Military Review

Aviation of the Red Army of the Great Patriotic War (part of 6) - Yakovlev fighters

41
During the Great Patriotic Design Bureau, Yakovlev worked with extraordinary stress, which could be considered normal for such a difficult time. With great efforts, the most successful Soviet fighters were designed and introduced into production. "Yaks" during the war were produced at 15 aircraft plants. Every day, up to 38 Yak fighters rolled off the assembly line. The fleet of these beautiful fighters was at the end of the war almost 2/3 of the entire Soviet fighter aviation. The words "Yak" and the fighter in Russian became synonymous, and Vladimir Vysotsky even wrote the song "Yak-fighter."


Over the 1941-1945 years, more than 40 000 Yak fighters were released: 35 086 combat fighters Yak-1, Yak-7, Yak-9, Yak-3 and dozens of their various modifications and options, 4 955-X-9X-9J-9J-9J-9J-9J-9J-11N-9J-9J-3X-6X-6X-6X-6X-6X-6X-6X-6X-6X-2-18 X-NUMX 1942 12 X-NUMX fighter jets and more than a dozen of various modifications and variants, 1944-25-X-9X shar-rifled projets, X-YUM-XNUMX fighter jets and dozens of various modifications and options, XNUMX XNUMX-YN-XNUMX and X-10NXX XNUMX X-NUMX fighter jets were released. also used as combat. The Yakovlev OKB achieved its most important successes at the moment when it was most needed by the Motherland. Among the few Soviet enterprises during the Great Patriotic War, it was awarded: September XNUMX of the Year of Lenin with the Order of Lenin and November November XNUMX of XNUMX of the Order of the Red Banner. Flying on the Yak fighter, Alexander Pokryshkin, the Hero of the Soviet Union, received his first Gold Star three times. Of the XNUMX Soviet fighter pilots who were twice Heroes of the Soviet Union, most or part of the war fought on the Yaks, while the French pilots from the Normandie-Neman squadron once fought on the Yaks.
Aviation of the Red Army of the Great Patriotic War (part of 6) - Yakovlev fighters

Fighter Yak-1

The Yak-1 fighter was created under the guidance of designer A. S. Yakovlev and allowed to be tested in the 1940 year. The fighter was a cantilever monoplane with a mixed design that was reasonably well adapted to mass production conditions. The Yak-1 was one of the easiest fighters of its time. The take-off weight of the aircraft was equal to 2 847 kg., With the weight of an empty aircraft - 2 347 kg. The design of the fighter was mixed: the frame of the fuselage is shaped, welded from steel chromansil pipes. The nose part is sheathed by duralumin, tail - linen. The wing of the plane is wooden, pasted over with a canvas. The frame of the feathering is duralumin and is also sheathed in canvas. With the VK-105P engine, the Yak-1 could reach speeds up to 580 km / h and gained altitude in 5 000 meters in 5,4 minutes. In its combat and aerobatic qualities, it was one of the best front-line fighters.

The armament of the machine included a 1 ShVAK 20 mm cannon, fire was fired through the hollow shaft of the screw reducer, as well as the 2 X-synchronous rapid-fire machine-gun ShKAS rifle caliber. The peculiarity of this fighter because of its low weight was ease of piloting and good stability. In the first half of World War II, the aircraft was one of the main Soviet fighters. It is quite harmoniously combined weapons and excellent flight characteristics. Compared to the main German fighter Bf-109E, the Yak-1 possessed superiority in all types of maneuvers and in speed. But with the advent of a more sophisticated Bf-109F, its flight characteristics became insufficient.

Understanding this, in the Yakovlev Design Bureau, work was carried out to improve its combat potential. The aircraft has been modified several times. It changed the engine and weapons. When replacing the engine with an M-105PF, the aircraft also received new weapons: instead of 2-x 7,62-mm ShKAS machine guns, they installed a more powerful 12,7-mm UB machine gun on it. Work was also carried out to improve the aerodynamics of the fighter, it improved the view of the upper hemisphere from the cockpit and a radio appeared. All these measures allowed us to continuously maintain the excellent fighting qualities of the fighter, which remained in service with the Air Force throughout the war. During this time, 8 721 Yak-1 aircraft of all types was produced at the plants.

Performance characteristics of the Yak-1:

Dimensions: wingspan - 10,0 m., Length - 8,48 m.,
Wing area - 17,15 square. m
Aircraft takeoff weight - 2 850 kg.
Engine type - 1 PD M-105PA, power 1050 hp
The maximum speed is 569 km / h.
Practical range: 650 km.
Practical ceiling: 10 000 m.
Crew - 1 man.
Armament: 1X20-mm ShVAK cannon, 2x7,62-mm ShKAS machine gun.

