Military Review

The different fates of Haiti and the Dominican Republic

117

So, at the beginning of the XNUMXth century, we see on the island of Hispaniola the flourishing French colony of Saint-Domingo in the west and the provincial poor Spanish colony of Santo Domingo in the east.


Their inhabitants did not like each other and spoke different languages: Haitians - in French and Creole, Dominicans - in Spanish. Both of these states were typical "banana republics" at the time, and both survived the US occupation in the XNUMXth century. But subsequent events proved that wealth easily turns to dust with inept management and ineradicable greed and venality of the elites. This happened in the state of the victorious slaves - Haiti.

On the other hand, the insufficient economic development of the territory did not prevent the Dominican Republic from quickly and in all respects overtaking a competitor and becoming a prestigious world-class tropical resort. Moreover, it was the weak economic activity that made it possible to preserve the forests and the beauty of the Dominican Republic. The photograph below, taken from one of the artificial satellites, shows the border between Haiti and the Dominican Republic.

The different fates of Haiti and the Dominican Republic

But the approximate border between these states can be determined without this line.


And on this table we see some of the socio-economic indicators of these countries.


This is a panorama of the city of Port-au-Prince, the capital of Haiti.


And the panorama of the capital of the Dominican Republic Santo Domingo.


We add that according to the "human development index" (HDI) in 2019, the Dominican Republic was in 89th place, and the Republic of Haiti - in 170th.

Let's talk a little about the newest stories these countries.

Republic of Haiti


The state of the victorious slaves fell under the tutelage of the United States, and this did not bring happiness to Haiti.

In 1915, by order of President Woodrow Wilson, American Marines landed in Port-au-Prince. For 19 years, the country was actually occupied by the United States. The uprising, which was raised by Charlemagne Peralte, was drowned in blood, 13 thousand people died. US troops left Haiti in 1934. During this time, the Americans managed to form a comprador elite here.

The brightest representative of the breed of "good American sons of bitches" was Francois Duvalier. He began his political career in 1946 as Minister of Health and therefore was best known by the nickname Papa Doc. But he liked to call himself "the indisputable leader of the revolution", "the apostle of national unity" and "benefactor of the poor." In 1957, mathematics teacher Daniel Finiolei took over as President of Haiti. Already 19 days after taking office, he was arrested and expelled from the country. People tried to protest, but the demonstrations were dispersed with the use of force, killing about a thousand people.

Duvalier won the elections organized by the military junta. A certified physician, he declared himself a priest of the cult of voodoo, "lord of the zombies" and equipped his own torture chamber in his palace. It is also believed that in dress and behavior he imitated one of the most powerful voodoo spirits - Baron Shabbat, always appeared in public in a black dress coat, top hat or hat of the same color, glasses. However, he relied more not on mystical rituals, but on the units of the militants of the "voluntary militia" - Tonton Macoute (on behalf of the spirit that kidnaps and eats children). Instead of getting paid, they got the right to rob their victims.


F. Duvalier and members of one of the detachments of the "voluntary militia"

These thugs stoned and burned people suspected of disloyalty, smashed their houses and destroyed their property.

Duvalier also did not forget about his profession. Some argue that, on his orders, a forced collection of blood donations was organized, 2500 liters of which were sold monthly in the United States. Others, however, say that donated blood was sent to the United States not regularly, but periodically.

The only American president who was disgusted with this dictator was John F. Kennedy. He even dared to order an end to American aid. Duvalier, who had long-standing and deep connections in the power structures of the United States, knew that Kennedy did not enjoy authority from the true masters of this country and was actually sentenced by them. And so he allowed himself to say that 2222 times he pierced a doll depicting the American president with a needle, which would lead to inevitable death. After the assassination of Kennedy in Dallas, the citizens of Haiti were finally convinced of the remarkable witchcraft abilities of their president.

This "leader of the dead" died in 1971. His heir - 19-year-old Jean-Claude Duvalier, remained in history under the nickname "Baby Doc". His wife was Michelle Bennett, the great-great-granddaughter of the "king" of Haiti, Henri Christophe. The Haitians remembered this lady, among other things, for her love for expensive fur coats, in which even the traditional heat did not prevent her from appearing in public.


Jean-Claude Duvalier and Michelle Bennett

The younger Duvalier ruled the country for 15 years, but was overthrown in 1986. He fled safely, having managed to steal hundreds of millions of dollars from the impoverished state by that time. During the reign of "dad and son", according to various sources, from 30 to 50 thousand Haitians were killed, another 300 thousand fled the country.

This coup did not bring peace and prosperity to Haiti, since the revolutionaries immediately began to squabble among themselves, and at the same time settle scores with political opponents. The economy showed practically no signs of life, however, there was still enough money for the personal needs of the new owners.

In 1991, the priest Jean-Bertrand Aristide came to power in the country. This servant of God was known for his advice on the “correct” burning of political opponents: a “necklace” - a gasoline-drenched car tire - was to be worn around the victim's neck. In his free time from public duties, the "holy father" tried to write music and amused himself by playing the piano, guitar, saxophone, clarinet and drum. Aristide was also overthrown, but the Americans returned him to the "throne" of Haiti. In 2000, he was re-elected president - and again ousted in 2004.

In 2010, on top of all the misfortunes, a catastrophic earthquake struck Haiti, which killed over 220 people, injured more than 300, and lost 3 million homes. The economic damage was estimated at about $ 5,6 billion, and aid received from foreign states and various public organizations at $ 10 billion. The further fate of these funds is unknown. Miraculously, the money that was not stolen was not enough even for a full-fledged renovation of government buildings in the capital of the country. Hurricane Matthew (2016) came in very "handy", which caused enormous damage to the unfortunate country that had not yet recovered from the consequences of the earthquake, but helped dishonest politicians and businessmen "legalize" the stolen money.

The level of poverty in modern Haiti strikes even the inhabitants of the poor countries of "black Africa". More than 70% of Haitians are unemployed, with an average earnings of $ 2,75 per day. The main source of income for many families is transfers from relatives who have left abroad (there are more than a million such lucky ones) and humanitarian aid. And the most profitable type of "business" is not even drug trafficking, but the distribution of humanitarian aid.

