Space technologies. Faster than light

138

Colleagues


Back in 2018, the US Office of Defense Intelligence released a 2010 report that looked at several different approaches to faster-than-light travel.

Caltech professor Sean Carroll, who reviewed the report, explained that while the theories were compelling, they did not allow for an assessment of when they could be implemented into engineering solutions.



Now that time has come!

Introduction


It's hard to live in a relativistic universe, where even the closest stars are so far away and the speed of light is absolute.

Most people do not feel this burden due to their involvement in other life problems. But conceptually traveling faster than light is an inevitable urge for the human species to expand in space. Therefore, it is not surprising why science fiction writers use superluminal speed as the scientific and technical basis of their plots.

Main question


According to Albert Einstein's special theory of relativity, our universe has a speed limit - nothing can travel faster than the speed of light.

This would make space travel to most planets impractical on the scale of human life, if man were limited to these natural and scientific facts.

The simplest explanation for why you cannot travel faster than the speed of light is that if it did, the effect might appear before its cause (we might get a phone call before the caller thinks about it).

Keywords here speed и move.

You don't really need to travel at the speed of light to travel faster than the speed of light?

Moving and moving in a cosmic context are far from synonymous.

It is possible to move between two points in space faster than moving photons or any object flying in unperturbed laminar space would do!

Therefore, it is theoretically possible to build a warp drive without violating any laws of physics.

BACKGROUND


History warp drives begin with Einstein's greatest achievement: general relativity.

The equations of general relativity reflect the way that spacetime - the very fabric of reality - bends in response to the presence of matter and energy, which in turn explain how matter and energy move.

Space technologies. Faster than light

Albert Einstein's special theory of relativity was used

Space wrinkles


However, since Einstein's general theory of relativity defined spacetime as the fabric from which the universe is made, the theory allows this "cosmic tapestry" to wrinkle.

An example is the gravitational waves discovered in recent years by the LIGO and Virgo experiments.

“The discovery of LIGO a few years ago was a huge step forward in science as it experimentally proved that spacetime can 'warp' and bend in the presence of huge gravitational fields, and this is spreading around the world. We can measure the universe in this way. There used to be an understanding that this was probably the case, thanks to Einstein, but now we know for sure. "

If we could create "wrinkles" in space-time, we could make the distant place much closer to us, so that we could reach it without breaking the barrier of the speed of light.

Modern theoretical physics offers a solution: to manipulate space-time in order to travel to other distant places in space, without violating the formally universal speed limit.

Theoretically, there is nothing that would definitively indicate that intergalactic travel is impossible. All up-to-date information and /or assumptions about the alien presence on Earth of representatives of other civilizations strengthen the confidence in the possibility of such movements.

There are several suggested methods of making this trip.

Warp Drive


Warp drive is a potential approach that suggests the possibility of warping spacetime around the ship so that the space in front of the ship narrows and the space behind it expands.

A warp-capable ship will travel in a "bubble" of regular space-time, which itself travels through the Universe at a speed exceeding the speed of light, while the ship itself remains at sub-light speeds inside the bubble, in accordance with Einstein's theory of relativity.

A warp drive could theoretically allow spaceships to reach a given region of "distant space" by moving parts of spacetime instead of the ship itself.

All this reasoning also applies to the hypothetical mode of movement that many identified and unidentified UFOs demonstrate, which implies their manipulation of the space-time metric and is directly related to the patents and research in the US Navy laboratory, which we discussed in the previous article.

The so-called "Alcubierre warp drive" developed by physicist Miguel Alcubierre in 1994, is a concept of how a spacecraft can travel efficiently at speeds exceeding the speed of light, based on solving Einstein's field equations in special relativity.


Warp engine characteristics

The Alcubierre warp drive is precisely designed, that is, it is not sucked from a finger and scratched with another finger on the fence. This is a real scientific theory based on general relativity and other modern theories, proven on the basis of a complex mathematical apparatus.


Mathematical explanation, for mathematically advanced

Why is there a reason to discuss this technology here?


In addition to the fact that the confrontation between the great powers is already going into space and the current plans for the exploration of Mars and the Moon (and without the participation of Russia) expand the space of geopolitics, there are also alien threats, which, in fact, caused all the current fuss around UFOs / UAPs.

In addition, experience shows that if NASA and DARPA include these topics in their research plans and spend the money of American taxpayers on them, this always deserves attention, at least to assess the threats to our Fatherland.

And if you have to fight aliens, perhaps on the front lines of defense, for example, near the distant Tau Ceti galaxy mentioned by Vladimir Vysotsky?

And NASA and DARPA are doing this. As evidenced by their own documents and statements ...

And they confirm the goal: to create an interstellar ship before 2100.

Eagleworks laboratory


NASA created an advanced engine physics laboratory, informally known as the Eagleworks, to develop propulsion technologies needed to explore the solar system by humans over the next 50 years and enable interstellar space travel by the end of the century.

This work directly supports the Breakthrough Propulsion goals detailed in NASA's OCT TA02 (Space Propulsion Technology) Space Propulsion Plan.

Disruptive Motion is an area of ​​technology development that seeks to explore and develop a deeper understanding of the nature of spacetime, gravity, inertial reference frames, quantum vacuum, and other fundamental physical phenomena with the common goal of developing advanced application engines and systems that will revolutionize the way NASA explores space.

VO's contribution to space technologies


Two years ago, there was a note here: A postgraduate student from the United States believes that he has developed a way to create a "superluminal" engine. " She generated a lot of interest and "scientific discussion" in the comments.

I will remind some of them so that commentators can start from the level of their previous understanding of the problem on a new dialectical round of cognition and consciousness ...

Machito
I am an engineer by training. The space is curved by the mass of the body. How can a spaceship, invented by a drugged American graduate student, change its own mass, and, releasing enormous energy, accelerate to superluminal speed? The answer is obvious: by turning into a black hole. And what will become of the crew?

***
Candidate
Gravity (the force of attraction) is the result of the interaction of the gravitational fields of objects of baryonic matter.

***
yang17427
Have you heard this, but still it turns?

***
Arthur 85
Just as in a falling elevator it is impossible to tell whether it is falling here or on Jupiter, so in curved space it is impossible to determine that it is curved. It is strange that Einstein, our beacon, did not understand this.

***
Dr. Hub
Everything is very easy to solve. Wash with cold water)) and no warp motors are needed in the shower))

***
Thunderbolt
Teleport to Proxima Centauri.
...Easily! The main thing is not to bump into the celestial axis. The rest of the issues can be resolved.

***
K-50
Blah blah blah a graduate student from the United States came up with!
I didn’t come up with anything, put forward new assumptions that need to be checked. How many have already been?
And where to get a breakthrough of energy?

***
Ivanov
The main thing in this theory is the bubble. With the help of a bubble, or better - two or three, you can bend space and time quite robustly.

***
Akba
I don’t know about the theory of relativity, in my opinion, it was some kind of joke for a skit among physicists, which dragged on a little ...

***
Akbaur
What a nightmare, how low illiteracy can be. You just have to read the relevant at least popular literature.

I continue following the last call ...

Compression and expansion


The modern understanding of space-time by physicists comes from Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity.

General relativity states that space and time are fused, and nothing can travel faster than the speed of light. General relativity also describes how mass and energy distort spacetime - massive objects like stars and black holes bend spacetime around them.

This curvature is what you feel like gravity, and why many space heroes worry about getting stuck or falling into a gravity well.

What if the spacecraft could shrink the space in front of it and expand the spacetime behind it?

The creators of the Star Trek series took this idea as a basis and called it a warp drive.

The Star Trek television series and films use the term "warp drive" to describe their method of traveling faster than the speed of light. At the time of the series' creation, neither the Alcubierre theory nor anything of the kind existed - the term "warp drive" and the general concept arose from John Campbell's science fiction novel "Islands of Space" in 1931.

Miguel Alcubierre, inspired by the artistic embodiment of the concept, developed a theory called the "Alcubierre engine". He "created a bubble" in space-time that "warps distances", allowing anything placed there to travel great distances within the bubble.

Principle


In theory, the principle of such a movement is easy to describe. The ship is placed inside a sphere ("Alcubierre bubble"), and nothing happens directly to it. The curvature of space-time occurs at the boundaries of a sphere, when space expands on one side and contracts on the other.

Actually, the sphere by and large does not move anywhere - the space itself is moving.

Thus, the speed of movement is measured not by the movement of the sphere, but by the degree of curvature of space-time and depends on the difference in energy in front of and behind the ship: the higher it is, the faster space moves.

The principle is a little more detailed


The principle of operation of the warp drive is the expansion and contraction of the fabric of space-time around the ship and its bubble.

The ship never accelerates or moves, it is the fabric around it that moves and pushes it forward.

As an analogy, imagine that you are standing on a conveyor belt that you will never have to walk on.
On the contrary, the very fabric of the belt is what propels you forward.

The contraction of space-time in front of the ship will pull it towards this point, while the expansion behind it will continue this forward motion.

Einstein showed that spacetime can be bent by mass or energy, and if spacetime can be bent, it can be manipulated in other ways.

The reason a ship can travel faster than the speed of light is because general relativity tells us that nothing in space can violate the speed limit. however, there is no speed limit on how quickly space itself can contract or expand.

We are not moving a thing in space - we are moving space itself.

It was here that Alcubier came to the rescue. He argued that the mathematics of general relativity allows for "curvature bubbles" - regions in which matter and energy are arranged in such a way that spacetime bends in front of the bubble and expands backward in a way that allows the "flat" region inside the bubble to travel faster than light.

