Northern Fleet began to conduct reconnaissance off the East Coast of the United States and in the North-East Atlantic on a permanent basis, ships of the Pacific Fleet - in the area of operation of the 7th US Fleet. We made several trips to the area of about. Guam, US West Coast, Hawaiian and Aleutian Islands, Japan, about. Okinawa. Ships of the Baltic Fleet conducted reconnaissance in the areas of the Baltic and North Seas, in the North Atlantic, ships of the Black Sea Fleet - in the Mediterranean Sea, in the areas of constant activity of ships of the 6th US Fleet.
As the forward bases of SSBNs were deployed, OSNAZ ships began to continuously conduct reconnaissance of 14, 15, 16 squadrons of US Navy SSBNs in the areas of Holi-Loch, Guam, Rota. The aircraft carrier and anti-submarine forces were also under the direct supervision of the reconnaissance ships, producing data on their activities that could not have been obtained from the coastal reconnaissance units.
The build-up of naval electronic reconnaissance forces, which lasted until the end of the 70s, ensured a significant expansion of their areas of activity even before the start of permanent combat service in the Navy. Since the beginning of the 60s, from episodic trips to the coastal seas, ships have been sent to the ocean expanses of the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian Oceans and the Mediterranean Sea. The change of ships to reconnaissance positions begins to take place directly in the designated areas.
With the beginning of combat service, a new period began in the activities of ships..
The need for reconnaissance support for the work of naval forces in the ocean has increased, the need for reconnaissance ships to operate in close proximity to large surface formations of the naval forces of NATO countries.
The intensity of the use of OSNAZ ships in these years has increased. Campaign plans were not only fulfilled, but also overfulfilled. The ships made cruises with a large excess of navigation autonomy. The crews of the ships and the specialists of the RR and RTR carried a combat watch with great stress. It was not uncommon for the watch to be in two shifts.
The increased activity in the activities of the ships found a response in the activities of the reconnaissance forces, which began to close the most informative radio networks, create active radio and electronic interference when our ships were detected in the immediate vicinity of foreign ships' formations, declare a complete radio silence mode in intra-squadron communication, stop or reduce work radio electronic means.
Provocative actions against reconnaissance ships began to appear.
The OSNAZ ship was "expelled" from the area of operations of the forces with the help of 2 ships of the formation's security, which took the ship in "pincers" and gave it the opportunity to follow only a completely definite course to leave the area.
The first armed provocation was undertaken in December 1958 against the Ungo ship of the Pacific Fleet.
Despite certain difficulties in preparing and carrying out combat service, all the tasks assigned to the OSNAZ ships were successfully solved, which was greatly facilitated by the constant concern of the higher command to improve the organization, service conditions and life of the crews of the ships.
In September 1964 years NATO naval forces are conducting the largest exercise under the code name "Team Work". It took place in the waters of the North-East Atlantic, the Norwegian and North Seas, in the UK and Norway, and was an integral part of the final autumn exercises. A task force of heterogeneous and multi-ethnic forces is formed off the east coast of the United States and makes a transition to the region of northern Norway, where it was planned to make a landing with the support of the Strike Fleet. The OSNAZ ships of the Northern and Baltic fleets, which were previously deployed on the route of the aircraft carrier formation, are involved in the reconnaissance of the exercise.
From the Northern Fleet these are ships: "Krenometer", "Theodolite" and "Gyroscope".
With 1968 year crews of ships in autonomous navigation began to receive special sea rations. The ration consisted of: roach, dry wine, chocolate, juices, smoked meats, condensed milk.
Due to the unfavorable sailing conditions in tropical latitudes, the personnel of the ships were given disposable personal and bed linen, and later on - a tropical uniform.
For hygiene purposes, doctors on the ships organized a preventive rubdown of individual parts of the body with diluted alcohol. The frequency of refueling after 35-40 days made it necessary to organize the baking of fresh bread on the ships.
With the beginning of long-distance cruises, refueling from fishing floating bases or civilian ships was organized for the naval reconnaissance ships, which made it possible to periodically receive fresh food, fuel, and water. Organize washing and washing of linen for personnel and, if necessary, carry out minor repairs of mechanisms with the help of repair shops of floating bases.
Late 60s - early 70s the ships of the Polish-built project 861 of the Kolguev type for the Northern and Black Sea fleets are being supplied to the fleet reconnaissance, and the Swedish-built ocean-going rescue tugs of the Pamir type for the Pacific Fleet. The arrival of ships was caused both by the continuing build-up of the naval RER forces, and by the need to ensure greater reliability and safety of navigation of these ships.
