Military Review

"Northern Lion" Gustav II Adolf

119
"Northern Lion" Gustav II Adolf

When it comes to the great kings and commanders of Sweden, Charles XII is first of all remembered. However, if we evaluate the activities of this king objectively and impartially, it will inevitably have to be said that he was simply useless as the head of state, strategist, and diplomat.


Without denying his talent as a military leader and personal courage, it should be admitted that, having received power in a prosperous and strong state, Charles XII absolutely mediocrely disposed of his resources. Wasted the strength of the Swedish people, which simply overstrained and was forced to retreat to the outskirts of the European stories... Meanwhile, the Swedes had another hero who is much less known outside this country. Napoleon put him on a par with six other greatest commanders of world history (the list, of course, is subjective, since, for example, Genghis Khan and Timur were not included in it). We are talking about Gustav II Adolf of the Vasa dynasty.


Erik Fredrirsen. Portrait of Gustav II Adolf

It was he who laid the foundation for the future power of Sweden, created a truly formidable army, and the linear tactics he invented was widely used by all European armies until the middle of the 38th century. This king died on the battlefield at the age of XNUMX, but few of the other monarchs and generals of that time had such a powerful and lasting influence on the development of Europe. Contemporaries admired Gustav II, calling him the "Northern Lion". And the Italian mercenaries of the Swedish army (yes, there were such) gave him the nickname "Golden King" - for his blond, even slightly reddish (with a golden tint) hair.

But the "Snow King" is a contemptuous nickname that ill-wishers gave to Gustav Adolf: they said that, having entered Germany, his army would melt like snow under the sun.

The early years of the life of Gustav Adolf


This boy was born in 1594 and turned out to be the first surviving child in the family of the Swedish king Charles IX.


Karl IX, konig von Schweden

The two names that the prince received at birth were given to him in honor of his grandfathers: on the paternal and maternal lines. His maternal relatives were the ruling princes of Mecklenburg, Palatinate, Hesse and some other Germanic lands. The king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Sigismund III Vasa was also a relative (and sworn enemy).

In Sweden at that time, two irreconcilable parties fought among themselves - Catholics and supporters of the Reformation. Charles IX supported the Protestants, and many Swedish aristocrats turned out to be Catholics, who were helped by the Polish king Sigismund III, a cousin of the king of Sweden. The future King Gustav Adolf also became a Protestant. It is curious that the prince's native language was not Swedish, but German, since his mother, Crown Princess Christina of Holstein-Gottorp, was German. Many court queens were also from Germany.

Charles IX approached the upbringing of the heir very responsibly. The prince's teachers were not only the most educated people of the country, but also foreign scientists, each of whom spoke with Gustav only in his own language. As a result, the young prince also spoke fluently in Dutch, French, Italian, and spoke Latin. Later he also learned Russian and Polish.

According to his contemporaries, most of all he liked the story, which he called "the mentor of life." He even began to write a work on the history of Sweden, paying special attention to the reign of his grandfather, Gustav I Vasa.

From other subjects, the prince singled out mathematics and related disciplines, including fortification.

The organization of the prince's studies and his upbringing was led by the commoner Johan Schütte, who had advanced thanks to his abilities.


Johan Schütte, in the future - Chancellor of Uppsala University, Governor General of Livonia, Ingria and Karelia

He then carried out many delicate diplomatic assignments of the king (for example, he negotiated the marriage of Gustav to Elizabeth Stuart (Gustav Adolf married, in the end, to Maria Eleanor of Brandenburg).

And Axel Oxensherna became the permanent chancellor of this king, who retained his post under the daughter of Gustav Christina.


Jacob Heinrich Elbfas. Portrait of Axel Oxensherna

It was he who actually ruled Sweden, determining both the foreign and domestic policies of this country. Gustav Adolphus was smart enough not to interfere with him. In fact, the king was Minister of War and Commander-in-Chief under Chancellor Oxenstern.

Enlisted in the guard at the age of 11, the prince took his duties very seriously, not disdaining close communication not only with officers, but also with ordinary soldiers. This already won him considerable popularity in the army. Like Charles XII, Gustav was distinguished by physical strength, perfectly mastered all types weapons, but did not disdain to work with a sapper shovel. In the future, he could make long marches with his soldiers, not get off the saddle for 15 hours, walk all day in snow or mud. But, unlike Charles XII, Gustav loved to eat well and therefore quickly put on weight. In childhood and adolescence - strong and dexterous, after 30 years this king became clumsy and awkward. But the love for military affairs remained the same.


Gustav Adolph in a Polish zhupane. Portrait of Matthäus M. the Elder

Below you will see an exceptionally honest portrait of Gustav II Adolf and his wife Maria Eleanor, made in 1632:


Agree, the contrast between the spouses is simply striking. The young man has abdominal obesity and clear signs of metabolic syndrome. And it's probably not just overeating. According to some reports, in recent years, the king experienced constant thirst, and therefore some researchers believe that he suffered from diabetes.

At the same time, unlike the same Charles XII, Gustav Adolf did not shy away from women. Before marriage, he had several connections, one of which ended with the birth of a son, who received the name Gustav Gustaveson.

The king was distinguished by his love for red clothes, by which he was easily recognizable on the battlefield.

Gustav Adolf also began to get involved in state responsibilities very early - from the age of 11: he participated in meetings of the Riksdag and the cabinet of ministers, attended receptions for foreign ambassadors.

In 1611, at the age of 17, the prince took part in hostilities for the first time: he led one of the detachments during the siege of the Danish fortress of Christianopolis.

The first years of the reign of Gustav Adolf


His father died in 1611. According to the laws of the Swedish kingdom, the heir could ascend to the throne only after reaching the age of 24 years. However, Gustav Adolf was already so popular among the people that the Riksdag refused to appoint a regent. The power of the new king was nevertheless somewhat limited: he could adopt new laws only with the consent of the estates of Sweden, and appoint only persons of noble origin to higher positions. Schütte advised the prince to agree, saying that he would be able to get rid of these conditions as his power strengthened.


Riksdaler with a portrait of Gustav II Adolf

Meanwhile, Sweden's international position was very difficult. During this time, she fought wars with Denmark and Russia. And with Poland, whose king was Sigismund III, who claimed the Swedish throne, there was no peace either.

Denmark in those years was successfully ruled by King Christian IV. During the lifetime of Charles IX, the Swedish fortress Kalmar fell. And on May 24, 1612, the Danes captured the strategically important port of Elfsborg in the Kattegat Strait. The Danish fleet has already threatened Stockholm. With great difficulty, with the mediation of Prussia, England, and Holland, peace was concluded with Denmark. Of the cities captured by the Danes, only Elfsborg was returned, for which a million Riksdaler had to pay.

During the war with the Danes, the young king for the first time seriously risked his life: he almost drowned, falling into the river from his horse.

After the conclusion of peace with Denmark, Gustav Adolf was able to focus on the war with Russia, which was in a difficult situation, going through the Time of Troubles.

Back in 1611, the Swedes captured Korela, Yam, Ivangorod, Gdov and Koporye. Then Novgorod fell. At one time, Charles IX even considered the possibility of placing his youngest son Karl Philip on the Moscow throne - and he was considered a very real contender. However, the new king Gustav Adolf decided to simply annex the Novgorod lands to Sweden.

But between the Swedish possessions in the Baltics and Novgorod was still Russian Pskov. In 1615, Gustav Adolf laid siege to this city with large forces, which was defended by only 1500 soldiers of the governor Vasily Morozov and about 3000 "townspeople". And in the Swedish army, there were more than 16 thousand soldiers and officers. The siege, accompanied by mutual artillery shelling, Swedish assault attempts and attacks by the defenders, lasted two and a half months.

Finally, the Swedes launched a decisive assault and were even able to capture part of the wall and one of the towers, but in the end they were repulsed with heavy losses. Two weeks later, the Swedish army withdrew from Pskov. As a result, in December 1615, an armistice was concluded between Sweden and Russia, and in 1617 the Stolbovsky Peace Treaty was signed. It was then that Russia lost access to the Baltic Sea, but returned Novgorod, Porkhov, Staraya Russa, Gdov and Ladoga, captured by the Swedes. The terms of this peace treaty allowed the Swedish king to consider himself the winner.

After 4 years, the war with Poland began, which lasted 8 years with varying success. During this war, the Swedish king was twice wounded at Danzig.

In the end, it was possible to conclude an acceptable peace, according to which Sweden gave up land in Prussia and Pomerania, but retained the Livonian territories. In addition, the Polish king Sigismund III (also from the Vasa dynasty) renounced his claims to the Swedish throne and promised not to support the enemies of Sweden.