To understand what “flat” means in this context, notice that spacetime is like a rubber mat. The mat flexes in the presence of matter and energy (imagine putting a bowling ball on the mat).

Gravity is nothing more than the ability of objects to roll into dents created by things like stars and planets. A flat area is like a piece of mat with nothing on it.

The negative energy problem


The Alcubierre warp drive will work by creating a bubble of flat space-time around the spacecraft and warping space-time around that bubble to reduce distances.

A warp drive will require either negative mass, a theoretical type of matter, or a ring with negative energy density. Physicists have never observed negative mass, so negative energy remains the only option.

To create negative energy, the warp drive will use massive amounts of mass to create an imbalance between particles and antiparticles.

For example, if an electron and an anti-electron (positron) appear near the warp drive, one of the particles will be captured by mass, and this will lead to an imbalance. This imbalance results in negative energy density. Alcubierre's warp drive would use this negative energy to create a bubble of space-time.

Doubts and decisions


Alcubierre's work was encouraging and impressive, but it also had many flaws. In his original article, he suggested that more energy would be required to power such a spacecraft than the energy in the entire universe.

Why is it cool.

• The ship does not break the speed of light locally, because this space moves at superluminal speed and carries the ship with it.


• Area 2 is the area of ​​flat space-time where the ship is located. The crew does not feel acceleration and the onboard clocks are synchronized with the flight control system - no actual time dilation.

• Area 1 expands spacetime behind the ship.

• Area 3 compresses space-time in front of the ship - together with area 1, this curvature of space moves at superluminal speed.

• The theory of inflation, with evidence of the Big Bang, claims that the Universe did it right after the Big Bang.

Why it won't work.

• Alcubierre's solution required more energy than exists in the universe.

• His solution also required exotic matter to create negative gravity, which probably does not exist in the real world.

• Even if it worked, some physicists think the ship will release massive amounts of high-energy gamma rays, welding everything (including the crew) at the destination of the ship ...

Why it might still work.

• Harold White and others reviewed Alcubierre's decision and discovered several things.

• Swinging and changing the thickness of the "curvature of the bubble" drastically reduced energy consumption until there was only orders of magnitude more energy than that released by the largest nuclear bomb. Later enhancements to his article by NASA scientists drastically reduced the amount of energy needed to drive a warp drive. due to vibrations of parts of the ship at high frequencies, which facilitated movement in space-time and reduced the amount of required energy.

• It is possible that the use of negative pressure, which is observed in some experiments in quantum mechanics, such as the Casimir effect, may replace the need for exotic matter.

Warp potential


In some models of spacecraft, it travels at 10 times the speed of light, traveling to our nearest exoplanet, Alpha Centauri, in six months, even though it is more than 4 light years away. It can be done faster (and there is evidence of this beyond the scope of this article).

There is a limit to how fast a warp drive can move, but even these speed limits would allow us to reach a new galaxy in days / weeks / months ...

As an added benefit, the ship could accelerate and decelerate, and the passengers did not experience time dilation. In other words, you will not arrive at your destination and find that you are so far in time that everyone you know is dead on Earth. Therefore, you do not have to start a new family. There are other advantages over Einstein's twin brothers.

Is warp drive possible?


According to the theory, the traveling spacecraft is inside a warp bubble surrounded by a ring of negative mass. The ring of negative mass will help compress spacetime in front of the spacecraft and stretch spacetime behind the spacecraft.


This concept, unveiled at the SpaceVision 2013 Space Conference, provides an excellent insight into what NASA will call the "passport of the universe" in the future. According to the artist, in his work he used White's mathematical data and calculations.

This will allow the spacecraft to travel faster than light. Even so, inside the bubble, the spacecraft will maintain a universal speed limit, while general relativity remains unchanged.

Harold Sonny White


The Alcubierre concept was considered impracticable because it required much more power than any viable energy source could produce.


White recalculated Alcubierre's concept and suggested that if the warp bubble around the spacecraft was shaped like a torus, it would be much more energy efficient and make the concept feasible.

He shared the idea with NASA and persuaded them to provide him with the premises in which the Johnson Space Center and Eagleworks were born.


Photo by Harold "Sonny" White from NASA Archives

Dr. White is trying to find other ways to solve the energy problems of the warp. He believes that by changing the approach to physics, it is possible to reduce the need for mass-energy, mentioned in the theory of Alcubierre.

Most of his work was done as head of NASA's Advanced Engine Physics Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. The lab, which White called Eagleworks, was founded in 2009 to explore the frontiers of physics in search of the next big breakthrough in space power and propulsion. In December 2019, White left the laboratory he had headed for ten years and headed research and development at the Limitless Space Institute, a new non-profit organization in Houston working to accelerate human exploration of interstellar space.

White is currently leading a team of physicists and engineers at NASA to build the White-Juday Warp Field Interferometer. It is a split-beam interferometer that can easily detect and "generate tiny bending bubbles."

There is still a long way from a warp field interferometer to real warp drives and to interstellar travel, but with the development of technology, the answers may be quite close.


Page from the 2014 laboratory successes presentation

To investigate the possibility of a warp drive, White and his team developed a warp field interferometer test bench to demonstrate the warp field phenomena. The experiments are being carried out at NASA's Advanced Engine Physics Laboratory (Eagleworks) at Johnson Space Center.

White and his team claim that this modified Michelson interferometer detects space-time distortion, a strain field effect.

The latest models developed by White suggest that there are ways to increase net strength, and these models have been tested on data at both the cosmological scale and the quantum level, and test devices have been made / tested in the laboratory and found to be consistent with the model's predictions.

In any case, Dr. White uses a laser interferometer, similar to the one used to detect gravitational waves, but much smaller, to test some devices looking for microscopic curvature of space-time.

Energy


Naturally, the main obstacle is the need for energy: the proposal of the authors of the report significantly reduces the amount of energy needed, but even so, traveling at a speed 100 times the speed of light will require energy costs of about one tenth of the total power of the Sun. "The energies still far exceed what will be available in the foreseeable future," the authors acknowledge.

More importantly, there is another important aspect: this enormous amount of energy must not be provided in the form of energy that we work with on a daily basis, but in the form of what is called negative energy. At the moment, we do not know if we can obtain such material in any physically workable way.

Warp justification progress


Alcubierre's concept contained problems that seemed insurmountable. Some of them, primarily energy ones, were partially solved by White.

Recent work (published in the journal Classical and Quantum Gravity) by American physicists Alexei Bobrik and Gianni Martyr not only solved many other problems, but also caused a lot of noise in the scientific community. Which is normal for any more or less revolutionary theory.


The bubble can behave however you want

Unlike Alcubierre Drive, the Bobrik-Martyr version does not require an incomprehensible amount of negative energy. The article is not describing a vessel, but rather a space-time bubble that can surround a vessel, a person, or something else. The bubble (top) can behave in anything, including accelerating to a speed greater than the speed of light. At least that's how it will look to an outside observer. For anyone inside the bubble, the laws of physics will remain intact, since the "passenger zone" consists of completely flat space-time.

Bobrik and Martyr have managed to largely demystify warp technology, their work actually suggesting that travel faster than the speed of light will remain inaccessible to creatures like us, at least for a while.

Bobrik and Martyr show that any warp drive must be a "material shell in constant motion" covering a flat region of space-time. The energy of the shell changes the properties of the space-time region inside it.

Using their simple description, Bobrik and Martyr demonstrate a method of using Einstein's equations of general relativity to find space-time that takes into account the arrangement of matter and energy, which will act as bubbles of curvature. This provides a mathematical key for finding and classifying deformation technologies.

“To balance the equations,” the Alcubierre device runs on “negative energy,” but we have yet to discover any viable sources of negative energy in the real world.

Bobrik and Martyr show that a warp drive can be created from positive energy (ie "normal" energy) or from a mixture of negative and positive energy. However, the energy demand will continue to be enormous.

National economic significance


Deformation technology can find radical applications outside of space travel.

Well, firstly, in terrestrial flying vehicles (with flight characteristics attributed to UFOs).

In addition, the warp drive can change the area of ​​flat space-time bound by it. In particular, it can speed up or slow down the clock inside the space bubble it creates.

Think about what it means to have such an object available?

Want to freeze someone with an incurable disease? Plug them into the warp drive and slow down their clock. From their point of view, several years will pass, and a hundred years will pass on Earth - enough time to find a cure.

Want to grow your crop overnight? Plug them into the warp drive and speed up the clock. It will take a few days for you, and a few weeks for seedlings.

There are also more exotic possibilities: by rotating space-time inside the drive, you can create a battery that can hold a huge amount of energy.

Traveling faster than the speed of light remains a distant dream. But warp technology would be revolutionary in and of itself.

For example, moving over the Earth or in near space at the speed of light is not only senseless, but also dangerous. And for lower speeds and ranges, the availability of technologies is much higher, about which later ...

Discussion


Basically, what is needed for a warp drive is a way to expand and contract spacetime at will and locally, such as around a small object or ship.

The biggest obstacle is energy, and with it technological barriers that require large electromagnetic fields, metamaterials, more sensitive equipment, etc.

Resources are the main issue right now. But if you divide it into "minor" problems and look for their solutions in other secret projects of the Pentagon, then it turns out that the United States has advanced quite far in the area of ​​space metrics management.

Problems and solutions


The sheer amount of positive and negative energy required to create a warp bubble remains the biggest challenge with the Alcubierre concept.