The recent (on the night of July 7, 2021) assassination of President Jovenel Moise, who was called the "banana king of Haiti" (his wife was fatally wounded and died in hospital), speaks of the crime rate and the degree of insecurity. His home was located in the heavily guarded area of ​​Pelerin, which is considered the safest place in the country. This did not prevent a group of unknown persons from shooting the head of state. The guards' excuse is that the Spanish and English-speaking attackers identified themselves as agents of the United States Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA).

After all, everyone knows that any law enforcement agencies of this country have every right to arrange coups d'etat in any country in the world. Haitian Ambassador to Washington Boccit Edmond called this action "an attack on our democracy." He apparently forgot that in 2019, under Moise, parliamentary elections did not take place in Haiti. And that after the funds of the loan were stolen to buy cheap oil in Venezuela, Moiz ordered the arrest of 23 people who dared to demand an investigation of this story. Among them was one of the members of the Supreme Court. As an excuse for his actions, Moise stated that he is ... a dictator!

Apparently, the Haitian ambassador to Washington does not know about the April letter of a group of American legislators to Secretary of State Anthony Blinken, which expressed "serious and urgent concern" about the state of affairs in Haiti and asserted that the Moise government "cannot satisfy even the most basic needs of its citizens" ( Financial Times report). It’s even interesting, by the way: was it just a coincidence or did Blinken react so quickly?

However, few hope that life in Haiti will change for the better under the new president.

According to the Dominican neighbors, the killers were summoned from Colombia and Venezuela by "very powerful people in Haiti who are involved in drug trafficking and kidnapping." The authorities of the Dominican Republic ordered the closure of the state border with Haiti. It is reported that four attackers were killed and two of them were detained. International observers report with alarm the enormous "risk of instability and escalation of violence" in that country.

The Dominican Republic


We remember that this state also did not differ in political stability, and the "starting" conditions were extremely low. The external debt of the Dominican Republic was so great that in 1903 several European countries (France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands) even considered the possibility of jointly knocking it out with the help of "gunboat diplomacy". Under Theodore Roosevelt, the Dominican Republic actually came under external control: the Americans controlled customs and financial policy. And from 1916 to 1924, the Dominican Republic was completely occupied by the United States. In general, everything was almost like in Haiti.

By the way, in April 1963, American troops invaded the Dominican Republic once again: Lyndon Johnson then suspected the so-called "Civil Triumvirate" of sympathizing with the Communists. The political situation in this country became relatively stable only after the 1966 presidential elections. But let's not get ahead of ourselves.

In 1930, another dictator came to power in the Dominican Republic - Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina. He was the commander of the National Guard, created in the Dominican Republic with the help of military advisers from the United States.


Trujillo was no less cruel than the same Duvalier. Not only Dominicans, but also the inhabitants of Haiti remember him with an unkind word. The fact is that, having finally settled in 1937 border disputes with neighbors, he ordered not even deport, but destroy all Haitians who found themselves in the territory that had ceded to him - up to 20 thousand people.

These events went down in history under the name "Parsley Massacre". The fact is that the Spanish name for parsley is perejil. In French and Creole, the "r" sound is pronounced in a completely different way. Therefore, they killed those who could not correctly pronounce the name of this herb. An Anglican priest, Charles Barnes, who attempted to report these atrocities in the United States, was killed and is currently venerated as a martyr.

Under pressure from the world community, Trujillo agreed to pay compensation to the relatives of the victims, the total amount of which was reduced from $ 750 to $ 525: about $ 30 per person killed. However, Haitian officials paid the families of the victims the equivalent of two US cents. The rest of the money was appropriated by them.

Trujillo was a supporter of the policy of "whitewashing" the Dominican Republic (blanquismo) and therefore encouraged immigration: both the defeated Spanish Republicans and German Jews. After the start of the Cold War, the dictator declared himself “anticommunist number one”, which was very much liked by the US politicians, who now favorably turned a blind eye to the antics of another “beloved son of a bitch”.

Trujillo did not forget about himself and his family either. It is said that "in twelve of his houses there were wardrobes full of expensive suits, jackets and shirts, which he wore exclusively with gold or platinum cufflinks." Ties alone were then counted about 10 thousand. One of the dictator's sons was promoted to colonel at the age of 4. The doors of the Dominican churches were then decorated with the inscriptions: "Trujillo on earth, God in heaven."

Trujillo loved to be called El Jefe - the chef. However, the Dominicans have changed this nickname - "el chivo" (goat). The day of the murder of Trujillo in the Dominican Republic is now called the "holiday of the goat" - La fiesta del chivo.

But the political stability finally arriving in this part of the paradise island of Hispaniola helped attract foreign investment. Industrial enterprises, power plants, railways and highways were built on the territory of the Dominican Republic, money was invested in agriculture. In 1961, the Dominican Republic was already significantly ahead of all indicators and Haiti, and many other West Indies.

However, the hatred of the dictator in the Dominican Republic was already so high that the Americans began to fear a Cuban-style revolution here. Some believe that CIA men were behind Trujillo's assassins, who shot his car on May 30, 1961. The links between them and the people of the "Office" are recognized even in the United States, but there is no evidence that the murder was carried out precisely on orders from Lange.


Shot down Trujillo's car



Commemorative sign at the site of the murder of Trujillo

Power was transferred to one of Trujillo's associates, Joaquin Balaguer, who served as head of state until 1962.


Joaquin balaguer

In 1965, the Americans, as we remember, went to the temporary occupation of the Dominican Republic. President Lyndon Johnson feared the return to power of the ousted in September 1963 Juan Bosch, the leader of the opposition Dominican Revolutionary Party. In the elections that took place later, Balaguer again became president, who held this post until 1978. For the third time, Balaguer was elected president in 1986 and ruled until 1996.

Joaquin Balaguer was rightly accused of corruption and electoral fraud. But at the same time, this politician had one extremely curious thing. Balaguer turned out to be a very big lover of nature and actively opposed predatory methods of farming. He sharply limited the production of charcoal and established incentives for the import and use of natural gas, prohibited deforestation and gave vast territories the status of reserves and national parks. Allocated money for the organization of a zoo, a botanical garden, an aquarium and a natural history museum, which are now very popular tourist sites.

Balaguer had to resign in 1996. The next elections in the Dominican Republic were recognized as fair for the first time in the country's history by international observers. The new president is Leonel Fernandez, a candidate for the 1973 Bosch Center Party of the Dominican Liberation.

In 1998, Freedom House recognized the Dominican Republic as a democratic country.

