The Tudor Age: On War and Armor

101
The Tudor Age: On War and Armor
And here is the complete (and very simple in design!) Armor by the master Anton Peffenhauser (1525–1603). As you can see, there were those at that time who preferred the usual functional protection to rich decor ... The Wallace Collection, London

Military story countries and peoples. Mercenarism and adventurism were popular at all times, and in the Tudor era they were also revered for valor. Thus, in 1572, 300 volunteers departed overseas to the Netherlands, and were soon followed by Sir Humphrey Gilbert with 1200 new volunteers to prevent the Spanish occupation of that country.

There were other undertakings of this kind, beginning in 1585, when the Count of Dester was sent to the Netherlands to help the Dutch against the Spaniards. In 1589, Peregrine Bertie, Lord Willoughby d'Eresby, who had previously demonstrated his military talents in the Netherlands, went to support Henri of Navarre (future King Henry IV) in his claim to the French throne. Towards the end of September, when help was no longer required, the expedition should have been canceled, but Willoughby, hoping to gain glory in the victorious expedition, did not respond to a message from Sir Edward Stafford and ordered the sail to be set. Once in France, the British troops joined forces with Henry IV and on October 11 they set out on a campaign.




"Resting Peregrine Bertie, Lord Willoughby d'Eresby, in Greenwich armor." Portrait from the gallery of Grimstorp Castle, Lincolnshire

In 40 days, they walked 227 miles with full gear along muddy roads, almost without rest, and besides, they were in constant danger of losing their lives because of the French peasants who attacked them from ambushes, who did not at all like what foreign soldiers were taking away they have food. Anri submitted the suburbs of Paris, but the king did not storm the city itself, fearing that he would lose the support of his population. Of the 20 cities he approached, only four decided to resist. Vendome fell when artillery batteries punched holes in the walls. Le Mans could not stand the gunfire. Willoughby, meanwhile, ordered pontoon bridges to be made from barrels tied to assault ladders, in order to ferry soldiers to the other side of the river.

Near Alencon, Lord Willoughby and his marshal even erected a special mechanism to lower the raised drawbridge. And they managed to take the fort, but the enemy had destroyed this mechanism the night before. But the king's royal troops were eventually thrown back from the walls, and the garrison surrendered anyway.

The last of the strongholds, Falaise, was fired at from cannons until two holes were made in the walls. British soldiers rushed through them into the city and opened the gates. The French resisted desperately. For example, one musketeer continued to shoot until the fire of five cannons at once brought down the tower, where he was, into the ditch that surrounded the fortifications. At the same time, he himself survived, but was taken prisoner. A rare example of courage and luck!


The aristocracy of the late 1th century: 1580. Duke Heinrich of Guise, general of the infantry. 2 1576. François de Montmorency, Marshal of France, 3 On the bib, you can see a rib in the center, more pronounced downward in imitation of the silhouette of civilian clothes. In France it was called "pea pod", and in Germany Gansbauch ("goose bosom"). 1580. General of the Army, 1540 The word "general" first appeared only in Brantom (1614-1576). The collar of the "millstone", which has been worn since 4, under Henry III reached an impressive size, like that of this general, and was not too courtly called "the tray of St. John ”, as an allusion to his martyrdom - beheading. 1572. Officer of the infantry and his page, 5 1580. Officer of the infantry, 6 1590. Officer of the infantry, 7 1560. Banner of Charles IX (1574-8). 1574. Banner of Henry III (1589-9). 1589. Banner of Henry IV (1610-XNUMX)

In general, Henry's successes were only to a small extent the result of the help of the British, and Sir Willoughby lost many people not so much in battles as from illness and actions of hostile peasants. The only major battle fought by Elizabeth's troops on the continent was at Newport in Holland, and took place on July 2, 1600 during the Eighty Years War and the Anglo-Spanish War in the dunes near Newport. In it, the Anglo-Dutch companies met the Spanish veterans head-on and, although their left flank was practically defeated, they were able to attack the enemy with both infantry and cavalry forces.


The armor was getting lighter all the time. At the same time, they lost first plate shoes, then greaves, then tassettes (legguards), which had previously covered "plump" trousers up to the knees, were sharply reduced in size. An example of such changes is armor from Northern Italy, 1580, made of hot forged mild steel. Total weight: 12,86 kg. The helmet is an open Spanish cabasset. Wallace Collection, London

The Dutch musketeers fired heavy fire on the Spaniards, while the British attacked the Spanish thirds. The outcome of the battle was associated with an attack by the cavalry of the Prince of Nassau, after which the Spanish musketeers fled, and the ranks of the pikemen were broken. The Dutch cavalry began to pursue and push back the retreating Spaniards. But then the Spanish horsemen threw the Dutch back, however, turned away, barely seeing the British cavalry.