In this regard, significant progress still needs to be made to reduce energy needs to something more realistic.

Chances are that once the effect can be replicated on a laboratory scale, it will lead to a much deeper understanding of how gravity works and could open the door for some as yet undiscovered theories or loopholes.

On the technical side, further progress will need to be made in superconductors, interferometers and magnetic generators.

Assessing the resources we know


Pais / US Navy patents and reverse engineering

The US government denies (or rather, does not comment) its experience in reverse engineering of space technologies, but fixes a number of technical solutions:


• high-frequency generator of high-frequency gravitational waves;

• "non-chemical" superconductor at room temperature;

• generator of electromagnetic "force field" (capable of deflecting asteroids);

• apparatus using a device to reduce the inertial mass;

• hybrid aerospace underwater vehicle;

• compact fusion reactor.

All this is written in the previous article. Space technologies. Levitation in the US Navy.

This whole set represents the sum of home warp technology.

Why home?

Because it is too low-powered for long-distance space travel. But it is quite suitable for moving in near-earth space and within the solar system.

But this technical groundwork can also help to create a full-fledged warp propulsion device.

For this, in addition to the above, it is necessary to solve one more issue: the production of stable antimatter in sufficient quantities.

In principle, this issue has been resolved. The latest achievements of CERN: about a thousand antiprotons were caught, which were held for several minutes.

Antimatter is known as the most expensive substance on Earth - according to 2006 NASA estimates. production of a milligram of positrons cost approximately US $ 25 million... Therefore, even for the production of one gram, the entire US budget is needed. And not to carry the entire Hadron Collider with you?

Let's look for other warrants.

There is a sufficient number of documents, including diagrams, descriptions and certificates of engineers who investigated "Space gravity".

In order not to multiply conspiracy theories, not to offend the US government and not arouse opponents, instead of conclusions there will be assumptions ...

"Assumptions"


Suppose The United States has at least one type of warp apparatus inherited from aliens.

Suppose The United States has studied alien technology and artifacts for years.

Suppose The available sources show spaceships, rebuilt ships and real ships, obtained either as a result of being shot down, or from space, or otherwise.

Suppose Some areas of modern research, including those published on behalf of famous scientists, are the result of many years of work by large teams working on secret topics of reverse engineering within the framework of the black US military budget.

Suppose The Americans disassembled and examined the warp-driven UFO antimatter reactor.

Suppose that, in addition to a workable sample of antimatter generator, they also have a certain amount of substance that serves as the basis for the generator's fuel cell - a stable element 115.

Let's say that they understood the structure and principles of the apparatus, including the foci of antimatter production, the gravity control system.

Let us assume that the energy system of this apparatus is arranged as described below.


Let's saythat the man, John Lear, involved in this research, knows what he is talking about.

He points to the antimatter reactor, in a UFO diagram very similar to the one you saw on the declassified CIA diagrams in an earlier article. A small orange spot shows where the antimatter reactor is located.


This is an antimatter reactor. That's where he is in the middle of the ship


These are gravitational amplifiers. John points to the gravity amplifiers

John explains. The following happens: they shoot protons at element 115, which rises to element 116. (Element 115 is Muscovy, which has not yet been obtained in a stable state on Earth, or at least in Russia).


John points to the antimatter reactor. Element 116. It gives off antimatter ...

The flow of gravitational waves.
The wave focuses on a point in space, and then increases the attraction of amplifiers - increases the amplification that attracts space to the ship. The space wraps around the ship and then unfolds. And ... the ship instantly finds itself at a distance of hundreds of thousands of kilometers.



Space canvas drawing

John continues ...
“The web of space is attracted by the gravity amplifiers and wraps around the ship like this.
The ship is wrapped in a canvas of space.
Then the gravity amplifiers are turned off. And then everything returns to normal ... "

Gravitsapa!





Let's say that it is a replica of the antimatter reactor that propels an alien spacecraft, only half the size.

Inside is a small container with a lid.

The lid opens, and there is element 115 inside.

Let's say that this piece is 50 or 60 ... megatons in TNT equivalent.


Let's saythat it is a small tube that is fired at by protons. They hit element 115 at the very top.

Suppose what happens: Element 115 creates Element 116, which immediately decomposes, releases antimatter, and forms a gravitational wave.

Let's say the oscillation cycle is 12 milliseconds.

John's narratives are supported by more detailed explanations of other specialists who directly worked (according to them) with these products.

Let's continue our assumptions


Suppose The author has a sufficient number of documents and certificates confirming the work and results on the technologies discussed above, and sufficient competencies to evaluate them both separately and in their synergistic combination.

And I will close with a quote from the aforementioned White.

“As we strive to achieve great goals, we can implement new technologies that help us here and now ...
In the long run, there may be interstellar travel, but learning about these things prompts us to push the boundaries of what is possible. And in the process, we can potentially make life on Earth better for everyone. ”

PS


The information and opinions presented in the articles of the Space Technologies cycle do not necessarily reflect the views of the VO editorial board.

The editorial board, moreover, cannot be responsible for the content of hundreds of previously top secret US documents related to UFO / UAP, the testimony of the US military and specialists working in the field of reverse engineering, regardless of whether they are recognized by the US government or not.

To be continued ...
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138 comments
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  1. The comment was deleted.
    1. Cat
      +3
      July 13 2021
      Author, quit drinking

      Synergistic booze is not considered booze.
      The information and opinions presented in the articles of the Space Technologies cycle do not necessarily reflect the views of the VO editorial board.

      Gee, I would like to believe laughing
      1. +3
        July 13 2021
        With such a scientific mentor, you can join the arms race with aliens laughing
        1. +6
          July 13 2021
          This is an antimatter reactor. That's where he is in the middle of the ship.

          The authors of this physical concept of building such a spacecraft with such an engine, as its essential DISADVANTAGE, forget about the general principle - on the existence in nature of the universal law of proximity and on the CONTINUITY of the motion of matter.
          An interruption in the continuity of the movement of a material object (uniform and uneven), as a SPECIAL case of movement of matter (material objects), means either an explosion of a material object, or the transformation of its properties (size, body shape, type of substance, etc.) into something else as in the opposite of its original state.

          The discussed hypothetical engine will emit a spectrum of energy waves (even one wave!) That will pass through the ship and DIFFERENTLY at the atomic, crystalline, constructive and biological level perceived by the material of the parts of the spacecraft, by the parts themselves, by the structure of the spacecraft itself and by living subjects (astronauts) in it.
          Has anyone from the metaphysical creators of such engines calculated this influence? Probably not.

          Dialectically, the influence of such an engine on the ship itself and on its inhabitants will be MANDATORY - and it is unlikely that astronauts will survive in it - with just one launch of such an engine!
          Well, and metaphysical hypotheses of physics-metaphysics can build as much as they like.
          It is quite possible that their research will have some applied value for humanity.

          - Alchemists also tried to experimentally create gold, and as an applied application of their research they unexpectedly invented porcelain.
          - Marie Curie also accidentally discovered the phenomenon of radioactivity - and died of blood cancer as a result of radiation. She was buried in a zinc coffin, and her belongings, diaries, etc. due to radiation, it cannot be used for another 1500 years.
          But on the other hand, modern medical devices based on radiation are now treating people for oncology, saving and prolonging patients' lives.
          1. +4
            July 13 2021
            ........ alchemists ......... create gold .......

            Greetings Tatiana!
            In fact, the alchemists did not want to create gold in the first place, but ELIXIR OF ETERNAL LIFE !!!!!!!!
            Which, by the way, will be useful in interstellar travel.
            1. 0
              July 16 2021
              [quoteIn reality, the alchemists did not want to create gold in the first place, but the ELIXIR of ETERNAL LIFE !!!!!!!!] [/ quote]
              "If a person will live forever, why would he need a time machine then? And if a time machine is created, why would he then need eternal life?" Thought the inventor of a perpetual motion machine.
          2. +2
            July 13 2021
            Tatyana, the article is just about what, alas, has not been proven, but at the same time the existence of this process is not proof of its absence. There are tons of alternatives, but (I don't know who you are by profession). We have completely mastered electromagnetic radiation (communication, radar and have already approached quantum entanglement. But with all our knowledge of the wave theory, we still could not somehow figure out the gravitational wave. Also like a wave theory. By analogy, it can also be created and to simulate, ie with the available skills to bend space. In fact, this explains the movement of the same UFOs that at first glance contradict all known US. Rotation by 90 degrees with overload is not amenable to our understanding. This is gravity. Bend the created gravitational wave (just create and strengthen) by analogy with the electromagnetic one and there is no need to move with any speed, we just ended up where we wanted, because we do not understand space and time quite so. Discussions on this topic are endless. We will not be able to understand what we have not achieved, but this is not It means that someone has not achieved this. ”Of course, this is also only a fantasy, but why not then?
            1. +3
              July 13 2021
              Quote: NIKNN
              we do not understand space and time quite so

              I thought that space without matter does not exist (there must be a place where you can "apply a ruler"). And matter cannot move faster c... There is space in the article - maybe ... request Hmm ... Some of us are wrong. what
              1. +2
                July 13 2021
                Quote: Motorist
                Hmm ... Some of us are wrong.

