Military Review

Combat aircraft. You cannot win with him, you can only lose without him

53
Combat aircraft. You cannot win with him, you can only lose without him

Lord Beaverbrook said that "We won the Battle of Britain with the Spitfires, but without the Hurricanes we would have lost."


Perhaps there is no need to argue here. A matter of taste. Personally, I do not like this more than controversial device at all, but ... In spite of everything, this plane was left in stories a trace that cannot be simply dismissed. For there was no front of the Second World War, where the "Hurricane" was not marked.

So today we have a fighter that many "experts" consider the worst (or one of the worst fighters of the Second World War. As far as this is so - they will argue for another 50 years, no less. We will deal with the facts.)

And the facts show that first there was "Fury". Not the "Fury" that went into production in 1944, but the one in 1936. First. Created by Hawker and designer Sydney Camm. The plane was quite successful for its time, it flew well and was respected by the RAF pilots.


Clever Camm understood that Fury was good, but sooner or later he would have to change it to something more modern. And on the basis of this airplane he began to prepare the very "something" that could come in handy.


Sir Sydney Camm

Meanwhile, at the ministry aviation Great Britain was trying to figure out what kind of plane they still need. Throwing and tormenting British air commanders have already formed legends, since they were planned to meet unrealistic demands. The new aircraft should be supremely versatile: to be both an interceptor and to accompany bombers behind the front line, and to fight with enemy fighters, and, if necessary, storm the enemy's equipment.

At the same time, there is no armor, the speed is about 400 km / h and machine-gun armament. And, most importantly, the plane had to be cheap. In general, something else is a task. The queue of those wishing to participate in the creation of such a monster did not happen as expected.

Camm decided, just in case, to create an airplane from the mastered parts of the Fury. In principle, even the project was called "Fury Monoplane". The fuselage was taken entirely, the only change was the closed cockpit. The tail, non-retractable landing gear in fairings, only the wing was redesigned. Well, the "Harrikane" wing with a very thick profile is already a classic. The engine was planned by the Rolls-Royce Goshawk.

The plane was built and in 1933 presented to the commission of the ministry and ... rejected! British leaders preferred the tried and tested biplanes.

Camm, having received such a kick, did not give up and continued to work on the plane at the expense of the company. True, Hawker had enough money, and Camm was not only a designer, but also a member of the board of directors. So the work continued "at its own expense", but an interesting prospect arose: Rolls-Royce got a new PV.12 engine, which promised ... to become "Merlin"! True, in 1934 no one knew about this yet.

The new aircraft was redesigned for PV.12 and received (walking so walking!) A new-fashioned retractable landing gear. Armament consisted of two British 7,69-mm Browning machine guns and two British Vickers of the same caliber.


In 1935, the ministry slightly adjusted the armament, establishing that the plane should carry 8 machine guns.

The aircraft flew in October 1935, in February 1936 passed a cycle of tests at the air center in Martlesham Heath, and on June 3, 1936, the Ministry of Aviation ordered a batch of 600 aircraft to Hawker. This was a huge figure for that time.

Before the plane actually went into mass production, a number of changes had to be made with it. The Rolls-Royce engine was replaced with a Model G Merlin, and for that, the entire engine compartment had to be rearranged. Redesign the upper part of the hood, change the air ducts, the cooling system, which did not work on water, but on a mixture based on ethylene glycol.

In July 1937, Soviet specialists saw the Hurricane at the Hendon exhibition. Divisional Commander Bazhanov, the then chief of the Air Force Research Institute, wrote in his report: "Hauker" Hurricane ". With the Merlin engine. Not shown in flight. Machine with a motor of 1065 hp. can give more than 500 km / h ". At that time, the speed was impressive.

Camm, encouraged by the success of the Hurricane, proposed to create on its basis a family of aircraft for various purposes, using many components and assemblies of the Hurricane: wing, empennage, landing gear.

Two aircraft were built and reached the testing stage: the Henley light bomber and the Hotspur fighter. The fighter was from a series of "turrets", that is, all its weapons were housed in one hydraulically driven turret.


A controversial design that remains a model.

And the Henley was produced in a small series, as a target towing vehicle.

At the end of 1937, the Hurricane went to the flight units, replacing the Fury and Tonlit biplanes there.


By the time the Second World War began, the combat units already had 18 Hurricane squadrons.

It so happened that it was this plane that had to take the first blow of that war, even if its beginning was very strange.

Overall, the aircraft was quite progressive. Retractable landing gear, sturdy fuselage welded from steel pipes, with a standard layout: in front of the engine with auxiliary units, behind the firewall is the gas tank, then another bulkhead and the cockpit. The pilot's seat was height adjustable. The cockpit was covered by a transparent plexiglass canopy. The lantern was additionally armored with a bulletproof glass plate outside. Under the trailing edge of the visor there was a steel bent pipe that protected the pilot when nosing. A rear-view mirror was mounted on the top of the visor.

The pilot entered the cockpit through the sliding part of the canopy and the door on the starboard side. Behind the pilot was covered by an armored plate, behind which were a radio station, a battery, a first aid kit, oxygen tanks and two pipes for dropping flares.

The gasoline tanks were sealed, all three: one in the fuselage for 127 liters and two in the wings for 150 liters. The oil tank had a capacity of 47 liters.

The pneumatic system was powered by a compressor driven by an engine. It provided reloading and descent of machine guns, and also the braking system worked from it. The release and retraction of the landing gear and the control of the flaps were carried out by a hydraulic system.

The electrical system was made interestingly. The engine powered a generator, from which the lighting of the cockpit, instruments, navigation lights, and landing lights were powered. To work with the engine off, there was a separate battery, which was located behind the armored back. The radio station was powered by a separate set of dry batteries.

