Military Review

Air-to-air missiles: forced evolution

55

The development of technology leads to the emergence of promising combat systems, which become almost impossible to resist with existing weapons. In particular, promising air-to-air missiles and laser self-defense systems of combat aircraft can radically change the format of a war in the air. We have previously reviewed the relevant technologies in the articles Laser weapons on combat aircraft. Is it possible to resist him? and Air-to-air anti-missile missiles... Electronic warfare (EW) complexes capable of effectively countering air-to-air and surface-to-air (W-E) missiles with a homing head will also be developed. Moreover, on combat aircraft of large dimensions, for example, on such as promising American bomber B-21 Raider, these complexes can be comparable in efficiency with electronic warfare equipment deployed on specialized aircraft.



The promising American B-21 Raider bomber can get the most advanced self-defense systems ever installed on combat aircraft

Naturally, the emergence of advanced defense systems for combat aircraft cannot remain unanswered, and a corresponding evolution of air-to-air missiles will be required, capable of overcoming such protection with an acceptable probability.

This task will be quite difficult, since promising self-defense systems complement each other, making it difficult to develop effective countermeasures. For example, the emergence of laser self-defense systems will require equipping missiles with anti-laser protection, which, contrary to popular belief, cannot be made of foil or silver paint, and will be quite heavy and cumbersome. In turn, an increase in the mass and dimensions of the V-V missiles will make them easier targets for V-V antimissiles, which do not require anti-laser protection.

Thus, in order to endow promising air-to-air missiles with the ability to hit promising combat aircraft equipped with anti-missile missiles, laser self-defense systems and electronic warfare means, it will be necessary to implement a whole range of measures, which we will consider in this article.

Engines


The engine is the heart of the B-B rockets It is the parameters of the engine that determine the range and speed of the missile, the maximum allowable mass of the seeker (GOS) and the mass of the warhead (warhead). Also, the power of the engine is one of the factors that determine the maneuverability of the rocket.

Currently, the main propulsion systems for air-to-air missiles are still solid propellant rocket engines (solid propellant rocket motors). A promising solution is a ramjet engine (ramjet) - this is installed on the latest European MBDA Meteor missile.


Rocket V-V MBDA Meteor with ramjet

According to unconfirmed reports, within the framework of the classified "black" program of the US Department of Defense, an air-to-air missile with a ramjet engine was developed, and even used during the operation in the Persian Gulf, with its help at least one Iraqi plane was shot down.

The use of a ramjet engine makes it possible to increase the firing range, while a missile of comparable range with solid propellants will have large dimensions or worse energy characteristics, which will negatively affect its ability to intensively maneuver. In turn, the ramjet engine may also have limitations on the intensity of maneuvering due to the limitations on the angles of attack and slip required for the correct operation of the ramjet engine.

Thus, promising V-B missiles in any case will include solid propellants to achieve the minimum speed required to launch a ramjet, and the ramjet itself. It is possible that the V-B missiles will become two-stage - the first stage will include solid propellants for acceleration and ramjet, and the second stage will include only solid propellants to ensure intensive maneuvers in the final section, when approaching the target, including for evading air-to-air missiles. air and reducing the effectiveness of enemy self-defense laser systems.

Instead of solid fuel used in solid propellants, gel-like or pasty fuel (RPM) can be developed. Such engines are more difficult to design and manufacture, but will provide better energy characteristics compared to solid fuel, as well as the potential for throttling of thrust and the ability to turn on / off the RPM.


Diagram of a rocket engine running on pasty fuel (from the book Direct-flow rocket engines running on solid and pasty fuels. Basics of design and experimental development)

Super maneuverability


In promising air-to-air missiles, the possibility of intensive maneuvering will be required not only to defeat highly maneuverable targets, but also to perform intensive maneuvers that prevent the defeat of V-V anti-missiles and reduce the effectiveness of enemy laser self-defense systems.

To increase the maneuverability of V-V missiles, thrust vector control engines (VVT) and / or transverse control engines as part of a gas-dynamic control belt can be used.


Gas-dynamic control belt

The use of UHT or a gas-dynamic control belt will allow promising V-V missiles to both increase the efficiency of overcoming promising enemy self-defense systems and ensure that the target is hit with a direct hit (hit-to-kill).

It is necessary to make a remark - the ability to maneuver intensively, even with sufficient energy of a V-B rocket provided by a ramjet or RPMT, will not provide effective evasion from enemy anti-missiles - it will be necessary to ensure the detection of incoming anti-missiles, since intensive maneuvering throughout the missile flight B-B is impossible.