                Perhaps we are all wrong, the point is that we can understand what we have learned.
                1. +1
                  July 13 2021
                  Just as there is elementary mathematics and there is higher mathematics, there are elementary mathematical descriptions of physical laws and there are descriptions of physical laws using elements of higher mathematics like the theory of relativity.
                  Such mathematical developments are mathematical modeling of physical phenomena in the form of a description of certain natural phenomena, just as designers design their cars, ships, airplanes, household appliances, etc. on paper. and then launch them into production.
                  Diamat, as the most perfect philosophical method of thinking, suggests that new parameters can be introduced into the mathematical formulas of physical laws to describe a given physical phenomenon - and we cognize this physical phenomenon from a completely different side - in its more expanded essence. In this sense, modern physics is clearly outdated long ago.

                  Gravitational waves do exist and they are of the SAME nature with magnetism. By the way, A. Einstein himself suspected their same nature, but he could not prove it mathematically.
                  He simply did not know the dialectical-materialistic method (this is a logical algorithm of thinking with its own rules, as in mathematics) - and he simply started from the wrong end. It is necessary to proceed dialectically from the principle of transition from simple to complex, in accordance with the historical principle of the development of science. Those. one had to start by improving the simple laws of physics. For example, with the improvement of Newton's Basic Law of Dynamics.

                  There were such works in the Soviet era in the USSR. The Basic Law of Dynamics can be mathematically improved. Moreover, a new formula for the basic law of dynamics was obtained.
                  In this case, all three laws of dynamics are combined into one - and it becomes clear that gravity and magnetism really have the same nature of their origin. As a result, the phenomena of gravity can be simulated on structures with phenomena of magnetism.
                  This means a revolution in physics.
                  The new understanding also had a practical output in the field of the military-industrial complex.
                  Unfortunately, this work was never published.
                  1. +2
                    July 14 2021
                    Dear Tatyana, you have raised a very serious topic, the meaning of which, in brief: various natural objects, in this case, physical objects, may require a different mathematical apparatus. And this is absolutely correct. Physics encounters the difference in the used mathematics for describing various natural objects at every step. So, to describe the action of natural objects in classical mechanics, a mathematical apparatus of differential and integral calculus is required, or, which is the same, abstracting from physical objects, differential and integral calculus is a mathematical apparatus for describing the laws of classical geometry of Euclid.
                    In the transition to the field, the mathematical apparatus of differential geometry and tensor calculus is necessarily used, which is exactly what Einstein's TO demonstrates. Aside from physical objects, tensor calculus is a mathematical apparatus for describing differential geometry.
                    Now, on the merits of physics.
                    The foundation of Einstein's TO is the Lorentz transformation, in which the change in the geometry of the field is defined as x2 + y2 + z2 = c2t2 (everywhere is a square). And here the whole trick is that this expression is valid for the fields existing in the classical geometry of Euclid, for which the action does not depend on the point and is determined by the constancy of the space itself, and the expression x2 + y2 + z2 = c2t2 cannot be transferred, extended to laws differential geometry, where each action is determined by an action at a point in space. Therefore, to describe differential geometry and actions on objects in field theory, it is necessary to resort to linear algebra and tensor calculus. In this regard, a field as a physical object is described by a functional. For some field function, the derivative defines a vector that changes along the curve in such a way that the modulus of this vector remains constant along the curve. This vector is geometrically tangent to the curve, physically it can be correlated with the velocity vector. At the same time, the constancy of the modulus of the velocity vector along the curve does not mean at all that this will be preserved when passing to another curve. Taking this into account, the use of the expression x2 + y2 + z2 = c2t2 to describe processes in differential geometry is unacceptable, where the modulus of the velocity vector is not equal to the modulus of the distance along the curve, and therefore in differential geometry there is no constant limiting the modulus of the velocity on the curve.
                    One more point to pay attention to: for a curve in differential geometry, there is a ratio, conditionally, of the length of the curve to the modulus of the velocity vector, which is preserved along the entire curve. All these transformations are described by Frenet's formulas. Physically, the ratio of the modulus of length to the modulus of speed determines the time corresponding to the tangent vector on the curve, and if you move along the curve at a speed equal to the modulus of the tangent vector, then you cannot arrive from one point of the curve to another in a time less than this ratio. From here, just the connection between space and time is taken. And this connection has nothing to do with a single TO space-time. Moreover, the common space-time TO is the same fiction as the use of the expression x2 + y2 + z2 = c2t2 to describe the processes in differential geometry.
                    Here is, in short, what follows from your questions.
                    Here I have not said a word about philosophy, because this requires one more article larger than the written one.
              2. +3
                July 13 2021
                And matter cannot move faster c. There is space in the article - maybe ...


                For Einstein, the main thing is that information should not be transmitted faster than C in his continuous space. And so fly away with at least 10 C. Here's an interesting thing. contraction and curvature are drawn in two dimensions. There is no other way to draw. But if you take, for example, specks of dust in the air - it's easy. Three dimensions, and dust density is a function of three coordinates. Compressed space - dense dust. Now for the next step. The distance between the dust is the Planck length. The dust itself is dark matter. Energy
                can only be transmitted by a jump from a speck of dust to a speck of dust. If in a straight line, it is light. If in a circle - this is a "real" material particle. And the unity of matter-energy is immediately explained without miracles E = MC square. The jump time to the Planck length determines both the time-space relationship and the constancy of C in the coordinate system. And the impossibility of moving in the dust (in circles, but forward) for matter faster than C. And the change in time when moving in the dust is its time for the observer's speed.
                Scoop up the dust into a bucket together with the energy-matter and transfer it to another place - here is the superlight for you. At least the big bang inflation explains.
                One thing is bad about this picture. There is no isotropic miraculous vacuum. And there is dust of dark matter with expansion, twisting in galaxies and various dark streams of dust - jets.
                1. 0
                  July 13 2021
                  Thank you, interesting and clear.

                  Quote: dauria
                  For Einstein, the main thing is that information should not be transmitted faster than C

                  ... but there is no information without matter either. It seems to me...

                  Quote: dauria
                  Scoop up the dust into a bucket together with the energy-matter and transfer it to another place - here is the superlight for you.

                  The question is: where did the bucket come from (and what hand is carrying it), and why is it immaterial? What it?

                  Maybe it is possible to remove dust (and space) from the path altogether by "lengthening" the Planck length locally?
                  1. +2
                    July 13 2021
                    where did the bucket come from (and what hand is carrying it)


                    laughing Eh, if I could read ... I don't know, of course. There was probably no dust on the way before the big bang. Perhaps even now it is not everywhere. Where she is not there and there is nothing to talk about. So it turns out.
                    I will say one thing. Such a picture is the only one that somehow explains the experiment with diffraction by a pair of slits by single electrons. An electron flies through one slit. But he perfectly "understands" whether the second one was opened. How ? It's simple - if both are open, then the character of the track after the crack and "bumps" on it changes. And with isotropic undistorted space, this will not happen. So the "dust" has changed the "bumps" under the influence of a simple material shutter.
                2. 0
                  July 13 2021
                  Why do you view this situation in such a way? Only from what we can understand, or what to explain? Do you even imagine other events? Well, for example, what is civilization in your concept? In our concept, as a rule, some kind of thinking creatures in some kind of image ... But what (well, for example) the consciousness of the community (a small example of the crowd effect) Mushrooms have a developed structure, somewhere at the level of ours (just not yet understood and trying to implement and understand neural connections, quantum computers) Mushrooms are able to control other living things than civilization ?. We do not have our own idea ... So that we are waiting for contact with the same stupid as we are ....
              3. +1
                July 14 2021
                Quote: Motorist
                And matter cannot move faster c. There is space in the article - maybe ...

                as I understand it, movement occurs through space and in subspace.
                Imagine a bar of iron, figuratively this space. To drive a nail into this block, i.e. to make a path in space, this nail must have a number of strength qualities and energy must be applied to it, allowing it to break the bonds of the crystal lattice.
                Why, when we see a railgun shot at a piece of armor, a flash occurs at the point of contact? This is an instantaneous release of energy when the crystal lattice of the armor breaks. This release of energy melts the metal at the point of contact, changing its structure and properties, allowing the projectile (non-camouflage) to penetrate such a thickness.
                If these laws act on metal, then why is such an effect on space not possible?
            2. +1
              July 16 2021
              In fact, this explains the movement of the same UFOs that at first glance contradict everything known to US.

              UFO is an unidentified flying object. Why does everyone immediately decide that this is some kind of alien spaceship of aliens, and not some kind of natural phenomenon? Where does this, pardon the bad manners, come from? Moreover, all theories about aliens and their visit to Earth are made on the basis of this hypothesis. And then various ideas develop, who has enough imagination. Today, most serious scientists are inclined to think that intelligent life is so rare that we may be alone in our galaxy. And talk about the interaction of certain governments with certain aliens is already beyond the bounds, this is a discussion of the inhabitants of ward No. 6.
              1. 0
                July 19 2021
                Oh, what pride mankind has. Oh, how unique we are. Although they have not yet grown to the level of intelligent beings, but still there.
                1. 0
                  July 20 2021
                  ... have not yet grown to the level of intelligent beings, but still there.

                  Do you fit in with all of humanity? Isn't the burden heavy, the hangers will stand? If this is you about yourself, why in the plural? Yes, what pride a person has ...
          3. +3
            July 14 2021
            Quote: Tatiana
            - Alchemists also tried to experimentally create gold, and as an applied application of their research they unexpectedly invented porcelain.
            For the first time, porcelain began to be produced in China, and not alchemists, but potters - just someone near the house had deposits of kaolin, not pottery clay, plus they had observation, an intelligent head and skillful hands. Later, porcelain was brought to Europe.
            Quote: Tatiana
            - Marie Curie also accidentally discovered the phenomenon of radioactivity - and died of blood cancer as a result of radiation. She was buried in a zinc coffin, and her belongings, diaries, etc. due to radiation, it cannot be used for another 1500 years.