The armament consisted of eight 7,69 mm Browning machine guns. The machine guns had a rate of fire of 1200 rds / min. They were located in the wings, four at a time, in the consoles just behind the landing gear. The food was tape, from boxes that were located to the left and right of the machine guns. Six machine guns had 338 rounds of ammunition, two - the farthest from the wing root - 324 rounds.


The original moment: the British did not bother loading cartridges into tapes, they loaded the tape with cartridges of the same type. As a result, three machine guns fired conventional bullets, three - incendiary and two - armor-piercing.

Machine guns were aimed so that the lines of fire converged 350-400 m from the aircraft, then the distance was reduced to 200-250 m. Reloading and fire control - pneumatic; the trigger was on the control handle.

By the beginning of the war, 600 of the 497 ordered Hurricanes had already been delivered. 18 Hurricane squadrons were fully operational, and three more were mastering new technology.

The Hurricanes received their baptism of fire in France, where four squadrons of Hurricanes departed. "Spitfires", which by that time had also begun to be produced, were decided to be reserved for the air defense of Great Britain.

Since September 1939, the Hurricanes have been engaged in the "strange war," dropping leaflets and evading aerial combat. The first victory on the Hurricane was won by Peter Mould of 1st Squadron, who shot down Do 30 on October 1939, 17. By the end of the year, the Hurricane pilots had shot down about 20 German aircraft.

There were no problems with the plane. The main number of problems was associated with the operation of machine guns, however, it turned out that 95% of failures in work weapons lies on the cartridges. Enterprising businessmen have shipped cartridges to combat units, issued more than 30 years ago.

On October 6, 1939, Hawker delivered the last aircraft of its first order of 600 aircraft. Immediately, the Air Department ordered another 900 aircraft, 300 from Hawker, and 600 ordered from Gloucester.

But losses also began to increase with the beginning of a normal air war. The command of the British Air Force did not compensate for the losses, which did not in the best way affect the combat capability of the units. In general, by the end of the campaign in France, 13 squadrons fought on the Hurricanes.


The Hurricanes also made a great contribution in covering the evacuation of British troops, protecting Nantes, Saint-Nazaire and Brest, from where the evacuation was carried out. All the aircraft involved in these operations did not return to Britain due to lack of fuel. And the Germans finished them off at the airfields. Total losses in France amounted to 261 Hurricane. Of these, in air battles - about a third. The rest were destroyed on the ground.

Naturally, the Hurricanes also fought in Norway, where very dramatic events were also unfolding. Two Hurricane squadrons arrived in Norway on the Glories aircraft carrier, taking a direct part in the hostilities and even winning a number of victories.

But the Germans in Norway were stronger, and the pilots were ordered to destroy the planes and go home in ships. However, ground pilots, who had no experience in taking off and landing on ships, were able to land their planes on the Glories.

However, this attempt to save their planes proved fatal. Glories and two escort destroyers stumbled upon Scharnhorst and Gneisenau. The Hurricanes on deck prevented the attack aircraft from taking off, and the Glories was sunk.


Together with the aircraft carriers, all the Hurricanes and their pilots went to the bottom, with the exception of two who were picked up by a merchant ship.

If we talk about normal air battles, it turned out that the Hurricane is significantly inferior to its main opponent Messerschmitt Bf.109E.

The German plane turned out to be faster in the entire range of altitudes, only about 4 meters the Hurricane approached the Messerschmitt. Plus, the Bf.500E easily left the British on a dive, and the German engine with direct fuel injection, unlike the Merlin with a float carburetor, did not fail at negative overloads.

The armament of the Bf 109E was also stronger. The 20-mm cannon made it possible to open fire from long distances and hit. The Hurricane's armor did not hold 7,92-mm bullets, what to say about 20-mm shells ...

The only place where the British fighter was better was in horizontal maneuver due to less wing loading. But the Germans had already firmly saddled the vertical by that time, and were in no hurry to fight on the horizontal. And there was no need.

In general, the Hurricane was much weaker than the Messerschmitt.

It seemed that it would be worth stopping the production of an actually outdated aircraft and focusing on the production of the Spitfire. However, it did not seem like a good idea to the Ministry of Aviation to stop producing the aircraft in favor of another during the war. Airplanes were already in short supply, so there was no talk of replacing the Hurricane.


There were two options: to upgrade the fighter as much as possible and change the tactics of its use. The British were ready to use both, but did not have time: the "Battle of Britain" began.

In the early summer of 1940, the Germans began constant raids into the skies of southern England and attacked ships in the English Channel. They operated in groups of 40-50 bombers and the same number of fighters. The British were not immediately able to establish normal work on the detection of groups of enemy aircraft and interception. Therefore, the Germans were able to sink ships with a displacement of more than 50 thousand tons. British fighters shot down 186 enemy aircraft. At the same time, 46 Hurricanes and 32 Spitfires were lost.

However, the main air offensive began on August 8, 1940, when major air battles began in the skies over the Isle of Wight.

In addition to attacks on convoys, the Germans began to attack air defense radar stations. From the beginning, several radars were destroyed and damaged, then the situation began to improve.


The Luftwaffe began to strike with the forces of three air fleets, a total of up to 3 thousand aircraft. The British abandoned all the fighters that were available (about 720 units) and large-scale battles began, in which up to 200 aircraft participated at the same time.


It also turned out that the Hurricane was too weak for German bombers. True, Ju.87s fell regularly, there was order here, and the Bf.110 twin-engine fighter could also be wound horizontally and sit on its tail, the main thing was not to go under the cannon in the nose. But armored and bristling with the barrels of the He.111 and Ju.88 machine guns and 7,69-mm bullets were decently held, and they themselves could weigh it from any angle.


So both sides suffered heavy losses. The factories ceased to cope with the release of "Hurricanes", the schools did not have time to prepare the replenishment of the outgoing pilots. The situation was not the most beautiful.

