Military Review

Black day of the Kriegsmarine

52
Tannenberg drowns
The Tannenberg is sinking.


Finland declared war on the Soviet Union on June 1941, XNUMX, and the situation in the Gulf of Finland deteriorated sharply. The Finnish fleet immediately began mining the waters of the bay, expanding the minefields already laid by the Germans. Already on the same night, the German minelay "Brummer" accompanied by minesweepers and torpedo boats, he placed mines north of Moonsund and west of Osmussaar Island (Odensholm). At the same time, two boats, S-46 и S-106, entered the Soviet mines and sank.

In July, a mine war in the Gulf of Finland flared up with might and main, and the Finns used in it not only their surface forces, but also submarines "Saukko", "Vetekhinen", "Vesikhiisi" и "Iku-Turso"... But the failure of the aggressors ended in an attempt by German and Finnish torpedo boats to interrupt the supply routes of the cut off base on the Hanko Peninsula - Soviet aviation attacked and dispersed enemy ships, damaging two of them.

But the real black day of the German forces in the Baltic Sea was July 9, 1941.

On that day, the German fleet suffered heavy losses, although not in the course of hostilities, but in a sense as a result of them. After laying minefields "Wartburg", Apolda и "Corbeta" The German command came to the conclusion that part of the mine-sweeping forces could be transferred from the Baltic to the west, to the North Sea. The choice fell on the 2nd group of mines under the command of the already famous captain Schoenermark on the flagship Tannenberg... At the last moment minzag "Brummer" replaced with an auxiliary mine zag "Preussen" under the command of Captain Third Rank Wilhelm Schroeder. Together with the third ship was "Hansestadt Danzig" captain of the third rank Karl Ernst Barthel, they had to leave the Baltic Sea and, as it later turned out, left it forever, replenishing the lists of lost units kriegsmarine.

Taking on board the full load of mines, the group left Turku on the evening of 8 July. Fearing Soviet submarines, the German ships headed west, towards the island of Utö, and from there southwest, towards the northern tip of the island of Öland, that is, towards Swedish territorial waters.

On the afternoon of July 9, German ships entered the Kalmar Strait, which separates Oland from mainland Sweden, with the intention of following a direct course to Swinemunde. According to the flight plan, the group commander was to receive timely information about the presence of Soviet submarines in the waters of the central Baltic. It was this circumstance that forced the Germans to go to Germany in a roundabout way. For the same reason, German ships had to keep as close to the shores of Öland as possible, disregarding the sovereignty of Swedish territorial waters, despite repeated warnings from the Swedes.

In addition, their own minefield forced them to go in a roundabout way. "Wartburg"stretching in the southern Baltic from Memel to Öland. This barrier, almost perpendicular to the southern tip of Åland, left only a narrow passage at its western edge, and it was it that the Germans decided to use to reach the unmineralized waters of the southern Baltic.

But before implementing this plan, Captain Schoenermark's squadron had to walk along the coast of Sweden for about a day. The ships were sailing on a designated course under the escort of minesweepers 5th flotilla, which were supposed to escort the minesags to Swinemunde, and attached to them three units of the same type from the 2nd flotilla, whose task was to strengthen the escort on the most dangerous section of the route along Öland. The night passed without remarkable events - the weather was fine, and the sea was calm. In the area where Soviet submarines were expected, the ships were rebuilt from a wake column (one after the other) into a line (sides to each other). The closest thing to the coastline was Tannenbergfollowed by "Preussen" and the most extreme - "Hansestadt Danzig".

Drama "Tannenberg"


Towards evening, when the ships were already approaching the southern tip of the island, in front of Tannenberg, slightly abeam its port side, a Swedish minesweeper appeared, which was identified as "Sandeong"... At the sight of a Swedish ship Tannenberg turned to the left so that the minesweeper, when approaching the German ships, had to go perpendicular Tannenberg.

The Swedish ship threw out the flags of the international code of signals, which on Tannenberg misread as DQ - fire on board. The Germans decided to ignore the signal and continue on their own course. This led to a series of fatal consequences for them.