Political stability has had a beneficial effect on economic performance. The metro has been operating in the capital of the country since 2009 (at present, its lines are the longest in the Caribbean region). The sphere of international tourism is developing rapidly.
Author:
117 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. Lech from Android.
    Lech from Android. 10 July 2021 04: 02
    +4
    The climate in this area makes it possible to organize luxurious tourism and agriculture ... but the bad habits and inclinations of the aborigines there, encouraged by the Americans, spoil everything.
    You live like a powder keg.
    1. Bashkirkhan
      Bashkirkhan 10 July 2021 08: 53
      +7
      Quote: Lech from Android.
      the bad habits and inclinations of the natives there

      The aborigines were destroyed during the time of the pirates. Only niggas left. Niggas will never have order in Haiti.
    2. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 10 July 2021 10: 13
      +4
      .... luxury tourism .....
      But one of the readers was just in the Dominican Republic. Like a tourist.
      good I read both articles with great pleasure.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 10 July 2021 10: 29
        +3
        But one of the readers was just in the Dominican Republic.
        Nikolay "Pane Kokhanku".
      2. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 10 July 2021 12: 45
        +4
        But one of the readers was just in the Dominican Republic. Like a tourist.

        Dmitry, well, who else could he be there? My friend was in Cuba for work, when he was adjusting the avionics of the Il-96, the food was at the level of the Cuban flight crew, but not as luxurious as mine, a tourist in Varadeo in a five-star hotel.
        1. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid 10 July 2021 12: 52
          +4
          Quote: Aviator_
          ...... the food was on par with the Cuban flight crew, but not as fancy as me, a tourist in Varadeo in a five-star hotel.

          hi well yes! Someone in Varadeo is a five-star hotel, someone is eating a diet from friends in Lappeenranta. request
          1. Aviator_
            Aviator_ 10 July 2021 12: 56
            +5
            We got into that five-star one by accident, gathered in one, and there the pad came out, for the same amount the travel agency settled us in a more expensive one. We were satisfied.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 10 July 2021 13: 01
              +4
              This is not a slip, this is the "Fortuna 2" tourist program. It happened in Eilat.
              1. Aviator_
                Aviator_ 10 July 2021 14: 03
                +4
                this is the tourist program "Fortuna 2"

                I didn't know, thanks for the info. And even Yasha Flaxman doesn't go to Eilat - it's expensive!
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 10 July 2021 15: 27
                  +2
                  From your edge to Hawaii, perhaps, will come out cheaper! laughing
                  1. Aviator_
                    Aviator_ 10 July 2021 17: 28
                    +4
                    There were relatives there. Impressed by the Navy Museum. They were close - they live in the Kuril Islands. To me - no, very far away.
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 10 July 2021 18: 45
                      +2
                      To me - no, very far away.
                      I'm sorry. Sometimes the "European" stereotype of perception of geography and logistics works for me.
  2. Comrade
    Comrade 10 July 2021 04: 54
    +26
    The different fates of Haiti and the Dominican Republic

    Differences in the level of development are due to the demographics of the two countries.

    The Dominican Republic (2014 data):
    mixed - 70,4% (mulatto 58% and mestizo 12,4%), black - 15,8%, whites - 13,5%, others - 0,3%.
    Haiti :
    black - 95%, mixed and white - 5%.

    Similar differences in economic performance can be observed in the States, for example. To do this, it is enough to compare the areas inhabited mainly by blacks and whites.
    1. Lech from Android.
      Lech from Android. 10 July 2021 05: 01
      +9
      For such information Negroes will accuse you of racism and discrimination.
      1. Comrade
        Comrade 10 July 2021 05: 09
        +8
        Quote: Lech from Android.
        For such information Negroes will accuse you of racism and discrimination.

        Anyone can find this data right now on the English-language Wikipedia.
        1. Lech from Android.
          Lech from Android. 10 July 2021 05: 17
          +1
          You can certainly find it ... but people with different views perceive this information in different ways ... taking into account the trends of modern fashion, the guilt of whites before the black people.
          1. Comrade
            Comrade 10 July 2021 05: 26
            +18
            The article does not say anything about the genocide perpetrated in Haiti.
            But all the French, from small to old, were exterminated there. That's how many of them lived there, so many were killed, they did not spare either the old people or the babies. Many tens of thousands of people, whose only fault was that they were white.
            Is this not a manifestation of "racism" and "discrimination?
            1. Lech from Android.
              Lech from Android. 10 July 2021 05: 35
              +8
              About this "the movement of black life is also important" and their curators prefer to modestly keep silent.
            2. VLR
              10 July 2021 06: 18
              +13
              The genocide of whites in Haiti was described in the previous article - "Haiti's Two Hispaniola Islands"
              1. Reptiloid
                Reptiloid 10 July 2021 10: 20
                0
                Quote: VlR
                The genocide of whites in Haiti was described in the previous article - "Haiti's Two Hispaniola Islands"

                The Great French Revolution did not bring equality for all residents, both the metropolis and the colonies. Although the colonies expected better changes. The whites in the colonies have already gotten everyone and gotten
              2. Comrade
                Comrade 11 July 2021 01: 32
                +1
                Quote: VlR
                The genocide of whites in Haiti was described in the previous article - "Haiti's Two Hispaniola Islands"

                Thank you very much, Valery!
                I read your article with great interest.
                By the way, about "offending" for the word "black" blacks. I had a colleague named Denzil from Haiti. He, when you ask him who you, poke your finger and calmly said: "I ebony."
                Acquaintances living in Brazil say that the local blacks are calmly called blacks, and none of them is "offended".
                It turns out that it was only in the West that common people taught blacks to take offense at being called blacks.
            3. ycuce234-san
              ycuce234-san 10 July 2021 16: 30
              +1
              Many tens of thousands of people, whose only fault was that they were white.


              They did not hold a trial - the Haitians did not hold a public tribunal against colonialism as a phenomenon.
              Then the primary cause - an economic phenomenon - would be condemned, and secondary lawsuits could be started in relation to the beneficiaries, and spontaneous pogroms would be prevented.
      2. Free wind
        Free wind 10 July 2021 07: 31
        +16
        I do not care on blacks. If you want to repent, play in Afrikania and get on your knees there.
        1. AK1972
          AK1972 10 July 2021 08: 37
          +8
          Quote: Free Wind
          I do not care on blacks. If you want to repent, play in Afrikania and get on your knees there.

