Sediment from "Varshavyanka"
17 August 2012 of the year Admiralty Shipyards held a groundbreaking ceremony for a large diesel-electric submarine (diesel-electric submarines) "Stary Oskol" project 636.3. Now, submarines of this type are being built for the Russian Navy, and before that, over the course of 20, they were exported only.
An old friend
The Commander-in-Chief of the Navy took part in the gala event dedicated to this significant event. fleet Admiral Viktor Chirkov, President of the United Shipbuilding Corporation OJSC Andrey Dyachkov, Director General of the Admiralty Shipyards OJSC Alexander Buzakov, chief designer of the Central Design Bureau MT Rubin Igor Molchanov and the head of the administration of the Stary Oskol city district Pavel Shishkin. The main thing in this event is that the Navy is replenished with newly built ships. The young crew is also happy. Nevertheless, there is some sediment: is it really a type of ship well known from Soviet times?
Back in 2005, when working on a publication on Black Holes, our submarines of the 877 / 636 project were often called (they received the Kilo code in NATO, the Varshavyanka code was here), the author realized that the series was ending. It was planned to build 53 units. Then the work was completed on the latest diesel-electric submarines of the 636 project under contracts for military-technical cooperation (MTC) for the Chinese Navy. In the future, this type of submarine was supposed to replace the 667 "Lada" project of a new generation for the Russian Navy and the 667E "Amur-1650" project for export deliveries. At the Admiralty shipyards at the same time both projects were laid. But the delivery of the head submarine "St. Petersburg" of the fourth generation of non-nuclear submarines (NNS) was delayed for a long time, and the fate of the export version is almost unknown until now. He is said to have "evaporated." This is a separate and large story, sometimes even dramatic.
And why, in fact, the question arose about the novelty of the submarine? It's very simple: export ships of this type over the 20-year period were much ahead of the domestic Navy of a similar project in their technical characteristics and combat capabilities of the diesel-electric submarines. For the submarine forces of India and China and for the last customer, Vietnam, “Varshavyanka” were equipped with missile weapons Club-S with a type range of cruise missiles (KR) for hitting surface ships (NK) and coastal targets. On the export of submarines installed modern digital electronic, hydro-acoustic, navigation and other weapons. In the 90-ies of the XX century, our sailors could only dream about it: even during scheduled repairs, the submarines stood for years.
And finally, it was decided to develop the 636.3 project for the Russian Navy with all the solutions used on export diesel-electric submarines, to apply innovations for fourth-generation submarines whenever possible. It turns out that for the Russian fleet these are new combat submarines with unique performance characteristics. Nevertheless, the question of "novelty" remains open, at least in the media. As told at the enterprise in one of the interviews, the boat will come as standard and will not differ from those produced before. At the same time, many military experts believe that the boat will receive a version of the new Caliber missile system (an export version of the Club-S) with a range of 1,5 thousands of kilometers. But there is a problem, because for the use of these CDs, a new combat information and control system (BIUS) is needed, the shortcomings of which became one of the reasons for the delay in the construction and deployment of Lada-type naval submarines. Sailors say that the “Varshavyanka” even in the old configuration remains a powerful weapon, because it has a low noise level and “sees” under water better than the most common US boats of the Los Angeles project. But it is rather a consolation. In order to understand the real state of the combat capabilities and technical data of the diesel-electric submarines of the 636 project, it is necessary to look into the history of their design, development and export deliveries.
For the USSR
From the beginning of the 70-ies of the twentieth century, the design of diesel-electric submarines of the third post-war generation began, which were to substantially surpass and later replace the large submarines of the 611, 641 and 641Б projects. To increase the time for such submarines to be under water, in those years, work was carried out on equipping them with air-independent power plants (VNEU). In 1971, the SKB “Sudoproekt” (today OJSC “Central Design Bureau“ Lazurit ”) developed the 947 project a multipurpose NNB with a displacement of 4380 cubic meters. It was supposed to be equipped with a combined power plant (EC), consisting of a diesel-electric part and an electrochemical generator (ECG) of a hydrogen-oxygen type. Work on the creation of ECH was strongly delayed, the submarine project was stopped.