Due to a weakly visible signal, moreover, it was incorrectly read, in addition, transmitted by a slow flag signal instead of a more efficient traffic light (for which the Germans later made claims to the Swedes), and the subsequent misunderstanding and lack of reaction, the German squadron is about 4 miles west of the southern the tip of Åland entered a Swedish minefield.

The first, at 18:40, was blown up Tannenberg, and before his crew reacted and took measures to save the ship, he was still walking by inertia, bumping into subsequent mines. Schoenermark, fearing that the fire on board, caused by the explosions in the lower part of the hull, could spread to the engine room, did not dare to resume the course and called the minesweepers to help them take Tannenberg in tow. But the damage was already so severe that Tannenberg began to lurch strongly to starboard, and Schönermark made the only correct decision in such a situation: he ordered the crew to immediately jump into the water. The ship literally sank into the water in moments and sank.

But the misadventures of the German squadron did not end there.

The fate of "Preussen" and "Danzig"


Explosion at Preussen
Explosion on "Preussen".

While the drama was playing out in front of the German crews Tannenberg, the rest of the ships continued to go the same course, without turning, right after their perishing accomplice. The second was blown up by mines "Preussen"... On which the cars were also stopped.

The ship, engulfed in flames, began to drift, threatening to ram the third of the mine-loaders. To avoid a collision, Captain Schroeder decided to start the cars, but at the same time "Hansestadt Danzig" turned away and ran into a mine, which exploded directly under the midship. A violent explosion immediately knocked out both of its engines, further explosions followed in the engine room, and the fire began to burst onto the deck.

Fate "Preussen" и Danziga was already a foregone conclusion. Nothing could save these ships, and, in fact, ships, since they were designed and built as passenger liners, without an armored belt and watertight bulkheads, which are found on warships. The commanders of both mine blocks ordered their crews to evacuate.

So, within a few minutes, all the ships of the Schönermark group disappeared from the surface of the Baltic Sea. At the crash site, only groups of surviving sailors remained, in life jackets or on rafts, around which they scurried "Sandeong" and German minesweepers catching the wrecked.

The only thing the Germans were lucky in were hot, summer weather and relatively high water temperatures, as well as the presence of escort ships, which immediately undertook a rescue operation and reduced crew losses. Healthy and lightly wounded in minesweepers went to Swinemünde, where on July 10 they were received by a hospital ship Stuttgart, and seriously wounded people who needed urgent medical care, "Sandeong" took them to Kalmar, where he handed them over to the naval hospital. This probably saved the lives of some of them.

Hansestadt Danzig afloat
The Hansestadt Danzig (left, in military camouflage) is still afloat.

By preliminary agreement, information on the Swedish minefields, their exact coordinates and data on the Swedish patrols were transferred to the German naval attaché in Stockholm. He passed on all the information further, to the High Command of the Navy (Oberkommando der Marine, OKM), or rather, to its operational department or Naval War Command Headquarters (Seekriegsleitung).

The headquarters of the leadership of the naval war, in turn, passed the information further down the line - the closest naval commander in Swinemunde, in this case the commander of the cruisers (Befehlshaber der Kreuzer, BdK) to Vice Admiral Hubert Schmundt, to whom the commander of the destroyer forces (Führer der Minenschiffe, FdM) Captain XNUMXst Rank Arnold Bentlage. Bentlage was supposed to bring information about the Swedish minefields to the attention of the destroyer ships operating in the Baltic Sea.

However, such important information did not reach its destination, in particular, to the commanders of three minelayers lost on their return from Finland to Germany. In this regard, an investigation was appointed, which placed all the blame for the late delivery of information - on the use of mail instead of radio communication when sending them through OKM to BdK and further to FdM, possibly due to their extreme secrecy.