RER system of the Navy
By the end of the 60s, the RER system of the Navy was basically created.
The ships of the first generation, which until that time had entered the fleet reconnaissance, were re-equipped according to the designs of the SKB of shipyards and fleets. The build-up of naval electronic reconnaissance forces continued. They had to sail more and more, the intensity of the use of ships and personnel increased.
If at the beginning of the 60s the interest of the potential enemy in the first OSNAZ ships was small, then with the strengthening of their activities, it increased significantly. Basic patrol aircraft began to be used more intensively. With the release of the reconnaissance ships from the bases, the overflights were persistently carried out with the performance of films and photographs, continued until the confident determination of the course, speed and name of our ship.
Despite all the difficulties of a psychological and everyday nature associated with the duration of the voyages, service on ships was considered honorable and respected.
The ships were the main "suppliers" of the following data:
- on the preparation of SSBNs to enter the combat-ready forces and go out on combat patrols;
- on the tactics of action of aircraft carrier-strike formations. The accumulated experience of conducting reconnaissance, the revealed composition, the organization of all types of defense of the US and NATO AUGs was thoroughly summarized and reported to higher headquarters;
- in the composition of the anti-submarine forces of a potential enemy.
Ships of naval electronic intelligence took part:
- in the largest exercise of the USSR Navy "Ocean-70";
- conducted reconnaissance of sea tests of the new American sea-based Poseidon C3 missile;
- extracted data on the US Navy during the Vietnam War, constantly being in the Gulf of Tonkin;
- revealed the course of tests of the new American submarine "Ohio" and the new ballistic missile "Trident 1";
- in the rise of documents and samples of foreign technology.
In 1968-1972 years at the Nikolaev shipyard 4 ships of the project 394-B of the "Crimea" type were built and transferred to the fleets. These ships laid the foundation for the second generation OSNAZ ships, that is, those whose projects were specially developed and built at enterprises for fleet reconnaissance.
For the first time in the intelligence of the Navy, large ships of the 1st rank of special purpose appeared. They had good living conditions, sufficient supplies of fuel and water, refrigerated installations for storing food, equipment for air-conditioning living quarters and offices, and new reconnaissance equipment.
Along with solving tasks in the interests of the GRU General Staff, they were later involved in solving intelligence tasks in the interests of the Navy. The ships of Project 394-B were a big step forward, but they did not solve all the problems. They were single-screw, did not have sufficient travel speed.
During the late 60s - early 70s the heyday of naval electronic intelligence began. The beginning of the stage of active activity of the OSNAZ ships. The number of ships in the naval reconnaissance reached about 50 units and was maintained at this level for more than 20 years, despite the decommissioning of the first generation ships.
By this time, the OSNAZ ship divisions included significantly more ships than it should be according to the standard organization of the division. In addition, in connection with the appearance of 1st rank ships in three fleets, the issue of organizing OSNAZ ship brigades in the fleets, which included naval radio-radio engineering units (MRRTO), was positively resolved. In October 1969, a separate brigade of OSNAZ ships was formed at the Pacific Fleet, in 1971 - at the Northern Fleet and the Black Sea Fleet.
In the mid-90s, 7 ships of Project 864 of the "Meridian" type were received for fleet reconnaissance.
The project of the ships met the requirements for habitability, had two propellers, air conditioning for all service and utility rooms, powerful desalination plants, voluminous refrigerator chambers for long-term storage of food, modern medical equipment. The reconnaissance weapons of the second generation ships are based on the automated electronic reconnaissance systems "Profile-1", TRO - "Obraz-1", modified radio direction finders "Vizir", reconnaissance stations in the VHF range - "Rotor".
Since 1971, an important and pleasant surprise for the crews of ships have been business calls for resupply and rest of personnel in foreign ports of our friendly countries.
The ships of the Northern Fleet called in Havana, Cienfuegos, Santiago de Cuba, Mariel, the ships of the Baltic Fleet - in the ports of Poland and the GDR, the ships of the Black Sea Fleet - in Tartus, Bizerte, Alexandria. The situation was worse in the Pacific Fleet, where the ships were not able to make business calls, except for service in the Indian Ocean, where they could call in Aden.
Since the early 90s it became possible for Pacific Fleet ships to enter the port of Cam Ranh.
Crews began to receive coupons (special currency), which could be used to purchase scarce goods in special stores.
With the appearance of 1st rank ships in three fleets, the issue of organizing OSNAZ ship brigades in the fleets, which included naval radio-radio engineering detachments (MRRTO), was positively resolved. In October 1969, a separate brigade of OSNAZ ships was formed at the Pacific Fleet, in 1971 - at the Northern Fleet and the Black Sea Fleet.