Fighter Yak-7

Yak-7 was a Soviet single-engine fighter created shortly after the outbreak of World War II. The aircraft was designed on the basis of the Yak-7UTI training center, on which they mounted full-fledged armament, installed an armored seat, retrofitted gas tanks, a system for filling gas tanks with neutral gas from a carbon dioxide cylinder. In this case, the photo-cinema machine gun was dismantled, equipment and controls were removed from the instructor’s rear cockpit. After that, it became possible to use it for transferring small cargoes, for technical support when relocating parts, for delivering pilots from an emergency landing site, installing an additional fuel tank, etc.

The design of the Yak-7B repeated the design of the Yak-1 fighter and was mixed. At the same time, in comparison with the Yak-1, the single Yak-7 was a more advanced fighter with the following advantages: the engine was detachable, which allowed the aircraft to be modified to a different engine; the size of the wheels of the chassis is now fully consistent with the flight weight of the machine; due to the forward shift of the fighter center, the longitudinal stability has been significantly improved; the changed ratio between the stabilizer and elevator areas increased the elevator deflection and resulted in improved handling; an increase in the anti-capping angle by 1,5 ° to some extent reduced the risk of the vehicle nosing under heavy braking, and also reduced the path length during landing.

At the Yak-7B, the ShKAS machine guns were replaced with UBS, and the receiving and transmitting station RSI-4 was installed with a two-beam antenna and a mast. The fighter variants, which were intended for air defense, were fitted with a landing light, a radio-industrial companion RPK-10, and an electric-light signaling of the retracted landing gear position. The version of the aircraft with UBS machine guns met the requirements of the front and could be used against both air and ground targets. The aircraft was produced from 1942 year, 6399 machines of all modifications, including training ones, were released. The most massive model Yak-7B was produced from 1942 to 1944 year, all were collected 5120 fighters.

Performance characteristics of the Yak-7B:

Dimensions: wingspan - 10,0 m., Length - 8,5 m., Height - 2,75 m.
Wing area - 17,15 square. m
Aircraft takeoff weight - 3 010 kg.
Engine type - 1 PD M-105PF, power 1180 hp
The maximum speed is 570 km / h.
Practical range: 645 km.
Practical ceiling: 9 900 m.
Crew - 1 man.
Armament: 1X20-mm ShVAK cannon, 2x12,7-mm UBS machine gun.

Fighter Yak-9

The Yak-9 fighter was created by the Yakovlev Design Bureau at the end of 1942 and became the most massive Soviet fighter during the period of the Great Patriotic War. The experience of the first year of the war clearly showed that all Soviet fighters (to varying degrees) have one weak feature - insufficient power-to-hand ratio (the ratio of engine power to aircraft mass). That is why they were inferior to the new versions of the Messerschmitt fighter Bf-109F and Bf-109G in vertical maneuver and rate of climb. The fighter’s power supply could be increased either by replacing the engine with a more powerful one, or by reducing the payload (by loosening weapons, reducing fuel, etc.), or by facilitating the design by replacing wooden elements with metal ones. In the year 1942 in the USSR there was a real opportunity to use light aluminum alloys in the construction of at least some aircraft, and the Yak-9 became one of them.

When creating this aircraft, the Yak-7B fighter with the M-105PF engine was taken as the basis. When creating a new fighter, the wooden wing spars were replaced with metal ones. Only one this event allowed to throw 150 kg of weight. The armament of the fighter consisted of a cannon and a large-caliber synchronous machine gun. The aircraft received a slightly increased fuel capacity and a better view from the cockpit. Production of the Yak-9 fighter began at the end of the year 1942. The car had excellent maneuverability and excellent aerobatic qualities, was stable in control. Compared to the Yak-1 and the Yak-7B, the new fighter had greater speed, climb rate and better vertical maneuver. This fighter could successfully fight the best German cars.

Yak-9 has become a universal machine, possessing a wide specialization. In the 1943, the Yak-9T fighter, armed with a 37-mm cannon, was created, in 1944, the Yak-9K fighter, armed with an 45-mm cannon. These fighters were designed to fight bombers, as well as to attack ground targets. In 1943, Yak-9D fighters began to arrive at the front, having increased fuel reserves, and in 1944, the Yak-9DD version. The maximum range of the Yak-9D was 1400 km., The Yak-9DD - 1800 km, while the serial Yak-9, it was equal to 910 km.

After developing and bringing to the series a new powerful VK-107 engine designed by V. Ya. Klimov, Yakovlev had a rare opportunity to seriously improve the flight qualities of the Yak-9 fighter. At the very end of 1943, a new modification of the Yak-9U was created. This fighter had an excellent rate of climb and the highest speed, its performance was a record for the start of the 1944 of the year. Fighter Yak-9U favorably distinguished for its excellent maneuverability in both vertical and horizontal planes. In 1944, it began mass production, and the plane went to the front. After the war, its release continued for several more years. Yak-9U became one of the last piston fighters produced in the USSR. During the war years, 16 769 Yak-9 fighters of all modifications were released.