Investigation of the incident


It has never been possible to establish how the information was transmitted from Stockholm to Swinemunde, and from there to Finland, and when it happened. In any case, this happened after the squadron of Schönermark left Turku. True, at that time there was still an opportunity to radio the commander with an encrypted message, but in the German command in Finland it did not occur to anyone.

In addition, it is obvious that the overly bureaucratic apparatus of the Kriegsmarine and the duplication, and perhaps tripling of administrative functions: OKM, BdK, FdM, should be blamed for the disaster at Åland. Regardless of this, it seems that the exchange of information was not finalized at the diplomatic level in German-Swedish relations, for which the Germans later made claims to the Swedes.

The Swedes, in their defense, put forward the argument that since July 1, 1941, their radio has constantly broadcast warnings about minefields in Swedish waters. But it seems that no one listened to Swedish radio on German ships and ships, and as a result, only Swedish fishermen took all the warnings ...

Danzig bow gun
The Danzig bow cannon.

The Åland disaster remained classified. And throughout the war, and even for some time after it, no information about the catastrophe was published either in Germany or in Sweden.

They first learned about it in 1947-1948 after the publication of a collection of trophy documents "Conference of the Fuehrer on Maritime Affairs, 1939-1945" first in Great Britain and the USA, and then in West Germany (The Admiralty, 1947).

From these documents it became known that an investigation was initiated to find out the reasons and circumstances of the loss of the three minelayers. The trial of the culprit (or culprits) took place soon, and on July 25, Grand Admiral Erich Raeder reported to Hitler. True, the previous conference with the participation of Raeder and Hitler took place on the evening of July 9, but that was just at the time when the Tannenberg and two other ships.

At the next meeting with Hitler, Raeder informed him that the military tribunal somehow inexplicably acquitted the unnamed perpetrator of the loss of three minelayers on all charges. Raeder, however, added that as commander-in-chief of the German navy, he disagreed with the verdict and ordered a reconsideration of the case.

Nothing is known about the date and course of the new meeting of the military tribunal, except that, most likely, it took place sometime in early September. Since on September 17, Raeder reported to Hitler that the tribunal found guilty and roughly punished a certain captain of the first rank Brüning, and also opened a case against one of the officers of the headquarters of the commander of the cruisers. About what punishment Brüning and another, unnamed officer from the headquarters of the cruiser commander suffered and what were the conclusions of the investigators, materials "Conference of the Fuhrer on Maritime Affairs" are silent.

There is, however, indirect evidence that sheds little light on this incident.

At the time described, a captain of the first rank by the name of Erich Alfred Breuning actually served in the Headquarters of the Naval War. Since 1936, he has been a referent of Section I. If we are talking about him, the fact that he was first acquitted and then punished (without specifying how he was punished) suggests that the punishment was not particularly severe. Most likely, it was an official reprimand, maybe even without entering it into a personal file, since already at the same time, in September 1943, the aforementioned Breuning took command of the 3rd patrol battalion, and in June 1943 became the commander of the patrol area "West" (Sicherung West) with a simultaneous promotion to the rank of Rear Admiral.

In such circumstances, it can be assumed that the entire burden of responsibility for what happened off the island of Öland was placed on that "nameless" officer from the headquarters of the cruiser commander.

Unfortunately, in the archives of the documents of the commander of the cruisers of the initial period of the war against the USSR, there is no information about the officer convicted by the court-martial. kriegsmarine... It follows from this that either the archive is incomplete, or the investigation in question did not give any results, or no verdict was issued in this case. The fourth is not given.

One way or another, the fate of the German auxiliary minelayers who three weeks earlier participated in an insidious mining operation off the Soviet shores and on Soviet communications even before the start of the war can be summed up in the words of the biblical Solomon: "Don't dig a hole for another - you yourself will fall into it."

Продолжение следует ...