Reduced visibility


In order for an anti-missile or laser self-defense system of a combat aircraft to attack incoming air-to-air missiles, they must be detected in advance. Modern missile attack warning systems are capable of doing this with high efficiency, including determining the trajectory of incoming air-to-air or west-to-air missiles.

Air-to-air missiles: forced evolution
Optical-location systems (OLS) of the F-35 fighter allow high-efficiency detection of V-V and Z-V missiles, in fact, allowing the pilot to see an approaching missile

The use of measures to reduce the visibility of air-to-air missiles will significantly reduce the range of their detection by missile attack warning systems.

The development of missiles with a reduced signature has already been carried out. In particular, in the 80s of the twentieth century, the United States developed and brought to the test stage a stealthy air-to-air missile Have Dash / Have Dash II. One of the variants of the Have Dash rocket involved the use of a ramjet, which, in turn, was allegedly used in the aforementioned B-B rocket tested in the Persian Gulf.

The Have Dash rocket has a body made of a radio-absorbing composite based on graphite of a characteristic faceted shape with a triangular or trapezoidal cross-section. In the bow there was a radio-transparent / IR-transparent fairing, under which there was a dual-mode seeker with active radar and passive infrared guidance channels, an inertial guidance system (INS).


Stealth Air-to-Air Missile Have Dash

At the time of development, the US Air Force did not need stealth missiles, so their further development was suspended, and possibly classified and transferred to the status of "black" programs. In any case, the developments on Have Dash missiles can and will be used in promising projects.

In promising V-V missiles, measures can be taken to reduce the signature both in radar (RL) and infrared (IR) wavelength ranges. The engine torch can be partially shielded by structural elements, the body is made of radio-absorbing composite materials, taking into account the optimal re-reflection of radar radiation.

Reducing the radar signature of promising V-V missiles will be hampered by the need to simultaneously provide them with effective anti-laser protection.

Anti-laser protection


In the next decade, laser weapon can become an integral attribute of combat aircraft and helicopters. At the first stage, its capabilities will make it possible to ensure the defeat of the optical seeker of the V-V and Z-V missiles, and in the future, as the power increases, the V-V and Z-V missiles themselves.


Laser weapons with a capacity of 15-150 kilowatts can be integrated into the glider of promising aircraft or placed in a suspended container

A distinctive feature of laser weapons is the ability to almost instantly redirect the beam from one target to another. At high altitude and flight speed, it is impossible to provide protection with smoke screens, the optical transparency of the atmosphere is high.

On the side of the V-V missile is its high speed - the effective range of a laser self-defense weapon is unlikely to exceed 10-15 kilometers, the V-V missile will cover this distance in 5-10 seconds. It can be assumed that a 150 kW laser will take 2-3 seconds to hit an unprotected V-V missile, that is, a self-defense laser complex can repel the impact of two or three such missiles.

Larger aircraft can gain an advantage, since several laser self-defense systems can be placed on them, and their power can be higher, more anti-missiles in the weapon bays, more powerful radar and electronic warfare equipment. The issue of the prospects for increasing the dimension of combat aircraft and changing the tactics of their use was considered in the articles 2050 year combat aircraft concept and weapons based on new physical principles и Where will the combat aircraft go: will it press down on the ground or gain altitude??.

To overcome promising laser self-defense systems, it will be necessary to organize a simultaneous approach to the target of a group of V-B missiles or to increase their protection against laser weapons.

The protection of ammunition from powerful laser radiation was discussed in the article Resist the Light: Protection from Laser Weapons.

Two directions can be distinguished. The first is the use of ablative protection (from the Latin ablatio - taking away, carrying away the mass) - the effect of which is based on the removal of matter from the surface of the protected object by a stream of hot gas and / or on the restructuring of the boundary layer, which together significantly reduces the heat transfer to the protected surface.


Cutaway diagram of ablative protection and ablation protection of the spacecraft "Buran"

The second direction is covering the body with several protective layers of refractory materials, for example, a ceramic coating over a carbon-carbon composite matrix. Moreover, the upper layer must have high thermal conductivity in order to maximize the distribution of heat from laser heating over the surface of the case, and the inner layer must have low thermal conductivity in order to protect the internal components from overheating.


Ceramic coating Zr0.8Ti0.2C0.74B0.26, developed by scientists from the Royce Institute at the University of Manchester (UK) and Central South University (China) - material on the left before testing, in the center and right - after two minutes of testing at a temperature of 2000 ° C and 2500 ° C, in the center of the right sample there is a white area where the temperature reached 3000 ° C

The main question is what thickness and mass should be the coating of the V-B rocket in order to withstand the impact of a laser with a power of 50-150 kW or more, and how it will affect the maneuverable and dynamic characteristics of the rocket. It also has to be combined with stealth requirements.