Colonial dreams


Few people know what Gustav Adolphus had and thoughts about the colonial empire. In 1626 the Swedish Southern Company was founded in the kingdom. After the death of this king in 1637, an expedition to America was organized. The colony of New Sweden was founded on the banks of the Delawer River in 1638. Its capital was named after the daughter of Gustav Adolphus, the reigning queen Christina.


New Sweden Map


Jacob Heinrich Elbfas. Queen Christine.
The daughters of Gustav II Adolf are 14 years old here and she is a queen (from 6 years old, in fact, she began to rule from 18). The fate of Christina is so unusual that she herself could become the heroine of a separate article.

In 1655 New Sweden came under the control of the Netherlands.

Military reform of Gustav II Adolf


The king's reform made the Swedish army the most advanced and strongest in Europe. It was based not on mercenaries, but on free Swedish and Finnish peasants, recruited according to the recruitment system: one recruit from ten people. Gustav Adolf still could not completely abandon mercenaries during the war. Therefore, in the carts of his army, stocks of weapons and equipment were stored, which were issued to periodically hired soldiers.

This Swedish king is considered the creator of the linear tactics of troop formation, which was used in battles until the middle of the XNUMXth century.

In the Swedish army, the number of pikemen significantly decreased - their number now did not exceed a third of all soldiers, the rest were musketeers. And in 1632, separate musketeer regiments appeared. The muskets were of the Dutch type - lighter, with paper cartridges.

Instead of formations in thirds of thousands and battles, brigades were organized, consisting of two or three four-company battalions. The number of ranks has decreased. During the shooting, instead of 10, there were only three. Light "battalion" artillery appeared: the lightweight guns of the infantrymen of Gustav Adolf dragged themselves along.

In addition, the Swedish army was the first in the world to practice massive artillery fire. Another innovation was the allocation of an artillery reserve that could move to the desired direction. The most important innovation was the single caliber of artillery pieces, which greatly simplified the supply of shells to the Swedish army.

Gustav Adolf put his cavalry in three ranks, which increased its mobility and the ability to maneuver. Attacking, the Swedish cavalry went at a gallop in loose formation with a further strike with melee weapons.

In other armies, although it is hard to believe, the cavalrymen, most often when attacking, approaching, simply fired at the enemy with pistols. Then they retreated, reloaded their weapons and again approached the enemy.

Before the battle, the Swedish pikemen occupied a position in the center, musketeers and cavalry units were located on the flanks.

So, we come to the final, very short, but the brightest part of the life of this extraordinary and talented king. In the next article we will talk about his participation in the Thirty Years War, European glory and the tragic death at the Battle of Lützen.
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  1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 21 July 2021 05: 25
    +14
    It was he who laid the foundation for the future power of Sweden, created a truly formidable army, and the linear tactics he invented was widely used by all European armies until the middle of the XNUMXth century.