In July 1600, a larger battle was fought in the dunes by the sea nine miles from Ostend. The British held their defenses at two heights, hoping to wear down the Spaniards. And they succeeded. The Spaniards, tired of the battle, could not withstand the onslaught of the enemy, broke the formation and fled.

At the same time, three large sea expeditions took place. In 1589, Sir Francis Drake and Sir John Norris departed for Portugal in order to anger the Spaniards and, probably with an eye to seize the country for the pretender to the throne, Don Antonio.


Thirty years later, infantry armor has remained largely unchanged. Before you infantry armor, again, from Northern Italy, like the previous one - the so-called "half-armor", made around 30 Weight 1610 kg. And this is an infantry, not a rider's armor. The cuirass is much thinner and lighter, there are no holes for the spear rest, and the shoulder pads are symmetrical. In general, the quality is much lower than other armors, with shallow coarse etching and no embossed parts. Wallace Collection, London

In 1596 the Earl of Essex and Lord Howard (Lord Admiral in the days of the glorious victory over the Armada) landed at Cadiz. The operation opened up excellent opportunities to profit from the booty, and not only for noble gentlemen (Essex and Howard were just plotting the enterprise in order to get rich), but also for ordinary soldiers. To do this, 2000 people were recalled from the Netherlands from the veterans who had long needed rest and with their help the backbone of experienced professionals - the core of the expeditionary corps, designed to operate against Spain itself. In one day they captured both the city and its fortress.


Black and white armor of the mid-1th century: 1540. Cavalry armor, 2 1580. Medium quality armor, 3 1560. Low quality armor, 4 1580. Cavalry armor with a closed bourguignot helmet, 5 Long and more and more the legguards adjacent to the lower abdomen are already talking about the approach of new forms of armor, while the shoulder combs and the convex bib are made in old traditions. 6. Armor of light cavalry with a hook for fixing a spear. 1540. Reitar, 12 A pistol with a wheel lock was first introduced into use by this particular light cavalry, and in order to shoot from it, plate mittens with movable fingers were again needed. The custom of covering most of the surface of the armor with a thick layer of black paint made it possible to reduce its cost by avoiding polishing and because the paint hid small defects in the metal. This also greatly facilitated the maintenance of the armor. High quality armor, by contrast, was inked at high temperatures. Reitars, nicknamed "Black Caftans", "Black Armor", "Black Devils" or "Grimy", were fans of black armor. All samples presented here weigh approximately 2002 kg including bourguignot. It is worth noting, however, that this type of armor, with or without a lance hook, was very common among light cavalry as well as infantry. Illustration from the book by Liliana and Fred Funkenov “Encyclopedia of weapons and military clothing. Middle Ages. Renaissance: Infantry. Cavalry. Artillery. M .: Astrel, 33, p. XNUMX

In Ireland, the British had to wage a completely different war and acquire a very different experience than on the territory of mainland Europe. The British troops stationed on the island already in the early years of Elizabeth's reign found themselves in the face of an uprising, led by Sean O'Neill (in 1567). They also had to deal with the Desmond rebellion (1579-1583). At first, the Irish warriors had mostly weapons melee, as well as bows and darts.


Such "black armor with white stripes" was very fashionable, and they are in many museums, and in the arsenal of the city of Graz there are ... well, just a lot. But there are interesting examples in the Wallace Collection. For example, this armor: "black and white armor" from Nuremberg, Germany. Around 1570. Materials and technologies: iron or steel, copper alloy, leather, chasing and painting. Weight: 8,55 kg. Along with straight stripes and polished white stripes, some black and white armors also feature a figured ornament that was often embossed into the surface rather than sunk into it. The black and white armor worn by warriors of all ranks varies considerably in quality, level, and type of decoration. Very ornate specimens typical of the gunsmiths of Innsbruck, they can be embossed with dense foliage, polished to a shine, grotesque masks on the shoulders, with details such as eyes and mouth highlighted in red. The overall visual impression may resemble silver embroidery on black silk or velvet. The striking feature of this armor is that it is, without a doubt, the lowest quality of the three black and white armors in the Wallace Collection, and yet it has the most striking decorative finishes. The work is very rough, for example the edges of the stripes are uneven. At the same time, the decorations remain very impressive and conspicuous, especially when viewed from a distance. From a distance of several meters, the roughness of the work is not obvious, while the brightness of the decor is certainly visible to everyone! Wallace Collection, London


English soldiers of the late XNUMXth - early XNUMXth centuries. Artist Richard Hook