The peak of the fighting fell on the period from August 26 to September 6. The Germans decided to make hell. In those 12 days, the RAF lost 134 Hurricanes. 35 pilots were killed, 60 were hospitalized. The losses of the Luftwaffe were twice as high. One can argue for a long time that the Hurricane was about nothing in comparison with the German planes, but there was no time to argue. It was necessary to take off with something and shoot down the Heinkels and Junkers.


As a result, "Battle of Britain" became one of the largest battles in the air, both in terms of duration and in terms of losses. On both sides, 2 aircraft were destroyed. The Hurricanes accounted for 648% of the downed German aircraft, including 57 Messerschmitt Bf 272. It must be admitted that it was the Hurricane "who made the most significant contribution to the victory. And "Battle of Britain" was really the peak of the aircraft's career.

After the battles with the Luftwaffe moved into a quieter phase of night raids, it became possible to think about upgrading the aircraft. As before, in the conditions of the ongoing war, there was no talk of discontinuing production of the Hurricane. But it was necessary to do something with the plane, since the Germans had a Bf.109F, which did not give any chance to the pilot on the Hurricane at all.

They decided to modernize in two directions: to strengthen the armament and install a more powerful engine.

And here was an interesting move: many RAF planes flew on the "Merlin". The Germans were by no means stupid, and by striking the Rolls-Royce factories they could easily leave both bombers and fighters without engines. Option: it was necessary to look for an alternative to "Merlin".

Variants were tested with a 24-cylinder H-shaped "Dagger" from Napier, a 14-cylinder "Hercules" air vent from "Bristol" and an engine of the latest development from Rolls-Royce, which in the future became "Griffin".

But in the end, the Hurricane II was equipped with a Merlin XX engine with a power of 1 hp. At the beginning of 185, all Hurricanes were produced with this engine, which gave a small, but increase in speed: 1941 km / h versus 560-520 km / h in previous versions.

They also tried to strengthen the armament. The Hurricane's remarkable thick wing, which was criticized (rightly in terms of aerodynamics) by many, made it possible to shove a couple more machine guns into it near the end of each wing. The wing had to be strengthened a little more.

As a result, the Hurricane II's armament consisted of 12 Browning machine guns of 7,69 mm caliber.

A controversial step. The armored (and not badly armored) German bombers did not care how many barrels were pounded at them by rifle-caliber bullets. They say, however, that there were cases when the pilots of the Hurricanes sawed off planes from bombers ... But it would be more appropriate to use such aircraft in Asia, where Japanese aircraft had enough three or four rifle-caliber bullets to fail.

There really, 12 barrels could give out such a cloud of lead, at least something would be horrible. And the Japanese planes were uncomfortable if not for the phenomenal agility.

Then, already in the middle of 1941, they decided to arm the Hurricane with cannons. Finally, it dawned on the British command that it was necessary to follow progress, if not in step.

In general, the experiment to install two 20-mm Oerlikon cannons in the wings was carried out back in 1938. All machine guns were removed and two cannons installed. It is difficult to say why the Air Ministry did not like the idea then, but they remembered this only when German shells began to tear Hurricanes in the sky over British cities. But here really, better late than never.

And then they decided to put four guns on the Hurricane at once. Why waste time on trifles?


For the experiment, wings were taken from damaged aircraft, repaired, reinforced and installed cannons with magazine (drum) power. In general, both Oerlikons and licensed Hispano were installed, the plant for the production of which was built in Britain before the war. The food was eventually replaced with a ribbon one. It turned out that the tape is more profitable. Easier to charge and does not freeze at altitude.

And in the second half of 1941, a modification of the Hurricane IIC went into series.

Theoretically, the Hurricane continued to be considered a day fighter, but in practice it was used less and less in this role: the superiority of the Messerschmitts and the emerging Focke-Wulfs was simply overwhelming. The plane began to move to other sections of the air front of the Second World War.

And then it turned out that the Hurricane proved to be a very versatile aircraft that can be used depending on how the situation requires. They began to use it as a night fighter (fortunately, the Germans continued to raid Britain at night), a fighter-bomber (equipped with bomb locks or launchers for RS), attack aircraft, close-range reconnaissance aircraft and even a rescue aircraft.


The Hurricanes' nightlife was quite lively. The aircraft was used as a night fighter with minimal alterations, flaps for the exhaust pipes so as not to blind the pilot and paint in black. Usually there was a plane with a radar, usually a twin-engine bomber, which pointed the Hurricanes at the target. So they fought for a long time, until the aircraft appeared equipped with their own radars.

There were nightly "intruders". Fighter-bombers that worked on German airfields and destroyed aircraft on them with bombs and cannons.

The Hurricane made a very good attack aircraft. In general, it is worth saying thank you to the thick wing, thanks to which the plane hardly accelerated on a dive. The Hurricane proved to be a very stable firing platform for ground targets. Plus, it was on the Hurricanes that UP unguided rockets first appeared, which became a very good help when attacking enemy vehicles.


Instead of missiles, it was possible to hang two bombs of 113 or 227 kg each and bomb from a dive. Of course, the sights for such bombing were very imperfect, but nevertheless, bombs could be dropped and even hit by them.
Used "Hurricanes" as smoke curtain aircraft. Many planes got into reconnaissance, especially meteorological exploration. The planes were completely disarmed for the sake of speed and range, and they carried out weather reconnaissance throughout the theater of operations.

"Hurricane" IIC became the most massive modification. It is the aircraft of this modification that is considered the last one manufactured at British factories out of 12 produced. He even had a proper name - "The Last of Many". It happened in August 875. It was then that the Hurricanes were discontinued.

Separately, it should be said about the anti-tank version of the Hurricane. In 1941, attempts were made to install 40-mm anti-tank guns from "Vickers" or "Rolls-Royce" on the aircraft. The Vickers Class S cannon had 15 rounds, the Rolls-Royce BF cannon had 12 rounds. Vickers won.