    I also added here - field artillery. Albeit unsuccessfully, but Gustav II Adolphus was the first of their European commanders to try to use light field guns, lightened for maneuvering and escorting infantry.
    Valeria, thanks for continuing the cycle!
    1. VLR
      21 July 2021 16: 55
      +5
      This is what I just mentioned:
      "Light" battalion "artillery appeared: the lightweight cannons of the infantrymen of Gustav Adolf dragged themselves along."
      Maybe casually and not too accented.
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 21 July 2021 18: 46
        +3
        Greetings Valery!
        I'm specifically talking about the above paragraph! Equalizing Linear Tactics and Field Artillery!
  2. SERGE ANT
    SERGE ANT 21 July 2021 05: 57
    +12
    In 1615, Gustav Adolphus laid siege to this city with large forces.
    N.F. Okulich-Kazarin: “How did this handful of brave people manage to defend their hometown and repel the onslaught of the best army in Europe, five times, if not six times the strongest, perfectly trained and armed, led by one of the greatest commanders of all times and peoples - to explain it is due to the scarcity of sources, we cannot. It is enough for us that the Swedes themselves honestly and openly admit this fact. ... The real reason for the Swedes' failure lies, we think, in a sense of duty highly developed among the Pskov garrison, in ardent love for the Fatherland and in the natural valor of the Pskovites, for which they have been famous since ancient times. ”Not later than July 29, 1615, Gustav Adolf with an army reached the famous Russian fortress, which had withstood not long before that (in 1581) the siege of the almost one hundred thousand army of the Polish king Stephen Batory.
    How large was the army of the Swedish king? Based on a number of testimonies of contemporaries: Russians (for example, N. Mikitin, who visited Narva with Merrick), the British (for example, “Dzhakusa”), some of the Cherkas who served for several years in the Swedish army and then went over to the side of the Russians (for example , Fedor Yakovlev), we can conclude that at first there were about 7 thousand people in the Swedish army 5).
    In the middle of August 1615, the "seven banners" of the British, Scots, French and other foreigners arrived at Pskov. We learn about this from the unsubscribe from the Pskov voyezods to the tsar on August 25, 1615, as well as from the letter to Stockholm from the Swede Rudbek, who was a court preacher during the siege of Pskov. a plan was drawn up for the location of the Swedish army for the winter. Based on this plan, one can fairly accurately calculate the forces of the Swedes at Pskov at the end of September. The cavalry consisted of 27 banners, with a total of 1615 warriors. On top of that, there was a small number (up to 13 people) of Tatars on horseback. The infantry consisted of 2061 formations, numbering 20 people. There were two hundred gunners. If we add to this the reinforcements that arrived in mid-September and were not counted in the plan, we get the figure of 40 people. According to Swedish specialists, the entire Swedish army in Russia at that time consisted of 6411 banners with 9080 warriors and 18 formations with 3125 bollards, for a total of 60 people. The figure of the Swedish army near Pskov in 10, given by the 172st Pskov chronicle (13 thousand), must be admitted as somewhat exaggerated.
    The army was recruited in different states. The infantry was recruited in Sweden, Finland, the Netherlands, Germany, England, Scotland; cavalry - in Sweden and Finland, there were also knights from Estonia and Livonia, from England (S. Cobron), from France (de la Chapelle), from Poland. The Swedish army was, therefore, hired and motley in ethnic composition.
    1. SERGE ANT
      SERGE ANT 21 July 2021 05: 59
      +11
      As for the number of defenders of Pskov, the data reported by contemporaries from the Swedes (for example, Rudbek) are not credible. The Dutch envoy A. Joachimi, who visited the royal camp near Pskov in October 1615, limited himself to the remark: "The city of Pskov is very large and crowded, and many inhabitants from the surrounding area have been saved to it." More accurate data on the number of defenders of the fortress can be found in the Order Book 124 (1616). From it we learn that in January 1615 a change of governors took place in Pskov: instead of V.P. Morozov, F. Buturlin, A. Gagarin and the head of A Kukarin, recalled to Moscow, were ordered to be governors ID Pleshcheev, SS Sobakin and clerk Chetay Oboturov; with the named voivods there were “4220 people of all kinds in Pskov”. In any case, the balance of forces between the besiegers and the defenders was not in favor of the Russians: the latter were half as many. But the morale of the garrison and the inhabitants of Pskov was not comparable to the spirit of the mercenary Swedish army: the defenders of the fortress were determined to fight the enemy to death. The Pskov posad man, T. Belukhin, a volunteer who was captured by the Swedes during one sortie, but then escaped from captivity, told on October 7, 1615 to the Moscow ambassadors, D. I. Mezetskiy and others:
      “And all sorts of good people are sitting under siege in Pskov, and they kissed the cross between themselves, that the beat was to death, but the city could not be built”.
      1. SERGE ANT
        SERGE ANT 21 July 2021 06: 02
        +11
        In organizing the correct siege, the Swedes set up camps along the main supply routes of the city. Opposite the northern wall, a town was erected - the royal headquarters, trenches were laid along it and redoubts arose. Artillery positions were specially fenced in in case of sorties from Pskov. From the south, the Germans stood near the city, and the rest of the perimeter was divided among themselves by the Scots, British and French.
        The blockade was intended to exhaust the defenders of the city, force them to shoot ammunition into the white light and surrender, as always. In fact, the residents of Pskov, of course, had a hard time, but they had enough food and gunpowder, unlike the Novgorodians, for the future.
        1. SERGE ANT
          SERGE ANT 21 July 2021 06: 05
          +11
          The Swedish army appeared at Pskov on Sunday morning, July 30. The king settled in the Snetogorsk monastery; some of the detachments were three versts from the fortress. The movement of the enemy army in Pskov was closely watched. On the same day, the Pskovites on horseback left the fortress to fight the enemies. How many soldiers took part in the battle is not clear from the sources. But the results of the first battle were tangible for the Swedes: on July 30, E. Horn died - “shot in the head from a self-gun” (according to Merrick, who saw how Horn's body was brought to Narva). The Swedes lost their commander, who, according to Y. Delyagardi, “raised the king under Pskov.” The battle between the defenders of Pskov and the Swedes on July 30 shows that the enemy did not meet with people who were confused by surprise, but with previously organized resistance. The preparation of the Pskovites to repulse the enemies is also evidenced by the concern for replenishing food supplies. It was stated above that, according to T. Belukhin, “near the city, the nearby rye was brought into the city”. The same Belukhii reported: “and in the distance the peasant, having reaped bread, was hid in the pits, and they themselves ran through the city and the forest”.
          Both Russian and Swedish sources report that the Pskovites made daily sorties from the city. Here is what he wrote on August 15, 1615, “Germans from near Pskov Anza Ern Funturmo to the non-Metz land in the city of Spando to his brother-in-law to Efim Shryastor”: “God gave a great deal of his people to Rugodiv (Narva - G. 3.) and from Rugodiv, looking at it, they sent us near Pskov. And we are very crowded near Pskov, because Russian people leave the city every day and they repair a great school for us. The city is great, good, all around ... a mile and a half, and our good people were beaten, they also killed the field commander, and my company is a menshi every day ”. As can be seen from the testimony of T. Belukhin, there were horse and foot sorties of the Pskovites. The sorties were attended by "all sorts of eager people", in other words, volunteers.
          1. SERGE ANT
            SERGE ANT 21 July 2021 06: 10
            +11
            The news about the results of the shelling of the city is contradictory. According to T. Belukhin, who escaped from Swedish captivity on September 23, the Swedes "knocked out the city wall a little, and what they will knock out, and then at night the Pskovians will close it up, the taras will hack to death and the tours are set." On the contrary, T. Smith, on the basis of the information of his “man Wilim”, who met the English nobleman “Jacus” (Johann Jaques) on Lake Ilmen, when the nobleman sent by D. Merrick to the king was returning to Novgorod (September 27), reported that the king knocked out “the walls of the fortress a lot”. At the same time, T. Smith noted that the king “does not dare to go on an attack”, because “the sovereign’s people leave the city and they beat many of them.” The day of the first assault is found out from the king's letter to the commissars of October 13, 1615. The king informs, that last Sunday (it fell on October 8) an order was given to fire on the fortress between the round towers, which had been ordered to destroy even earlier, and on the next day, i.e. October 9, the assault began.
            We extract other modern news about the day of the assault on Pskov from the report of the Dutch ambassador A. Joachimi. The latter wrote that on October 19 (i.e. October 9, old style) he arrived with the Swedish Chancellor A. Uksenshern to the royal camp near Pskov, but no one met them here: at that time the king personally directed the attack on Pskov. the place where part of the stone wall had already been destroyed. The details of the assault were not reflected in the sources. From the "Tale of the arrival of the Sveiski kral near the city of Pskov" it is known that the Swedes beat "on the wall and on the Varlam coal tower from 135 pm until evening." Other later sources also speak of the break in the fortress wall at the Varlaam Gate. The Pskov governors wrote to Moscow: “in the past 136 and 1627 (1628 and 650), as they made a city stone wall at the opening at the Varlam gate, and 124 large and small German cannonballs were collected in the wall”. The Trinity Synodikon records those killed “on the 1615th (9) October on the XNUMXth day in memory of the holy Apostle James Alfeov ... from King Gustav of Svei near Pskov at the assault at the Varlam Gate”. So, on the basis of a number of evidences, the place of the assault is established: the Varlaam tower with a gate beyond the river. Iskova and Varlaam Square Tower.
            1. SERGE ANT
              SERGE ANT 21 July 2021 06: 16
              +11
              In "The Tale of the Coming of the King of Sveis from the Germans under the City of Pskov" it is said that the Swedes approached the fortress on October 9 "from the Great River and from the Varlam Gate"; some swam on rafts along the river to the Lower Lattices (blocking the way to the city along the Pskov River), others fired cannonballs from the Ivanovsky Monastery, which was beyond the river. Great, "through the city wall, hitting people." The defenders of the fortress struck enemies with weapons, threw stones from the fortress wall, rolled logs, poured boiling water over them. The battle lasted "from the second hour to the evening", almost the whole day. The assault was repulsed. Women also took part in the defense of Pskov. This fact is noted in the synodikon of the Trinity Church, where the woman Helen is mentioned among the fallen on October 9. However, the king did not calm down and decided to storm Pskov again. Joachimi: “In the evening of the same day, they began to throw grenades into the city, as a result of which about 20 houses were burned down. The next day (October 11), the king ordered to open battery fire, showing by this that he intended to make another attack on the city, and one tower was shot down there, ordered to continue firing cannonballs to the great misfortune of the bombers, for one gun overturned, the fire hit gunpowder nearby, the bombardier and several other people flew into the air; in addition, 50 or 60 people were seriously injured. ”The explosion of gunpowder hastened Gustav Adolf's decision to lift the siege of Pskov. A. Joachimi wrote: “in the evening (October 11), the king ordered all the artillery to be loaded onto ships and made orders to lift the siege, which he also decided to do because the camp was weakened and winter was coming.” According to other sources, already on October 13, units of L. Klasson, G. Monsson and J. Delyagardi, together with the units of P. Gottberg and Kolb, were sent to Novgorod, the rest of the units were sent to Narva. On October 17, the king himself left the camp. Ten days later he was already in Narva. Yakovlev, in a questioning in Moscow in June 1616, showed: “but how the Svei king stood near Pskov, and with him there were seven thousand of all kinds of military men of the rose lands, but how he left Pskov, and there were half a thousand with him (4500.) military people ”. It turns out that the losses of the Swedes in manpower near Pskov amounted to 2500 people
              "He went with great shame, many of his people were beaten, and others died of necessity and wandered apart."

              So the Swedes retreated from Pskov.
              1. tlauicol
                tlauicol 21 July 2021 06: 48
                +8
                there is also an episode when a small group of sappers crossed the river and blew up a small gate in the citadel itself with a firecracker. But the attack was not coordinated, they went in and out, the Swedish army was not ready to storm
                1. igordok
                  igordok 21 July 2021 07: 01
                  +8
                  Not in the citadel itself, but between the High Tower and the Varlaam Square.
                  The group that wanted to blow up the Lower Grilles was destroyed.
                  1. tlauicol
                    tlauicol 21 July 2021 07: 54
                    +8
                    Yes, you're right, it was the Vzvoz gate. On this night, the Swedes could have taken the city from a raid. A group of Swedes went far before they were knocked out
            2. igordok
              igordok 21 July 2021 06: 39
              +11
              The time of stone fortresses has passed. If in Novgorod, bastion constructions are observed, then in Pskov they were not at all. But nevertheless they held out.
              In memory of those events in Pskov there was a lane "Swedish Gorka". At the moment, there is no such lane. But in its place is the Swedish Gorka bar.
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 21 July 2021 16: 29
                +7
                If in Novgorod, bastion constructions are observed, then in Pskov they were not at all.

                In Novgorod, in front of the Kremlin-Detinets (there is now a park), bastions were ordered to be poured under Ioann Vasilievich. It seems to be the first case of such fortification in Russia.
                In Pskov, the bastions were ordered to be poured by Peter the Great after Narva, right?
                We love your city very much, Igor - we drive steadily once a quarter. drinks
                1. Trilobite Master
                  Trilobite Master 21 July 2021 18: 10
                  +4
                  Nikolay, tell me, is the character of the article definitely not related to you in any way?
                  It reads:
                  blonde, even slightly reddish (with a golden tint) hair.

                  According to contemporaries, most of all he liked history,

                  Gustav liked to eat well

                  Gustav Adolf did not shy away from women.

                  Very, as it were, suspicious ...
                  And then there
                  was the first surviving child in the family of the Swedish king Charles IX.

                  Karla, yes, Karla! Son of Karl, who is he? That's right - Carlson.
                  And what do we see on your avatar?
                  And by the way, was a certain Karol-Stanislav Radziwill a relative of Vasa?
                  1. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku 22 July 2021 09: 25
                    +3
                    And by the way, was a certain Karol-Stanislav Radziwill a relative of Vasa?