          I totally agree. There are two things I hate the most - racism and blacks.
        2. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 10 July 2021 13: 57
          -2
          Quote: Free Wind
          I do not care on blacks. If you want to repent, play in Afrikania and get on your knees there.

          Quote: AK1972

          I totally agree. There are two things I hate the most - racism and blacks.

          In my opinion, it all depends on how you treat them initially. I have experience of communicating with the guys from Ethiopia - quite normal people (youth). The elderly lived most of their life in the villages of a third world country, therefore, they differ in mentality from the rest, but the frankly rotten ones are minuscule among them. They were given preferential mortgages (up to 90% of loans were written off to workers), some things were corrected when entering universities (there was no introductory one in Amharic, it was in Russian, for example, so something was changed there), well, there was less outright racism, so the current generation who are under 40, quite normal members of society, are not particularly listed in crime reports.
          As for the merchants and officials living in Africa - cunning data, I had such a clientele. They can order a service and cancel it 15 minutes before execution without paying, etc. Freebie lovers. More like provincial bureaucrats from some regions of the Russian Federation.
          Sudanese refugees are different. They can get drunk, start a massive fight, while snatching a bag from a girl passing by, throw a bottle of beer on a regular bus. In disadvantaged areas of Tel Aviv, they very quickly cut off from the local gopots and youngsters - they were beaten with sticks from mops, kicked.
          In general, I cannot say that they are non-humans. Its peculiarities, nothing more.
    2. Stas157
      Stas157 10 July 2021 09: 37
      0
      Quote: Comrade
      Differences in developmental level due to demographics of the two countries.

      And it seems to me the quality of management.

      Even according to the article, it is clear that the problems of the once rich Haiti began when the dictatorial czars began to come to power. Unlimited power is equal to irresponsibility.

      As for the racial composition, pay attention to South Africa. There, 81% of the population is black, the average salary is 90 thousand rubles. Russians can only dream about it!

      Here they can argue, as a standard, that they say prices are higher than in Russia! But the same can be said about poverty-stricken Haiti (just the opposite). Cheap prices and services are an excuse only for the poor.

      ... the average earnings of workers are $ 2,75 per day

      It does not differ much from the Russian minimum wage, but from the American one already by an order of magnitude.
      1. VLR
        10 July 2021 09: 45
        +11
        The fact of the matter is that the "kings-dictators" ruled in the Dominican Republic. The difference between father and son Duvalier in Haiti and Trujillo and Badager in the Dominican Republic is only that the former were black, and the latter were white. And up to a certain point, development proceeded in parallel - "banana republics" with a colonial past, the US occupation, political instability, massive repressions. But the Dominican Republic scrambled out and went up, and Haiti fell into a hole from which, probably, it will not get out in the foreseeable future.
        1. Stas157
          Stas157 10 July 2021 09: 49
          +2
          Quote: VlR
          The fact of the matter is that the "kings-dictators" ruled in the Dominican Republic

          And now? Maybe the keyword "ruled"?

          What kind of racism? "White" countries can also live both poorly and richly. It all depends on the quality of management. Look at our superpower! How we lived under the USSR and how we live now. Looking at the USSR, for the way we live now, it becomes embarrassing. This is understandable. As the mustachioed one said, our reference point is the dense tsarist Russia of the times of Nikolashka 2. And we are heading towards that.
          1. Bolt cutter
            Bolt cutter 10 July 2021 10: 36
            -1
            How we lived under the USSR and how we live now
            In Turkey and Egypt, Russian is almost a second language. Yes, these are cheap resorts (not Sydney No. ) but rest at sea is not a necessary need, but still the joy of life. So it's not all bad.
            1. Stas157
              Stas157 10 July 2021 10: 40
              +6
              Quote: Bolt Cutter
              In Turkey and Egypt, Russian is almost a second language. Yes this cheap resorts

              Cheaper than Crimea and Sochi. It's amazing how the Turks were able to achieve this despite the fact that the average salary in Turkey is higher. As they discovered Turkey, they send as many as one hundred planes a day. And this is despite the pandemic!
              1. Bolt cutter
                Bolt cutter 10 July 2021 10: 46
                -1
                I'm not talking about that a bit. the fact that Russians are active tourists (I worked for an international tour operator) somehow does not fit with the picture of poverty that you describe.
                how the Turks were able to achieve this despite the fact that the average salary in Turkey is higher.
                The industry is well-oiled, just masses of tourists go from everywhere (small profit from a large turnover) and salaries are far from higher for all Turks - hotel servants from mountain villages will envy Russian paychecks.
                1. Stas157
                  Stas157 10 July 2021 10: 54
                  +4
                  Quote: Bolt Cutter
                  somehow does not fit with the picture of poverty that you describe.

                  The modern picture of poverty is not a beggar on the porch, as some here try to present. American and German beggars receive more benefits than other Russians on their wages. And Russians go to cheap Turkish resorts out of poverty. 6 million a year. Many save up for a whole year, and some on credit. Among them, who were in the same Dominican Republic, Cuba or Maldives - only a few. And this is not at all because they do not want to go there!
                  1. Bolt cutter
                    Bolt cutter 10 July 2021 10: 57
                    -2
                    Russians go to cheap Turkish resorts out of poverty.
                    From poverty they go to the river outside the city. By train.
                    American and German beggars receive more benefits than other Russians on their wages.
                    Their states are richer, we are not discussing this.
                    1. Stas157
                      Stas157 10 July 2021 11: 01
                      +7
                      Quote: Bolt Cutter
                      They ride from poverty to the river outside the city... By train.

                      6 million (from 145 million) is the maximum that goes on vacation to the cheap but coveted Turkish coast. The rest (at least most of them) - to the river outside the city.
                      1. Bolt cutter
                        Bolt cutter 10 July 2021 11: 05
                        -3
                        My experience
                        1. Living in London
                        2. Tours
                        3. Work in one of the largest tour operators
                        raises doubts about the 6 million figure.
                      2. Stas157
                        Stas157 10 July 2021 11: 13
                        +5
                        Quote: Bolt Cutter
                        My experience ... raises doubts about 6 million

                        What about experience to use Google-Yandex? Obviously not very good!))