To install the guns, all the machine guns were removed, except for two, with the help of which the zeroing was carried out. The machine guns were loaded with tracer bullets. All armor was also removed from the planes. Thus, the weight of the aircraft was lower than that of the Oerlikon version with four cannons.


For the first time, such attack aircraft were used in Africa in the summer of 1942. Practice has shown that German and Italian Tanks perfectly hit by 40-mm cannon shells, armored vehicles were out of the question, but the plane turned out to be very vulnerable to any fire from the ground. The armor was returned, and even strengthened, but the speed dropped, and the attack aircraft became an easy prey for enemy fighters. So in real conditions, anti-tank "Hurricanes" could only work with good cover for their fighters.

The IIC Hurricanes performed very well in Malta, where they hunted Italian boats and submarines. In general, the Mediterranean and North Africa became a kind of training ground for the Hurricanes, because the Italian aviation was on an equal footing with the British planes, and the Germans were still smaller.


In general, the Hurricanes fought in all theaters of operations. Western Europe, North Africa, Middle East, Central Asia, Indochina, Pacific Region. Naturally, the Eastern Front.

Much has been written about the Hurricanes that arrived in the SSR under the Lend-Lease program. There is no point in repeating it, the planes were very much needed at that time, therefore our pilots flew in Hurricanes as well.


Moreover, they flew efficiently and effectively. Yes, there were alterations for other coolants, and the replacement of weapons.


Interesting spotter model converted from a training aircraft

For the Eastern Front, the Hurricane was very poorly suited. Air battles were fought differently from Europe or Africa. But, I repeat, the Hurricanes allowed the pilots of the Red Army Air Force not to stay on the ground, but actually plugged the hole that was formed during the redeployment of Soviet aircraft factories to the east.

So in our history, the Hurricane is a peculiar phenomenon, but it was a weapon that made it possible to go into battle and carry out combat missions. And almost three thousand Hurricanes with red stars are a big page in history.

But beginning in 1942, the Spitfire and American fighters gradually pushed the Hurricanes into the secondary areas of the air war. And until the end of the war, the Hurricanes flew in Africa and Indochina.


Licensed "Hurricanes" were produced in Yugoslavia, Belgium and Canada. But if the Belgian and Yugoslav aircraft had a very short history, the Canadian Hurricanes fought the entire war wing to wing with British colleagues.

Many authors still argue, calling the Hurricane one of the worst aircraft of the Second World War. And these disputes are unlikely to subside soon.

If you look at the Hurricane fighter - yes, it was still suitable for fighting bombers. For battles with enemy fighters (especially German), he was not very good. But nevertheless, almost three hundred of the same Messerschmitts were shot down by the pilots on the Hurricanes during the Battle of Britain.

Naval versions also fought. It's just that the British had nowhere to go, the plane was easy to manufacture and it (and only it) could be stamped in huge quantities.

British, Canadian and other "Hurricanes" were manufactured almost 17 thousand units. And almost until the very end of the war, this aircraft, mainly due to its versatility, was useful. And deservedly one of the most famous fighters in the world. And the number of the best or the worst - this is the third question.


LTH Hurricane Mk.II

Wingspan, m: 12,19
Length, m: 9,81
Height, m: 3,99
Wing area, м2: 23,92

Weight, kg
- empty aircraft: 2 566
- normal takeoff: 3 422
- maximum take-off: 3 649

Engine: 1 x Rolls-Royce Merlin XX x 1260

Maximum speed, km / h: 529
Practical range, km: 1 480
Fighting range, km: 740
Maximum rate of climb, m / min: 838
Practical ceiling, m: 11 125

Crew, prs: 1

Armament:
- 12 wing-mounted 7,7 mm machine guns on early modifications or
- 4 cannons 20 mm Hispano or Oerlikon.
Author:
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  1. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 13 July 2021 04: 21
    +7
    The Hurricane was very poorly suited for the Eastern Front.
    For the Germans, the Eastern Front was the Eastern Front.

    There are just excellent memories of Zimin Georgy Vasilyevich, where the Hurricanes and the battles on them are mentioned in some detail.
    1. Torins
      Torins 13 July 2021 07: 11
      +4
      You can also read the book by Igor Kaberov. There the harrikeins got the full program. They praised only the radio station (in 41 it was a wonderful miracle) and 4 guns. On the whole, however, the aircraft was rated worse than the I-16.
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 13 July 2021 07: 50
        +13
        They just forgot to indicate the modification of the same I-16. The latter type 29 were few. And the mass type 5/10 "charitones" were superior. And in a second salvo and in comfort, and in terms of radio availability.
        1. Torins
          Torins 13 July 2021 11: 28
          +2
          On whom exactly the type Kaberov flew, I do not presume to say. According to the text, I only remember the description of the armament - "two shkass machine guns and one at the bottom under the engine of a large-caliber". On the Internet, I did not find photographs where the plane can be seen entirely.
          1. motorized rifle
            motorized rifle 13 July 2021 12: 03
            +5
            "two shkas machine guns and one at the bottom under a large-caliber engine"