                    Oh ... This is a detective! belay This is even steeper than my suspicions that Shpakovsky has a time machine, and he managed to light up several times at different times! laughing
                    1. Mihaylov
                      Mihaylov 22 July 2021 10: 02
                      +3
                      Quote: Pane Kohanku
                      Oh ... This is a detective!

                      Nikolay!
                      turnout failed: you have been exposed! wassat
                      1. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 22 July 2021 11: 19
                        +4
                        turnout failed: you have been exposed!

                        Yes, Mikhail accurately identified my main qualities and made conclusions.
                        blonde, even slightly reddish (with a golden tint) hair.
                        According to contemporaries, most of all he liked history,
                        Gustav liked to eat well
                        Gustav Adolf did not shy away from women.

                        But I'm also talented! drinks
                      2. Trilobite Master
                        Trilobite Master 22 July 2021 12: 08
                        +2
                        I also picked up a lady in red for myself ...
                        Well, literally all the signs agree. laughing
                        You need to ask Valery if Gustav-Adolf liked buns and everything will become clear. smile
                        In the meantime, I remember an old anecdote.
                        The king had three daughters - beautiful princesses. As soon as the eldest turned 17, a five-story tower was built for her, guards were set up and no one was allowed in order to preserve her chastity.
                        A month later, the princess was pregnant.
                        A year later, the tower was built on two floors, the guards were replaced and executed, the middle daughter was settled in the tower. A month later, and she is pregnant. Over the next year, two more floors were built, guards with dogs, ferrets and parrots, the youngest was settled, they are cherished like the apple of an eye. A month passes - and she is pregnant. The king could not understand what was happening. And we will drink to Carlson, who lives on the roof.
                        laughing
                      3. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 22 July 2021 12: 48
                        +5
                        You need to ask Valery if Gustav-Adolf liked buns and everything will become clear.

                        Buns were more fond of another Swedish king - Adolf Fredrik. He loved so much that he died after eating too many buns with cream. wassat

                        True, the buns were just dessert ...
                        Adolf Fredrik died on February 12, 1771 in Stockholm from a blow that happened after an overly nourishing dinner of lobster, caviar, sauerkraut, smoked herring, squash soup, fourteen wheat burgers, warm milk and champagne. Chamberlain Adolph Ludwig Hamilton in his Notes on Sweden wrote that "no other reason was needed for death, except that the late king himself at the table overextended his weak stomach." Count Johan Gabriel Oxensherna wrote in his diary that "this death was not fitting for a sovereign, but for a village priest." A benevolent man and an exemplary family man, he enjoyed the love of his subjects, and his death caused general regret.
                        In general, this king is, in fact, famous only for this fact! fellow
                      4. Mihaylov
                        Mihaylov 22 July 2021 14: 26
                        +3
                        Quote: Pane Kohanku
                        after an overly nourishing meal of lobster, caviar, sauerkraut, smoked herring, squash soup, fourteen wheat burgers, warm milk, and champagne

                        Did he gobble it all up alone? wassat
                      5. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 22 July 2021 15: 01
                        +3
                        Did he gobble it all up alone?

                        Yes! fellow
                      6. Mihaylov
                        Mihaylov 22 July 2021 15: 02
                        +3
                        Quote: Pane Kohanku
                        Yes!

                        He was strong, I would have died after the first third of the list ... drinks
                      7. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 22 July 2021 15: 06
                        +3
                        He was strong, I would have died after the first third of the list ...

                        I wouldn't fit so much either ... But he could!
                      8. Mihaylov
                        Mihaylov 22 July 2021 15: 09
                        +2
                        Quote: Pane Kohanku
                        I wouldn't fit so much either ... But he could!

                        14 wheat burgers are powerful!
                        Here is a death worthy of a real hero, not like a bullet from a choke! wassat
                      9. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 22 July 2021 16: 08
                        +2
                        Here is a death worthy of a real hero, not like a bullet from a choke!

                        "... and he ate, ate, until he broke ..." laughing

                        About buns and Karlsons:

                      10. Mihaylov
                        Mihaylov 22 July 2021 16: 16
                        +2
                        Quote: Pane Kohanku
                        "... and he ate, ate, until he broke ..."

                      11. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 22 July 2021 16: 18
                        +1
                        "... and he ate, ate, until he broke ..."

                        That is, an end worthy of the death of Achilles? belay Yes, this is not some tattered Socrates who drank poison - for a death like a king, you must immediately call to Valhalla, and put a whole table with buns! fellow
                      12. Mihaylov
                        Mihaylov 22 July 2021 16: 23
                        +3
                        Quote: Pane Kohanku
                        and put a whole table with buns!

                        Please note, the buns after the sauerkraut, herring, squash soup, warm milk and more champagne with bubbles - but he just burst. Wow - weak stomach! wassat
    2. Mihaylov
      Mihaylov 22 July 2021 14: 48
      +3
      Quote: Trilobite Master
      settled the youngest, cherish like the apple of an eye. A month passes - and she is pregnant.

      And I heard the other end: wassat
    3. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 22 July 2021 16: 11
      +2
      And I heard the other end:

      Yes, she's been successful ... good
      But the Carlsons are brutal people!
    4. Mihaylov
      Mihaylov 22 July 2021 16: 13
      +2
      Quote: Pane Kohanku
      Yes, she's been successful ...

      He's the one who dives on the afterburner like BF-109 wassat
    5. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 22 July 2021 16: 15
      +2
      He's the one who dives on the afterburner like BF-109

      Like Ju-87, then drinks And the smoke comes out from a lot of strain? wink
    6. Mihaylov
      Mihaylov 22 July 2021 16: 18
      +2
      Quote: Pane Kohanku
      Like Ju-87, then drinks And the smoke comes out from a lot of strain?

      I read that when the ME-109 went to dive and turned on the afterburner, the engine was smoking, which some inexperienced Soviet pilots took for the fact of hitting the plane. hi
    7. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 22 July 2021 16: 19
      +2
      I read that when the ME-109 went to dive and turned on the afterburner, the engine was smoking, which some inexperienced Soviet pilots took for the fact of hitting the plane.

      I have not heard! Interesting! yes
  • parusnik
    parusnik 21 July 2021 06: 18
    +2
    When it comes to the great Swedish kings and commanders, Charles XII is first of all remembered.
    .Yes, there was nothing great
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 22 July 2021 12: 56
      +2
      Yes, there was nothing great

      I personally like Bernadotte more ... what
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 22 July 2021 13: 46
        +2
        I, too, did at least something for the country, Bernadotte's policy, faithful, abandoned ambitions, became neutrals, received more benefits than from wars, and war became everyone's personal business, if you want to help Finland, go, but don't involve the state, arms trade , became a business and profitable and nothing personal. smile And Karl XII wanted only glory for himself.
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 22 July 2021 13: 56
          +2
          go, but do not involve the state, the arms trade has become a business and profitable and nothing personal.

          Exactly! The Swedes could fight even for the Germans, even for the Finns, but the state did not interfere. True, during WWII, the Swedes supplied the Germans with ore, and our submariners in the Baltic sank their ships - for hell you will see whose ship is sailing - he is German, Finn and "neutral Swede".
          They tried to drag Oscar Bernadotte, the son of the Marshal, into the Crimean War (the British wanted to fight with someone else's blood) - he refused. And Sweden supported him!
          faithful, abandoned ambition, became neutral, gained more benefits than from wars

          Plus a high standard of living and universal respect. Yes, and Carlson with the mummy trolls! drinks
          And Karl XII wanted only glory for himself.

          Yes! And in the end he lost both the army and his life.
  • tlauicol
    tlauicol 21 July 2021 06: 27
    +7
    besieging Pskov, the Swedes erected a circumferential line in a couple of weeks, surrounding the city with trenches with communication trenches. We built two floating bridges, 20 batteries and earthen forts, stables. Harvested wheat from the fields. The volume of excavation is quite large - and all this, reflecting the sorties of a strong garrison.
    So: maybe Gustav should have tried to erect a dam on the Velikaya River in the area of ​​the lower pontoon bridge, relying on the monasteries where the headquarters are set up? Heaps of material, stone, earth, wood, old barges ... The city would be flooded to the citadel, the defenders would not be able to save the guns, livestock, most of the supplies
    1. igordok
      igordok 21 July 2021 06: 56
      +8
      Quote: Tlauicol
      So: maybe Gustav should have tried to erect a dam on the Velikaya River in the area of ​​the lower pontoon bridge, relying on the monasteries where the headquarters are set up? Heaps of material, stone, earth, wood, old barges ... The city would be flooded to the citadel, the defenders would not be able to save the guns, livestock, most of the supplies

      This is unlikely. In this place, the river is deep and full-flowing - it will wash away. Now, if platinum is created in the delta region, the water will rise, but you should not count on special losses in Pskov. It will flood only the lowlands, which are flooded every spring.