Almost at the same time, in the same organization, another project was being developed - in the 1972, the advance design of the diesel-electric submarine “MZ” was carried out with a displacement of 1700 – 1800 tons. Soon the further development of the boat, the project of which was assigned the 877 number and the Varshavyanka code, was entrusted to the Rubin LMBB. 21 May 1974-approved tactical and technical mission (TTZ). In January of the following year, Yu. N. Kormilitsin was appointed chief designer of the 877 project.
The technical project 877 is approved 20 December 1976 of the year. The ship’s displacement increased to 2300 tons. For diesel-electric submarines of this type, the Uzus XI-110 UIC, a small-sized navigation complex (NK) developed by the Electropribor Central Research Institute, the MUK-400 submersible complex Rubikon, developed by the Morphyspribor Central Research Institute, torpedo weapons with a fast-loading system, were created. The habitability of the ship was significantly improved. As a result, according to their performance characteristics, the 877 project diesel-electric submarines complied with the best foreign models. Construction was carried out at the shipyards of the Lenin Komsomol in Komsomolsk-on-Amur and Krasnoye Sormovo in Gorky. The head diesel-electric submarine diesel engine (451 serial number) was launched at the Lenin Komsomol Plant 15 of September 1980. The boat became part of the Soviet Navy in December 1980, and the NATO received the code name Kilo.
For the Russian Navy from 1980 to 1994, the 24 ship of this project was built year. The last 12 units were built according to a modified project with an increased length of the robust hull on 1200 millimeters, which made it possible to place a new powerful power plant and low-noise equipment. As a result, the operational performance of the submarines has improved and the life of the main equipment has almost doubled. The full submerged speed increased from 17 to 20 nodes, the cruising range under the RDP increased from 6000 to 7500 miles, and the noise decreased almost three times. Formally, these were ships of the II series of the 877 project (such as "Kilo"), and in fact - the diesel-electric submarines of the 636 project, but they received such a number only in export version. In the middle of 90-s, the diesel-electric submarines of all series of the 877 project were distributed among the fleets as follows: two - BF, one - Black Sea Fleet, seven - SF, 14 - Pacific Fleet. By the middle of the 2003, the 23 boats were in service. By this time, the majority of the submarines on the Pacific Fleet did not participate in combat service, while waiting for the average repair. Several submarines were withdrawn from service and awaiting disposal. A similar situation was on the SF. Today, the situation is changing. On the "Zvezdochka" in the repair are two of the same type of diesel-electric submarines - "Kaluga" and "Vladikavkaz". In 2009, the Nerpa was launched after docking repair of the Y-Slav B-808 submarine Yaroslavl.
TsKB MT Rubin based on the 877 project has developed several options - 877E, 877EKM and 636 for export delivery. Before 2012, the ship 31 was delivered abroad, currently six more DeRLs are under construction.
The first export boats of the 877 project, built at the Krasnoye Sormovo plant, successfully passed state tests in 1985 and were handed over to the Polish Navy (Orel) and Romania (Dolphin) in 1986. The main submarine "Sindugosh" (B-888) of the 877EKM project was built at the Leningrad Admiralty Association (LAO, now Admiralty Shipyards) and transferred to the Indian Navy in November 1985. The appearance of Varshavyanka-type diesel-electric submarines in the foreign market (877E and 877EKM projects) allowed the Rubin Central Design Bureau to receive truly international recognition. And thanks to this, Russia in the middle of the 90-x became the leader in world exports of submarines.
The 636 project diesel submarines in NATO received the code name Improved Kilo. Two airborne torpedo tubes (TA) are used for firing remote-controlled torpedoes. Armament: six nasal remote-controlled TA 533-mm with ammunition on 18 torpedoes (six in vehicles and 12 on racks) for various purposes.
In order to increase the combat capabilities of the 877ECM project ships, in 1998, work began on their modernization, in which Rubin Design Bureau, Avrora Scientific Production Association, Federal State Unitary Enterprise Electrotechnical Research Institute, Novator and Agat Research and Production Association took part. The result of the work was the implementation of the task of creating and testing a new Caliber-PLE (Club-S) missile system with a range of up to 300 kilometers at sea, and then at ground targets. On the Sinduratne diesel-electric submarines, the Zvezdochka enterprise for the first time installed this RK with ammunition for four 3М-54Э1 (3М-54Е) missiles. A new towed radio antenna was tested. Later, all Indian submarines undergoing repairs and upgrades at Zvezdochka and Admiralty shipyards became owners of this RK.