                        In 2019, Turkey was visited by 6,7 million Russian tourists. Check it out.
                      3. Bolt cutter
                        Bolt cutter 10 July 2021 11: 21
                        -2
                        Turkey was visited by 6,7 million Russian tourists.
                        And Finland, Egypt, Tunisia, Italy, Thailand, Goa (I will not say anything about Montenegro, it looks like Montenegro there laughing ) - no, this 6.7 mil statistic doesn't say anything.
                      4. Stas157
                        Stas157 10 July 2021 11: 27
                        +4
                        Quote: Bolt Cutter
                        And Finland, Egypt, Tunisia, Italy, Thailand, Goa (I will not say anything about Montenegro, it looks like Montenegro there

                        So google, then write!)) And we will compare.
                      5. Bolt cutter
                        Bolt cutter 10 July 2021 11: 28
                        -3
                        Have you been abroad yourself?
                      6. Stas157
                        Stas157 10 July 2021 11: 29
                        +1
                        Quote: Bolt Cutter
                        Have you been abroad yourself?

                        Not. This year was not. Failed.
                      7. Bolt cutter
                        Bolt cutter 10 July 2021 11: 38
                        -5
                        This year was not.
                        So you are bourgeois fat-free wassat Here on the forum there are a lot of people who have been to a dozen places (they tell how poorly they live in the States, England, and in Italy there is absolutely poverty yes ). Not so bad, judging by the number of Russian tourists. Or do you call poverty the lack of the opportunity to spend the winter in a villa in the suburbs of Sydney for a Russian pension?
                      8. Stas157
                        Stas157 10 July 2021 11: 41
                        +5
                        Quote: Bolt Cutter
                        So you are bourgeois fat-free

                        Cheap Turkey or Egypt, this is what I can afford (once a year, or even two!), As well as the overwhelming majority of Russian citizens traveling to a foreign resort. And that's not cool.
                      9. Bolt cutter
                        Bolt cutter 10 July 2021 11: 49
                        -4
                        And that's not cool.
                        Would you like a servant villa on St Barts? Or maybe a private island in Florida? And in Europe, far, far from everyone has it. Cut off the sturgeon, or earn a lot of money.
                        In fact, once a year, instead of distributing debts and paying for the long-awaited new shoes, you can fly abroad on vacation. Please yourself. But without this trip, your real quality of life will not deteriorate - therefore, it is just a small affordable luxury.
                      10. Stas157
                        Stas157 10 July 2021 11: 55
                        +4
                        Quote: Bolt Cutter
                        Trim sturgeon

                        This is what I am doing. Because with the other (if you are not a friend of the king) it is difficult with us:

                        Quote: Bolt Cutter
                        earn some money a lot
                      11. Bolt cutter
                        Bolt cutter 10 July 2021 12: 02
                        -5
                        not the king's friend
                        This is about the same as saying that Russians buy Vesta once every ten years, and not Bentley once a year, because the poor wassat ... In fact, you are clearly equal to those people abroad, whose income is much higher than average, and a certain king has taken away the opportunity to live as a person. What do you think is proof of the total poverty of Russians?
                      12. Stas157
                        Stas157 10 July 2021 12: 11
                        +7
                        Quote: Bolt Cutter
                        What do you think is evidence total poverty of Russians?

                        20 million beyond the line. Even more near the poverty line. The beggarly minimum wage is even lower than in Ukraine. And on average salaries somewhere in the middle of African countries. Let me remind you that the African continent is considered the poorest on the planet.

                        What do you think is evidence wealth of Russians? You are hinting at it! Auto trash in the yard and apartments for a lifetime mortgage? So it is in any Honduras now.
                      13. Bolt cutter
                        Bolt cutter 10 July 2021 12: 21
                        -3
                        apartments for a lifetime mortgage?
                        Like 15 years in Russia? England has 25, Switzerland often 50.
                        Trash in the yard
                        You obviously think that kamryuha is for beggars. Only Ferrari, only hardcore! Last year's Mears will come down sad
                        The minimum wage is lower than in Ukraine.
                        In Iceland, there is no minimum wage at all. Rogues?
                        I repeat the question, what do you think is the wealth that the average Russian is worthy of?
                      14. Stas157
                        Stas157 10 July 2021 12: 33
                        +6
                        Quote: Bolt Cutter
                        I repeat the question, what do you think is the wealth that the average Russian is worthy of?

                        The sad fact is that Russia is among the leaders in social inequality. If not for this unpleasant circumstance, the Russians could really live better. If you look at the Russian GDP per capita, then it is comparable to countries such as Croatia, Greece, Malaysia ... But salaries in Russia are lower. Why? In whose pocket does Russian money predominantly migrate? Maybe the answer is this:

                        According to Credit Suisse, in 2020, 1% of the country's total financial wealth is concentrated in the hands of 57% of the richest population in Russia, which is the most outstanding indicator in a sample of key countries (on average 44% in the world). In terms of the uneven distribution of wealth, Russia leaves behind almost all developed countries, with the exception of the United States, HSE experts stated in 2019.
                      15. Bolt cutter
                        Bolt cutter 10 July 2021 12: 37
                        -7
                        Again
                        what do you think is the wealth that the average Russian deserves?
                        I do not deny that the standard of living in Western Europe is higher - I live in England wink But it is hardly appropriate to talk about the total poverty of Russians. Seems to me that your requests are too high sad .
                        Russia is among the leaders in social inequality. If not for this unpleasant circumstance, Russians could really live better
                        Take and divide - will give about one and a half thousand ye per year for each Russian. It won't work.
                      16. Stas157
                        Stas157 10 July 2021 12: 42
                        +5
                        Quote: Bolt Cutter
                        hardly appropriate to speak about total poverty Russians

                        And not about total, about just poverty?

                        In your opinion, is it normal when in the richest country in the world in terms of mineral resources (plus the powerful industrial potential left by the USSR), the people live so poorly?
                      17. Bolt cutter
                        Bolt cutter 10 July 2021 12: 53
                        -1
                        so poor?
                        I'll try again - HOW poor? Can't buy a house with one payday? New Bentley not to take immediately after the release?
                        in the richest country in the world for mineral resources
                        Just rich. They are not widespread or small (Qatar, Norway) or beggars (Zaire, Zambia). In terms of per capita, there are not so many subsoil resources in Russia.
                        about just poverty?
                        Do you want a pension like in Norway, a salary like in Switzerland, medicine like in Israel and work like in Greece? I repeat, the poor do not go to the beach in Turkey / Egypt.
                      18. Stas157
                        Stas157 10 July 2021 13: 06
                        +4
                        Quote: Bolt Cutter
                        I'll try again - HOW poor?