      1. tlauicol
        tlauicol 21 July 2021 08: 02
        +3
        such a flood would at least deprive the residents of Pskov of the opportunity to transfer an artillery reserve, some of the guns on the walls are also out of work. Residents again crowded in the Kremlin, with all the supplies that they could save. In general, it was worth trying. Tula Bolotnikova immediately got covered
        1. VLR
          21 July 2021 08: 23
          +4
          But for not having tried it, we can thank the "slow-witted" Gustav Adolf love
          1. tlauicol
            tlauicol 21 July 2021 09: 12
            +4
            I would also recommend this to Vercigentorix, but he is already dead. recourse
            Outside the walls of Alesia, he had a lot of horse and foot people. Well, what did it cost to bring each of them a pair of sacks? Fill with earth and chop bushes around the dams for sowing. Roman camps would be cut off from each other - attack either from two sides. Except those that will completely flood of course
      2. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 21 July 2021 16: 31
        +5
        It will flood only the lowlands, which are flooded every spring.

        Bottom photo - Sovetskaya Embankment?
        1. Mihaylov
          Mihaylov 21 July 2021 17: 16
          +4
          Quote: Pane Kohanku
          Bottom photo - Sovetskaya Embankment?

          Yes, last year in this restaurant we celebrated my wife's birthday. drinks
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 21 July 2021 17: 29
            +4
            Yes, last year in this restaurant we celebrated my wife's birthday.

            And we wanted to go there a bunch of times, but we never got it! request Previously, a very good restaurant was at the entrance to the city - it did not survive last year's restrictions. recourse Sergey, you will go next time - I recommend the guest house "U Pokrovka". Nice surroundings of the late 19th century, the hotel itself is next to the Great, delicious food. good
            1. Mihaylov
              Mihaylov 21 July 2021 17: 33
              +4
              Quote: Pane Kohanku
              And we wanted to go there a bunch of times, but we never got it!

              We somehow accidentally wandered there, walked and thought we would find a place along the way where we could sit and celebrate my wife's birthday. Bribed a large chalk inscription on the wall: "Nadia - you are the best."
              Agree - this is a sign. drinks
              I recommend the guest house "U Pokrovka".

              Thank you, I'll try to remember. hi
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 22 July 2021 12: 59
                +2
                Thank you, I'll try to remember.

                A year ago we took a boat ride on Velikaya. To be honest, it was the only "fly in the ointment" in Pskov - the excursion was not interesting. The "Talking Head" (the recorded recording) was retelling, basically, some pseudo-historical legends, there was little history.
    2. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 21 July 2021 17: 29
      +5
      Quote: Tlauicol
      to build a dam on the Velikaya river

      At that time it was completely unrealistic. Great in terms of water volume is comparable to the same Volokhov. They will learn to block such rivers only in three hundred years.
      If you really want to drown someone, you could try to raise the water level in the Pskov riverе... But the end of summer, low water, I do not know how much water is in Pskov in August, but I don’t think that there is much.
      1. tlauicol
        tlauicol 21 July 2021 18: 11
        +1
        in the 13th century Tatars near Gurganj, crusaders and Arabs near Damiet (Nile)
        1. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 21 July 2021 19: 17
          +1
          Regarding Urgench, I remember that the Mongols, sort of, took the city, and then destroyed dam and washed it off with water. I don’t presume to judge what the Amu Darya was like at that time and in that place, and it’s unclear - there were dams on the Amu Darya itself or on its tributaries. I think the latter is more likely. If the city is located in a valley or on a slope, and above there are several small rivers blocked by dams flowing into the Amu Darya, then this option is quite possible. Remind me, was there one dam or several? And is there anywhere in the sources an indication that it was the Amu Darya that was partitioned off? Here it is necessary to understand in detail.
          As for Damietta, this is the Nile delta, how it is generally possible to raise water with a dam is incomprehensible. I have not heard anything like it.
          1. tlauicol
            tlauicol 22 July 2021 03: 53
            +1
            I remembered: yes, they destroyed it near Urgench, they built it in Xi Xia unforgettable even earlier. Overlapped one of the Yellow He sleeves under Yingchuan.
            And the Arabs so besieged the crusaders.
          2. tlauicol
            tlauicol 22 July 2021 04: 20
            +2
            near Damieta, too, destroyed, for sure. It turns out that I only remembered the Tanguts, and Tulu. But there must have been more precedents.
      2. igordok
        igordok 21 July 2021 18: 21
        +1
        Quote: Trilobite Master
        At that time it was completely unrealistic. Great in terms of water volume is comparable to the same Volokhov. They will learn to block such rivers only in three hundred years.
        If you really want to drown someone, you could try to raise the water level in the Pskov River. But the end of summer, low water, I do not know how much water is in Pskov in August, but I don’t think that there is much.

        Regarding the Great, I absolutely agree. In August, September Pskov is knee-deep. And in addition, the mouth of the Pskova, which must be blocked, is located near the Pskovites.
        1. tlauicol
          tlauicol 21 July 2021 18: 28
          +2
          three years ago, just in August-September, there was a deep river here. And the Velikaya embankment and the inscription "Russia begins here" were flooded. So..
          ps. I certainly do not insist. they knew better there in the 17th century
          1. igordok
            igordok 21 July 2021 18: 41
            +1
            In August I do not remember which "Soviet" year there was a downpour. A lot of things flooded. Our dacha 25 km up the Pskov was completely flooded. But this is very rare.
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 22 July 2021 17: 34
              +2
              In August I do not remember which "Soviet" year there was a downpour.

              Last year, I saw how they caught a squint on a spinning rod in Pskov right at the Srednaya Tower.
        2. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 21 July 2021 18: 46
          +1
          Quote: igordok
          the mouth of the Pskova, which must be blocked, is located near the Pskovites.

          Well, why exactly the estuary ... If there is enough water in the river, you can block it even higher so that water can be put into the city ... You need to look at the place - what banks, what relief ...
      3. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 22 July 2021 13: 01
        +1
        If you really want to drown someone, you could try to raise the water level in the Pskov River.

        Immediately I recall our comic conversation three months ago on the subject that Adrian was digging an "antinous shaft" near Pskov. drinks
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 21 July 2021 07: 00
    +7
    That's just it, that when a neighbor has a Time of Troubles, you can try to snatch territory.
    And Pskov is one of those cities that commands respect.
    1. VLR
      21 July 2021 07: 23
      +3
      It is for this reason that there is no need to arrange revolutions, civil wars and "times of troubles" in your country.
      And then, for example, the Ukrainians staged Euromaidan for their country for the State Department's 5 billion, and now they are surprised: why, "for no reason" Crimea ran away from them and the war began in Donbass? “We are on good terms: we staged an energy blockade of Crimea, and the water and Russian languages ​​were actually banned, and we announce the Russian-speakers at the official level as“ second-class ”people.“ Everything is fine, ”but Crimea and Anya are not asked for nothing! millennium.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 21 July 2021 07: 28
        +2
        Can not argue.
        And you can't think of anything worse than the Civil War.

        True, one involuntarily ponders, starting, for example, with Ivan the Terrible, how much stable time we had, and how contemporaries understood this.
      2. Daniil Konovalenko
        Daniil Konovalenko 21 July 2021 08: 05
        +6
        It is for this reason that there is no need to arrange revolutions, civil wars and "times of troubles in your country.
        Is the narodishko to blame for them? laughing
    2. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 21 July 2021 18: 44
      +5
      Quote: Korsar4
      Pskov is one of those cities that commands respect

      The history of Pskov is very old and not always, as usual in such cases, unambiguous. There were alliances with the Germans against Novgorod and much more. But in general, yes - a warrior city, a shield city.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 21 July 2021 23: 13
        +2
        I can only talk about my perception.

        And so the dispute between Pskov and Novgorodians for a cart of bast shoes has not yet been completed.
  • Daniil Konovalenko
    Daniil Konovalenko 21 July 2021 08: 02
    +4
    The greatness of Charles XII is still exaggerated, not without talent, but .. he used the fruits of his great ancestors. After the victory at Narva, in fact, for 8 years chasing after the talented Saxon Elector August the Strong
  • sivuch
    sivuch 21 July 2021 09: 00
    +5
    In other armies, although it is hard to believe, the cavalrymen, most often when attacking, approaching, simply fired at the enemy with pistols.
    It was called caracol. Against dense formations of infantry, especially when there were not enough musketeers, it worked very well.
    And the fathers of linear tactics, like any successful idea, were> 1. The first to sharply reduce the number of ranks (first to 10, and then to 6) was Maurice van Oranje, aka Moritz of Orange. He had enough time and money to drill his subordinates.
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 21 July 2021 16: 34
      +3
      Against dense infantry formations, especially when there were not enough musketeers, it worked very well.