Performance characteristics of the Yak-9U:

Dimensions: wingspan - 9,74 m., Length - 8,55 m., Height - 3,0 m.
Wing area - 17,15 square. m
Aircraft takeoff weight - 3 204 kg.
Engine type - 1 PD VK-107А, power 1500 hp
The maximum speed is 672 km / h.
Practical range: 675 km.
Practical ceiling: 10 650 m.
Crew - 1 man.
Armament: 1X20-mm ShVAK cannon, 2x12,7-mm UBS machine gun.

Fighter Yak-3

The Yak-3 fighter was created by Yakovlev Design Bureau in 1943. With its design, the main emphasis was placed on a sharp increase in its flight data, which was to provide the aircraft with a decisive superiority in air battles with German fighters. Since at that time the designers did not have a suitable engine, they focused on improving the weight and aerodynamic perfection of the fighter. The basis was to take the well-known Yak-1. In this case, a significant reduction in aerodynamic drag was achieved by improving individual layout elements and reducing the size of the wing.

In comparison with the Yak-1, the new fighter has become lighter almost on the 200 kg. The engine builders, who conducted the second forcing of the M-105PF engine, raised their power by another 80 hp. The new engine received the designation M-105PF-2 (with 1944, VK-105PF-2). The serial production of the Yak-3 began in the 1944 year. Air battles demonstrated the superiority of the new fighter over enemy aircraft. The actions of the Soviet aviation units that had this fighter in service were distinguished by very high efficiency. French pilots from the Normandy-Neman regiment fought on the Yak-3. In terms of tactical use, the Yak-3 could not replace other fighters with more powerful weapons or range, but it complemented them perfectly. Yak-3 embodied the idea of ​​a light, maneuverable and high-speed fighter.

Of the shortcomings of the fighter pilots noted a small supply of fuel, which made the free hunt on this machine ineffective. Therefore, the Yak-3 is usually used on call ground posts. Another drawback was the weak attachment of the upper wing skin; even cases of its detachment at the fighter’s exit from a dive with the maximum speed were recorded. Knowing about this feature, the pilots tried not to enter the unacceptable mode, so the cases with the collapse of the skin stopped, and the maneuverable and light aircraft quickly gained popularity. Yak-3 was one of the most sophisticated Soviet fighters of the war, its design was different rationality and simplicity. In all, during the war years, the 4 848 Yak-3 fighters were launched.

Performance characteristics of the Yak-3:

Dimensions: wingspan - 9,2 m., Length - 8,5 m., Height - 2,42 m.
Wing area - 14,85 square. m
Aircraft takeoff weight - 2 692 kg.
Engine type - 1 PD VK-105PF-2, power 1240 hp
The maximum speed is 646 km / h.
Practical range: 648 km.
Practical ceiling: 10 400 m.
Crew - 1 man.
Armament: 1X20-mm ShVAK cannon, 2x12,7-mm UBS machine gun.

Information sources:
-http: //www.otvoyna.ru/yaki.htm
-http://voenhronika.ru/publ/vtoraja_mirovaja_vojna_sssr_khronika/sovetskaja_aviacija_vtoroj_mirovoj_vojny_rossija_serij_2009_god/22-1-0-921
-http: //www.airwar.ru/enc/fww2/yak7b.html
-http: //www.airwar.ru/enc/fww2/yak1.html
-http: //www.airwar.ru/enc/fww2/yak9u-107.html
-http: //www.airwar.ru/enc/fww2/yak3.html
Yak Fighters

During the Great Patriotic War, the Yakovlev Design Bureau worked with unusual stress, normal for that difficult time. With tremendous efforts, the most successful Soviet fighters were created. “Yaks” were produced at 15 plants. Up to 38 cars left the conveyors daily. The park of these beautiful heavenly predators accounted for two-thirds of the entire Soviet fighter aviation. The words "Yak" and "Fighter" have become synonymous. This film talks about stories the creation and features of these wonderful machines.

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  1. Stas57
    Stas57 4 September 2012 10: 14 New
    0
    Decent car.
    Well done our designers, who created it in difficult conditions
    1. Vadivak
      Vadivak 4 September 2012 16: 17 New
      0
      Quote: Stas57
      Well done our designers, who created it in difficult conditions


      Yakovlev's design for all fighters became the Yak-1, the first flight on January 13, 1940, the defective list for the car consisted of 123 items. state tests, - could not stand it, but the deputy. People's Commissar Yakovlev "punched" his car
  2. Civil
    Civil 4 September 2012 10: 59 New
    +2
    There is no way without a song "Yak-fighter"