                        I've already written everything to you, haven't you read it?)) See what salaries, pensions, minimum wages, standard of living in our superpower ... Is this rich in your opinion ??

                        I always suspected that the Zaputins and jingoistic patriots treat their country very badly, considering the current African level of wealth. In my opinion, Russia deserves the best.
                      19. Bolt cutter
                        Bolt cutter 10 July 2021 13: 13
                        -2
                        zaputins and cheers-patriots
                        Yes, I do rootless cosmopolitan with two NATO passports laughing
                        current wealth level.
                        This is not wealth. But abundance.
                        Russia deserves the best.
                        What? You speak of your country as a Zimbabwean of yours. Let's imagine that you are not Stas, but Stanley, and you are a native Englishman. How do you and your family, in your opinion, now live in the material plane?
                      20. Stas157
                        Stas157 10 July 2021 13: 36
                        +2
                        Quote: Bolt Cutter
                        how do you and your family, in your opinion, now live in material terms?

                        How? We pay the mortgage 7,9% per annum, and in fact 11% with all insurances and commissions. And this is for a new building! Just a robbery. What is it here material plan may be? He's busy with repairs now. Have you seen the prices for building materials ?? And we are told about 5-6% inflation! Are they there as the king of the vote in the elections, or what?

                        And how many mortgages are there in England?
                      21. Bolt cutter
                        Bolt cutter 10 July 2021 14: 38
                        -2
                        And how many mortgages are there in England?
                        Depends on a lot of factors, on average approx. four%. For 4 years.
                      22. AML
                        AML 11 July 2021 16: 17
                        +1
                        You are funny. Then the prices must be compared.
                        How do you like the price for an odnushka 120 thousand euros?
                    2. ycuce234-san
                      ycuce234-san 10 July 2021 16: 53
                      +2
                      Between 2017 and 2021, spending on business tourism (employee travel, business trips) reached USD 23,5 billion by 2021 - that is, business from foreign countries does not go particularly well and does not enrich citizens (businessmen and recruits). as well as the internal one - otherwise what would businessmen rush to the external market and this would be evident from their movements.
                      This is very little, although the same aforementioned South Africa has already introduced ten-year visas for the heads of Russian companies seven years ago: by the end of 2016, global spending on business trips rose to $ 1,150 trillion. And the beaches of Turkey and Egypt are "unhealthy fast food" tourism - because there is a lot of it and it is available to everyone.
                2. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 10 July 2021 13: 11
                  +6
                  At the moment, I earn about the same as in 2014. But in rubles, but in euros ... crying
                  In general: "The cat has Bali, the dog has Bali, and my maximum is the Leningrad region!" laughing
                  Alex! hi
                3. Bolt cutter
                  Bolt cutter 10 July 2021 13: 18
                  0
                  the same as in 2014
                  In 2010, I earned one and a half times more, but in euros. Now about the same as then - but in pounds yes
                  Good morning Anton! drinks
  • Krasnodar
    Krasnodar 10 July 2021 14: 12
    -1
    Quote: Bolt Cutter
    How we lived under the USSR and how we live now
    In Turkey and Egypt, Russian is almost a second language. Yes, these are cheap resorts (not Sydney No. ) but rest at sea is not a necessary need, but still the joy of life. So it's not all bad.

    Yes, I remember this dysentery vacation at sea in the USSR - Dagomys, Lazorevskaya, Sochi, Pitsunda. It sucks. As for Turkey - not all of it is cheap, I rested in an all inclusive for 900 euros per day - but there is also a delicious round-the-clock food in open 24/7 restaurants / bars and an artificial beach covered with sand on pebbles and XO cognacs and 25-year-old whiskey.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 10 July 2021 15: 36
      +2
      vacation at the sea in the USSR
      But I don’t remember. request
      I have been to Anapa twice, at the age of three and five.
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 10 July 2021 15: 37
        -1
        And I am between the ages of 6 and XNUMX. ))
    2. VLR
      11 July 2021 07: 53
      +1
      In Sochi, as elsewhere, everything depends on the location and the size of the check. On Kurortny Prospect, for example, there are Soviet sanatoriums with buildings and parks in the style of "count's estates" (one of them was shown in the film "Old Man Hottabych", oddly enough, it does not work now, the territory with the remnants of former luxury is overgrown), indoor heated pools and private beaches. Last year I was in one of them, which was built in the style of "Stalin's Baroque" and is a monument of Soviet architecture. A very interesting buffet - the dishes were not like restaurant dishes, but homemade, nostalgic "Soviet compote", kefir, and once a week lunch in some national style, I ended up with Georgian and Belarusian.
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 11 July 2021 14: 44
        0
        Of course - based only on my childhood memories. Now there is also Villa Rodina with an artificial sandy beach and Guest House-Jan. ))
  • Kronos
    Kronos 10 July 2021 15: 44
    0
    This is in no way connected, and many countries in Africa have long been not the same poor countries of the 20th century.
  • Catfish
    Catfish 10 July 2021 06: 25
    +7
    ... detachments of militants of the "voluntary militia" - Tonton Macoute

    At one time, Graham Greene wrote the book "Comedians", about what happened in Haiti during the reign of Pope Doc.
    In 1967, a film of the same name was shot, starring Liz Taylor and Richard Burton.

    Both the book and the film perfectly portray the oppressive atmosphere of that time in an absolutely impoverished country. For those who are not familiar with the book and the film, I strongly advise you to get acquainted and warn in advance that they have different endings.
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 10 July 2021 10: 23
      +4
      Thank you. I have been reading the book for a long time, but I didn’t even know about the film, I’ll look.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 10 July 2021 15: 34
        +3
        I tried to find a photo of Captain Concasser, as an illustration of the personality of Tonton Macuta, but, unfortunately, I could not find anything, but it's a pity, the figure was very colorful. smile
        1. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid 10 July 2021 15: 49
          +3
          Also in that book was Our Man in Havana. Where is this book now?
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 10 July 2021 16: 05
            +3
            I read it too, I generally like the way Graham Greene writes. But the film on this book was never made, and in vain, Fidel would probably have allowed filming in Cuba. smile
            1. Reptiloid
              Reptiloid 10 July 2021 16: 12
              +3
              There is about "Traveling with my aunt". laughing Here she is at home just.
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 10 July 2021 16: 14
                +3
                But I haven't read this one, or I just don't remember.
                1. Reptiloid
                  Reptiloid 10 July 2021 16: 17
                  +3
                  It is somewhat different from the previous ones. Somewhere else, small houses --- "Monsignor Quixote" But did not have time to read
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 10 July 2021 16: 31
                    +3
                    "Monsignor" also did not come across. By the way, when you watch "Comedians", write to me in a personal message about how you liked the picture.
        2. Errr
          Errr 10 July 2021 17: 35
          +2
          Quote: Sea Cat
          I tried to find a photo of Captain Concasser, as an illustration of the personality of Tonton Macuta, but, unfortunately, I could not find anything, but it's a pity, the figure was very colorful.