      Especially when the front ranks of the infantry bristled with pikes ... There was not much choice here! Do not ask for trouble.
  • VLR
    21 July 2021 09: 56
    +5
    The princes Vladislav and Karl Philip, both from the Vasa dynasty, were pretenders to the Russian throne during the Time of Troubles. Vladislav was even sworn in at some point. Imagine, the anti-Normanists would have longing: not only did some foreign Rurikovich rule, but also "Vasichi". However, probably, there would not have been any anti-Normanists in this case. They would have ordered that Rurik be considered a Swede in the administrative order - and all the cases.
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 21 July 2021 11: 53
      +3
      And who ordered Miller and Schlezer?

      Oh, these scales of history, with the separation of the clean from the unclean.
  • Undecim
    Undecim 21 July 2021 10: 47
    +9
    Meanwhile, Sweden's international position was very difficult. During this time, she fought wars with Denmark and Russia. And with Poland, whose king was Sigismund III, who claimed the Swedish throne, there was no peace either.

    The king's reform made the Swedish army the most advanced and strongest in Europe.

    In this situation, there was no other way out.
    At that time, Sweden had only about 1,3 million people, of which about 900 thousand were Swedes and about 400 thousand Estlandians, Finns, Karelians and Laplanders, and the capital of the state, Stockholm, had only up to 10 thousand inhabitants.
    For comparison: the Rzecz Pospolita then had up to 9 million inhabitants, of which 3,5 million in Lithuania, about 12,5 million in the Moscow state, of which more than 100 thousand in Moscow.
    The budgets of some of the Polish tycoons were larger than the annual budget of Sweden. Even Denmark, with its one and a half million, surpassed Sweden in resources.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 21 July 2021 11: 40
      +5
      Without denying his talent as a military leader and personal courage, it should be admitted that, having received power in a prosperous and strong state, Charles XII absolutely mediocrely disposed of his resources. Wasted the strength of the Swedish people, which simply strained and was forced to retreat to the margins of European history. Meanwhile, the Swedes had another hero who is much less famous outside this country.

      To put it figuratively, not everything is so monotonous, and upon closer examination it becomes clear that the reasons for the "retreat to the backyard of European history" were laid precisely under the "other hero".
      In a relatively short time, from 1621 to 1625, more than 30
      thousands of people. Of course, the set was not one-time and was repeated several times. During the Polish-Swedish war, 10 thousand people were recruited annually, and in 1627 - even 13,5 thousand, 2% of the male population of the kingdom. Even young men 15-17 years old were put into operation.
      For example, in the Bigde parish in the Norrbotten county, where in 1620 there were about 500 men and 600 women aged 15 to 59, during 1620-1638, 230 men were taken into the army, and only 20 disabled people returned home. In 1638, 365 men and 665 women lived in Bigda. If we conditionally project these figures for the whole country, then over twenty the male population will decrease by almost 30%.
      As a result, if in 1626, by the beginning of the invasion of Prussia, out of 14 thousand troops, three-quarters were Swedes and Finns, and the rest were foreign mercenaries, in 1630, by the beginning of the invasion of Germany, foreigners already made up half of the 72 thousandth army. In 1632, by the time of the Battle of Lützen, no more than 140 of the 13-strong army of Gustav Adolf spoke Swedish and Finnish, and in 1648, by the end of the Thirty Years' War, the number of ethnic Swedes and Finns in the Swedish
      army did not exceed 1 people.
    2. Korsar4
      Korsar4 21 July 2021 11: 54
      +3
      And the country is northern. And the population density relative to other European countries is still small.
    3. Mihaylov
      Mihaylov 21 July 2021 11: 57
      +6
      Quote: Undecim
      For comparison: in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth there were then up to 9 million inhabitants, of which in Lithuania 3,5 million, in the Moscow state - about 12,5 million

      It is difficult to assess accurately: according to B. Mironov's assessment, the population of Russia back in 1646. was no more than 7 million people (B.N. Mironov Russian Empire Vol. 1, p. 95)

      The population of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at the time of the Deulinsky Armistice (1618) is estimated at about 12 million people.
      I don’t presume to judge the accuracy of these estimates, but indirectly: the number of only the post-political destruction of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania almost exceeded the number of Russian nobles (this is from memory), another thing is that it was never really possible to collect it. hi
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 21 July 2021 12: 59
        +3
        Mironov, of course, is an authority, but also "debatable". In any case, the human resources and economic potential of Sweden's opponents were much higher.
        1. Mihaylov
          Mihaylov 21 July 2021 14: 23
          +6
          Quote: Undecim
          Mironov, of course, is an authority, but also "debatable".

          I agree. In general, all these estimates of the number in the "pre-census" period raise questions.
          In any case, the human resources and economic potential of Sweden's opponents were much higher.

          I think that is why Russia as a whole has always waged wars with Sweden quite successfully, with a few exceptions, of course.
          And the "flood" is already a deep systemic crisis, first of all, of the Commonwealth itself. hi
  • depressant
    depressant 21 July 2021 11: 44
    +7
    By the way, Gustav Adolf was born in Tre Krunur castle. It looks like all Swedish kings were born there - until 1697, when the castle burned down. It is a pity, because the library and archive burned down with him.

    On the ground floor of the palace, Karl himself smelled the smell of smoke. Grandmother Hedwig-Eleanor, supported by her sister Hedwig-Sophia and one of the ladies-in-waiting, slowly descended along a wide staircase decorated with sculptures of Swedish lions with shields.

    “Karl,” the queen grandmother held out her hand to him. The grandson quickly went upstairs, gently but decisively pushed the maid of honor and picked up the old woman. “What a horror, Karl, what a horror,” Hedwig-Eleanor lamented. Everyone was bustling around. Courtiers, servants, guardsmen. Some carried things, some carried buckets of water. Somewhere above, something was already cracking and crumbling. Acrid smoke filled the building quickly.

    Leading the dowager queen and sister out into the street, Karl darted back.

    - Where to? Where are you, Karl? - the sister screamed at him. Karl waved his hand silently. He had to endure his father. Pushing aside the bustling servants, the crown prince rushed back to the basement. The six servants, bending under the weight of the dead body, and continuously coughing from the smoke, slowly rose to meet him.


    Alexey Sheverov. "The servants of the sovereign"

    Karl is Karl XII, and his father, who died on the eve of the fire, is Karl XI of the Palatinate-Zweibrucken dynasty. The mother of Charles XII was Eleanor, daughter of King Frederick III of Denmark.
    Two misfortunes at once - the death of the king and the fire. This is how the Tre Krunur castle burned down, in which Gustav II Adolf was born.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 21 July 2021 13: 20
      +5
      Karl is Karl XII, and his father, who died on the eve of the fire, is Karl XI of the Palatinate-Zweibrücken dynasty.

      The month is not very "the day before". Was this a dead man who died of oncology kept for a month in the basement of the palace? It is doubtful how that.
      As for the fire, everything is classic. Already at that time the wooden palace had a special fire brigade, which successfully put a large device on its duty, and used the fire chief for personal purposes. Following the investigation, the fire master Lindbergh was sentenced to death, but Karl XII replaced her with gauntlets and six years in hard labor, where Lindbergh died.
      1. depressant
        depressant 21 July 2021 13: 53
        +5
        Viktor Nikolaevich, and the kings had oddities, remember Maria Theresa, historically, almost the same time.