Sources and literature:
Fuehrer Conferences on Naval Affairs, 1939-1945. The Admiralty, 1947.
Author:
52 comments
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  1. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 11 July 2021 03: 42
    +3
    In addition, it is obvious that the overly bureaucratic apparatus of the Kriegsmarine, and the duplication, and perhaps tripling of administrative functions: OKM, BdK, FdM, should be blamed for the disaster at Åland.
    And neat Germans messed up, a trifle, but nice.
    1. Mar.Tirah
      Mar.Tirah 11 July 2021 06: 31
      +10
      Quote: Mavrikiy
      And neat Germans messed up, a trifle, but nice

      They did everything carefully. They shot, shelled our positions strictly on schedule, bombed towns and villages, burned people in crematoria. The transmission of information about minefields by the Swedes suggests that the Swedes were Germany's allies in the war against the USSR, and all these announcements about neutrality is just a screen.
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 11 July 2021 07: 04
        +9
        The first thought that came to my mind after reading - so they warm to the dogs.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 11 July 2021 15: 25
          +7
          Vlad, hello and best wishes! hi
          For the first time they learned about it in 1947-1948 after the publication of a collection of trophy documents "Conference of the Fuehrer on Maritime Affairs, 1939-1945", first in Great Britain and the USA, and then in West Germany (The Admiralty, 1947).

          Having learned about this, ours could have, for the sake of laughter, awarded the Swedish miners after the fact at least with the Orders of Friendship of Peoples, or medals for Military Merit. After all, three boxes of our enemy were sent to the ground in a short time. laughing
      2. Monster_Fat
        Monster_Fat 11 July 2021 07: 05
        +4
        In fairness, it must be said that as a result of thoughtless mining, the Soviet fleet not only sharply reduced its operational and tactical maneuvering, but also suffered colossal losses on these mines, especially in the Black Sea, which are still largely classified to this day. Shirokorad wrote about this in his book "Admiral Oktyabrsky against Mussolini".
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 11 July 2021 15: 30
          +4
          ... especially on the Black Sea ...

          You are right, I don’t know how it is now, but in the seventies and eighties fishermen periodically caught galvanic hammers with their nets. In Sevastopol, in the year 76-77, on the beach in Lyubimovka, a German bottom mine was washed out after a storm, sappers tore it right on the shore, the shore there was high, steep and the whole wave left in the sea. This is what I myself have seen and know, not hearsay.
  2. sir Galant
    sir Galant 11 July 2021 03: 52
    +8
    Thank you for the article. very interesting facts!
  3. Lech from Android.
    Lech from Android. 11 July 2021 05: 11
    +5
    The Finns recently signed a contract with Estonia for sea mines ... history repeats itself.
  4. Olgovich
    Olgovich 11 July 2021 07: 04
    +7
    But the real black day of the German forces in the Baltic Sea was July 9, 1941.

    The German fleet suffered heavy losses that day.


    It's wild to go in Swedish territorial waters and not even ... not listen to Swedish radio.

    The events that have taken place are exactly 80 years old.

    In a few days, in August, it will be 80 years old, a much darker day for the Soviet fleet - the Tallinn crossing, when many dozens of ships were also killed by mines and bombs.

    Just the other day, a Russian expedition found and examined by divers two transports VT-584 "Naissaar" and VT-501 "Balkhash", where the largest number of people died

    One of them - VT "Balkhash", which evacuated the entire Palldiski garrison and military families, was blown up abeam Cape Yuminda on August 29, 41 g and, almost instantly, sank. There were about 4 thousand people on board, who almost all died.

    According to the testimony of divers, the holds still cost thousands

    Why were they not found (and the route was well known) and were not buried humanly over these decades, confining themselves to a memorial plaque at Cape Yuminda -...
  5. SERGE ANT
    SERGE ANT 11 July 2021 07: 10
    +16
    And what they wanted - war. Better remain passenger "cruisers"
    Turbo ship "Tannenberg" during the call at the still Lithuanian port of Memel / Klaipeda. End of the 30s. Soon Germany will confront Lithuania with the fact that from now on Memel again belongs to the Reich.
    One of the "cruise ships" of the "Seedienst Ostpreussen" company - "Hansestadt Danzig" in the port of Memel / Klaipeda
    Already in war paint "Preußen" in Stettin, 1940
    or no verdict has been issued in this case.
    Those responsible for not reporting the mines to the command were punished for one year, but were released on parole until the end of the war. A common practice during the war years.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 11 July 2021 09: 11
      +6
      And what they wanted - war. Better remain passenger "cruisers"