          S'il vous plaît. smile
          Captain Concasser in all his glory, enhanced by a scarecrow. lol
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 10 July 2021 17: 46
            +3
            Merci, Colleague! hi Five times I tried to upload this particular photo, but nothing happened. Especially touches "Eight" in his hand. smile
            1. Errr
              Errr 13 July 2021 07: 17
              +1
              A thousand apologies, Monsieur Constantine, for my importunity, but I have to ask. Do you think Captain Smith & Wesson has a Model 27 in his hand? smile
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 13 July 2021 07: 25
                +1
                Why did you decide that I believe the captain's barrel is for Smith and Wesson? Have I remembered Messrs. Horatio and Daniel somewhere? The course of your thought is very interesting, but completely incomprehensible. request smile
                If you are confused by the word "Eight", then this is just a "slang chase" in the German army of the P.08 model, which was called "Parabellum" in the commercial sale, and the Americans loved to call it "Luger".
                1. Errr
                  Errr 13 July 2021 07: 43
                  +1
                  I am a complete dumkopf that Parabellum did not recognize. Ikh bin brings you tswai tausend enshuldigen zi more. laughing hi Danke und auf Wiedersein. smile hi
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 13 July 2021 08: 46
                    +1
                    Nine, Vee is not any dumkopf, because "Parabellum" in the hands of a negro has complete nonsense und disaster. bully wassat drinks
                    1. Errr
                      Errr 13 July 2021 09: 43
                      +1
                      drinks
                      You are right again. But in the movies, you can still see that. Samuel Jackson is brutal in The Avenger too. lol
                      Hollywood, however. laughing
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish 13 July 2021 16: 27
                        +1
                        To the black form - a black muzzle! Well, that makes sense. laughing After the Black Academy of Count Orlov, no wonder nothing.
                        However, there is a clear cant with the shape. drinks
    2. Gvardeetz77
      Gvardeetz77 11 July 2021 01: 04
      +2
      Back in my Soviet childhood, I read the book "Requiem for Tont-Macoutes", and even then the thought was formed in my immature minds - what a fuck it is to do there in their Haiti. Almost forty years have passed, and thought still has the right to exist, although it has visited neighboring countries.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 11 July 2021 14: 17
        0
        Hi Anatoly. hi And who is the author of the book, don't you remember?
        1. Gvardeetz77
          Gvardeetz77 11 July 2021 21: 13
          +1
          Gerard de Villiers. Book if my memory serves me from the series "foreign detective" was.
          Now in electronic form is present in libraries. Probably read it, plunge into childhood :)
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 11 July 2021 21: 14
            +1
            Thank you, I will definitely look.
  • Olgovich
    Olgovich 10 July 2021 06: 36
    +3
    This happened in the state of the victorious slaves - Haiti.

    it happened wherever the victorious slaves rule.

    Another fine example is the former slave country of Liberia.

    The Dominican Republic is one of the few relatively successful former Spanish colonies.

    Basically, the former Spanish colonies turned out to be much poorer and less developed than the former English colonies.
  • Xlor
    Xlor 10 July 2021 06: 44
    -1
    The state structure of modern Ukraine strongly resembles the structure in Haiti during the Duvalier ...
  • Luminman
    Luminman 10 July 2021 06: 49
    +6
    Quote: VlR
    The genocide of whites in Haiti was covered in a previous article

    On a tiny island north of Hispaniola, on Tortuga, there was still a pirate republic!
    1. VLR
      10 July 2021 07: 11
      +9
      Yes, but formally it was the possession of France, which appointed governors to Tortuga. These governors immediately began to feel an irresistible desire to issue a letter of marque to someone, to enter a share, etc. - apparently, the climate here was like this. I wrote about Tortuga and published three and a half articles here. And a half - because the fourth talked about the sunset of two famous centers of the Caribbean corsairs - Tortuga and Jamaican Port Royal.
      These two articles on Hispaniola - Haiti are a kind of afterword to the "Caribbean Cycle".
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 10 July 2021 07: 23
        +5
        Good morning, Valery. hi
        Some believe that CIA men were behind Trujillo's assassins, who shot his car on May 30, 1961. The links between them and the people of the "Office" are recognized even in the United States, but there is no evidence that the murder was carried out precisely on orders from Lange.