Later, Hugh O'Neill was able to create an army with detachments of Musketeers and Arquebusiers, which included many people trained in Spain. The Irish were adept at using both lances and rifles in swampy and wooded areas. And in 1594, when the Nine Years War broke out, this tactic fully justified itself. The British were defeated in several battles, and in 1598 O'Neill ambushed the British formation on the march off Yellow Ford, where his soldiers performed well both in close combat and using firearms. But, of course, they could not oppose Britain. And in the end, O'Neill surrendered to the British two years later.
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  1. +11
    July 15 2021
    Gorgeous Vyacheslav Olegovich!
    The turn between the 16th and 17th centuries showed the world a series of revolutions in military affairs: cannons become cannons, muskets - muskets, etc. Tactics are improving, manuals and regulations appear! A great time when you can still find a knight and a fuseler, an archer and a gunner in the same ranks !!! Karokol was adjacent to the Swiss battles, and ships from marmot corracks, neo and galleons turned into slender frigates, brigs and brigantines !!!
    Thank you!
    1. Thank God there is something to read.
      Thanks to Vyacheslav Olegovich.
      I can imagine with what contempt the knights would look at the current Kevlar armor (body armor and helmet) laughing
      1. +6
        July 15 2021
        I join! After news articles and battles of members of the forum, here is a breath of fresh air! Olegovich hi
    2. +12
      July 15 2021
      marmot korrak

      It's even scary to imagine such a ship - a surkuza korraka (friendly joke !!!)
      Maybe a karakka, which in Portuguese is nao? So she is not at all surkuzaya, quite a worthy ship of up to 1600 tons with a displacement.

      Mary Rose - three-deck, four-masted karakka, flagship of Henry VIII Tudor
      1. +12
        July 15 2021
        The first time I hear the word "surkuzy". Kurguzy? Syracuse?
        A word worthy of L. Carroll.
        1. +11
          July 15 2021
          The first time I hear the word "surkuzy". Kurguzy? Syracuse?

          ... no matter how many ships the Corsair took to board, but I never saw a karraku surkus ... what Sergey, a friendly joke! drinks "There lived a gloomy pirate in the wilds of the Amazon ..." (O. Bender) wink
          1. +5
            July 15 2021
            So I think.
            Either "The Tsar is not real!"
            Either a local Uralian word, or a joke of a printing device.

            All morning I think like from a joke about the professor's beard.
      2. +15
        July 15 2021
        Mary Rose - three-deck, four-masted karakka, flagship of Henry VIII Tudor

        Unhappy crew, few were saved.
        For fun, you can take a look:
        https://nat-geo.ru/science/history/arkheologiya-v-3d-chto-nashli-na-zatonuvshem-korable/


        Viktor Nikolaevich, I think most of the "trunks" carried by the carraca were falconets?

        Yes, I completely forgot ... I sincerely congratulate you and Sergey-Fila77 on your birthday! I wish you and your families health and happiness! drinks
        1. +12
          July 15 2021
          I sincerely congratulate you and Sergey-Phil77 on your birthday! I wish you and your families health and happiness!

          Let me also join in the congratulations! hi
        2. +4
          July 15 2021
          Hi, Nikolay! hi
          Now it looks like this, in a museum in Portsmouth.



          1. +1
            July 16 2021
            Now it looks like this, in a museum in Portsmouth.

            Hello Uncle Kostya! Look at the last photo - some kind of a hodgepodge of guns of different times and devices. The nearest one is an old breech-loading one, I believe. But for some reason I doubt that the muzzle-loading gun nearby refers to 1545, when the ship sank.
            1. +1
              July 16 2021
              I was also somewhat surprised, but in this museum (according to the owners) there are only items raised from Mary Rose, and I don’t know there, I wasn’t there, otherwise I would have asked the caretakers this question.
      3. +12
        July 15 2021
        Happy Birthday!
        1. +14
          July 15 2021
          I also brought you a present, Undecim and Phil77 (Sergey)! Here it is. This is a Very Useful Pot. Do you know what is written on it? "Happy birthday, I wish you all, all the best. Your SERGE ant." That's how much is written! And you can also put whatever you want in it. Hold on.
          1. +4
            July 15 2021
            Did you remind the cartoon: "Eeyore's donkey's birthday"
      4. +4
        July 15 2021
        Victor Nikolaevich, happy birthday. Health to you and your loved ones.
        You are the decoration of the site: a lot of useful information. Authors sometimes "tickle" when they are brought in
      5. +6
        July 15 2021
        Viktor Nikolaevich, let me also bring my congratulations on the DR!
        I am briefly so, because? I am timid before your absolute and borderless knowledge.
        All the best to you!
    3. +11
      July 15 2021
      There are theories about the great gunshot revolution. This line just fits in.
    4. +10
      July 15 2021
      A great time when you can still find a knight and a fuseler, an archer and a gunner in the same ranks !!!


      That is, you want to say that the time began when the number of armor on a warrior gradually decreased, and the amount of cloth clothing on him increased?
      I was always interested in the moment when the armor suddenly disappeared and a solid cloth appeared wassat )))
    5. +6
      July 15 2021
      Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
      A great time when you can still find a knight and a fuseler, an archer and a gunner in the same ranks!