            Who told you that the phenomenon of radioactivity was discovered by Marie Curie? Spit in his face: Henri Becquerel discovered radioactivity. And do not make up absurdities, you do not know physics very well. VO has already fallen to the baseboard, publishing empty sets of words about flying saucers, unsupported movement, clairvoyance and telepathy. The next step, obviously, are proposals for the creation of special forces to combat reptilians, the construction of a military base inside the Sun and turning the Earth inside out in order to expand living space.
            1. -2
              July 14 2021
              Quote: astepanov
              For the first time, porcelain began to be produced in China, and not alchemists, but potters - just someone near the house had deposits of kaolin, not pottery clay, plus they had observation, an intelligent head and skillful hands. Later, porcelain was brought to Europe.

              My comment is about European porcelain, not Chinese. I was personally in Europe and visited the houses of alchemists preserved in nature. I still remember this excursion.
              Who told you that the phenomenon of radioactivity was discovered by Marie Curie? Spit in his face: Henri Becquerel discovered radioactivity.

              Marie Curie first discovered the phenomenon of radioactivity when a piece of ore, forgotten in a writing desk with a photographic film, gave her picture in the dark. As a result of research on such a phenomenon, Maria Kuri discovered the radioactive chemical elements radium and polonium. Namely.

              REFERENCE
              In 1903 year Maria and Pierre Curie, together with Henri Becquerel, received the Nobel Prize in Physics "for outstanding services in joint research on radiation phenomena."
              In 1911 year Marie Curie received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for outstanding achievements in the development of chemistry: the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element."
              Marie Curie became the first - and today the only woman in the world - twice to win the Nobel Prize.

              Are you not ashamed, as a man, to bypass the woman Marie Curie in the merit of the discovery of radioactivity? Marie Curie there then in this company most of the three plowed on research, and the men collected the cream.
              1. +3
                July 14 2021
                It is not necessary to ascribe to Marie Curie what she didn’t do from ladies' chauvinism, she doesn’t need it. It is impossible to bypass the merits of Marie Curie, but she has nothing to do with the discovery of radioactivity. This was done by Henri Becquerel, and it was he who, studying the phenomenon of fluorescence, put the uranium ore on a cassette with a photographic plate. By the time the Curies got down to business, quite a lot was known about radioactivity. By the way, interesting facts about this period can be found in the "Fundamentals of Chemistry" by D.I. Mendeleev.
                1. +1
                  July 14 2021
                  Quote: astepanov
                  it has nothing to do with the discovery of radioactivity. This was done by Henri Becquerel, and it was he who, studying the phenomenon of fluorescence, put the uranium ore on a cassette with a photographic plate. By the time the Curies got down to business, quite a lot was known about radioactivity. By the way, interesting facts about this period can be found in the "Fundamentals of Chemistry" by D.I. Mendeleev.

                  Because of our dispute, Alexey, I decided to brush up on the school chemistry curriculum about Marie Curie. And I admit now that you are, in a sense, really right.

                  Unfortunately, I slowly began to forget the history of scientific discoveries in chemistry - and Becquerel just completely flew out of my memory.
                  In addition, I was guided by the award of the Nobel Prize to Marie Curie in physics "for outstanding services in joint research of radiation phenomena."

                  I beg your pardon! drinks In this case, I was wrong. Yes

                  Radioactivity. Henri Becquerel. Pierre and Marie Curie. From the series "From the history of great scientific discoveries".
                  1. +1
                    July 15 2021
                    Tatiana, no apology is needed. We are all wrong. This topic is easier for me, since I am a chemist.
    2. +5
      July 13 2021
      We must not forget to take crimson pants with you and learn "twice ku", then you won't have to fight with anyone))) thanks to the author, I amused good
      1. +3
        July 13 2021
        take crimson pants with you and learn "twice ku"
        It is important not to forget the tsak that meets intergalactic standards laughing
        1. +4
          July 13 2021
          Oh, and I forgot about him ........)
          1. +2
            July 13 2021
            forgot.
            Everyone, lifelong etsich with nails wassat Although if there is ketse, then everything will be fine Yes
            1. +2
              July 13 2021
              Damn, I forgot about KC too ... no, I'm old, I won't fly on the Warp drive bully
              1. +2
                July 13 2021
                I’m old, I won’t fly
                Yes, now only bioreactor sad
              2. Cat
                +2
                July 13 2021
                I will not fly on the Warp drive

                They don't fly on a warp drive - they hold onto it laughing
                1. +2
                  July 13 2021
                  Like water skiers)))
                  1. Cat
                    +3
                    July 13 2021
                    Like water skiers)))

                    Exactly! Well, or as bobsledders - first they accelerate, and then they try to jump (if they have time) :)
          2. +1
            July 13 2021
            Oh, and I forgot about him ........)

            I will tell everyone what this fool PZh has brought the planet to! The guys sat on their heads for the chatlans! Kyu! fellow drinks
            Damtibi-dimtibi, on the river, on the river, on the tooo berezhoochka! laughing
            1. +1
              July 13 2021
              One night, a UFO flew to our village, I moved like a drunk with a crowbar, how long would it take to break the car ... feel
              1. +3
                July 13 2021
                My darling opened her mouth
                I pressed her to me
                UFO illuminated us
                Lighting up the entire hayloft lol
                1. +1
                  July 13 2021
                  UFO illuminated us

                  It was Video-Page, it was necessary to cuckle in front of it! laughing
                  1. +3
                    July 13 2021
                    No, these are galactic voyeurs, they need to throw an empty bottle into the observation devices! Good day, Nikolai!
                    1. +6
                      July 13 2021
                      Good day, Nikolai!

                      Hello Alexey! Recently, I have not discussed much on the site, but with all of you - I laughed with pleasure. drinks
                      1. +5
                        July 13 2021
                        We missed you too. Unfortunately, in recent years, and there is nothing special to discuss - not Ukraine wassat
                      2. +7
                        July 13 2021
                        Unfortunately, in recent years, and there is nothing special to discuss - not Ukraine

                        You're right. I haven't discussed politics for a long time either. negative
                        We missed you too.

                        Thank you for your kind words, Alexey! Will live! drinks

                        And this is so, on the road. wink Have a nice evening everyone!
                      3. +2
                        July 13 2021
                        Will live!
                        Without fail Yes And about billionaires and space, until the addiction to black show-off leaves society, everything will be so. Alas and ah.
                2. Cat
                  +5
                  July 13 2021
                  Other planets to us
                  They sent two of their ambassadors.
                  We know them perfectly well -
                  - Zverev with Moiseev.
                  1. +4
                    July 13 2021
                    Nobody gets married
                    But you shouldn't be sad
                    It is necessary to send SOS to space
                    What a humanoid is needed ..
                    1. Cat
                      +3
                      July 13 2021
                      The saucer came back somehow
                      To the planet, and on it
                      Proof of Contact
                      Three-letter lettering with a nail
                      1. +2
                        July 13 2021
                        The plate fell behind the garages.
                        The team has collected up to a heap of spare parts,
                        Let's start - the motor sneezes:
                        Warp drive local physicist stubborn ...
        2. +8
          July 13 2021
          It is important not to forget about the color differentiation of the pants. Here I have the right to wear yellow pants, and in front of me the kid should not once, but twice squat. If I have a lot of CCs, I have the right to wear crimson pants, and in front of me, both the kid must squat twice, and the chatlanin "ku" do, and the ecyloppus has no right to beat me at night ... Never! .. When society has no color differentiation of pants - then there is no goal!
          1. +8
            July 13 2021
            When a society does not have a color differentiation of pants, then there is no goal!

            - If you don’t give us a match, then for less than twelve boxes, we will not put you on the ground !! stop (Messrs. Uef and Bee).

            - You are a kid, you are a kid, and he is a kid, and I am a chatlanin! laughing drinks
            1. +11
              July 13 2021
              - Are the boys and chatlans a nationality?
              - Нет.
              - Biological factor?
              - Нет.
              - Caste?
              - Нет.
              - Faces from other planets?
              - Нет.
              - And how do they differ from each other?
              - What are you, color blind, Violinist? Can't you tell the difference between green and orange? Tourist…
              1. +8
                July 13 2021
                - What are you, color blind, Violinist? Can't you tell the difference between green and orange? Tourist…

                - And you, violinist, before thinking that you are the first Georgian cosmonaut, and they will give you the Nobel Prize ... return the spoon that you stole from the poor artists ... crying
    3. +8
      July 13 2021
      Booze booze, but for a war (including with aliens) you need to prepare in advance.
      1. Cat
        +7
        July 13 2021
        Booze booze, but for a war (including with aliens) you need to prepare in advance.

        Aliens do not appear without drunkenness, so the war will not take place without it. But I agree, the slippers must be prepared in advance.
        1. +1
          July 14 2021
          Aliens do not appear without drinking
          American Indians also believed that "overseas people" could appear only after a thorough stub of tobacco.
    4. +11
      July 13 2021
      Quote: Bolt Cutter
      And if you have to fight aliens
      Author, quit drinking wassat

      I also met lecturers from the Knowledge Society, among whom there were many educated and well-versed specialists. It was a pleasure to listen to them, I don’t know as an adult, but for schoolchildren for sure.