An equally difficult task is to protect the missile seeker. The applicability of V-V missiles with IR seeker against aircraft equipped with laser self-defense systems is in question.... It is unlikely that thermo-optical passive shutters will be able to withstand the impact of laser radiation with a power of tens to hundreds of kilowatts, and mechanical shutters do not provide the required closing speed to protect sensitive elements.


Images from RF patent No. 2509323 for an optical passive shutter: 1 - metal mirror film melting and evaporating under the action of radiation, 2 - transparent substrate, 3 - parabolic mirror, 4 and 5 - input and output apertures of an optical device with a shutter, 6 - region c film 1 exposed to laser heating, g is the focal length of the parabolic mirror, L is the lens

Perhaps it will be possible to achieve the operation of the IR seeker in the "instant view" mode, when the homing head is almost always closed with a tungsten diaphragm, and opens only for a short period of time to obtain an image of the target - at the moment when there is no laser radiation (its presence must be determined by a special sensor) ...

To ensure the operation of an active radar homing head (ARLGSN), protective materials must be transparent in the appropriate wavelength range.

EMI protection


To destroy air-to-air missiles at a great distance, the enemy can potentially use V-V anti-missiles with a warhead that generates a powerful electromagnetic pulse (EMP ammunition). One EMP ammunition can potentially hit several enemy V-B missiles at once.

To reduce the impact of EMP of ammunition, electronic components can be shielded by feromagnetic materials, for example, something like "ferrite cloth" with high absorbing properties, with a specific gravity of only 0,2 kg / m2, developed by the Russian company "Ferrit-Domain".

As part of electronic components, circuit breakers can be used in the event of strong induction currents - zener diodes and varistors, and ARLGSN can be made on the basis of EMI-resistant low-temperature co-fired ceramics (Low Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic - LTCC).


Planar active phased antenna array (APAR) using LTCC-ceramics technology developed by JSC "NIIPP", Tomsk

Salvo application


One of the ways to overcome the protection of promising combat aircraft is the massive use of B-B missiles, for example, several dozen missiles in a salvo. The newest F-15EX fighter can carry up to 22 AIM-120 missiles or up to 44 small-sized CUDA missiles, the Russian Su-35S fighter - 10-14 V-V missiles (it is possible that their number can be increased due to the use of double suspension pylons or the use of reduced-size V-V missiles). The fifth generation fighter Su-57 also has 14 suspension points (including external ones). The capabilities of other fifth-generation fighters in this regard are more modest.


EF-2000 Typhoon can carry weapons at 14 points of suspension

The question is how effective such tactics will be when simultaneously countering electronic warfare, anti-missiles with electromagnetic warheads, medium-range anti-missiles of the CUDA type, small-sized anti-missiles such as MSDM / MHTK / HKAMS and laser on-board self-defense systems. There is a possibility that "classic" unprotected air-to-air missiles may become ineffective due to their high vulnerability to promising self-defense systems for combat aircraft.

UAV - carrier of V-V missiles


It is possible to increase the number of V-V missiles in a salvo and bring them closer to the attacked aircraft by using an inexpensive, inconspicuous unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in conjunction with a combat aircraft. Such UAVs are currently being actively developed in the interests of the US Air Force.

Companies General Atomics and Lockheed Martin, commissioned by the Office of Advanced Research Projects of the US Department of Defense DARPA, are developing an unobtrusive airborne UAV with the ability to use air-to-air weapons under the LongShot program. When attacking, such UAVs can move forward of the attacking fighter, increasing the number of B-B missiles in a salvo, allowing them to conserve energy for the final section. Low radar and infrared visibility of the UAV carrier will delay the moment of activation of the onboard self-defense systems of the attacked aircraft.


LongShot UAV concepts

To determine the moment of activation of the airborne defense systems of the attacked aircraft - the launch of V-V anti-missiles, the inclusion of electronic warfare means, UAVs can be equipped with specialized equipment. An option may be considered when the UAV carrier will perform the role of "kamikaze", following the V-V missiles, covering them with electronic warfare means, and relaying external target designation from the carrier aircraft.

Such UAVs do not have to be airborne, but this will increase their size and cost. In turn, airborne deployment will require an increase in the dimensions and carrying capacity of the carrier, which we have already talked about - right up to the appearance of a kind of "air aircraft carriers", which we considered in the article Combat "Gremlins" US Air Force: the revival of the concept of aircraft carrier aircraft.

Riding hypersound


An even more radical solution could be the creation of heavy V-V missiles with submunitions in the form of small-sized V-V missiles instead of a monoblock warhead. They can be equipped with a ramjet engine that provides a high supersonic or even hypersonic flight speed over most of the trajectory.