      And here I am, a sinful deed, just the XVI-XVII centuries. I do not like. They don't like it, and that's it, even if you crack it. The medieval romance is leaving, being replaced by the pragmatism and cynicism of the New Age. The era of capitalism is coming. Everything is sold and everything is bought. In the Middle Ages, there were still systematic meetings of people whose honor could not be bought with any money, but it was in modern times that such money appeared, and at once, many began to sell any honor ... Meanness and betrayal were elevated to dignity (Machiavelli), murder becomes normal a political instrument, and mass killings and massacres are considered a manifestation of state will, and not pathological cruelty. Daggers, poisons, incest and debauchery, the degradation of the nobility, where children with congenital mental disabilities were increasingly born, the readiness of any person to humiliate and humiliate, witch hunt, bonfires with human flesh ... And all this against the background of total savagery and total ignorance , not yet softened by any Enlightenment ...
      No, I don't like this time. Although, of course, this is a matter of taste and other people see their romance in it ... smile
      1. +4
        July 15 2021
        Quote: Trilobite Master
        The medieval romance is leaving, being replaced by the pragmatism and cynicism of the New Age. The era of capitalism is coming.

        If the words “new time” are changed for the newest history, remembering the creation of H. Maksim, all that remains is to sadly hang up his hands - “time has not worsened” !!!
        1. +3
          July 15 2021
          And yet, probably, it is the Renaissance that is the real "dark ages of European history", with its obscurantism, epidemics, total ignorance and sophisticated cruelty ... But it was necessary to endure this too.
          request
          1. +4
            July 15 2021
            Quote: Trilobite Master
            And yet, probably, it is the Renaissance that is the real "dark ages of European history", with its obscurantism, epidemics, total ignorance and sophisticated cruelty ... But it was necessary to endure this too.
            request

            I'm afraid Mikhail, there was no romance and will not be! Just about the Renaissance there are enough documents and artifacts that paint a more or less reliable picture of history.
            You can't say that about the early centuries!
  2. +10
    July 15 2021
    The armor was getting lighter all the time.
    And this is correct, because pinzhak is the main ailment. There is no sickness and no man. And the vest? It's also a tricky thing.
    The custom of covering most of the surface of the armor with a thick layer of black paint reduced its cost.
    Yes. But ... no. Wrong color and already lost. No sympathy. Well, not that parade on the face.
    then the tassettes (legguards), which used to cover the "chubby" trousers up to the knees, were sharply reduced in size.
    But this is in vain, this is in vain. Brooks should stand like a pipe. Put it differently - the physiognomy is gone.
    1. +13
      July 15 2021
      "- Rabinovich, God created the world in six days, and you have been sewing a suit for a month now!
      - Oh wei! Look at this world and take a look at this costume! "
      1. +13
        July 15 2021
        I will buy a car with a tape recorder, sew a suit with ebb, and go to Yalta.
        The main thing is that the suit is sitting
        At ease, easy and imposing.
        Everything else, believe me, is unimportant.
        There is no and never will be more serious business.
  3. +7
    July 15 2021
    Q. Oh, I'm already tired of the ceremonial armor. More interesting is the armor that has been in the "case" and, incidentally, about its owner
  4. +10
    July 15 2021
    Materials and technologies: iron or steel