        I don’t remember where, but somehow I read the exact opposite version, namely about the organization of this assassination attempt by Cuban intelligence.
        There is hardly anything to prove here.
  • north 2
    north 2 10 July 2021 07: 14
    +12
    if we talk about today's Dominican Republic, then, of course, this is a third world country. There are rich people, but the overwhelming majority of the population lives below the poverty line. What is intended for tourists cannot be compared with how others live in the Dominican Republic. There is practically no infrastructure in the country, no gas and water supply, and in some places there is not even electricity and no public transport. When going as a tourist to the Dominican Republic, you need to know that if you do not want to get adventures on your soft sirloin, then you do not need to leave the parts of the cities intended for tourism, therefore, it is not recommended to visit even areas of cities that are not intended for tourism. But in today's online article, it should be noted that the poorest in the Dominican Republic today are refugees and emigrants from Haiti. Although they themselves
    considers in the Dominican Republic happy that they were saved from death, what would await them in Haiti if they did not run away from there. By the way, although both countries and neighbors, the skin of the Haitians is darker than the skin of the Dominican aborigines. And since the Haitians in the Dominican Republic are engaged in the dirtiest deeds, the most harmless of which is theft, the local Dominicans are trying very hard to "whiten" themselves as much as possible, which is even more different from the Haitians in the Dominican Republic. Dominican girls even try to not only lighten their hair, but also straighten it, which is not so easy ...
    So if you are going to the Dominican Republic as a tourist, there are three things you should know.
    First. The trip is not that expensive.
    Second. Recreation and stay in urban and tourist areas is great.
    Third. In order not to spoil your vacation in the Dominican Republic and not spoil your impressions, do not visit places not intended for tourists, although how much you would like to see who the Haitians are. Although .. You can be successfully robbed in a non-tourist area of ​​the city by the Dominicans themselves ...
    1. VLR
      10 July 2021 08: 20
      +6
      Well, now in some areas even in Paris, Amsterdam, Brussels, etc. strongly discouraged from entering. What can we say about the former banana republic of the Dominican Republic? We have created a number of safe and comfortable places here - already well done.
      And the comparison, of course, was not made between the Dominican Republic and some Finland, but between the Dominican Republic and Haiti.
      1. Blacksmith 55
        Blacksmith 55 10 July 2021 09: 58
        +2
        In some areas, even the police are afraid to visit, not to mention ordinary citizens.
        Clans from Arab countries dominate there.
        And this is in European capitals.
    2. Moskovit
      Moskovit 10 July 2021 08: 34
      +6
      My friend was recently. Natural beauty and rum are amazing. Better than neighboring Cuba. But the Dominicans seemed to him lazy people of the highest category. His card for entering the room is covered. Three hours were waiting for the "master". Then the conder broke down - they did not wait at all, they were overpowered to another room. And so everywhere. Poor areas drove by at speed. I noticed a lot of drinkers right on the street. But nature is paradise!
      1. Andrey VOV
        Andrey VOV 10 July 2021 11: 41
        +3
        The Dominicans live according to the principle, if there is no problem, then what to think about it, and if it has come, then all the more so to fool about it. The climate is good, there is enough money for a minimum of living and it’s good. well, and the main wealth is sugarcane and huge pastures of chic fat meat gobies ..... but you won't see sugar harvesters .. Haitians are plowing in there, with very very evil eyes .....
  • A. Privalov
    A. Privalov 10 July 2021 07: 44
    +5
    The Dominican Republic is one of the few countries in the world trading in its citizenship. For just 100 thousand green, you can get a second citizenship and visa-free access to 115 countries of the world.
    1. Andrey VOV
      Andrey VOV 10 July 2021 11: 43
      +2
      There is such a thing, and in my opinion it is the cheapest of all, among those where you can go economically, so to speak>
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 10 July 2021 08: 38
    +5
    How well we live, it turns out.
    1. Stas157
      Stas157 10 July 2021 10: 13
      +6
      Quote: Korsar4
      How are we we live well, it turns out.

      And then!))

      Vladimir Putin, well done,
      Politician, leader and fighter!
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 10 July 2021 10: 17
        0
        It's just that you can always find Job the Long-suffering. Sometimes nationwide.
      2. Phil77
        Phil77 11 July 2021 15: 44
        -2
        And then! lol And he knows how to carry a briefcase! Behind ... a real boss. bully
        1. alch3mist
          alch3mist 18 July 2021 18: 24
          0
          This "real" boss blew out like a punctured ball, very, very quickly. And Vova was in no hurry.
          And by the way, the chicken of this "real" boss without Vova would have been plucked naked and cooked long ago.
  • parusnik
    parusnik 10 July 2021 10: 30
    +4
    It is necessary to write more often articles about such republics in order to think that there are countries where it is much worse than in Russia. Haiti, a vivid example of the state of the compradors brought the people. And the Dominican Republic is no better, a paradise for tourists, people in poverty It doesn't matter what color the skin is. But one thing is interesting, their bananas are still cheaper than our carrots.
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 10 July 2021 20: 19
      -1
      Lesh, hello. Do you not admit the idea that it was V.V himself who wrote on behalf of Valery?
      Suddenly, the writer's itch began. And writing will become a Kremlin tradition
  • hermit
    hermit 10 July 2021 10: 32
    +2
    Different destinies are Cuba and Haiti. Haiti and the Dominican Republic have very similar fates. And Cuba was not very different from them until Fidel drove out the state members.
  • Rostislav Ivanov
    Rostislav Ivanov 10 July 2021 12: 40
    +6
    the fact is that the Dominican Republic has always been ruled by whites, and Haiti by blacks.
    it would seem, where does the color of the skin? the coincidence is like this.
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 10 July 2021 20: 11
      0
      "what does the color of the skin have to do with it?"
      White will not use voodoo ritual
    2. Sergej1972
      Sergej1972 11 July 2021 23: 10
      0
      The Dominican Republic was ruled rather by the mulattoes.
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 10 July 2021 14: 34
    +1
    Quote: Aviator_
    But one of the readers was just in the Dominican Republic. Like a tourist.

    Dmitry, well, who else could he be there? My friend was in Cuba for work, when he was adjusting the avionics of the Il-96, the food was at the level of the Cuban flight crew, but not as luxurious as mine, a tourist in Varadeo in a five-star hotel.

    In a five-star hotel, the guests are ready to lick in order to have $ or €, and the Cuban flight personnel are workers, albeit pre-privileged
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 10 July 2021 14: 42
      +2
      Have you ever been? At least in "three stars", eh? Well, purely for the reasoning of the question? laughing
      1. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 10 July 2021 18: 06
        +1
        Imagine that you have lived in such a hotel for 3 days.
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 10 July 2021 18: 37
          +1
          So what? It happens. How many stars were there?
          1. Astra wild2
            Astra wild2 15 July 2021 10: 11
            +1
            5, but the TV did not work
  • pylon101
    pylon101 10 July 2021 16: 26
    0
    This is an excellent illustration of the question of the development of races, or lack thereof.
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 10 July 2021 17: 51
    +3
    Good evening, colleagues Valery. I read it with joy and a seal, what if tomorrow is a dummy?
  • RoTTor
    RoTTor 20 July 2021 09: 06
    0
    Ukrainian-Haitian kinship and brotherhood.

    Before our very eyes, Ukraine leaped ahead of Haiti to transform from the most developed and competent union republic of the USSR, which at the dawn of its "independence" had the best potential into a half-dead dying under-state, the poorest and most corrupt in Europe.
    She got into history forever, as a warning to any separatist self-styledists who do not want to live as part of Great Russia.