        The floor of the hall opened up, a terrible failure was formed. The ropes of the hoisting machine creaked, a chair slowly rose from the depths of the dungeon with the mistress of the great Roman Empire sitting in it. Maria Theresia appeared in the hall, spreading the spirit of her ancestors, who decayed naturally, not covered by anything (everyone in the world knew the love of the Habsburgs for their birthplaces, which they took with them even to the dacha, like furniture or dishes).
        .... The eve of the war coincided with the ominous march of smallpox across Europe, and this infection did not spare either the huts or the palaces of the kings. Quite recently, Maria Theresa's daughter-in-law died of smallpox, and now "mamma" hastily arranged the happiness of her daughters ... Ferdinand IV, King of Sicily and Naples, asked the hands of Johanna's eldest daughter, but before the wedding, her mother forced Johanna to pray over the ashes of her deceased ancestors. Breathing in the miasma of carrion, the bride died of smallpox, and Maria Theresia, crying in sorrow, consoled the groom:
        - Such is the will of God! But Jozefa has grown up ... However, do not think, ”she said to Jozefa,“ that you will leave Vienna for Naples, without first repenting on the graves of your glorious ancestors.
        The poor girl fell at her mother's feet:
        - Have mercy on me, I am not able to fulfill your desires! There lie these terrible, vile corpses ... save me, I beg you!
        - No, you must repent before the wedding.
        - I am sinless, what can I repent of?
        “Bring her along,” the Empress ordered.
        The bride was forcibly lured into the dungeon of the Church of the Holy Capuchins, where her mother forced her to kiss the grinned skulls of her ancestors; there was also a bride, who had recently died of smallpox, who had been disfigured by the disease to such an extent that her body did not succumb to even the most intense embalming.
        Barely getting out of the crypt, Jozefa soon felt pain in the sacrum, the doctors determined - smallpox! Instead of a carefree life under the Naples sun, the girl plunged into the vile tomb of her illustrious ancestors ...
        The gallant king of Sicily expressed his displeasure:
        - God knows how patient I am, but mourning is again declared in the glorious house of the Habsburgs. You called me to Vienna for fun, and this is the second time I trudge behind the funeral chariots.
        - Be patient, king. I also have Caroline ...
        “Caroline is happy to be your wife,” Maria Theresa told the king. - But first I will make her repent on the graves of her ancestors, as it should be in the ancient house of the pious Habsburgs.
        Then Carolina herself opposed.
        “No,” she said. “I’d better throw myself out the window, but I’m not going into this stinking hole, and then rotting alive in it.”
        She was passionately supported by her young sister Marie Antoinette (the future queen of France, who is destined to die under the knife of the guillotine). The empress scolded her daughters as godless heretics, saying that in the good old days such people were "treated" at bonfires.
        - Okay! I myself will atone for your sins ...
        She climbed into the crypt and sat there on her birthplaces, crying for the lost souls of the young generation. The devil himself did not take "Mama" - she got out of there alive and unharmed. "



        V. Pikul, "Favorite".
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 21 July 2021 14: 23
          +4
          Pikul is not a historian, he, like our author, is a fiction writer who creates Les Belles Lettres - literature for easy reading. You yourself understand that fictional fiction also takes place in this genre.
          I was in Kapuzinergruft, which has nothing to do with the description of Pikul.

          Sarcophagi of Emperor Franz II / I and his four wives: Elizabeth Wilhelmina of Württemberg, Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily, Maria Ludovica Este-Modena and Caroline Augusta of Bavaria
          1. Astra wild2
            Astra wild2 21 July 2021 15: 24
            +2
            "he is like our author a fiction writer" Viktor Nikolaevich, and I LIKE the author's light style. It is pleasant to read him and Vyacheslav Olegovich: good style and broadens horizons
            Р
            S
            A harmful question: if the author is "the site's Jules Verne", as you said, and with whom to compare: Samsonov and Kharluzhny? Which of the classics will you name.
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 21 July 2021 15: 29
              +5
              These comrades "do not have in the world of analogue." A kind of local spill Münchhausen.
            2. vladcub
              vladcub 21 July 2021 16: 29
              +2
              I think "Samsonov" - "Kozma Prutkov": under the "nickname" Kozma Prutkov there were several authors and "Samsonov" is multifaceted: one is digging "seas", the other is pouring a tear over Ungern.
              Kharluzhny - Munchausen. True, the second is more interesting to read: lies, but beautiful
              1. Undecim
                Undecim 21 July 2021 16: 57
                +5
                I think Samsonov - Kozma Prutkov

                The poet Tolstoy and the Zhemchuzhnikov brothers, if they knew about such a comparison, would turn over in their grave.
                1. Astra wild2
                  Astra wild2 21 July 2021 17: 05
                  +2
                  Victor Nikolaevich, bravo. Well said .
                  But at the same time, the above persons have a completely different opinion of themselves. How would they not cry from resentment
                2. vladcub
                  vladcub 21 July 2021 18: 11
                  +2
                  In fact, they think they are superior to "talent." Graphomania is a serious "illness". At the age of 15 he began to compose the novel and now I remember the beginning: "Borka Shchukin, a boy of about 12" and wanted everyone to admire
          2. depressant
            depressant 21 July 2021 15: 24
            +4
            But there was something, Viktor Nikolaevich, that forced Pikul to write such a text, some kind of testimony from his contemporaries? )))
            Perhaps in later eras, when such delights in ancestor worship were no longer in demand due to the growth of medical knowledge, all these Augean stables were cleared in Vienna, leaving what looks decent. In order not to shock visitors, and then just tourists.
            Nowadays nobody builds crypts.
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 21 July 2021 15: 28
              +4
              There were no "stables" there. This is how it was built at the beginning of the XNUMXth century, so everything remained. And what inspired Pikul, it is necessary to look.
              1. Mihaylov
                Mihaylov 21 July 2021 15: 42
                +6
                Quote: Undecim
                And what inspired Pikul, it is necessary to look.

                Once I accidentally managed to establish what "inspired" Pikul. They gave me "Manstein's Notes on Russia" (which is of course by Christopher German), and after reading it, I realized that I had already read it all somewhere. And after a while I got hold of Pikul's book (Word and Deed, it seems) and decided to re-read it, as I liked it when I was young. And here it is: the rewritten Manstein. And given the fact that Manstein was published in the XNUMXth century and until recently was not reprinted, that is, he was practically unknown, then we must pay tribute to Pikul - it was a "good move". hi
                1. vladcub
                  vladcub 21 July 2021 16: 49
                  +2
                  I already vaguely remember "Word and Deed", there the actions take place in Russia and Manstein wrote: "Notes on Russia", but what side is the savagery of the Habsburgs?
                  Probably something else inspired him.
                  1. Mihaylov
                    Mihaylov 21 July 2021 16: 53
                    +4
                    Quote: vladcub
                    I already vaguely remember "Word and Deed", there the actions take place in Russia and Manstein wrote: "Notes on Russia", but what side is the savagery of the Habsburgs?

                    I did not write anything about the Habsburgs, I meant another case
                    1. vladcub
                      vladcub 21 July 2021 18: 03
                      +1
                      True, but read how it comes out: Vic. Nick. says: "And what inspired Pikul, it is necessary to look," and you: "accidentally managed to establish what" inspired. "It turns out that about this moment
            2. Undecim
              Undecim 21 July 2021 16: 54
              +2
              Breathing in the miasma of carrion, the bride died of smallpox

              Variola major has an incubation period of 10-12 days. Joseph showed signs of illness two days after praying from the crypt. At that time they did not yet know about such a concept as the incubation period, therefore there was a rumor that she became infected during prayer. In fact, she was praying already sick. Because of this, until the end of her life, Maria Theresa could not forgive herself for the death of her daughter.
              By the way, it was Maria Theresa who strongly supported research on variolation and insisted on the immunization of the imperial family.
              And her image in Pikul has practically nothing to do with reality.
              1. depressant
                depressant 21 July 2021 17: 07
                +4
                Victor Nikolaevich, I will not argue)))
                I can only note in this regard that few of the writers who made real historical figures their heroes, the biographies of these figures, character traits and small details of behavior are deduced with historical accuracy. For this, on the one hand, requires colossal work with archives, and on the other hand, the writer wants to quickly publish his work, therefore, his own idea, realized through a well-known historical personality, which undoubtedly makes the work attractive. One thing contradicts the other.
                Knowing this, the writer is forgiven a lot, even the desire to just cut money if the work is talented.
              2. Astra wild2
                Astra wild2 21 July 2021 18: 41
                +2
                "insisted on the immunization of the imperial family." I know that Catherine II got herself a smallpox vaccine. And they said that she was the first among European monarchs.
          3. vladcub
            vladcub 21 July 2021 16: 43
            +2
            Vic. Nick, out of disgust: "he has nothing to do with the description of Pikul," but if we assume that from 1764-66, when the actions take place, to the present. Did you manage to ennoble? More than two hundred years after all.
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 21 July 2021 17: 23
              +3
              Did you manage to ennoble? More than two hundred years after all.