      And now, reading this reasoning, wonderful in every sense, I involuntarily catch myself thinking that warp motors will soon appear in all car dealerships and workshops, and Musk cannot yet supply a reliable and compact battery for Tesla's electric machine. How so? winked
    5. +4
      July 13 2021
      I especially remember the word bubble, only in a different context.
  2. +9
    July 13 2021
    A question to the author: how would movement above the speed of light break the causal relationship (example with a bell)?
    1. +8
      July 13 2021
      In the distant constellation of Tau Ceti
      Everything became incomprehensible to us.
      We send a signal: "What are you doing there?"
      And we are sent back.

      On tau kit
      Live in beauty
      Live, by the way, in different ways
      Our comrades in reason.

      Here, moving on a beam of light
      Without help, but through,

      I’m flying to Tau Ceti
      To deal with her on the spot ... bully
    2. +2
      July 13 2021
      Quote: Pavel73
      A question to the author: how would movement above the speed of light break the causal relationship (example with a bell)?

      I am not an author, but: there is something connected with the SRT. If the transmitter sends a superluminal signal, and the receiver receives it, then in a certain inertial frame of reference the order of events will be reversed - first reception, then emission of the signal. In SRT, a causal relationship is possible only between timelike events.
      * SRT - special theory of relativity
      And further. With an increase in speed up to light speed, time slows down. Perhaps at superluminal speed, time generally goes in the opposite direction.
      1. 0
        July 13 2021
        Quote: Hyperion
        Quote: Pavel73
        A question to the author: how would movement above the speed of light break the causal relationship (example with a bell)?

        I am not an author, but: there is something connected with the SRT. If the transmitter sends a superluminal signal, and the receiver receives it, then in a certain inertial frame of reference the order of events will be reversed - first reception, then emission of the signal. In SRT, a causal relationship is possible only between timelike events.
        * SRT - special theory of relativity
        And further. With an increase in speed up to light speed, time slows down. Perhaps at superluminal speed, time generally goes in the opposite direction.

        For example, mathematically proved that there can be particles "Tachyon"
  3. +9
    July 13 2021
    I read this crap about warp engines back in the early 90s. Some Russian newspaper even published drawings of the operating (!) Warp-engine of some Russian "Kulibin". Tin in general))
    1. +11
      July 13 2021
      Quote: From Tomsk
      I read this crap about warp engines back in the early 90s

      I disagree. Science fiction is better than the theme of magic, heavily hammered from all sides. Harry Potter, The Lord of the Rings has replaced science fiction in movies and books.
      1. +6
        July 13 2021
        Here I agree 100 percent!
      2. +5
        July 13 2021
        The Lord of the Rings have replaced science fiction in movies and books.
        Good science fiction only "comes in" to those who have at least a minimum of scientific knowledge. And now there are problems with this sad
        1. +3
          July 13 2021
          Jules Verne hardly had any technical knowledge. request Like most other great science fiction writers. Simply fiction pushes inquisitive minds to the realization of a given theme. Part becomes reality, part remains fantasy.
          And what fantasy is pushing is a big question. From my point of view, this is forward into the past. Towards a new inquisition.
          1. +2
            July 13 2021
            Jules Verne hardly had any technical knowledge.
            At that time, he was a comprehensively educated person. And he had an idea of ​​what he was writing.
            most other great science fiction writers.
            They have one academic degree. But I had in mind the readers who are full of dunduks (and there are more and more of them as a percentage of the population) it is much more fun to read about magicians than about scientists and engineers.
      3. +9
        July 13 2021
        Quote: Ingvar 72
        I disagree. Science fiction is better than the theme of magic, heavily hammered from all sides. Harry Potter, The Lord of the Rings has replaced science fiction in movies and books.

        1. +6
          July 13 2021
          Yes, but for whom is it indistinguishable? For the illiterate natives, yes. You don't think the phone is magic, do you? wink
          1. +5
            July 13 2021
            Quote: Ingvar 72
            Yes, but for whom is it indistinguishable? For the illiterate natives, yes. You don't think the phone is magic, do you?

            We are the illiterate natives. Yes, we understand telephone, internet and television, this is at our indigenous level of development. But the fireballs that someone can customize are magic for us. But it is not a fact that this is impossible from the point of view of the physics of the future. We are simply too natives to understand and explain this from the perspective of our now limited knowledge.
            Well, how the Papuans considered a hunting rifle to be magic, killing it is not clear how and with what a thunder-stick.
            1. +3
              July 13 2021
              Quote: Kuroneko

              We are the illiterate natives

              Again I agree. But the difference is in the time frame and in the vector of development. Fraudsters in the present tense make part of the population indigenous, artificially engaged in stupefying and simplifying education (and culture, cinema and literature are part of education), and all this is done to simplify control. For it is easier to rule with the ignorant.
          2. 0
            July 14 2021
            You don't think the phone is magic, do you?

            A resident of the 20-21 centuries, of course, does not count. Because he has an understanding, at least in the most general terms, of the principles on which telephone communication is based.
            But an inhabitant of ancient Egypt or ancient Assyria would almost certainly consider telephone communication as witchcraft.
            1. +1
              July 14 2021
              Quote: Terran Ghost
              A resident of the 20-21 centuries, of course, does not count.

              Relatively. A resident of the 40s will perceive the smartphone and 4G as fantasy. Watch movies from the 90s with a glimpse into the future of the 2020s. Kindergarten.
              1. 0
                July 14 2021
                A resident of the 40s will perceive a smartphone and 4G as fantasy

                But hardly like witchcraft. But a resident of the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia - definitely yes. Because the latter goes far beyond the limits of knowledge available to the latter about the laws of the universe.
                Watch movies from the 90s with a glimpse into the future of the 2020s. Kindergarten.

                Heh. I remember how in 1980s science fiction video calls were touted as the "mega-high-tech" of the future. And now it is in every smartphone, but only it is not used so often, because it is far from always needed :)
                1. +1
                  July 14 2021
                  Quote: Terran Ghost
                  Heh

                  I'm talking about the level of representation of the technologies of the future. In details. Buttons, raised monitors, etc.
                  Quote: Terran Ghost
                  But hardly like witchcraft

                  Yes, at that time the belief in scientific and technological progress ruled, and not fantasy obscurantism. request
    2. Cat
      +4
      July 13 2021
      In some Russian newspaper

      AIDS Info?
  4. +7
    July 13 2021
    First you need to throw Einstein's theory of relativity into the trash can, these postulates only slow down science. This is the first thing. Second, our knowledge of matter in the universe is based on the imaginations of the authors, and their often erroneous calculations. In other words, we learn about the universe one millionth of a percent, and we reason as if such a part of the universe 'is one millionth of a percent, it remains for us to study. The speed of light can be a critical value only for our level of development, or only for space with three points of measurement. Perhaps we are deliberately given initially false information, and the solution to the problem of travel to other galaxies already exists.
    1. +9
      July 13 2021
      the solution to the problem of traveling to other galaxies already exists.
      Here the main thing is to buy a valid and licensed gravity app not cheaper than for half of the CC, and you need to take it in the center and in a specialized store, and not in a dubious sharashka on the outskirts, where two chatlas are cheaper! If the trademark is the entire Galaxy in front of us!
      1. +8
        July 13 2021
        Made in Japan, Made in Germany, at worst, usa will do. But china ... I don't know, I don't know ...
    2. +1
      July 14 2021
      Einstein's theory of relativity needs to be thrown into the trash can, these postulates only slow down science

      What?
      The speed of light can be critical only for our level of development

      What?
    3. +1
      July 16 2021
      Perhaps ... there is already a solution to the problem of traveling to other galaxies.

      Of course there is like two fingers on the asphalt. You can buy passes at any railway ticket office. You just need to know the password. And the password is: "Do you have a Slavic wardrobe for sale?" Review: "Slavic wardrobe is sold. There is a nickel-plated bed with a bedside table." And then you name the galaxy and the corresponding star system and that's it. And fly, fly, fly ... Don't forget to slow down in time.
    4. 0
      July 19 2021
      Absolutely true!
  5. +12
    July 13 2021
    The main thing is to learn how to colonize other planets before we drown in our own shit on this one. Or before we kill each other.
    1. +9
      July 13 2021
      Well, let's colonize, so what? In a hundred years, the colonies will declare independence, and a war between the mother country and the colonies will begin.
      1. +8
        July 13 2021
        Rather civil. Everyone will start looking at each other through the visor. Which point is responsible? - green! Now look at him - also green. And you have a green one! And they will see which point is orange? This is because he is a chatlanin! This is outrageous racism!
        1. +2
          July 14 2021
          "To look at the visitor" is not a war, but peace and harmony. Everyone follows the established order, everyone is happy with everything. Boys squat on the Chatlan planets. Chatlanes squat on patsak planets. Nobody kills anyone - not even for a box of matches.
      2. +8
        July 13 2021
        On a global scale, the main thing is to preserve the species, it is too dangerous to stay on one single planet for a long time)
    2. Cat
      +2
      July 13 2021
      The main thing is to learn how to colonize other planets before we drown in our own shit on this one.