      They are not "cruisers" - they are the ferries of the Seedienst Ostpreussen company, which carried out regular services between Pomerania and East Prussia.
      Turbo ship "Tannenberg"

      "Tannenberg" is not a turbo-drive, it is a "diesel-drive", since its power plant is not a turbine, but a diesel engine, though with a turbocharger.
      1. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 11 July 2021 09: 32
        +7
        Beautiful ships even nowadays. Especially the first ...
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 11 July 2021 13: 00
          +10
          Beautiful ships even nowadays. Especially the first ...

          The fourth vessel of the same project, but modernized, the turbo electric ship "Marienburg", was launched on October 14, 1939. Since in connection with the outbreak of the war, the shipyards carried out military orders, the ship was not completed. After the capture of the city of Stettin by the Soviet troops, the unfinished liner "Marienburg" became a war trophy. After the research of the vessel, it was decided to complete the construction of the liner at the shipyard "VEB Mathias-Thesen-Werft" in the city of Wismar. The turboelectric ship towed to a new location in October 1950 was named "Lensovet".
          On December 30, 1955, completed taking into account the latest achievements of science and technology in the field of passenger shipbuilding, the double-deck liner was handed over to the customer.
          For additional installation of radio navigation equipment, the vessel was sent to the port of Riga. After the final installation work, the liner was handed over to the Black Sea Shipping Company and was delivered to the port of registry - Odessa.
          In 1962, at the request of the leadership of the Abkhaz ASSR, the ship was renamed in honor of the heroic motor ship, which was sunk during the Second World War, and received the name "Abkhazia". Having served in good faith for about 40 years, the "Abkhazia" liner was decommissioned and sold for scrap in 1981 in one of the ports of Spain, Barcelona.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 11 July 2021 15: 00
            +5
            Good afternoon, Victor! hi
            I saw "Abkhazia" live in the Sochi port, but the real impression on the kid's soul was made by the ancient "Crimea", which stood at the wall with a fair heel to the starboard side.
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 11 July 2021 15: 46
              +3
              "Crimea" is not as ancient as the long-suffering one. After being blown up by a Soviet mine in 1941, he stood at the wall until 1945 as a hostel. Then it was renovated for eight years, until 1953.
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 11 July 2021 16: 23
                +3
                Yes, but in spite of its size (at that time for a city boy it was like "Titanic") still gave the impression that he was about to lie on the ground right next to the wall.
                And I happened to get on a cruise on "Svaneti", then it was the most "modern" liner for the entire shipping company. In my opinion, they built three of the same type.
                1. Undecim
                  Undecim 11 July 2021 16: 37
                  +4
                  You could not get on a cruise on the "Svaneti", it was sunk in 1942.
                  The only one of the three ships of this project that you could get on is the Baltika, the former Vyacheslav Molotov. It was no longer "Modern", as it was founded in 1936.
                  But it was the most comfortable one. The Dutch did their best.
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 11 July 2021 17: 11
                    +4
                    Very strange, I have not seen sclerosis before. I remember exactly the name "Svaneti", somewhere between 61 and 62 years. It looked like this:

                    But this is "Dostoevsky", the name "Svaneti" was not found, but there is such information:
                    The first real assistance to the Soviet Union was provided by Bulgaria, where in Varni at the plant named after V. G. Dimitrova (currently "Odessos") built a series of small passenger ships for 250 passengers. In 1960, the USSR received "Alushta" and "Alupka", in 1961 - "Ajigol", in 1962 - "Ay-Todor", in 1963 - "Guryev" and "Pitsunda", in 1964 - "Abrau-Durso" and "Artek", in 1965 - "Kara-Dag" and "Sarich", in 1967 - "Ayu-dag". The motor ships had a gross tonnage of 1002 gross tonnage, a net tonnage of 392 nrt, and a deadweight of 176 tons. Hull length - 63,1 m, width - 9,33 m, subsidence - 2,95 m. One eight-cylinder SKL diesel engine allowed a full speed of 13 knots. The comfort levels on such small craft were quite low and they were often referred to as "livestock carriers". Basically, they were used on the line: Ochakov - Skadovsk - Evpatoria - Sevastopol - Yalta - Feodosia - Kerch - Zhdanov - Rostov-on-Don. The motor ship "Guryev" was transferred to the Caspian Sea, and the motor ship "Artek" was transferred to the White Sea. The liner with the name of the pioneer camp was renamed "Warnemünde" in 1966, but eventually received the ominous name of the concentration camp - "Solovki" (since 1968). The rest of the liners of this type disappeared from the Black Sea spaces until the end of the 80s. Some of them were dismantled for scrap, one ship was handed over to the children's flotilla.

                    Kind of weird.
                    1. Undecim
                      Undecim 11 July 2021 21: 45
                      +6
                      You have no sclerosis - it was a passenger ship for 250 people of project 592. In total, nine airliners of project 190 were built at plant No. 592 (named after A. Zhdanov, Leningrad). During the war, they were supposed to be used as a fast military transport. Is that the appearance is a little forgotten over the years.
                      Among these nine, "Svaneti" was built for the ChMP in 1960. But in 1965 it was renamed "Tallinn" and transferred to the Baltic. "Therefore, such a ship is not found anywhere except in specialized literature under this name. In 2002 it was cut into metal.
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish 11 July 2021 21: 53
                        +5
                        Thank you, Vic, you reassured me, otherwise I really thought I was crazy. laughing
                        And then, trampled his deck, drank wine with a friend, then in empty bottles, plugged with corks, sent overboard all sorts of stupid notes like "Buried treasure at the fifth tree from the entrance to the outhouse of the Marine Station in Sochi." And then suddenly it turns out all this was a dream. wassat
                      2. Undecim
                        Undecim 11 July 2021 21: 54
                        +4
                        Yes, not at all, it was interesting for me to figure it out myself.
                      3. Catfish
                        Catfish 11 July 2021 21: 55
                        +4
                        And the box looked exactly like that and the pipe is at its back.
      2. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 11 July 2021 15: 40
        +4
        Yes, on this in the 70s it was not a shame to go to any foreign port with "Russo - tourists" on board.
        Now, alas, only oligarchs' yachts are built from beautiful ships ...
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 11 July 2021 16: 01
          +6
          Now, alas, only oligarchs' yachts are built from beautiful ships ...

          You're wrong.

    2. Phil77
      Phil77 12 July 2021 09: 50
      +1
      Beautiful! Especially Queen Mary!

      And now? Monstrous. As I see it.
      1. alsoclean
        alsoclean 12 July 2021 21: 04
        0
        Quote: Phil77
        Beautiful! Especially Queen Mary!

        And I like Normandy more
  6. alsoclean
    alsoclean 11 July 2021 23: 51
    +5
    Quote: Undecim
    They are not "cruisers" - they are the ferries of the Seedienst Ostpreussen company, which carried out regular services between Pomerania and East Prussia.

    In fact, Tannenberg was built for HAPAG. So in other conditions it could have become a transatlantic.
    Quote: Undecim
    "Tannenberg" is not a turbo-drive, it is a "diesel-drive", since its power plant is not a turbine, but a diesel engine, though with a turbocharger.