  3. GHG
    GHG 4 September 2012 11: 15 New
    +2
    Yakovlev has an interesting book, his autobiography from the series "ZhZL". Whoever I have read I recommend, there is everything about him and about the work of designers and their design bureaus in those years. It is called "The Purpose of Life. Notes of an Aircraft Designer."
    1. Zerstorer
      Zerstorer 4 September 2012 12: 06 New
      0
      Well then, I advise you to read Adler's book "Earth and Sky. Notes of an Aircraft Designer". The people who created these planes deserve to be remembered. And many have already begun to be forgotten, for example, about Adler and Schechter.
    2. Brother Sarych
      Brother Sarych 4 September 2012 12: 56 New
      0
      And it seemed to me that the Purpose of Life and Notes of the aircraft designer are two different books - first published the Notes of the aircraft designer, and then the Purpose of Life, then there were also books, for example Soviet aircraft ...
      The books are interesting, I at one time almost memorized them, but then I realized that Alexander Sergeyevich was not always sincere ...
      1. Gamdlislyam
        Gamdlislyam 4 September 2012 14: 09 New
        0
        Of all the books that I read about Yakovlev A.S. and his planes, as it seems to me, are the most objective - "Unknown Yakovlev." Iron "aircraft designer". Author - Nikolay Vasilievich Yakubovich.
        Link - http://www.bukvaved.net/biography/69068-neizvestnyjmjakovlev.mzheleznyjmaviakons
        truktor.html
    3. Vadivak
      Vadivak 4 September 2012 16: 05 New
      +1
      Quote: GES
      "Purpose of life. Notes of an aircraft designer."


      What can’t you write about yourself your beloved deputy people's commissar
      1. Jipo
        Jipo 4 September 2012 17: 00 New
        -1
        I read these memoirs in the year 87, the book is still at home, there is no desire to reread it for sure. The author himself hardly wrote this book, he probably helped sometimes, like Zhukov and other greats from the 30-40s. The most valuable thing there, for me, was the story of the creation of Spitfire by Mitchell, there was noticeable admiration for Yakovlev's colleague. What can I say, the man was undoubtedly talented, he considered himself so great at all, managed to slip through 36-38 years (he was Rykov's son-in-law and called the airplane in his honor AIR), Stalin noticed him, made him a great official and the suit flooded, I think in those days many wanted to be in his place. And the best, at that time, Polikarpov's planes were scrapped, who needed this "convict", besides being sick? The backlog of these fighters, of course, did not disappear, Lavochkin used them skillfully and these planes beat the Nazis very well.
        1. Gamdlislyam
          Gamdlislyam 4 September 2012 18: 48 New
          +1
          Dear JIPO colleague, I advise you, A. Yakovlev never was Rykov’s son-in-law.
          The family of the first aircraft of the aircraft designer A.S. Yakovlev - AIR. was named after A.I. Rykov. The first aircraft was named "A. I. R." in gratitude for the support that the amateur designer constantly received from the ODVF and his successor Aviakhim from the very beginning of his work in aviation in 1923. The chairman of these organizations since the creation of the ODVF in 1923 was A.I. Rykov, the chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR. When preparing the aircraft "A. I. R." for the flight Moscow - Kharkov - Sevastopol - Moscow, the side number RR-AIR (in Russian AIR) was applied to the aircraft fuselage. Subsequently, when new designs by A.S. Yakovlev appeared, they were also called AIRs, and the first car was baptized into AIR-1. The abbreviation AIR was used as part of the name of A.S. Yakovlev's aircraft up to the AIR-18 in 1937, when A. I. Rykov was repressed.
          When, after Rykov’s arrest, Yakovlev was asked a question about the name of the aircraft abbreviation, he replied that in English this is the name of air.
          And the first wife of A. Yakovlev there was an adopted daughter of Rudzutak, Yan Ernestovich (1926-1937 - deputy chairman of the Council of People's Commissars and Service Stations of the USSR,
          since 1931 - chairman of the Central Control Commission of the CPSU (b) and the People's Commissar of the Russian Federation)
          1. Jipo
            Jipo 4 September 2012 20: 53 New
            -1
            I apologize for the incorrect information, but I didn’t come up with it myself, I read it from some author, which is now impossible to remember. Although Rudzutak in the late 30s. as a relative, too, did not cause pleasant sensations, they could be punished for communication with an enemy of the people accused of spying for Germany. Why not punished? So it is only in Khrushchev’s memoirs that everyone was repressed in a row, without fault of the guilty.
        2. Vadivak
          Vadivak 4 September 2012 19: 05 New
          +1
          Quote: JIPO
          re-read the desire is not for sure.