In the 70-s the ships of the OSNAZ brigades constantly carried out combat service in the far and near zones.
For the ships of the 159th Brigade of the Northern Fleet, these were the areas of the East Coast of the United States and the coast of Scotland near the Bay of Clyde. Here was the forward base of the 14th squadron of SSBNs of the US Navy, and nearby SSBNs of the British Navy were based.
In addition to carrying out combat service in designated areas, the ships took part in reconnaissance of almost all exercises of a potential enemy and in other annual reconnaissance activities. Sometimes there were up to 10 reconnaissance ships at sea.
With the gradual closure of communication channels, the OSNAZ ships began to receive radio reconnaissance equipment with a partial analysis of radio emissions of the type: "Watch", HF short-range direction finders "Vizir-M", control systems for the RR "Tug", analysis "Azimut", ship stations RTR " Kvadrat-2 ", СРС-5, signal analyzers" Spectrum-MM ", later -" Participant ".
The complication of the international situation necessitated the solution of new tasks.
The reconnaissance ships of the Pacific Fleet successfully operated during the Vietnam War, being permanently in the Gulf of Tonkin. Moreover, the position of the RZK was located between the area of combat maneuvering of aircraft carriers and the coast of Vietnam. The commander of the RZK had to timely determine the preparation of the carrier-based assault aviation for strikes on the coast and report this to his command. Thus, our RZK brought invaluable assistance to the fraternal Vietnamese people. And in other "hot spots" RZK were always the first and obtained the most valuable information.
For example, during the Arab-Israeli conflict in 1973, direct communication with the command post of the naval reconnaissance was organized with the Krym MRZK, which made it possible to promptly inform the Syrian side about the enemy's actions. In the course of the 1973 Arab-Israeli war, the most valuable intelligence data were obtained by the Kavkaz, Crimea, Kurs, Ladoga and GS-239 RZKs.
By the mid-70s, OSNAZ ships of eight different projects were included in the reconnaissance of the fleets.
Of these, enough modern were at the Northern Fleet "Khariton Laptev", at the Pacific Fleet - "Gavriil Sarychev" (pr. 850) and ships of the 861 project of Polish construction. These ships were originally created as reconnaissance ships, had a speed of up to 17,5 knots, which increased their capabilities in reconnaissance ship formations.
4 large RZK project 394B - "Primorye", "Crimea", "Kavkaz", "Transbaikalia" supplemented 2 large RZK project 994 - "Zaporozhye" and "Transcarpathia".
In the structure of large RZK, there were 3 services responsible for obtaining intelligence data, and an information processing service, the post of deputy commander for intelligence was established. The ships were equipped with equipment designed not only for collecting, but also for primary processing of information, which significantly increased the efficiency of reconnaissance operations and the efficiency of transferring the obtained information to the command.
The ships of the Black Sea Fleet "Crimea" and "Caucasus" conducted reconnaissance in the Mediterranean region. Pacific - "Primorye" and "Transbaikalia" focused on reconnaissance of the American missile range, where ICBMs and anti-missile weapons were tested. Northern Fleet - "Zaporozhye" and "Transcarpathia" - in the traditional areas of reconnaissance.
In 1978-1987 years. at the Yantar shipyard in Kaliningrad, four BRZK pr. 1826 were built. They were designed as tracking ships, had to develop a course of at least 30 knots and have the most modern reconnaissance equipment at that time. However, it was not possible to install turbines on them, and under diesel engines they could only develop a course of 18 knots.
In the early 1980-ies. at the "Baltiyskiy Zavod" in Leningrad was built BRZK with nuclear power plant "Ural". However, the ship, which had unique reconnaissance means, for a number of reasons did not begin military service. Its only way out to sea is the passage from Leningrad to Vladivostok. The Ural had a displacement of 43 tons and is still the largest warship in our fleet. The unique equipment was left without work.
With the development of radio electronics and hydroacoustic equipment in the early 1980s, the possibility of ultra-long-range detection of submarines was discovered.
This function is called underwater lighting (OBO). The creation and implementation of OPO complexes on reconnaissance ships was supposed to be a response to the American SOSUS hydroacoustic observation systems with the Caesar and Artemis complexes.
Since that time, equipment for OPO began to be installed on all new projects of reconnaissance ships. The development of the ships of the project 864 was carried out by the Nevskoe Design Bureau. The ships of the project 864 were supposed to replace the BRZK of the project 394B / 994 in the sea and near ocean zones, but, having shown excellent seaworthiness, they began to replace them in the World Ocean, complementing the large reconnaissance ships of the 1826 project.