      And then the main thing is not to stop ...
  6. +6
    July 13 2021
    And it would be nice to fly on an excursion to Mars at the weekend. But, not in the near future.
    1. +3
      July 13 2021
      Quote: Bradley
      fly on an excursion to Mars on the weekend

      Why do you hate Martians so much ?!
      1. +1
        July 14 2021
        We have the same story, people on the shore cannot clean up after themselves. Pigs. We clean it ourselves, aliens .......
  7. +1
    July 13 2021
    And if you have to fight aliens
    Mdyaya ..... yes they will be taken to "A and B sat on the pipe" laughing and so, stop with your articles. True, it’s not funny anymore, there’s just not enough money for all this. And for your fairy tales to come true, you need to solve many problems in the world.
  8. +11
    July 13 2021
    Gravitsapa!
    Let's say this is a replica of the antimatter reactor that propels an alien spacecraft, only half the size.
    Inside is a small container with a lid.
    The lid opens, and there is element 115 inside.
    Let's say that this piece is 50 or 60 ... megatons in TNT equivalent.
    A curious model .. And how much does it cost? Actually, I'm not an expert on these gravity feeds, but I know for sure that we, on Plyuk, have half a match. Fewit universe! in five seconds!
  9. KCA
    +5
    July 13 2021
    We cannot build a thermonuclear reactor for 80 years, but here a warp engine, maybe it will be, in 200-500 years
  10. +5
    July 13 2021
    The discovery of LIGO a few years ago was a huge step forward in science, as it experimentally proved that spacetime can "warp" and bend in the presence of huge gravitational fields.
    The author, damn it, tie a drink! According to your Einstein, gravity is a property of space! This means that there can be no fields, no waves. Or Einstein, or waves, the author, both are not compatible) True, he would go to the doctor, the doctor would give a pill, Einstein would retreat even for a while ...
    1. +5
      July 13 2021
      According to Einstein, space is the medium of interaction of bodies defined as a field and the equations with which he operated consider the relationship of the curvature of the metric of space with energy. No need to drive a snowstorm on grandfather. :) By the energy spent on the formation of gravitational waves, he explained to the scientific community the precession of the perihelion of Mercury.
      1. 0
        July 14 2021
        As soon as it comes to equations and a mathematical model ... Mathematics is a language. ONLY language and that's it. In this case, of course, in principle it is impossible to distinguish whether the model describes a real phenomenon of nature, or is it just a set of mathematical symbols.
        It was boiling!
        Slinky shorts ...
        Until a mathematical model is confirmed by clear, precise, unambiguous experience, it does not mean anything. Absolutely nothing. It does not have the slightest significance, and of course, one cannot rely on it in the knowledge of the world.
        Apparently, Einstein painted his models to stop research in the field of matter, energy and gravity. Because since the time of his "discoveries" physicists have written a lot of dissertations, received mountains of money and gave people nothing. Absolutely nothing. There are absolutely no results in the cognition of matter, energy and space. In fact, humanity uses Newton's discoveries and elementary, descriptive electrical engineering and electronics, taken as the result of practical observation.
        Your math gimmicks and jumps allow you to fool money. There is no knowledge behind them even on the hair.
  11. +8
    July 13 2021
    In order to steal money with superluminal speed, any technology will do. It's just that with fantastic ones it turns out faster! laughing
  12. +7
    July 13 2021
    Rave. Gravitational waves, and this has already been confirmed experimentally, propagates at the speed of light, no matter what energies the authors operate on, even outrageous, the fact remains. No bubble (a strange structural element - soap should be), no matter how pushed it, will not move faster.
    1. Cat
      +1
      July 13 2021
      No bubble (odd design - soap should be)

      Spherical warp in a liquid vacuum.
      1. +1
        July 14 2021
        The main thing to name is mysterious! Why liquid? - Vacuum is solid by definition, what kind of bubbles are there?
  13. +5
    July 13 2021
    "The ship has moved and is cutting through the waves.
    Floats. Where should we sail? "(A.S. Pushkin)
    Where to fly? For what? Which course to choose: up, down or left? Or fly in to blot out the next planet, start killing its inhabitants?
    Maybe it is better to defeat cancer in mass medicine, child mortality, put everyone's teeth in, to a hair dryer, and let theoretical calculations and superluminal speeds remain in theory?
    1. +5
      July 13 2021
      The ocean, to explore .. what is near. As they say pardone, we can foul, but .. to study and clean.
  14. +8
    July 13 2021
    If only Rogozin didn't know about the warp drive ... sad
    1. +4
      July 13 2021
      God forbid ... then the end of the "Kalabukhov" house, in the sense of the Russian space program
  15. +6
    July 13 2021
    Author, but there is no such crazy idea, how to build hulls for spacecraft, engines and fuel for them from household waste, which is almost never recycled in the ground? And of course:
    Let's assume. The United States has at least one type of warp apparatus inherited from aliens.
    laughing
  16. +6
    July 13 2021
    A man and a cat are crying at the window
    Gray rain drips directly onto the glass
    An ambulance is going to a man with a cat
    To a poor man, the patient's brain was reduced
    The doctor rides-rides through the snowy plain
    He is bringing healing powder to people
    The man and the cat will take the powder
    And sadness will recede and longing will pass
    The man and the cat can hardly count the days
    Instead of a blue sky, a gray ceiling
    Man and cat fly at night
    Only a dream is not prophetic - it does not give wings
    The doctor rides-rides through the snowy plain
    He is bringing healing powder to people
    The man and the cat will take the powder
    And sadness will recede and longing will pass
    "Where are you, where are you, where are you - the white carriage?"
    In the walls of the toilet, a man screams
    But the walls do not hear - the pipes are like veins
    And the drain tank is beating like a heart
    The doctor rides-rides through the snowy plain
    He is bringing healing powder to people
    The man and the cat will take the powder
    And sadness will recede and longing will pass
  17. +8
    July 13 2021
    is a concept of how a spaceship can travel efficiently at speeds faster than the speed of light, based on the solution of Einstein's field equations in the special theory of relativity.

    Waves rolled over the pier and fell down with a swift jack.
    Author! There are no field equations in the special Theory of Relativity! This is in the General Theory. You don't have to read further.
  18. Cat
    +8
    July 13 2021
    And why laugh over the article? I do not know who the surrounding people think of the author, but Tsiolkovsky was also considered an urban madman. And that's how it came out belay
  19. +5
    July 13 2021
    The simplest explanation for why you cannot travel faster than the speed of light is that if it did, the effect might appear before its cause (we might get a phone call before the caller thinks about it).

    The author, being completely ignorant of the issue under consideration, undertakes to give this issue "the simplest explanation" with a mentoring tone.
    Meanwhile, the above quote shows that the author did not even master the physics course for the 11th grade, in which the postulates of the special theory of relativity are studied. Accordingly, the author completely lacks understanding of the principle of causality and understanding of an event in GR and SR.
    Is it really so difficult for the site administration to acquire a more or less competent consultant so as not to post such obscurantism on the resource.
    1. +4
      July 13 2021
      Judging by the minuses, obscurantism has sprouted.
    2. 0
      July 19 2021
      What has general relativity and special relativity given to humanity in practical terms? Well, that's real. Newton laid the foundation for modern civilization. There are Maxwells, Boras, Popovs. What did Einstein give? Has frozen the development of science? This is undeniable.
      1. 0
        July 19 2021
        What prevents you from creating your own theory and giving science a new acceleration?
        1. 0
          July 20 2021
          Mentally weak. And those who can, they simply will not be given. This is how many dissertations have been defended, scientific degrees received, the budget has been mastered and is being mastered by the scientific world. Just take everything and cross it out? To admit that we have been doing the wrong thing for decades? Aether theory, for example, in its modern sense?
          1. 0
            July 20 2021
            How did you determine the fallacy of the theory of relativity - experimentally, empirically? Or hearsay?
        2. 0
          August 1 2021
          Quote: Author
          According to Albert's special theory of relativity ..

          but what does alik odokamushkin have to do with it?
          he was given a Nobel Prize for something completely different)))
  20. +3
    July 13 2021

    It seems not loafers and could live
  21. +5
    July 13 2021
    Quote: parusnik
    The ocean, to explore .. what is near. As they say pardone, we can foul, but .. to study and clean.