          Similarly
    4. Alf
      Alf 4 September 2012 18: 17 New
      +1
      Yakovlev said a lot of things in this book, but said little, by and large, only water.
    5. dobry-ork
      dobry-ork 4 September 2012 23: 23 New
      0
      Oh yes, a really interesting book, at one time I read excitedly
  4. AlexMH
    AlexMH 4 September 2012 12: 01 New
    +2
    Unfortunately, up to 44, our planes were always one step worse than the German ones. The main reasons are the lack of sufficiently powerful motors, the lack of duralumin, which forced the use of wood (and heavy wood, pine, in general, not light balsa, like the British) and low production culture at the evacuated enterprises. Therefore, on the YAKs, up to the latest version of the 9th and of course the 3rd, our pilots could hardly conduct an offensive battle, they had to predominantly use horizontal maneuver (9 using better maneuverability), which led to defensive tactics. On the other hand, as soon as the designers received more powerful motors and increased the proportion of duralumin in the design, the situation improved. The famous order of the German command "not to engage in battle with the new Yak (Yak-3)" is not an invention of propagandists (read by Schwabedissen), it is just that heavier German fighters began to lose in vertical maneuver, therefore, tying a "dog dump" with a obviously more nimble the enemy was not profitable for them. In general, the criticism of some types of historians that Yakovlev made plywood fighters, which were clearly worse than competitors, are unfair. He made the machines that the situation in the industry allowed him, and they became our main fighters in the War (Luggov and La were produced 2 times less, imported aircraft made up about 1/8 of the total fleet).
    1. Igarr
      Igarr 4 September 2012 13: 03 New
      +3
      Go to airforce.ru
      There are memories of the pilots of World War II.
      They explain there popularly - both a step is worse and a jump is better.
      Your planes - maybe they were worse.
      And our, the Soviet, even the I-153 quite so-so filled up Messer "In the sky of the Moscow region."
      .
      Not so much the technical characteristics matter. How many in combat use.
      Messers are "obviously" better - they've blown the war. Tigers, animal machines - unconditional surrender.
      And all accounting.
      1. Vadivak
        Vadivak 4 September 2012 16: 03 New
        +2
        Quote: Igarr
        Not so much the technical characteristics matter. How many in combat use.


        Well, if our Polikarpovsky I-185 had a chance, there wouldn’t be a chance at all at all
        1. Kibb
          Kibb 4 September 2012 16: 50 New
          +2
          Quote: Vadivak
          Well, if our Polikarpovsky I-185 had a chance, there wouldn’t be a chance at all at all

          Well, it wasn’t, the I185 is a theoretically chic car, so what's the point? There is no motor, yes, I understand that it is better under AS82 (M82) than La5, but it was made under a different engine, and both fought on both 16 and 153, there are Poles on PZL 11 ass. And after all, the Su6 clearly outperforms IL2, and Tu2 and Pawns-motor, where is the motor? Would the M107 be in the 41st other question, or the M90 ​​or M71? And so the sense to pour from the empty ....
          1. Vadivak
            Vadivak 4 September 2012 19: 20 New
            +2
            Quote: Kibb
            There is no motor


            Well, Polikarpov hoped everything was 71, but 82 had to be set
            1. Kibb
              Kibb 5 September 2012 11: 08 New
              0
              Vadim, I know that you understand this, for the rest - it would have been I185 with m71 gans WOULD be transferred to the "slag" ... but it wasn’t
    2. Gamdlislyam
      Gamdlislyam 4 September 2012 13: 53 New
      0
      He (Yakovlev A.S.) made the machines that the industrial situation allowed him to do, and it was they who became our main fighters in the War

      Colleague Alexei is right, designers and production workers did what the conditions of the war allowed. However, pilots of less than average qualification could fly on these aircraft, i.e. green youths who just graduated from flight schools ..
      At the same time, LaGG and La could be controlled by pilots no lower than average qualifications, and MiG and R-39, R-63 - only higher than average qualifications.
      An interesting feature was in the Air Force during the war. On the P-39, they mainly rearm the regiments that previously flew on the Yaks
      1. Igarr
        Igarr 4 September 2012 15: 12 New
        +1
        Well yes...
        Pokryshkin was offended by A.S. Yakovlev. for inattention (in the book "The Sky of War") - therefore, no review about the Yak-1. ".. I'm dumping the perforated Yak into the clouds ..."
        And Lavochkin - treated with soul. Therefore, Pokryshkin flew away with the slave to LA-5 home, in the Krasnodar Territory, I don’t remember exactly now.
        And then the Cobras came up. So Pokryshkin and his division on the Cobras ended the war.
        And Lavrinenko clearly writes - the Cobra on a dive begins to "wag" its nose, due to the central location of the engine. Therefore, all the power of the airborne weapon - on a dive was redundant.
        Pokryshkin does not write about this, although it was like an ace, give me the way.
        Naval aviation that the Baltic, the Black Sea flew all the way to the LAGG-3 - and highly appreciated this plane (Lacquered Guaranteed Coffin).
        On the airforce, the polar pilot writes about the Yak-9 armed with the 57-mm gun. Read - stunned.
        "We are flying, the speed is 500. Shot - the plane froze in the air. The speed dropped to 400. Again I accelerate. Shot - the plane is again like a wall" - my transmission, from memory. He also had 37 9 mm projectiles - they drowned a transport of 3000 tons. They were not believed.
        So ... the planes weren't bad. Amers, for example, their "Cobra" and did not hold the plane. She did not go with them, on the Western Front.
        But ours were delighted with the car.
        Kozhedub except LA-5FN, but LA-7 - no others are needed.
        ..
        In people, the thing.
        And, a little bit, in technology.
        1. Kibb
          Kibb 4 September 2012 15: 58 New
          +1
          Quote: Igarr
          Lavrinenko clearly writes - the Cobra starts to wag its nose on a dive, due to the central location of the engine. Therefore, all the power of the airborne weapon - on a dive was redundant.