    In fact, it had 2 steam turbines from Schichau-Werke, I have not seen any information about the diesel engine anywhere. (If you have one - do not refuse the courtesy)
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 12 July 2021 00: 58
      +1
      Below is my comment on the matter.
  • Undecim
    Undecim 11 July 2021 12: 46
    +11
    My apologies colleague, Tannenberg is indeed a turbojet.
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 11 July 2021 13: 04
      +1
      Vic. Nick, Astra would say that she appreciates self-criticism, but I just +
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 11 July 2021 13: 06
        +8
        It's not about self-criticism. I was really wrong. Admitting a mistake is normal.
  • A. Privalov
    A. Privalov 11 July 2021 07: 56
    +4
    can be summed up in the words of the biblical Solomon: "Do not dig a hole for another - you yourself will fall into it."

    King Solomon has a slightly different meaning, but the meaning is the same:


    "Whoever digs a hole will fall into it, and whoever rolls up a stone will return to that one."


    In the next chapter of the Book of Proverbs, depicting the wicked and the righteous:

    "He who seduces the righteous into the path of evil will himself fall into his own pit, but the blameless will inherit good."


    In the Book of Ecclesiastes, in the chapter describing the properties and behavior of the wise and foolish, it is said:
    "Whoever digs a hole will fall into it, and whoever breaks down the fence will be stung by a serpent."


    This idea is confirmed by the words of David. Psalter:

    “Behold, the wicked one conceived a lie, was fraught with malice, and begot himself a lie; he dug a ditch, and dug it, and fell into the pit that he had prepared: his malice will turn on his head, and his wickedness will fall on his crown. "


    As for the detonation of ships on their own mines, there are many such cases. True, sailors do not like to advertise them. This is understandable. However, experts study each such event as thoroughly and seriously as possible.
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 11 July 2021 13: 02
      +3
      Kamrad Privalov, for the Holy Scripture +
      Do you teach the Holy Scriptures or at will?
      1. A. Privalov
        A. Privalov 11 July 2021 13: 14
        +3
        Quote: vladcub
        Kamrad Privalov, for the Holy Scripture +
        Do you teach the Holy Scriptures or at will?

        Tańah is taught in ordinary schools as an ordinary subject. I will not say that it is too deep, but in general, they give an idea. In the 11th grade, they take exams for a certificate of maturity in various subjects, incl. and according to the Tanakh.
        In religious schools, the study is more detailed.
        Everything else is a personal matter for every citizen.
        1. vladcub
          vladcub 11 July 2021 16: 00
          +1
          What is Tanakh, a difficult subject? For example, will I get 3 according to the Tanakh - is it essential for a career?
          1. A. Privalov
            A. Privalov 11 July 2021 19: 59
            +4
            Quote: vladcub
            What is Tanakh, a difficult subject? For example, will I get 3 according to the Tanakh - is it essential for a career?


            In Israel, all basic subjects are taught in schools, depending on the difficulty at which the student "swung". Simplified, it looks like this: mathematics can be studied with a level of 5 units. This means that by grade 11 you will be able to solve integral equations. If you undertake to study mathematics by 1 unit, for you it will end with a multiplication table.
            In other words, each student decides for himself what complexity of the subject he will choose for himself.
            By and large, the Tanakh is what Christians call the Old Testament. Even a little less. The subject to study in public non-religious schools is not very difficult. As I said, it is not taught at a high level in such schools. Maximum 1 or 2 units.
            Having passed the exams for a "full" certificate, a student can gain, say, 22 units.
            Having passed the psychotest upon admission to the University, you can gain, say, a maximum of 100 units. School and psychotest units are added.
            Let's say you have 14 units from school, and you have 61 psychotest, respectively, you have 75 units. With such a kit, you will be taken to a number of faculties and specialties, but you need at least 89 for medical, which means that you will not be a doctor. Here, something like that, primitive, but I think the meaning is clear.
            As for "career", then low units according to Tanakh will not hinder you in any way.
            1. vladcub
              vladcub 12 July 2021 07: 57
              0
              "what Christians call the Old Testament" I always thought you were Christians.
              You have a semblance of the exam, how long has it been?
              1. A. Privalov
                A. Privalov 12 July 2021 10: 11
                0
                Quote: vladcub

                You have a semblance of the exam, how long has it been?