    The material of medieval armor was only steel. Simply, in the terminology of that time, low-carbon steel was called iron.
  5. +11
    July 15 2021
    Portrait of Perigrine Bertie, Lord Willoughby d'Eresby - sheer charm! A kind of gracefully drawn leg in iron vestments.
    The pictorial style is prima alla, and the presentation of the hero is such as if the romantic portrait belongs to Bosch's brush - well, not the very followers, the school: pay attention to the armor worn not on the lord himself, but on those that soar in the distance against the background of nature, almost imperceptible to the inattentive viewer - surrealism of that time, which has not yet been replaced by classicism and still reflects alchemy, astrology, black magic in conjunction with various religious heresies in the mind of the creator of the portrait.
    1. +7
      July 15 2021
      And I sincerely feel sorry for him, if, of course, he personally conducted a drawing session in this position in these iron trousers and a pinjack. After all, they did not take pictures of him on the phone - they wrote in oil, and this, at least, a week or two, several hours a day.
      1. +7
        July 15 2021
        Well, this is unlikely)))
        For a long hour or two, several sessions could pose "face for a portrait", and the rest - a quick sketch of the location of the clothes on the body. Then the artist was provided with clothes, weapons, jewelry, furniture. The artist studied the texture of the material, and this was enough for him to professionally impose shadows on the picture in the absence of the portrait customer. That is, the picture is not a slowly and consistently created photograph with a fixed nature located in a certain way. A glance at the armor is enough, and the artist already knows how the shadows will lie on them when the armor is on a person under certain lighting.
  6. +3
    July 15 2021
    Good day. I missed you Unfortunately, there are times when you don’t remember yourself and I was in such a situation
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, how was the fate of that brave musketeer: "a rare example of courage and luck"
    1. +5
      July 15 2021
      I think they didn’t have a full official one. After all, the fortress has fallen, he is alive - that means he is guilty, does not the Duke de Guise have to answer?
      I'm exaggerating a little, but ... The same Marinesko A.I. was demoted, and the Hero was given strongly afterwards, already under different kings and admirals.
      1. +5
        July 15 2021
        Actually, it's not really mine about this, but I'll say that I heard from my grandmother.
        Marinesco treated discipline superficially: drinking, gambling. In Finland, he voluntarily left for a woman. He was to be tried, but he unauthorizedly went to sea and torpedoed: "Wilhelm Gustlav".
        After the war he drank and therefore died early.
        Where did grandmother know that?
        1. +5
          July 15 2021
          I read books! laughing
          1. +2
            July 15 2021
            There were no books about this in the 70s.
            1. +4
              July 15 2021
              What year was your grandmother born?
              1. 0
                July 15 2021
                1928 year of birth
              2. 0
                July 15 2021
                Born in 1921 .. Worked in the Railway District Committee
                1. +1
                  July 15 2021
                  I first heard about Marinesco from my father when I was in school. Naturally, I did not remember the last name, but the fact that he led an immoral lifestyle and sank a German large ship and for this he was assigned a Hero, I remember. It was 1968 -1969. Perhaps they (the officers) were given some kind of lecture or something like that. Perhaps your relative also attended a similar event.
        2. +3
          July 15 2021
          Another would be three or four boats "unauthorizedly went to sea" and would have sunk 15 thousand elite Aryans ... Doenitz's fleet would have been left without personnel, even if he had completed them with a Volkssturm.
          But ... then an unpleasant question would arise: the role of our admirals and the VKPb ...
          After all, it was not us who said: winners are not judged!
          And we began to judge, and in this particular case, and in a wider format.
          And this very later became very sad in the mood of the people, injustice cannot be covered with mantras ...
  7. +5
    July 15 2021
    because of the ambushed French peasants who did not like the fact that foreign soldiers rob them of their food.

    It’s not clear why they didn’t like it? pathetic, insignificant people ... wassat
    1. +5
      July 15 2021
      Oh, those peyzans! They are all wrong! They will arrange Jacquerie, then Vendee ...
      1. +5
        July 15 2021
        Quote: 3x3zsave
        Oh, those peyzans! They are all wrong! They will arrange Jacquerie, then Vendee ...

        And such a people had to be ruled ... not the same people ... wassat
      2. +5
        July 15 2021
        Either it’s our riots - now Salt, then Copper. Few of Razin and Bolotnikov - Pugachev will come.
        1. +5
          July 15 2021
          This is all from the fact that in the Russian language, besides the concept of "freedom", there is also "will". Sirech: "Take a walk, flaw! We live alone! Saryn to the kitschka!"
          1. +5
            July 15 2021
            “Impostors, thieves and uncut.
            Nightingale whistle to prison "(c).
            1. +4
              July 15 2021
              "Old Man is an ax,
              Yes, my mother is a whip "(C)
              1. +4
                July 15 2021
                "With our chieftain
                You don't have to grieve ”(c).
                1. +6
                  July 15 2021
                  "A murmur is heard behind them:
                  "He traded us for a woman!" laughing
                  1. +5
                    July 15 2021
                    Kazbich was not.
                    1. +6
                      July 15 2021
                      Kazbich was not.

                      When Anton starts scolding me, I answer him in Karlson's way: "Kid ... I'm better than a dog!" crying drinks
                      1. +5
                        July 15 2021
                        So what? Does it stop? For a long time?
                        I do not believe!
  8. +3
    July 15 2021
    Phil, Sergei, my "nag" happy birthday!
    Virtually, I kiss you.
    R.
    S.
    Especially for your wife, I NEVER look at "someone else's". I am not a "nun", but I am not a housewife either.
    1. +6
      July 15 2021
      Thank you! Chukchi is not a nitpick, Chukchi critic!
  9. +7
    July 15 2021
    The second picture shows the aristocracy of the late 16th century, where number 1 is the Duke Heinrich de Guise. In the picture, he looks like a stately, courageous handsome man - was it not under the impression of Dumas' novel "Queen Margot" that his popular image was created? Indeed, in the novel, the relationship between Marguerite of Valois and Heinrich Guise is one of the main plot lines, from which it follows that Marguerite was passionately in love with the duke. Comparing the portraits of two Henrikhs - Giza and the King of Navarre, whom Margaret was to marry, it can be assumed that against the background of the ugly Navarre with a face like a dumpling, Giz is a handsome man.
    In fact, in numerous portraits, Heinrich Giese, according to our concepts, looks quite average to himself, although he was two meters tall, had mighty shoulders, but once again we have to make sure that humanity as a whole has become much more beautiful than it was before.
    The main thing that is remarkable about the appearance of Heinrich of Giese is the scar on his face, received as a result of being hit by a Huguenot spear, for which he was given the nickname Marked, and the strange, contradictory participation in the cruel and bloody religious showdown between Catholics and Huguenots. This scion of a noble French family, the son of François of Lorraine, killed in battles with Protestants, was one of the most ardent enemies of the Protestant faith, in fact, the leader of the Catholic party. He was the inspirer and participant in the St. Bartholomew's Night, but the strangeness of his personal behavior in this dirty business was manifested in the fact that he behaved like a cunning, far-sighted cynic who really did not care deeply about the varieties of one religion.
    On the one hand, he attributed the murder of the admiral, a prominent statesman, a bright leader of the Huguenots Gaspard Coligny to himself, but immediately put forward an excuse, they say, revenge for his father. On the other hand, for some reason he helped save two dozen of the Gentiles, including hiding his Protestant grandmother from death. It is clear that the person who inspired the Catholics for the night of long knives made these cunning moves in order to justify themselves on occasion - you never know how things will turn out! Such cynicism of de Guise caused disapproval from all of his contemporaries.
    Henry the Marked was treacherously killed with a knife from the royal guardsman - the crowd there were contenders for the throne with the king alive, competition!
    1. +6
      July 15 2021
      Can you tell us more about the beauty of humanity?