            This is exactly the type29
            1. hohol95
              hohol95 13 July 2021 12: 46
              +3
              Only there were not enough of them for all. Yes, and one BS for the battle was already not enough. And there were cars with 4 ShKAS. It was even more difficult to fight on them.
            2. Torins
              Torins 13 July 2021 13: 03
              +2
              Thanks I'll know)
          2. hohol95
            hohol95 13 July 2021 12: 43
            +4
            Caberov and on the "Khariton" shot down the Germans. And on LaGG-3. On the "kharitons" he and his comrades once got into the Ju-87 system. They released the chassis and went for the "laptezhniki". The shooters of the Ju-87 let "theirs" come within range of a shot and ... Several "Pieces" were shot down.
            At the same time, the "Kharitons" in the regiment where Kaberov served were transferred to ShVAK cannons and UBK machine guns (2 cannons + 2 machine guns).
            1. Torins
              Torins 13 July 2021 12: 47
              +2
              There was such an episode)
              1. IL-18
                IL-18 15 July 2021 22: 32
                +1
                A.L. Kozhevnikov shot down Me-109, Macchi-200 - these are fighters. And also bombers.
                As a child, he was a model for me.
  2. Cowbra
    Cowbra 13 July 2021 04: 21
    +16
    It is strange that the author wonders why the command abandoned the guns on the Hurricanes at first. The reason is simple to the shivers - they didn’t work! Take off - frozen - and beat the German with your fists laughing I somehow in this regard memoirs of Johnny Johnson, who spent half of the Battle of Britain in the north of Scotland precisely for the reason that there are Spitfires, but there is no sense - I believe. And that they even wrote letters to the RAF, demanding the return of the machine guns. There is generally a lot of interesting, how instead of linen metal ailerons they went to get to the factory themselves ... Also, the picture of slovenliness in their Air Force is still the same
    1. Region-25.rus
      Region-25.rus 13 July 2021 10: 20
      +9
      ts-s-s-s-s-s! You just don’t speak to the liberal crushers. Otherwise, the template will break when it turns out that the LaGG-3 "lacquered guaranteed coffin" (which is generally known to be flying firewood and a ready-made coffin for the pilot) was, in terms of the totality of characteristics (especially for forward-facing armament), as it were, not much worse, but rather everything and better than "Khariton", "ideal" like everything Western, in contrast to everything "soviet", which was "known" to be "backward and primitive." And about sloppiness, too, is not worth it))) After all, "everyone knows" that it was only in the "scoop" hi
      1. Fitter65
        Fitter65 13 July 2021 12: 59
        +21
        Quote: Region-25.rus
        You just don’t speak to the liberal crushers. Otherwise, the template will break when it turns out that the LaGG-3 "lacquered guaranteed coffin" (which is generally known to be flying firewood and a ready-made coffin for the pilot) was, in terms of the totality of characteristics (especially for forward-facing armament), as it were, not much worse, but rather everything and better than "Khariton",

        And what has to do with LaGG-3. By the way, this, this "lacquered guaranteed coffin" appeared after the war. I very much doubt that I said so about my A.A. fighter. Gubanov who is 3.02. 1942 shot down 3 hundred ninths in one battle. By the way, he ended the war as a Hero of the Soviet Union and had 28 personal and 9 group victories. He fought on LaGG-3, La-5, La-7. In addition to Gubanov, he shot down three fighters on LaGG-3 in one battle and P.M. Kamozin, two 109 and one 110. A. M. Kulagin shot down 3 enemy aircraft in LaGG-26, in total he had 39 victories. Moreover, he fought in the 249th IAP, which received the LaGG-3 in February 1943, before that the regiment flew on the Yak-1. Therefore, it is not necessary to become like some of our "authors" who love to write gag. hi
        1. Region-25.rus
          Region-25.rus 13 July 2021 13: 56
          +2
          Well, I hope you noticed all the sarcasm in my post? And that I tried to convey the "level of thinking" to a certain category of citizens! )))
          1. Fitter65
            Fitter65 14 July 2021 12: 24
            +1
            Quote: Region-25.rus
            Well, I hope you noticed all the sarcasm in my post? And that I tried to convey the "level of thinking" to a certain category of citizens! )))

            I noticed sarcasm, just did not understand where our LaGG-3 is here? hi
            1. Region-25.rus
              Region-25.rus 14 July 2021 12: 27
              -4
              just for some reason came to mind to compare. Also heavy, as it were. Also, after the initial use as a fighter, later it began to be equipped with outboard weapons, well, it worked purposefully on the ground)) It just somehow came to mind hi
              1. Fitter65
                Fitter65 14 July 2021 12: 53
                +1
                Almost everyone worked on the ground in the first months of the war, with the exception of scouts. Even DB-3s worked like attack aircraft, from low altitudes. Yak-1 and MiG-3 also carried RSs. It is true at first that on the LaGG-3, on the Yak-1, on the MiG-3, they were intended against aviation, and only later they began to be used to strike the enemy. And since LaGG-3, like Khariton, were quite normal aircraft, especially for destroying bombers. hi
                1. Region-25.rus
                  Region-25.rus 14 July 2021 12: 55
                  -1
                  Well, yes, apparently by the "destruction of bombers" and aroused associations))
        2. NIKN
          NIKN 13 July 2021 17: 19
          +3
          Quote: Fitter65
          Therefore, it is not necessary to become like some of our "authors" who love to write gag.

          Yes, and more, Safonov and hariken flew, and not without success. Sorry, there is no time to clarify, but it seems so. hi
          1. Fitter65
            Fitter65 14 July 2021 12: 30
            0
            Quote: NIKNN
            Yes, and more, Safonov and hariken flew, and not without success. Sorry, there is no time to clarify, but it seems so.

            In October 1941, the command of the Northern Fleet Air Force entrusted Major Safonov with the newly formed 78th Fighter Aviation Regiment, equipped with British Hawker Hurricane aircraft.
            Yes, everything seems to be so
            On January 15, 1942, B.F.Safonov was awarded the third Order of the Red Banner, and at the beginning of March 1942, four pilots from the North Sea (including B.F.Safonov) for cooperation within the framework of Operation Benedict in equipping the Soviet Air Force with British aircraft , the head of the British mission, Lieutenant General McFarlane, presented the highest aviation order of Great Britain - the Distinguished Flight Merit Cross.
            I think that if they flew badly, they would not be awarded. In those days, the reward had to be truly earned, hi
  3. Zug
    Zug 13 July 2021 10: 04
    +3
    It was a good airplane
  4. Kot_Kuzya
    Kot_Kuzya 13 July 2021 10: 19
    +12
    Here you can change the saying "It is better to go slowly than to go fast" to "Better to fight in a not very good fighter than to attack with a rifle." A fighter pilot, even one such as a Hurricane, could cause much more trouble to the enemy than if this pilot were sitting in a trench with a rifle or a machine gun in his hands, because this pilot on a fighter could shoot down bombers that could bomb the train, bridge, train station and kill and injure hundreds of soldiers and civilians.
    1. IL-18
      IL-18 15 July 2021 22: 40
      +1
      On the Voronezh front, the Hurricanes took part in assault strikes along with the Il-2. Maybe there were similar episodes on other fronts, but with regards to this type, we met only in the context of Voronezh.
      By the way, a good effect on the memory was mentioned when escorting attack aircraft to enemy airfields. With a dive it turned out very well due to the thick wing profile.
  5. Dmitry V.
    Dmitry V. 13 July 2021 12: 03
    +3
    planes at that time were very much needed, because our pilots flew on the Hurricanes