                I don’t know exactly what the essence of the Unified State Exam is, but I’ve been here for more than thirty years, and I haven’t heard of any other system for passing exams. Maybe once, something was different.
  • svp67
    svp67 11 July 2021 09: 15
    +9
    More and more I am convinced that the fleets suffered no less from their own and "friendly" minefields than from the enemy
  • vladcub
    vladcub 11 July 2021 12: 58
    +5
    "assigned to that" nameless "officer" in short, they found a switchman to console the Fuhrer
  • Catfish
    Catfish 11 July 2021 15: 19
    +5
    Late in the evening, when the ships were already approaching the southern tip of the island, in front of the Tannenberg, somewhat abeam its port side, a Swedish minesweeper, which was identified as Sanden, appeared on its counter-course.

    This minesweeper.
  • Eug
    Eug 11 July 2021 16: 24
    +3
    But it is interesting - if our submarines would torpedo the German ships illegally sailing in Swedish territorial waters - to whom would the Swedes make claims?
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 11 July 2021 17: 04
      +3
      The war will write off everything!
      At least one case of boarding the crew of a submarine of a Norwegian motor launch was definitely. And after an unsuccessful torpedo attack. As a result, they laid down dynamic checkers and jerked the fishing trough.
    2. Paul Neumann
      11 July 2021 18: 10
      +3
      the British in Norwegian waters boarded a German ship with British prisoners of war. as a result, the Germans attacked Norway and, incidentally, Denmark.
      1. Pilat2009
        Pilat2009 12 July 2021 10: 03
        -2
        Quote: Paul Neumann
        the British in Norwegian waters boarded a German ship with British prisoners of war. as a result, the Germans attacked Norway and, incidentally, Denmark.

        Somehow you are all simple.
  • bandabas
    bandabas 11 July 2021 17: 16
    +3
    And where is "Black Day"? Well, the converted ships flew in. In the initial mess.
    1. Paul Neumann
      11 July 2021 18: 10
      +3
      nee article was called "don't dig another hole ..."
  • Doliva63
    Doliva63 11 July 2021 17: 22
    +1
    Quote: Sea Cat
    Vlad, hello and best wishes! hi
    For the first time they learned about it in 1947-1948 after the publication of a collection of trophy documents "Conference of the Fuehrer on Maritime Affairs, 1939-1945", first in Great Britain and the USA, and then in West Germany (The Admiralty, 1947).

    Having learned about this, ours could have, for the sake of laughter, awarded the Swedish miners after the fact at least with the Orders of Friendship of Peoples, or medals for Military Merit. After all, three boxes of our enemy were sent to the ground in a short time. laughing

    ZBZ medal - for a laugh? Cool, yeah.
  • vladcub
    vladcub 11 July 2021 17: 59
    +1
    "the data on the Swedish patrols were transferred to the German naval attache" in this case, and the Soviet naval attache "should be given.
  • Mike_E
    Mike_E 11 July 2021 21: 57
    0
    Something strange - an article from this author about the Baltic and without propaganda eyewash?
  • Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 12 July 2021 09: 53
    +3
    information on Swedish minefields, their exact coordinates and data on Swedish patrols were transferred to the German naval attaché in Stockholm.

    An important clarification - these barriers were beaten by the Swedes at the request of the Germans themselves, as part of their very stupid strategy to wage a mine war in the only sea in the world where they had a significant superiority.
  • Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 14 July 2021 17: 33
    +2
    Quote: Monster_Fat
    In fairness, it must be said that as a result of thoughtless mining, the Soviet fleet not only sharply reduced its operational and tactical maneuvering, but also suffered colossal losses on these mines, especially in the Black Sea, which are still largely classified to this day.

    In fairness, it must be said that in the Baltic Sea, the Soviet fleet beat weaker than the German one, and therefore it deliberately mined, and the German one thoughtlessly. No losses in WWII have long been classified.
    The German fleet suffered more losses on its mines than the Soviet one. Only in December 1944, the Germans lost two of their newest destroyers on their mines in the Baltic.