          That’s why they shot wing, although Pokryshkin’s like a five-point
          Quote: Igarr
          Naval aviation that the Baltic, the Black Sea flew all the way to the LAGG-3 - and highly appreciated this plane (Lacquered Guaranteed Coffin).

          Fact. Accompanied until 44g flew, but ... accompanied
          Quote: Igarr
          a 37-mm shell, 9 pieces - drowned vehicles of 3000 tons. They did not believe them.

          You yourself believe it
          Quote: Igarr
          So ... the planes weren't bad. Amers, for example, their "Cobra" and did not hold the plane. She did not go with them, on the Western Front.
          But ours were delighted with the car.

          Well, right - everyone in their place
          1. Gamdlislyam
            Gamdlislyam 4 September 2012 19: 09 New
            0
            Quote: Igarr
            Naval aviation that the Baltic, the Black Sea flew all the way to the LAGG-3 - and highly appreciated this plane (Lacquered Guaranteed Coffin).

            Dear colleague Igor, in the Baltic since 1943 they flew on the Yaks and La-5, But on the Black Sea aviation - yes. The reason is that LaGGi were produced at the aircraft factory in Tbilisi until March 1944. It was unprofitable to send airplanes in a roundabout way, that is, it supplied the sea pilots (and air defense pilots) with a plant that was at hand.
        2. Vadivak
          Vadivak 4 September 2012 16: 00 New
          +2
          Quote: Igarr
          Yak-9 armed with a 57 mm gun


          No experiments were conducted with a 57 mm cannon. The bike.

          Quote: Igarr
          Kozhedub except LA-5FN, but LA-7 - no others are needed.

          He flew on what was given, the Air Force command planned, among others, to rearm one of the best air regiments, the 5th IAP, among others, but several pilots flew on a new plane, gave negative feedback, and V.I. Stalin made sure his unit was rearmed on the Yak-434.

          Quote: Igarr
          In people, the thing.
          And, a little bit, in technology.
          100% The best aircraft, the one in which the best pilot is located
          1. Kibb
            Kibb 4 September 2012 17: 01 New
            +1
            Quote: Vadivak
            100% The best aircraft, the one in which the best pilot is located

            Well, there’s nothing to argue about.
            Here Safonov died on P40 ... But the Clubs on La7 (before that he flew on Cobra), but the elder Glinka and Squirrel were unlucky, and Saint Exupery and Lightning
            1. Gamdlislyam
              Gamdlislyam 4 September 2012 19: 15 New
              +1
              Kibb Quote
              But the Clubs on La7 (before that I flew on Cobra)