    It depends on what you compare it to.
    It must be remembered that due to the lack of combat aircraft, more than 60 (!) Light bomber regiments flew on PO-2. in 1942
    Average bomb load for departure 200-250 kg up to 300 kg in 1942 (either two "hundred parts", or 4 bombs of 50 kg caliber. Or small fragmentation bombs AO-2,5; AO-10 and since 1943 AO-25-35) ... Taking into account 3-4 sorties per night in the front line - about a ton of bomb load.
    However, losses during a night attack on well-protected air defense facilities such as railway stations were great. The only defense against antiaircraft searchlights is to descend to ground level where the searchlight will not be able to guide the target. And if we were unlucky, two people died at once, both the pilot and the navigator-bombardier.
    So, depending on what to compare - the use of Hurricanes as strike aircraft, not from a good life, the use of Po-2 in the daytime attacks of 1941 - from despair.
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 13 July 2021 12: 50
      +3
      In the North, quite good mastheads came out of the American P-40s. Of course, 6 large-caliber "Browning" were better than 8 or 12 "rifle caliber" for firing small ships and boats of the enemy.
    2. demiurg
      demiurg 13 July 2021 16: 54
      +5
      PO-2 dropped more bombs than any aircraft of the Red Army Air Force. And they deserve the nickname of the evil sergeant-major, who will always find you at night, and be sure to ... get to the bottom of it.
      They bombed not only the junction stations, but most often the front line, in one approach from the enemy's rear, while gliding with the engines turned off. Jump airfields are near the front line, 2-3-4 departures can be made per night.
      1. Dmitry V.
        Dmitry V. 14 July 2021 11: 51
        -4
        Quote: demiurg
        PO-2 dropped more bombs than any aircraft of the Red Army Air Force.

        Ilyushins IL-2 dropped more.
        No doubt Po-2 made its contribution, harassing raids on the front lines and near rear.
        But this is not because of the need for this type, but because of the lack of combat aircraft. Daytime raids are much more effective in bombing accuracy and target destruction. But according to their characteristics - speed and security, for Po-2, daytime attacks are suicidal, and nighttime ones are not so effective.
        Yes, they did not allow the Germans to get enough sleep, but I did not hear about the losses of the Wehrmacht from insomnia. You can carry tons of bombs, the question of their effective use, you can drop 4 fifty or two hundred square meters into the darkness at random, the effect of a well-placed FAB-100 FAB-250 FAB-500 in a daytime raid can several times exceed the effect of night raids. It is not for nothing that the actions of the USA in the daytime raids on factories were many times more effective than the British night strikes on the centers of German cities.
        At the same time, the best British navigators identified and illuminated targets with chandeliers from dozens of lighting bombs.

        The Po-2 squadron leaders also practiced highlighting for group attacks of large targets, of course, comparing the effectiveness of 4 motorized bombers with a bomb load of 6-8 tons and a maize of 250-300 kg would not be correct.
        1. demiurg
          demiurg 14 July 2021 15: 14
          +2
          There was no shortage of bombers in the USSR at the end of 43. Pilots from damaged IL-2 and Pe-2 could receive a new aircraft on the same day. There was no shortage of pilots either. The Po-2 had several giant pluses. First, any patch of relatively flat ground is designated by the airfield. Moreover, it can be 10-15 km from the front line. During the day, unnoticed, bring ammunition and fuel to the jump airfield, spend it at night. The second is a minus and a plus, low speed. Due to the low speed and low flight altitude, the same 50 kg could be conditionally put into the trench. And to bomb suddenly, and not when everyone in the shelters is waiting for the bombing. And again, if the airfield is near the front line, then the efficiency of air strikes sharply increases.
          1. Dmitry V.
            Dmitry V. 23 July 2021 10: 09
            -1
            Quote: demiurg
            There was no shortage of bombers in the USSR at the end of 43. Pilots from damaged IL-2 and Pe-2 could receive a new aircraft on the same day.

            Here is from the memoirs of Zimin Georgy Vasilievich Fighters, mid-1943:
            But we, as before, had little strength. In my reports and at every opportunity, I persistently reminded the command of the air army that we clearly did not have enough funds to repulse the massive raids. For the time being, my reminders were a voice crying in the wilderness.

            And then what they flew on:
            There were 40 aircraft in its three regiments. In addition, by the decision of the commander of the Leningrad Front, two air regiments from the 7th Fighter Air Corps were redeployed to the eastern shore of Lake Ladoga. One of them had 8 Kittyhawk fighters, the other had 10 Lavochkin fighters.

            What they have strengthened:
            There, at the airport, another surprise awaited us. From the report of the senior lieutenant colonel, we quickly found out that the position of the naval aviation on the east coast, to put it mildly, deplorable... Officially, it exists, in fact, it almost does not exist. Of the twelve aircraft that were based at the airfield, eight were serviceable. These were old I-16s, without radio stations., so it was difficult to control them in the air, as the lieutenant colonel put it. They fought here as in the first days of the war: when reporting an enemy air raid, all serviceable I-16s rose into the air and, if they saw an enemy in the indicated area, they attacked him, and if he did not appear, they patrolled until the fuel ran out, and returned to the airfield. Upon further clarification, it turned out that out of these eight "donkeys" two at the moment do not have engines and that there are also four MiG-3 machines here., but they are not used in any way, since they are powered by motors from torpedo boats. During the very first overflights of aircraft with such engines, as we learned, two "moments" due to engine failure fell into the forest, the pilots were killed. [181]
            “That's the whole composition of our Air Force,” the lieutenant colonel finished sadly.