    The person has not studied the work of his own brain - without knowing ourselves, we climb the ecumene to study.
  22. +5
    July 13 2021
    if the amers are told that there is a lot of oil on the alpha centaurus, they will quickly get there
  23. +2
    July 13 2021
    This is a normal, highly intellectual level of commentators and commentators. This article should have been posted about five years ago, then there were still educated and interesting people on VO, but now ...
  24. 0
    July 13 2021
    Actually, in order to travel faster than the speed of light, you need to go through the wormhole from the black hole singularity to the white hole singularity. To do this, you must first cross the event horizon.
    Einstein suggested the existence of a subspace wormhole and a white hole from which matter escapes, absorbed by the black hole. Since then, white holes have been unsuccessfully searched for, as a result, a stereotype has formed in the scientific community that they say that white holes do not exist in the Universe at all.
    Since then, the existence of dark matter and dark energy has been discovered. And, after all, if a white hole is the opposite of a black hole, then dark matter is actually the most promising candidate for the substance that, in theory, should come from a white hole. After what happened to matter in a singularity, it no longer enters into electromagnetic interaction, this is logical.
    If a black hole tends to contract, the white hole, on the other hand, must expand. One cannot look beyond the event horizon of a black hole, as scientists say. Therefore, the event horizon of the white hole must be completely transparent for astrophysical observation ...
    The most probable, but also the most unexpected candidates for white holes are then cosmic voids, expanding intergalactic voids. Voids grow in size, and dark matter comes out of them, forming a galactic halo. A new space-time appears in the voids, and, consequently, Time itself. Thus, the cosmic entrances are the Sources of Time. In a black hole, time slows down, stops. And in the singularity of the white hole, a new time is born, a new space.
    Black holes can merge, then white holes can divide. Can voids be shared? Why not? These are anti-gravity areas of negative density, filled with dark energy.
    A white hole is the opposite of a black hole, but the opposite is asymmetric.
    The intergalactic gas in the entrance is abnormally hot, the cause is unknown. The white hole has a plasma event horizon and is fractal in shape, judging by the CMB anisotropy map. There are many black holes and many of their singularities in the Galaxy, but relative to all the singularities of black holes in the Galaxy there is only one white hole singularity.
    On the other hand, several galaxies can be simultaneously located near the cosmic void, and thus, in the void, in this plasma white hole, there can be several singularities at once.
    If you know where the white hole is, you can put a “mirror”, look beyond the event horizon of the black hole using the methods of mathematical physics, then unfold the “mirror” to look beyond the event horizon of the white hole, the cosmic void, this huge plasma expanding fractal. A fractal in mathematics is a set, it will be logical if a white hole is mathematically described as a set…. Plasma array, damn it ...
    If you go through the wormhole in both directions from the black hole singularity to the white singularity and from the white hole singularity to the black singularity, and then leave the confines of these mysterious objects, then it is possible to travel in space faster than light in two different ways. Direct one probe in one direction, and the second in the opposite direction, then you get a derivative from a white hole and a derivative from a black one. This Horsemen of the Apocalypse turns out, an artificial black hole and an artificial white hole together are the most terrible weapons in the universe. Big cannon and very big cannon Black hole and White ...
    1. -1
      July 13 2021
      However, it is impossible for the probe to pass through the wormhole; it will be crushed by gravity in the black hole. A body entering a black hole will inevitably stretch out, spaghettification occurs. So we need to send probes - in the form of spaghetti. A snake to endure. If the probe has anti-gravitational potential, it should be thrown out of the black hole beyond the event horizon, which violates the causal relationship, because nothing can leave the black hole. And the probe-snake will be thrown out inside the neighboring star system, inside the star's astrosphere. It will, as it were, remain inside the black hole, will never be able to go out into interstellar space, and will jump from system to system. Horses are jumping, riders are jumping ...
      Although, if antimatter meets matter, mutual annihilation will occur ... It is not clear how to create such a probe that will withstand the conditions of a black hole environment. The main thing is to transmit information, the probe must carry information, a program.

      The singularity of the black hole gravitates, the singularity of the white hole, then, on the contrary, should anti-gravitate. If the singularity of the black hole is in one place, that is, it is stationary, then the singularity of the white hole will be wandering, located in the most rarefied place of the entrance relative to the galaxy. And the wormhole will then have a tree-like structure, since there are many black holes in the galaxy. The white hole is like a pump, pumping matter out of the galaxy through black holes and turning it into something else. Scientists say this: "In the first fraction of a second after the Big Bang ...", but there weren't any "fractions of a second" until the singularities of the white holes started working. Scientists do not know where the white holes are, do not believe that they exist at all, and thus do not know about the nature of time. But even the entire vacuum of the Solar System is a reaction product in the singularity of the void, a changeable fiery abyss that grows, generates space-time, is associated with the mysteries of dark matter, with fundamental discoveries of recent decades ...



      1. -1
        July 14 2021
        A probe derived from a black hole will be something like this, spaghetti twisted along a cylindrical line into a spring, with its own event horizon. The singularity of a black hole is the center of mass, and the center of mass is not necessarily located in the center of the black hole, because it is gravitationally bound to the surrounding stars and other matter. The singularity should be a little "sausage" in a spiral.

        The derivative probe from the white hole is more complicated, since if there is Pi in the black hole, then it will no longer be in the white hole. There is no Pi, everything is different there. If electromagnetic interaction occurs in a black hole, then it does not occur in a white hole. Therefore, in fact, it is transparent. If the black hole singularity is surrounded by dense baryonic matter, then the white singularity should be in the empty place.
  25. +2
    July 13 2021
    In general, it is clear that nothing is clear ...
  26. 0
    July 13 2021
    The discovery of LIGO a few years ago was a huge step forward in science, as it experimentally proved that spacetime can "warp" and bend in the presence of huge gravitational fields.
    Well, not because of that, but because it recorded gravitational waves. The curvature of the prvr, "static" confirms the gravitational lensing, which is perfectly visible in the photographs, such photographs are a hundred years old at lunchtime.
    the ship itself remains at sublight speeds inside the bubble, according to Einstein's theory of relativity.
    without a warp engine, in the presence of suitable fuel, accelerate to your health, in your frame of reference, the distance will shrink, since the speed of light is unchanged, for the investor of all this disgrace, who will watch you from the Earth, the speed will be subluminal. For you, in your frame of reference, too, but the distance to the object of travel for him and for you will be different as well as the travel time, and you can fly, according to your watch, there at a reasonable time and return. The problem is that the investor will surely have time to die a million times, and you will be fried in a stream of gamma radiation, which will become visible light, radio waves, etc. due to the compression of space along your route.
  27. +3
    July 14 2021
    Started for health and finished ... for RenTV?
    It's a shame that real scientific works are mentioned here, which put on a par with UFOs with an antimatter engine (
  28. +1
    July 14 2021
    Suppose what happens: Element 115 creates Element 116, which immediately decomposes, releases antimatter, and forms a gravitational wave.

    How does the radioactive decay of any element "release antimatter" if the atom itself does not contain it (antimatter)?
    1. 0
      July 15 2021
      A PET tomograph works on this effect. Only in the article is nonsense written. How are they going to use this effect. There is no anti-gravity and anti-energy. And the gravitational potential of antimatter is equal to the same ordinary matter. And it is always there. And he is always positive. What is the meaning of antimatter in the example, the author of the article himself did not understand, but wrote.
  29. +1
    July 14 2021
    the universe is 13 billion years old, just imagine what a civilization can achieve in a million years. and in a billion thousand million. multiply this by the number of stars in the galaxy, only one galaxy will have thousands of civilizations, or even hundreds of thousands. how many galaxies are there in the universe? millions - billions of different civilizations that have been developing and exploring space for millions, billions of years. WHERE ARE THEY ? why can't you see them? Yes, our planet billions of years ago should have been mastered and populated by someone. we, in principle, should not be. space would be very different. in the solar system there must be millions of different active objects of advanced civilizations. but they are not!
    I see only one conclusion: travel between the stars is not possible in principle. no one has been able to invent beyond light. he is not here. and even the ships of generations do not reach other stars, for some unknown reason.
    otherwise the world would be different.
    1. 0
      July 16 2021
      Have you ever thought that these very other civilizations just fly far to us? And expensive (in terms of energy and labor costs)?
      The speed of light cannot be exceeded in reality, no matter what physicists are indulging in.
      1. 0
        July 19 2021
        The speed of light cannot be exceeded in reality

        And what have you already checked? When? Where?
        1. +1
          July 22 2021
          This is already someone who has not checked / counted.
  30. +1
    July 14 2021
    Antimatter doesn't exist. There is no negative energy. The Casimir effect (like other effects based on a decrease in the intensity of vacuum fluctuations) is not anti-energy. This is only a decrease in the energy potential of the energy of the vacuum in relation to the true vacuum. But she is always positive! The article several times contradicts itself and the theory of SRT and GRT.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. 0
      July 15 2021
      Sorry, antimatter certainly exists. It was about anti-gravity and anti-energy.
  31. -1
    July 14 2021
    Where do they get such nonsense ...? With an increase in speed, bodies that have a rest mass acquire energy. The closer it is to C, the higher the energy, turning to infinity when C is equal.
    As for the black hole, there is a way to avoid the rupture by tidal forces is to choose a very large black hole of several billion solar masses. The tidal forces at the event horizon in it are no more than on the surface of the Earth, and you can fly into it without noticing anything.
    For travel, it is better to choose a rotating BH - there the singularity has the shape of a ring (Kerr's solution), and theoretically there are trajectories past the singularity.
    But there are problems. In the very concept of BH, there is much that is unclear, for example, the asymmetric collapse of rarefied gas clouds. It is unclear whether a singularity is formed there at all when the horizon is closed. Also, recent observations of our BH in the center of the Milky Way did not confirm theoretical calculations for the gravitational potentials of this object.
  32. +1
    July 15 2021
    Element 115 is Muscovy, which has not yet been obtained in a stable state on Earth, or at least in Russia.


    Received in 2003 in Dubna. The article is interesting, but in terms of the required energies, you are mistaken: it is necessary to curb the energy of the explosion of the star. After that, a person's triumphant campaign to the stars will begin.
    1. 0
      July 16 2021
      Will not start. Rather, not from this
      1. 0
        July 21 2021
        And why? The atom is still strong in itself. And he will not give enough energy
  33. 0
    July 16 2021
    And at first I liked this place:
    The simplest explanation for why you cannot travel faster than the speed of light is that if it did, the effect might appear before its cause (we might get a phone call before the caller thinks about it).

    And then I was puzzled, what will happen with me, with others, with all of us? I just sit, do nothing, even where / who to call and what I will talk about, I don’t think, but to all my acquaintances / friends / relatives, etc. I have already received calls from someone I do not know, because I have not called yet (or rather, I’m still going to think about it and decide who I’ll call first) sad And the hell, then I'll break my head and think about where / to whom / about what ... Then I'll leave everything to decide on the phone, let his "head" hurt, and I'll do something necessary and useful then. If so, then I agree and ready! wassat
  34. 0
    July 18 2021
    And why not, in this world everything that can be imagined is possible ... what
  35. 0
    July 19 2021
    In general, I liked the article. Very interesting!
  36. The comment was deleted.

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