      When is beauty blooming? In the 21st century?
      I really like to look at photographs from a century ago or so.

      People with dignity. Like the House from The Forsyte Saga.
      1. +4
        July 15 2021
        Sergey, but I'm not talking about that at all!)))
        When you look at medieval portraits, dozens, hundreds of portraits of the European aristocracy, against the background of modern standards of beauty, you get the feeling of a cabinet of curiosities.
        Countless diseases that are now being treated at a time can kill any natural beauty overnight. Suffice it to say that the knights of that time, by the age of 30, if they survived, did not have 10 teeth in their mouths - there was no paste! )))
        A toothless mouth will ruin any beauty.
        1. +4
          July 15 2021
          But compare the 15-year-old knight and today's teenager of the same age.

          These are different age categories.
          1. +5
            July 15 2021
            Yes, they could get married at the age of 12! As for today's gypsies - so that they do not stand idle, they feel responsibility. Only if the gypsy now lives for a long time, then those centuries were short - sometimes dysentery, then smallpox, then the plague, and cholera - and generally according to the schedule. It was necessary to have time to leave offspring. So the faces were distorted by excessive early responsibility and the need to participate in a massacre called war.
            Do you know where and when Heinrich Giese earned a wound on his face, pulled together into a scar? In the battle - the one where his father died when Heinrich was 13 years old and he participated in the battle on an equal basis with adults. Yes, he was already considered an adult.
            1. +3
              July 15 2021
              At the suggestion of my son, I read Game of Thrones.
              So far, the strongest impression is Robb Stark. With all the cons.
        2. +5
          July 15 2021
          Another "black myth" about the Middle Ages.
          1. +5
            July 15 2021
            Anton, tell the "white" myth wassat )))
            Of course, I exaggerated somewhat. But still.
            Now the epidemics I listed are almost impossible, the diseases are different. For example, it just became known that the President of Brazil was hospitalized due to an unstoppable 10-day hiccups.
            How do you like that, huh?
            1. +3
              July 15 2021
              For example, it just became known that the President of Brazil was hospitalized due to an unstoppable 10-day hiccups.
              1. Apparently, the presidential motorcade spent 10 days in a traffic jam in Sao Paulo. And everyone in the traffic jam certainly remembered the authorities with a "kind" word. So he hiccupped.
              2. All "Arturian" - one continuous "white" myth about the Middle Ages.
              3. Lyudmila Yakovlevna, why do you think that I am prone to mystification and folkhistoricism ???
              1. +4
                July 15 2021
                On the first point - wassat good )))
                On the second, my awareness was off to somewhere, I was looking, but so far I can not find it, but I will find it, I will definitely show it.
                On the third - Anton, do not be a nit-pick and send me to hell more often! wassat
                1. The comment was deleted.
                  1. +3
                    July 15 2021
                    Well, that's what they sent! wassat )))
                    See how well you do it.
                    1. +2
                      July 15 2021
                      Didn't the link open? tongue
                      1. +3
                        July 15 2021
                        How did it not open? Opened! About King Arthur)))
                        Where they sent, there she went!
                        And then she went even further to clarify at what age the child undergoes the rite of confirmation, becoming after him a full-fledged citizen. After all, confirmation is a rite of civil maturity. It turned out in different conditions and depending on the historical era - at the age of 7 to 13 years. Recently I happened to read that some medieval king was married and he was 5 years old, a dynastic marriage. And some kind of princess was also given in marriage, and all this is being specified. And nobody was surprised. And this happened in the countryside in those days.
                      2. +1
                        July 15 2021
                        Oh my God! If there is a person who can make me write about the Middle Ages, then it is you, Lyudmila Yakovlevna!
                      3. +2
                        July 15 2021
                        Anton, come on, don't write! )))
                        In my opinion, the Middle Ages are Phobos and Deimos, merged into one vessel, and this cocktail is drunk by everyone. It is darkness, against the background of which the bent backs of the peasants, above these whitened backs, galloping horsemen, overwhelmed by an agonizing thirst for power. And only to a small extent are the creators of science in dark clothes, warlocks and heretics, as well as masters of the brush and chisel. And all this is seen through the tongues of furious flame, scattering sparks on smoldering firebrands ... Do not write! There is a lot of suffering, inconvenience and early death.
                        Not that I do not like that era, I am afraid of its uncomfortable repetition, because not one of those who will be made a bed in the evening, but in the morning around the torso to tighten the lacing of the servant.
                      4. +1
                        July 15 2021
                        Paragraph!!! Lyudmila Yakovlevna, you are provoking me! The "abigal" of the brain must be treated!
                        You won't take my word for it that the Middle Ages, especially later, was perhaps the most comfortable era for a woman's existence?
                      5. +3
                        July 15 2021
                        It depends on what woman, Anton! wassat )))
                      6. +1
                        July 15 2021
                        Anyone, Lyudmila Yakovlevna! Of course, there is a social abyss between Alienora of Aquitaine and a peasant woman from Ile-de-France, but any of them could both disappear into obscurity and become a "self-made woman". There were precedents.
                      7. +2
                        July 15 2021
                        Oh my God!..
                        The thing that worries me the least is fame. Living conditions, Anton, just that.
                      8. +1
                        July 15 2021
                        Ah, this hackneyed truth: "Princesses don't poop"?
                      9. +2
                        July 15 2021
                        Unfortunately, the opposite is true. But the conditions in which this happened then are strikingly different from the comfort available to many now. And for some reason it seems to me that you do not hear me. You are immersed in yourself.
                      10. +2
                        July 15 2021
                        I actually served an urgent service, and I can compare the conditions.
                  2. +2
                    July 15 2021
                    Good evening!
                    Brazilians need to learn Russian Anton!
                    All hiccups go away when casting the following spell:
                    "Hiccups, hiccups, go to Fedot, from Fedot to Yakov, from Yakov to everyone."
                    And that's all. Send them to the president. No fee, no thanks! We are humble!
                    1. +2
                      July 15 2021
                      Great business idea! It needs to be translated into Portuguese.
                    2. +2
                      July 16 2021
                      Quote: ee2100
                      All hiccups go away when casting the following spell:
                      "Hiccups, hiccups, go to Fedot, from Fedot to Yakov, from Yakov to everyone."