              Dear colleague Igor, Klubov crashed on the very same La-7 plane that Lavochkin Pokryshkin gave when the latter was in Moscow. And crashed due to a plane defect. Alas, this machine got rid of defects only after the war.
              1. Igarr
                Igarr 4 September 2012 19: 58 New
                0
                And I don’t intend to argue with you guys ..
                Then I decided to clarify. that he himself wrote. Corrections are here and there.
                The first .. "..
                A.S. Yak-9, which one with the 37 mm gun?
                N.G. Why 37? We had with 57 mm gun.
                A.S. Is it the Yak-9K?
                N.G. Yes, I do not remember the index. We had 2 or 3 pieces of them. They were made specifically for the fight against watercraft by "sea hunters", etc. The gun, it seems, had 12 shells, there was no ammunition, 8. Yes 8. Well here I go, the speed is 600-t. I'm shooting. Bah! 400! It stops. Then, wow, and went on a new dial.
                They flew very little, because they were not suitable for air combat.
                A.S. Has anyone compared the "cobra" with our cars?
                N.G. Yes I am. I conducted training battles on the Cobra with the Yak-1. I spent three and went to the tail in all three. "
                .
                Second ..
                "..Another case. We flew on a" free hunt ", in fours. I'm the leader. We got a German tanker, 3000-3500 tons by eye. And, most importantly, unaccompanied! I command:" Navigate! " I went in, stormed, gave a good line, brought me to 25 meters. He also shot, but okay ... My wingman stormed, then the leader of the second pair, and the fourth one says: "It's burning, I don't see anything!" I told him: “Well, come out, don’t climb.” We look, he goes to the shore, it is burning in full. We arrived, we report: “They burned a tanker, three and a half thousand.” And to us: “Yes, what did you burn there, only 38 shells spent! " You, they say, are lying, but do not start talking. 38 shells for 3,5 thousand! I told them: "And that is not enough ?! In this box 38 shells!" At first, everyone laughed, and then our intelligence agents gave information that on such and such a number, a German burning tanker, 3,5 thousand, was thrown out there. Everything was confirmed. So - 38 37 mm shells destroyed a ship of 3,5 thousand tons! .. "
                ..
                All this from an interview with General Golodnikov N.G.
                link here ....- http://www.airforce.ru/history/ww2/golodnikov/part3.htm
                1. Kibb
                  Kibb 6 September 2012 14: 59 New
                  0
                  Agree 38 and 9 are slightly different numbers, although I do not believe in this either. It seems that they did not meet vessels below the destroyer and less than 3000 tons
              2. Kibb
                Kibb 5 September 2012 13: 01 New
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                I meant that the plane - there is a plane, regardless of whether Russian, English, or American
              3. Kibb
                Kibb 5 September 2012 18: 51 New
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                Quote: Gamdlislyam
                Alas, this machine got rid of defects only after the war.

                I didn’t argue with this - all La7 problems were solved in La9 -La11, only oh how late
    3. bistrov.
      bistrov. 6 September 2012 19: 33 New
      0
      Quote: AlexMH
      pine mostly

      Pine was not used in aviation construction, but the so-called "delta-wood" was used - it is birch veneer impregnated with formaldehyde resins and pressed (glued) under high pressure and temperature of 270 degrees. Therefore, during the war years, birch acquired strategic importance, special search groups went through the taiga, looking for a suitable birch, which was then cut down in whole tracts.
    4. goose
      goose 28 October 2018 16: 45 New
      0
      Quote: AlexMH
      Unfortunately, until 44, our planes were always one step worse than German. The main reasons are the lack of sufficiently powerful motors, the lack of duralumin, which forced the use of wood

      You are not quite right about the arguments.
      M-72 (1700/2000 hp, 970 kg) - it was tested in 1940 and the production of an experimental batch was organized, the benefit was used for the mastered M-63, the difference was mainly in shaft production.
      M-90 (1600/1700 hp, 850 kg, small radius), had every chance of being made by 1941, in 1940 was syring
      M-82 (1540/1700 hp, 870 kg), in 1941 the tests were passed, the series was launched, aircraft designers were trained on the M-81. On May 22, 1941, the M-82 engine, which successfully passed state tests, was put into mass production. A month later, the war began. However, since the canceled decree also provided for the refusal to develop aircraft equipped with two-row Shvetsov engines, by the beginning of the war there was no "consumer" for the M-82. By the end of July 1941, 700 new M-82 engines were already in the factory warehouse.
      AM-38 (1500/1600 hp, 860 kg), the year 1940, tests were completed on June 13.06.1941, XNUMX and put into production.
      Those. powerful engines were.

      Aluminum. The needs of the aviation industry were fully satisfied while the DneproGES industrial cluster was operating. He produced approximately 75% of Soviet aluminum. After the capture of the Germans - yes, aluminum production fell sharply. But ... There were herds of aluminum TB-3, which could be scrapped, it is about 800 cars.

      Opportunities for the production of aluminum single-engine aircraft were.

      What were the real problems:
      High-octane gasoline, fuel equipment (lame until 1942), VHF radios, plexiglass, electrics, special steels.
  5. Arct
    Arct 4 September 2012 13: 42 New
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    I agree with Brother Sarych. A very controversial figure is Alexander Sergeevich. On the one hand, a talented aircraft designer, on the other, a person who, taking advantage of his position, simply did not allow others to work. And the promotion of its unsuccessful designs, instead of more sensible ones from other designers, doesn’t paint him in any way. Although what times, such and mores. And his fighters came at the right time to the right place ...
  6. Bigriver
    Bigriver 4 September 2012 13: 49 New
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    "A small and evil animal" - said by the Germans about Yak-9, Yak-3.
  7. borisst64
    borisst64 4 September 2012 13: 50 New
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    Thanks for the detailed article. I was impressed by the 45mm caliber of the gun, the recoil on the frame is interesting, how did it affect?
    1. Gamdlislyam
      Gamdlislyam 4 September 2012 14: 01 New
      0
      Judging by the fact that this modification was released in a scanty series, the aircraft was not very successful. From the memories of the pilots flying on this machine, it was practically impossible to shoot bursts. Strong recoil not only knocked down the sight immediately, but even on a dive, it was very slow. The speed of the aircraft fell almost twice with a queue of 2-3 shots.
    2. Vadivak
      Vadivak 4 September 2012 16: 34 New
      +1
      Quote: borisst64
      Return on the frame is interesting how it affected?