            This is the Volkhov front and the defense of the "road of life", ports and convoys on Lake Ladoga - a good picture of "well-being"?
            Fly on "donkeys" in the middle of 1943
            I would give you extracts on bomber and assault aviation - but it is necessary to delve into the memoirs well - the situation was far from rosy. Only in 1944 did the situation begin to improve.
  6. Cartalon
    Cartalon 13 July 2021 12: 04
    +9
    Another article about what a byaka harricane, with the usual note that he coped well with his tasks.
    How can a bad airplane fight well?
  7. Force multiplier
    Force multiplier 13 July 2021 12: 06
    0
    As a result, "Battle of Britain" became one of the largest battles in the air, both in terms of duration and in terms of losses. On both sides, 2 aircraft were destroyed.


    Officially, the so-called "BzB" lasted three months and three weeks. It is not known how exactly the English believed. agitprop and what losses did it take into account, but let it be. 2648 aircraft were lost on both sides in 113 days. On average, 23-24 aircraft per day were lost by both sides, with each side losing an average of 12 aircraft per day. Bloody hellish meat grinder. One groans with laughter at the attempts of the British to stage the epic "Battle of Britain" on the stage of the Globe Theater
    1. demiurg
      demiurg 13 July 2021 16: 58
      +1
      Moreover, later, on the eastern front, larger average daily losses did not deserve the title of an epic battle.
      BzB dragged radars from the British, and the short range of the hundred and ninth.
      1. Force multiplier
        Force multiplier 13 July 2021 17: 53
        +2
        It's not even about the radars and the range of the Bf 109, but about the fact that there was no "battle". Here is an example of the operation of the 4th Air Corps on the afternoon of August 10 and on the night of August 10-11, very indicative.

        Noteworthy is the fact that out of as many as 11 bomber sorties, 6 sorties against naval targets and as many as five night sorties against 4 targets in Britain (that is, 1 bomber for one target), and three of these targets are again ports and ships. Westland aircraft factory set off to bomb 1 He 111. An epic battle
  8. CastroRuiz
    CastroRuiz 13 July 2021 12: 26
    +6
    How can the worst aircraft with the release of 17000 pieces beat the worst and which fought almost the entire WW2 and at all theaters?
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 13 July 2021 12: 59
      +2
      Compared to the Rock and Defiant fighters, the Khariton is quite a successful car!
      But starting to fight as a fighter, he was then transferred to "attack aircraft". And there he was lost against the background of "Tempests".
      And he was left with the role of a support vehicle in the fleet - there were no other naval fighters. And the role of "attack aircraft" in secondary sectors of the front. There were just a lot of them released, and it was "not profitable" to put them under pressure. So they used them throughout the war.
      1. CastroRuiz
        CastroRuiz 13 July 2021 13: 14
        +2
        So this is an aircraft of the concept of 1933-1936, and then INTO he could fight almost until the end of WW2, which means that it was a good aircraft.
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 13 July 2021 13: 30
          +3
          At the time of creation, it was one of the good ones. Not the best, but good. And then they just made a lot (good manufacturability). And it was a pity to "throw it away". Especially after "failures" with other planes of the British Air Force.
          "Surdfish" also fought for a long time not because of a good life. It's just that the planes called upon to replace them did not come out very well.
          1. Alf
            Alf 13 July 2021 19: 05
            +3
            Quote: hohol95
            "Surdfish" also fought for a long time not because of a good life.

            And then it turned out that as an anti-submarine operator Swordfish is not bad.
        2. IL-18
          IL-18 15 July 2021 22: 50
          0
          The I-16 was removed from service in 1944. Unlike the Hurricane, it was almost never produced since 1939; they switched to the production of Yak, MiG, LaGG.
          The I-153 was produced in 1939-40 and was removed from service at the same time.
          Po-2 was produced in 1928 - 1954. Here, according to your logic, the Hurricane nervously smokes on the sidelines, he was removed from service in 1946.
  9. Fitter65
    Fitter65 13 July 2021 12: 42
    +4
    fighter "Hotspur". The fighter was from a series of "turrets", that is, all his weapons were housed in one hydraulically driven turret.A controversial design that remains a model.
    A controversial construction is not controversial knowledge. Or rather their absence.
    experienced double the Hawker Hotspur fighter was armed with a synchronized 7,7 mm Vickers machine gun, located on the left side of the forward fuselage.
    As you can see, not all weapons were turrets. And here
    The Boulton Paul Defiant was a two-seat fighter, a mixed monoplane with an enclosed cockpit and retractable tailwheel landing gear. The main design feature was that all weapons (4x7,69) were in a rotating turret.
    So to say, find the differences, one was called Hawker Hotspur, and the other Boulton Paul Defiant, and the one that was the second was released in the amount of 1072 aircraft. Well, another pearl
    For the Eastern Front, the Hurricane was very poorly suited. Air battles were fought differently from Europe or Africa. But, I repeat, the Hurricanes allowed the pilots of the Red Army Air Force not to stay on the ground, but actually plugged the hole that was formed during the redeployment of Soviet aircraft factories to the east.
    Directly plugged
    On August 28, 1941, 24 Hurricane Mk.IIB from the 151st Wing RAF landed at Vaenga airfield near Murmansk, taking off from the deck of the aircraft carrier HMS Argus. Soon, 15 more aircraft were added to them, delivered and assembled in Arkhangelsk by British specialists.
    Well, it's okay, they are different holes. And at the expense of the fitness of the Hurrakeins for the Eastern Front, I recommend the author to read Zimin G. V. "Fighters", although why do I recommend it, it will not read anyway. Georgy Vasilievich Zimin
    Since November 1941 - commander of the 127th Fighter Aviation Regiment. From February 1942 - commander of the 485th Fighter Aviation Regiment on the North-Western Front and on the Leningrad Front. The regiment was armed with Hurricane fighters, in the summer it was partially re-equipped with a Yak-1. For the courage and heroism of the personnel in March 1943, the regiment became a Guards regiment.