                      Good afternoon, Alexander,
                      there is a Catholic version of this spell:
                      "Hiccups, hiccups, switch to Huguenot, from Huguenot to Jacob, Stuart the damned"
        3. +5
          July 15 2021
          the knights of that time by the age of 30, if they survived, did not have 10 teeth in their mouths - there was no paste! ))
          ,,, rather after one tournament or battle and generally without teeth it was possible to remain. Low sugar intake in those days did not contribute to the development of tooth decay. Hello everyone hi
          1. +3
            July 15 2021
            Good evening )))
            In fact, sugar has been produced in Europe since the 9th century. From sugar cane. Probably expensive, it was a product that was inaccessible. But it was different. Commoners ate poorly, monotonously, like knights on campaigns. As a result, the teeth loosened, ached, they had to be pulled out. Almost all old people were toothless, and in middle age too. Check out the paintings of Hieronymus Bosch! There are ordinary townspeople, and we think that this is an artistic exaggeration.
            1. +2
              July 15 2021
              Bosch is a Renaissance.
              1. +2
                July 15 2021
                Hieronymus Bosch, 1450-1516 There were knights! )))
                The later in time, the more sugar went to the population - in Spain and Sicily, the areas under sugarcane crops grew. And do you think nutrition has improved a lot?
                1. +1
                  July 15 2021
                  What does the knights have to do with it ???
                  I am telling you about macrohistorical phenomena, and you are telling me Walter Scott in the arrangement of Abigalova. In other words: I prove to you Poincaré's hypothesis, and you "float" in the multiplication table.
                  Sent already or not yet? feel
                  1. +1
                    July 15 2021
                    And you always send me. Far and long. Well, I went. See, I'm stomping.
                    1. +2
                      July 15 2021
                      Always considered myself a jester, but you make you feel like a bastard.
                      1. +2
                        July 15 2021
                        Anton, stop!
                        You just like to feel that way. You are a gentle person, but you live in a world in which Mamonov died from the covid, dozens of people died from the flood in Germany, the Czech Republic was flooded, the Chinese Sichpuan was flooded. Rough rivers flow through the city streets, washing away life. Crows and pigeons, mad with thirst, under my windows all day long gnaw on some black berries from a tree bent by the previous storm. There is no abomination and no virtue, there is a feast during the plague. And we are with you at this feast.
                      2. +2
                        July 15 2021
                        Anton, stop!
                        Yes schazzz !!!
                        I am perfectly aware of what kind of world I live in. Informational. That is why I interrupted our previous conversation. That is why I consider the European Middle Ages one of the happiest eras of mankind.
                        In one thing you are right - buffoonery, a defensive reaction of the mind, brought up in anticipation of the "Peace of Half Day".
                      3. +3
                        July 15 2021
                        Your screaming has run out of battery wassat )))
                        I put on a charger, a short cord, it is inconvenient to print.
                      4. +3
                        July 15 2021
                        This is how I tried, in a whisper.
                      5. The comment was deleted.
                      6. The comment was deleted.
                      7. +2
                        July 16 2021
                        Anton, it was not me who canceled you.
                        I know, Lyudmila Yakovlevna. Someone really does not like our cute dialogues.
                        Good morning, good day and wonderful mood! hi
                      8. +5
                        July 16 2021
                        Dear Anton, thanks for your wish!)))
                        Good day everyone, colleagues!
                        And I was about to go far, but now, I looked by chance ...
                        History is something for which we are not at all responsible.
                      9. +1
                        July 16 2021
                        And you bill him. And even with a discount.
                      10. +3
                        July 16 2021
                        Yeah)))