In the middle of 90-ies seven Project 864 ships of the "Meridian" type were received for fleet reconnaissance. The project of the ships met the requirements for habitability, had two propellers, air conditioning for all service and utility rooms, powerful desalination plants, voluminous refrigerator chambers for long-term storage of food, modern medical equipment.
Project 864 reconnaissance ships were capable of performing the following functions:
• Radio interception of communication channels at all frequencies.
• Retransmission of closed communication channels.
• Telemetry reconnaissance.
• Radio-technical intelligence - determination of the belonging and characteristics of radio emission sources.
• Identification and systematization of sources of electromagnetic radiation.
• Measurements of physical fields.
• Drawing up acoustic and electromagnetic "portraits" of ships and submarines.
• Control of sea communications.
• Fixing the movement of the ships of a potential enemy.
• Observation of artillery fire and missile launches.
Reconnaissance ships have repeatedly provided the activities of research institutes seconded to the campaign.
Scientists dealt with issues of acoustics, hydrology and oceanology.
These scientific expeditions included scientists from the research institutes of the city of Leningrad, Moscow, Sukhumi and Kiev.
One of the first such trips was made in 1966 on the EOS "Khariton Laptev". The analysis of the extracted materials made it possible to lay the foundation for a data bank on the characteristics of the sonar fields of foreign ships and submarines. This data provided operational planning agencies for the combat activities of the Navy, as well as enterprises and organizations engaged in the design and construction of ships and the creation of sonar technology.
During one of such expeditions with the participation of scientists, in 1986 the reconnaissance ship of the Northern Fleet "Seliger" arrived in the region of the US East Coast in order to collect information about the noise level of the newly built USS "Nevada" SSBN of the "Ohio" type. The ship "Seliger" was preliminarily equipped with a system of measuring radio-hydroacoustic buoys and a complex for registration and information processing.
The submarine "Nevada" proceeded to the sea test range, where, with the help of a support vessel, it calibrated the sonar antenna. At the same time, the Seliger ship deployed a system of buoys in the area, which recorded the underwater noise of the Nevada SSBN.
The data obtained on the parameters of the primary hydroacoustic field of the American submarine made it possible to make a comparative assessment of its noise level with a similar domestic submarine. As a result, an important state task was solved, which made it possible to solve both technical problems during the construction of domestic submarines and diplomatic ones during negotiations with the United States on the expediency of reducing the naval strategic nuclear forces.
The beginning of a new era
From December 2004After a long break, construction of a series of new ships of Project 18280 began in Russia. In terms of seaworthiness and technical equipment, these ships are much superior to the previously existing types of reconnaissance ships.
The first ship was given the name "Yuri Ivanov" in memory of Vice Admiral Yuri Vasilievich Ivanov, a prominent military leader, an active participant in hostilities in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945, a brave submariner, an outstanding organizer of naval reconnaissance in ocean and sea theaters.
On June 25, 2018, at the Severnaya Verf shipyard in St. Petersburg, a solemn ceremony of admission to the Navy and the raising of the Andreevsky flag on the second ship of project 18280 Ivan Khurs took place.
Veterans in the ranks
Karelia was commissioned in 1986, but stopped active in the early 2000s. After a three-year period of renovation and modernization, it returned to service in 2017.
In May 2021, the Russian Navy's observation ship spent several days off the west coast of Hawaii, according to American press reports.
"With the help of patrol aircraft, surface ships and joint forces, we can closely monitor all ships in the Indo-Pacific area of operations."
On May 29, the US Department of Defense's Missile Defense Agency announced the failure of a test of the missile defense system.
Flight Test Aegis Weapon System 31 Event 1 involved a US Navy ship capable of defending against ballistic missiles, probably a Ticonderoga-class cruiser or an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer.
The United States this time does not blame Russia for its failure, but draws attention to the fact that
Kauai is home to the Barking Sands Pacific Missile Range, where the Navy and the Missile Defense Agency are testing various missiles.
Note that the Russian Ministry of Defense did not comment on the actions of the Pacific Fleet reconnaissance ship, as well as previous reports on the activities of Russian RZK.
But the author has confidence that we are in control of the situation!
Therefore, I recommend watching and listening ...
This is only about one ship - the Zaporozhye BRZK. The second video is only about one of his trips.
Author and performer M.G. Podlipalin
BRZK "Zaporozhye" SSV-501 war in the Falklands
Author and performer S.V. Zemsky
Marking the 45th Anniversary of the Day of Raising the Flag at SSV 501
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