    Well, if he really gave a hint to write about such an aircraft that fought everywhere, then why
    Much has been written about the Hurricanes that arrived in the SSR under the Lend-Lease program. There is no point in repeating
    There is no point in repeating how the people who fought on the Hurricanes became guards? Roman, maybe it makes no sense for you to repeat and rewrite articles about airplanes that are written in literate language by people who really understand in aviation, unlike you ... hi
    1. 41st region
      41st region 13 July 2021 13: 16
      -4
      Maybe you will write an article? And then your scimitar is straight with jagged edges from righteous blows on such and such Skomorokhov.
      1. Fitter65
        Fitter65 13 July 2021 13: 41
        +4
        Quote: 41st region
        Maybe you will write an article? And then your scimitar is straight with jagged edges from righteous blows on such and such Skomorokhov.

        I can recommend what to read, because a lot has been written before me by specialists, and not described who can only give out pearls like
        ... the other two are in gondolas, in continuation of the tail booms.
        The cannon could quite successfully work both against enemy aircraft in the bow sector,
        Ernst Heinkel Flugzeugwerke GmbH, headquartered in Warnemünde, was by that time one of the most dynamically developing German design and manufacturing firms. Ernst Heinkel founded it after the Second World War, and after 1933 the company went just fine.
        Or do you still translate pearls graceful verbiage on the history of aviation, from such-and-such Skomorokhov. He has several of them in each article, and some articles only consist of them. I'm purely about aviation. About everything else, others, I agree capable. But about aviation, well, honestly it's not his pony, about tanks he quickly started writing, especially after the article about "Valentine", but for some reason he doesn't want to make the "aviators" happy. Continues to write. By the way, you, to throw off footnotes on normal articles about "Khariton". They are not very bad, but in comparison with the articles of the RS, they are generally masterpieces of world literature. laughing laughing laughing , "Corner of the sky".
    2. hohol95
      hohol95 13 July 2021 13: 44
      +1
      British turret fighters, especially the naval Rock, have been neglected.
      But this is understandable. With significant circulations, the bulk of the cars was later removed from the leading edge. And sent to the air defense to work on the night shift (Defiants).
      1. Fitter65
        Fitter65 13 July 2021 14: 16
        +3
        Quote: hohol95
        British turret fighters, especially the naval Rock, are neglected

        Blackburn "Rock", I remember at one time even from Blackburn "Skua" wanted to remake, but then the Defiant from Airfix came up, then began to saw the "thing" from the rulers ... good But at the expense of being deprived of attention, the main thing is that Roma does not pay this attention to these fighters ...
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 13 July 2021 14: 20
          +2
          The warspot had a line of articles about WWII "gun-basses" in Britain and the United States.
      2. Alf
        Alf 13 July 2021 19: 06
        +1
        Quote: hohol95
        especially naval "Rock", deprived of attention.

        If my memory serves me, Rocky never shot down a single Hans. And they were written off quickly.
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 13 July 2021 20: 24
          +1
          Written off to the shore. It was a carrier fighter! But alas. One victory is attributed, but the Germans do not confirm it. But only 2 planes were lost by the "Fates". And after the "stunning" operation "Dynamo" they were sent to training units.
          A total of 31 aircraft were built.
          When fully charged, it stayed in the air for 6 hours.
          1. Alf
            Alf 13 July 2021 20: 27
            0
            Quote: hohol95
            One victory is attributed, but the Germans do not confirm it.

            Of course, the Rock accelerated up to 360 km / h, at such a speed chasing a Ju-88 dead number, so the pilots of the bombers would have laughed.
            Quote: hohol95
            But only 2 planes were lost by the "Fates".

            Once again, of course, who the hell needs him, chasing him?
            1. hohol95
              hohol95 13 July 2021 20: 44
              +1
              The Germans just loved to shoot down such "lame ducks".
              The Germans shot down 6 "defiants" in one battle. Out of 9. At the airfield, then 1 was written off.
              July 19, 1940. 141 squadron.
              1. Alf
                Alf 13 July 2021 20: 45
                +1
                Quote: hohol95
                The Germans just loved to shoot down such "lame ducks".
                The Germans shot down 6 "defiants" in one battle. Out of 9. At the airfield, then 1 was written off.
                July 19, 1940. 141 squadron.

                True, only Rocky was not caught by them. Luckily for the Fates.
  10. Alf
    Alf 13 July 2021 19: 09
    +1
    Not the Fury that went into production in 1944,

    In fact, C Fury went into production not in 44, but already in 1947.
    and Tonlit.

    What is this? Who is, why I don’t know?
    Maybe a reality, Gauntlet?
  11. AlNikolaich
    AlNikolaich 20 July 2021 11: 52
    0
    The other day I saw this article revised by Kirill Shishkin ...
    She came out later ...
  12. Yaroslav Tekkel
    Yaroslav Tekkel 27 July 2021 23: 30
    0
    "Khariton" was not bad when it acted in cooperation with the "Spits" (as in the BZB) or when there was nothing better near it (as on the Eastern Front). But already in Africa, he, together with the P-41, greatly let the RAF down, when the Spitov were practically not delivered, and against him were the superior Fritz Bf.109 and Mc.202 macaroni. Worse, in Syria, he could not cope with the D.520 paddling pool (by that time, in comparison with 1940, both aircraft had been somewhat modernized).