                        The old Jew looks at the insurance policy in disbelief:
                        - Tell me that if my house does burn down, will you pay me this amount?
                        Agent:
                        - Yes, but on condition that you do not set fire to this house yourself.
                        Jew (waving his policy in irritation):
                        - I felt that there is still a catch!


                        And I could not resist:
                        A Jew is walking, he sees two Arabs knocking out the carpet with sticks.
                        - Shaw, won't it start?
                        good )))
                      11. +1
                        July 16 2021
                        Anton will appreciate any contribution to Arab culture.
                      12. +3
                        July 16 2021
                        The variety of contributions is diverse, to whom what. Gazprom calls on the population to invest in its shares.
                        “If you buy for 150, you get 1000 from the profit,” says the bankrupt Gazprom.
                        The era of investments.
                        And it is a time of disasters. I watched China in 2019, watched it now, Japan, Germany, Sochi. Before that - Crimea, I read ignorant articles "about the descent of the Earth from the axis." I wondered if I’d quit myself. Contributions are useless.
                      13. +1
                        July 16 2021
                        You can ask Cuvier about the theory of catastrophes.

                        And you, probably, may be close to the topic of catastrophes and bifurcations.
                      14. +3
                        July 16 2021
                        Oh no! Immersion in this area does not appeal to me. Feelings are loaded, and that's enough. The mind is supposed to be loaded differently.
    2. 0
      July 16 2021
      "was one of the most ardent enemies of the Protestant faith" most likely it was ostentatious. He only flaunted in front of his gang that he was such a convinced Catholic, and so his religious differences were purple.
      Perhaps Catherine de Medici was behind the murder of Coligny? After all, she was one of the inspirers of the St.
  10. +5
    July 15 2021
    At number 2 in the same picture, Marshal François de Montmorency is a much more decent man than the Duke of Guise.

    François de Montmorency is the eldest son of Anne de Montmorency, constable of France, second cousin and son-in-law of King Henry II as a result of his marriage to Diana de Chatellerault, illegitimate, but recognized as the legitimate daughter of the king. He had the titles of Duke of Montmorency, Count of Dammartin, Baron Chateaubriand and Senor Lille-Adam.

    In his youth, the future Marshal of France distinguished himself in the defense of Theroun from Charles V, but at the same time he was captured. When he was rescued from captivity, he went to Italy to help Pope Paul IV. There he took Ostia and a number of other cities from the Spaniards. Returning to his homeland, he was appointed governor of Paris and at the same time - the hand of the legitimized daughter of the king. In 1557-1558 he defended Picardy from the Spaniards and took part in the siege of English Calais. It was for these exploits in 1559 that he received the title of Marshal of France.

    So what made him different from Giza? Tolerance to different currents of faith. Well, he didn't want to pursue the Huguenots in any way! But the position of the governor of Paris and the marshal of France automatically made him the leader of the Catholic party.
    And then, on the eve of St. Bartholomew's Night, Montmorency resigned his post as governor of Paris and retired from the capital so as not to be present at the murder of his cousin Coligny, an impeccable man who knew that if it flared up, they would come to kill him. But, intending to defend himself and being the leader of the Huguenot party, he could not leave Paris. Who knew that thousands of warriors would let themselves be slaughtered like pets.
    In 1574, the marshal found himself in the Bastille as the leader of the discontented party, but then he was released, since he had nothing to show.
    Unable to change the course of history, he retired, went to his country palace in Ecuan, where he died in 1579, having lived an impeccable life. Rarely, but it happens.

    And here they are in the picture next to them - the Duke de Guise, killed by a guardsman's knife, and Marshal of Montmorency, who died in his bed.

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