              There are memoirs of contemporaries. This is not Rurik or Prophetic Oleg.
            2. depressant
              depressant 21 July 2021 17: 23
              +2
              By the way, I would like to make clarifications about the fire in Tre Krunur and the subsequent punishment of those responsible.
              On May 7, 1697, the castle began to burn. The fire broke out in the attic in the southern part of the castle at two in the afternoon. Firefighter Anders Andersson's wife was the first to spot the smoke and warn her husband. He ran to the castle to check what was happening. When he got to the attic, he discovered a fire, but he could not get to the fire equipment as the fire blocked the road.
              The servants tried to save as much of the royal family's property as possible, but the fire quickly spread to all parts of the castle.
              Hundreds of soldiers and ordinary citizens of Stockholm helped put out the fire. Their efforts were fruitless, after a few hours the castle turned into a real hell, and the work to save the building had to be abandoned. The Swedish royal family watched their house burn down.
              Most of Sweden's old national archives and royal libraries were destroyed. Of the 24 printed works and almost 500 manuscripts of the castle library, only 1400 printed books and 6 manuscripts were saved.

              The cause of the fire was never established. It is only known that the fire started in the attic. A number of trials were held to find out if someone deliberately set fire to the castle. If the castle was set on fire, the intruder was never found. However, three people were convicted in this case. Anders Andersson and Matthias Hansson, as well as their chief firefighter, Sven Lindberg, were responsible for the castle's fire department that day. Andersson left his post at the castle, going to the city, and Hanson left his post to eat.
              Lindbergh was convicted of corruption as he recruited Andersson and Hansson for money. Lindbergh and Hansson were sentenced to death, while Andersson was sentenced to flee five times. It was a harsh form of corporal punishment, in which the perpetrator ran between two rows of soldiers who stabbed him.
              The death sentences were commuted by King Charles XII, and instead the men had to go through the line seven times, in addition to six years of hard labor in Karlsten's fortress. Sven Lindbergh, who was an elderly man, died of serious injuries while fleeing through the ranks.
              1. depressant
                depressant 21 July 2021 17: 43
                +4
                Yes, in order to completely end the theme of Gustav Adolf's dwelling, it should be noted that the royal family did not remain homeless, but moved to the Wrangelsky Palace, where they lived for the next 50 years, while a new Stockholm castle was being erected on the site of the ashes.
                However, talk about what caused the fire continued for a very long time. And in the end they agreed that the castle burned down due to a malfunction in one of the chimneys of the castle kitchen. The one that went to the roof through the attic in the place where the fire started.
    2. vladcub
      vladcub 21 July 2021 18: 16
      +2
      Lyudmila Yakovlevna, probably Shaverov read Pikul and took it on faith, but in general it is interesting to know what pushed Pikul. After all, he must use some sources?
      1. depressant
        depressant 21 July 2021 18: 36
        +2
        And up there in the comments, colleagues jointly clarified this issue)))
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 21 July 2021 14: 52
    +5
    Valery, good afternoon. On behalf of all connoisseurs of history, forgive us: the majority fell for: "Colonel Romanov". They preferred mediocrity to real skill.
    I promise: they will not be tempted, if possible, by Ivanov's dubious compositions.
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 21 July 2021 15: 09
    +2
    Valery, colleagues, to be honest, except for Charles 12, I cannot name a single Swedish king. I just don't remember them. I know that Peter-Ulrich "Peter 3" is the grandson of Charles 12 and Peter 1.
    Gustav Adolf is a peculiar person.
  • vladcub
    vladcub 21 July 2021 16: 16
    +1
    Comrades, I certainly heard about Gustav 2 Adolf, but I did not know anything about him.
    Valery, my gratitude
  • Senior seaman
    Senior seaman 21 July 2021 18: 19
    +2
    This boy was born in 1594 and turned out to be first surviving child in the family of the Swedish king Charles IX.

    I wonder what Gustav Adolf's older sister would say to this - Princess Katharina of Sweden, the future Duchess of Palatinate-Zweibruecken and the mother of the future King Charles X Gustav recourse
    1. VLR
      21 July 2021 18: 59
      +3
      Yes, the first son, of course. We'll talk a little more about Karl X in the article dedicated to Christina - after one. This article, in my opinion, turned out to be very easy to read, even to some extent fascinating and a little ironic.



      1. depressant
        depressant 21 July 2021 19: 44
        +2
        Gustav II Adolf really had an older sister, but from the first wife of his father, Anna Maria of Palatinate. Contemporaries, speaking of Katarina, described the family relationship between Charles IX and Anna as "a happy Union of her father - power and wisdom, and her mother - calmness and humility." But Katharina's mother died in 1589, and the girl was brought up by the German maid of honor Euphrosyne Heldine von Dieffenau, about whom Katharina spoke very warmly later. In 1592, her father married Christine Holstein-Gottorp, and the well-bred princess got along well with her stepmother and later was close with her half-brothers and sisters, especially with her older brother, the future King Gustav Adolf.
      2. Senior seaman
        Senior seaman 21 July 2021 20: 11
        +2
        This is Gretta Garbo in the role of Christina, and Gretta Garbo in her role :)))
        Christina with Katarina here


        1. VLR
          22 July 2021 08: 46
          +2
          Did you recognize Garbo? These are the Gretas used to be. Not like the current ones, which Thunberg
          1. Senior seaman
            Senior seaman 22 July 2021 08: 51
            +2
            Quote: VlR
            Did you recognize Garbo?

            When I was working on "Prince", I seriously dug in the sources and even watched the film :)))

            But for some reason there are not many films about Gustav-Adolphus. I only found one and that in German sad
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 21 July 2021 19: 06
    -2
    Colleagues, Valery, the question is not the topic. Everyone knows that Louis 16 and Marie Antoinette were beheaded, I read somewhere that the bodies were not covered with galley lime, but Vika speaks on TV, in her youth, she heard: under Louis 18 they were buried in the royal tomb. How could this be? I really hope you can help me
    1. VLR
      21 July 2021 19: 28
      +2
      One of the two priests who performed the funeral recalled that "the body of Louis, lying in an open coffin, was thrown on a layer of quicklime at the bottom of the pit and covered with earth" - in the cemetery of St. Mary Magdalene. Then Marie Antoinette was buried here. Now there is the Louis XVI Square and the "Chapel of Repentance".
      In 1815, the remains of Louis and Marie Antoinette were somehow identified (by the severed glaulins, perhaps) and reburied in the Abbey of Saint-Denis.
      And the republicans, on the day of Louis' execution, seem to be still holding a festive banquet, the main dish at which used to be a pig's head, and now - a veal's head (you know, whose head it symbolizes). Curiously, an attempt to ban such a banquet in 1848 is said to have been one of the causes of the revolution.
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 21 July 2021 19: 23
    +1
    "The contrast between the spouses is simply striking" colleagues, I recently read Badigin's "Ring of the Great Master". There is as a young Jadwiga, the Polish queen, forcibly given to the Lithuanian prince Jagiello. A fragile girl dreamed of a young and stately handsome man, and an old monkey for her husband.
    And here: a fragile girl and a huge hog nearby.
    And we all dream or dreamed of a prince. The princesses at that time were oh, how not fun: in the name of the church or state interests, they will give out for some kind of sadist and all the dreams ...
    1. VLR
      21 July 2021 19: 41
      +3
      Well, at the time of the wedding, Gustav was not yet such a "hog". And so, yes, they did not ask much. Although there were some individuals who arranged arias in the style of the Princess from Mt. "Flying ship":
      "And I do not want, I do not want by calculation, but I want it for love, for love."
      For example, Ingigerd, named in the sagas "the wisest of women"
      In her youth, she was drying up for the Norwegian Olav, the enemy of her father and a little on this occasion did not send her father "into retirement".
      So said one "mighty bond" that she was advised: several kings were drowned in a swamp because they were arrogant, and we can too ... If you can't make peace with Olav and you won't give your daughter back to him.
      All the same, they gave her in marriage to Yaroslav, the son of "Saint" Vladimir (another daughter was slipped into the Norwegian). But Ingigerd, on the other hand, drank some blood from Yaroslav (first from her father, and then from her husband). And, according to the authors of the sagas, she turned the "wise prince" as she wanted. The same Christina, daughter of Gustav Adolf ... But about her later, in a separate article.
      1. depressant
        depressant 21 July 2021 19: 52
        +2
        Oh Christina! An extremely emancipated lady. I wanted to talk about her, but I'll wait for the article wassat )))
  • Senior seaman
    Senior seaman 21 July 2021 20: 12
    +2

    Katarina is younger.
  • Senior seaman
    Senior seaman 21 July 2021 20: 15
    +3

    Gustav Adolph with Ebba Brahe.
  • The comment was deleted.
  • Kronos
    Kronos 21 July 2021 23: 10
    0
    The Swedish army was not the strongest in Europe, but rather in 5th place. The mobilization potential was small.