      Broke into the trash from the report

      The return of the gun reached 6975 kg. When firing at a speed of less than 350 km / h, the aircraft turned sharply, while the pilot made sharp movements back and forth in his seat. Targeted shooting was possible and effective at speeds greater than 350 km / h, and with short bursts of 2-3 shots.
      The high recoil force of the NS-45 gun had a significant impact on the design of the aircraft, leading to oil and water leakage through various seals and cracks in pipelines, radiators, etc.
  8. Bigriver
    Bigriver 4 September 2012 13: 56 New
    0
    borisst64,
    As far as I know, the recoil was comparable to 37 mm. There was one sleeve, and a hinge of gunpowder, too.
    And since it was mounted in the collapse of the cylinder block, the dovorot of the aircraft, torsion during firing did not contribute. According to the reviews of the pilots, it slowed down wink The plane seemed to slow down.
  9. motorized rifle
    motorized rifle 4 September 2012 16: 48 New
    +1
    It wasn’t the car ... In order to understand what is better and what is worse, we must try to understand the tasks for which airplanes are created. For example, a fighter that does not carry shock weapons (bombs, missiles, etc.) is a defense weapon. Even attacking the enemy, he performs a defensive task, covering and defending something. Another thing is a bomber or attack aircraft, it performs strike actions and contributes to the direct destruction of enemy forces. It follows that the greatest contribution to the victory is made by strike aircraft, and the fighter only contributes to striking, covering its planes, or shooting down enemy drums. Aerial fighter fights not related to the destruction of aliens or the cover of their attack aircraft are strategically meaningless. And now let's look at the Yaks from this point of view, a low-altitude engine, better horizontal maneuverability, excellent visibility (especially on the last Yaks), all this made the Yak an unsurpassed direct-cover aircraft. Therefore, the Yak are good not by the number of shot down, but by the number of successfully covered planes. Who cares, you can compare the number of issued Yaks and Ilov, it actually coincides, so you need to consider the Il-Yak complex. and then it was quite effective! Those. Ilya went on an attack, Yaki covered them, as a result, the infantry took the line and so on to Berlin itself and it doesn’t matter that the German Luftwaffe’s bills for a hundred didn’t help their ground troops.
  10. Trevis
    Trevis 4 September 2012 20: 07 New
    0
    Watch a movie about the modern Yak-130.
    http://www.ex.ua/view/2060438?r=1327
  11. Normal
    Normal 4 September 2012 23: 07 New
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    I read Yakovlev's book "The Purpose of Life. Notes of an Aircraft Designer" in his youth.
    And in the simplicity of his soul, when he worked at an aircraft factory, he spoke about the author in an enthusiastic tone. The reaction of the old workers was overwhelming - thought to be beaten. In general, I learned a lot about Yakovlev that characterizes himself, as well as his technique very negatively. Then he repeatedly met information confirming the veracity of those veterans.
  12. Bigriver
    Bigriver 5 September 2012 06: 54 New
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    Vadivak,
    The return of the gun reached 6975 kg.
    Yes, I looked. NS-45 compared to NS-37 is almost 1,5 tons more.
    But it seems that the Yak-9K did not go due to the insufficient reliability of the gun and the lack of a more powerful engine.
    motorized rifle,
    In order to understand what is better and what is worse, you need to try to understand the tasks for which airplanes are created ... let's look at the Yaks from this point of view, a low-altitude engine, better horizontal maneuverability, excellent visibility (especially on last Yak), all this made the Yak an unsurpassed direct cover aircraft. Therefore, the Yak are good not by the number of shot down, but by the number of successfully covered planes.
    Duc, there are almost four dozen modifications. There were interceptors, and reconnaissance, and shock, and even information security.
  13. boriz
    boriz 2 March 2019 13: 55 New
    0
    Mentioning Pokryshkin in connection with the Yak, they constantly forget that later, when he became an authoritative divisional commander and flew an aerial cobra, they tried to transfer him (and his division) back to the patriotic, politically correct Yak. Pokryshkin categorically refused and flew a cobra until the end of the war.
  14. boriz
    boriz 2 March 2019 14: 10 New
    0
    Generally, the commander of the 1st Air Army (Stalingrad) Khudyakov gave an assessment of the pre-war activities of the "young designers". He was in September 1942. sent a letter to Stalin with a request to restore the production of the I-16.
    This is all you need to know about the Yak-1, MiG-1 (3), Lagg-3 and the quality of Yakovlev’s work as deputy minister for new technology.