Repair of submarines of the Indian Navy was carried out taking into account the characteristics of operation in the Indian Ocean in order to increase the corrosion resistance of pipelines. A Laus-EKM CMS, a new NK Appassionata-EKM, a digital GAK MGK-400EM developed by the Central Research Institute Morphispribor were installed.
Practically in parallel with the modernization of the diesel-electric submarines of the 877EKM project, the Central Design Bureau “Rubin” created a modernized project 636М of the export boat, which differs from the regular 636 by the presence of RC Club-S, an improved REV, more powerful power plants and batteries. Soon, eight modernized submarines of the 636 project (actually the 636M project) with the Club-S missile system were built for the Chinese Navy. The supply contract was signed in May 2002. The total amount is 1,5 – 1,6 billion dollars. The first Chinese submarine was transferred by the Admiralty shipyards to the customer at the end of 2004. In May, the 2005-th 50, the jubilee Kilo-type EPTL of the 636 project, was launched there. During 2005, the Admiralty Shipyards, Sevmash and the Krasnoye Sormovo plant commissioned seven diesel-electric submarines.
The next contract, signed by Rosoboronexport and the Ministry of Defense of Algeria, involved the construction of two diesel submarines of the 636 project from the RK Club-S at the Admiralty shipyards. These boats are handed over to the customer in 2009.
The six diesel-electric submarines of the 2009 project with RK Club-S ordered by Vietnam at the end of 636.1 are scheduled to be completed by 2016. The headboat has already been launched at the Admiralty Shipyards 28 August 2012.
Today - for the Black Sea Fleet
Currently, the Black Sea Fleet includes two diesel-electric submarines - B-871 "Alrosa" of the 877В project (the same 877 with a water cannon) and B-380 "Holy Prince George" of the 641B project. The latter is under repair and modernization.
In total, the Russian Navy plans to build six diesel-electric submarines of the 636.3 project at the Admiralty shipyards for the Black Sea Fleet. Three are already under construction - the head submarine B-261 "Novorossiysk" (factory number 01670), the second - B-237 "Rostov-on-Don" (01671) and B-262 "Old Oskol" (01672). Rear Admiral Vladimir Zakharov, retired, noted that “six Varshavyanok can be a good start to retool the Black Sea Fleet, and then, you see, Lada will be brought to mind.” According to the Black Sea Fleet Commander Rear Admiral Alexander Fedotenkov, this union will take six 2017 boats into service by the 636 year: “We will get the first three hulls in 2014, one boat - in 2015, and two - in 2016, to form a full-fledged brigade. They will be based on the naval base Sevastopol and Novorossiysk. Some sailors, including those at the headquarters of the Black Sea Fleet, believe that the boats ordered will not help Russia to resist even Turkey. The Turkish Navy has 14 type 209 diesel submarines of three modifications for two theaters (Mediterranean and Black Sea). In the near future, six of them will be replaced with new submarines of the 214 type, also of German construction.
Now only Russia, Japan and China are building submarines with such dimensions as the 877 / 636 boats. German submarines of the 209, 212, 214 types and the French Scorpenes are much smaller. The last three types of boats are equipped with serial Independent Power (AIP). We still do not have such installations, although the work in this direction has been conducted in the USSR since the 60-s, and then we did not lag behind the West. For testing and testing of installations with ECH in the Central Design Bureau "Lazurit" in 1979, a technical project 613E of an experimental submarine, converted from a boat of the 613 project, was developed. The tests ended successfully in the 1989 year. But since then, a lot of time has passed, and such installations have not received real incarnation on Russian ships. As the Director General of the TsDB MT Rubin Igor Vilnit recently said, the company has started creating a full-scale model of the VNEU, but it is not yet known when it will be seen by the fleet and foreign partners.
Thus, the 636.3 series can become a transitional model during the creation of fundamentally new non-nuclear ships for the Russian Navy. This was also stated by the chief designer of the TsBB Rubin, Igor Molchanov, during the laying ceremony of the Old Oskol. Will hope come true, time will tell.
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