Anti-aircraft guided missiles (SAMs) with submunitions with a caliber of 30 to 55 mm and a length of 400 to 800 mm were created in Nazi Germany, however, then they were unguided high-explosive fragmentation (HE) ammunition.


Warhead SAM with unguided HE submunitions

In Russia, promising air-to-air missiles and heavy V-V missiles are being developed for the MiG-31 and promising MiG-41 interceptors, in which the advanced K-77M air-to-air missiles, which are the development of RVV-SD missiles, will be used as submunitions. It is assumed that they will be used to destroy hypersonic targets - the presence of several individually homing submunitions will increase the likelihood of hitting complex high-speed targets.


The concept of a promising missile with several individual targeting submunitions

However, it can be assumed that the promising heavy V-B missile will be more in demand precisely for the destruction of combat aircraft equipped with promising self-defense systems.

As in the case of UAV carriers, the first stage of the V-B missile, the carrier of submunitions, can also be equipped with means of detecting an attack by anti-missiles, detecting the use of electronic warfare equipment by the enemy and its own electronic warfare equipment, and equipment for relaying target designation from the carrier to submunitions.

False targets


One of the elements of equipping UAV carriers and an addition to the guided submunitions of promising heavy V-V missiles can become false targets. There are certain problems that complicate their use - combat operations in the air are conducted at high speeds with intensive maneuvering, so a false target cannot be made with a simple "blank". At a minimum, it should include an engine with a fuel supply, a simple INS and controls, possibly a receiver for receiving information from an external target designation source.

It would seem - what is the point then, in fact it is almost a V-V rocket? However, the absence of a warhead, transverse control and / or UHT engines, abandonment of technologies to reduce visibility, and most importantly - from an expensive guidance system, will make a false target several times cheaper than a "real" V-B missile and several times smaller in size.

That is, instead of one B-B missile, 2-4 decoys can be placed, which can approximately maintain the course and speed relative to real B-B missiles. They can be equipped with corner reflectors or Luneberg lenses to obtain an effective scattering surface (EPR) equivalent to that of "real" VB rockets.

An additional similarity between decoys and real air-to-air missiles should be provided by an intelligent attack algorithm.

Intelligent attack algorithm


The most important element that ensures the effectiveness of an attack with promising air-to-air missiles should be an intelligent algorithm that ensures the interaction of the carrier aircraft, intermediate carriers - a hypersonic booster block or UAV, air-to-air submunitions and decoys.

It is necessary to provide an attack on the target from the optimal direction, to synchronize false targets and V-B submunitions according to the arrival time (the flight speed can be changed by turning on / off or throttling of promising rocket engines).

For example, after separating B-B submunitions and false targets, if there is a control channel on the latter, decoys can perform simple maneuvers together with B-B submunitions. In the absence of a control channel for false targets, they can move in the same direction with the submunitions for some time, even when the target changes the direction of flight, making it difficult for V-B interceptors to determine where the real target is, and where the false one, up to the moment when the optimal turn time for hitting a target from a minimum distance or destroying a control channel through a UAV or an upper stage.

The enemy will try to drown out the control of the "flock" of airborne submunitions and decoys by means of electronic warfare. To counteract this, the option of using one-way optical communication "carrier - UAV / upper stage" and "UAV / upper stage - V-V submunitions / decoys" can be considered.

conclusions


The appearance on promising combat aircraft of effective air-to-air missile systems, laser self-defense systems, electronic warfare equipment, will require the development of promising new generation air-to-air missiles.

In turn, the emergence of promising airborne self-defense systems will have a significant impact on combat Aviation - it can go both along the path of creating distributed systems - manned aircraft and UAVs of various types, connected into a single network, and along the path of increasing the dimensions of combat aircraft and a corresponding increase in the weapons placed on them, self-defense complexes, electronic warfare equipment, increasing the power and dimensions of the radar ... Also, both approaches can be combined.


"The wolf is strong not with its fangs, but with its pack"

Promising combat aircraft can become a kind of equivalent of surface ships - frigates and destroyers, which do not dodge, but repel the blow. Accordingly, the means of attack must evolve taking this factor into account.

Regardless of the chosen approach to the development of combat aviation, one thing can be said with certainty - the cost of conducting a war in the air will increase significantly.
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  1. Aaron Zawi
    Aaron Zawi 22 June 2021 18: 27
    +22
    Powerful article. Thanks to the author for the work done.
    1. Vladimir_2U
      Vladimir_2U 23 June 2021 03: 28
      +5
      I subscribe to the evaluation of the article.

      Perhaps it will be possible to achieve the operation of the IR seeker in the "instant view" mode, when the seeker is almost always closed with a tungsten diaphragm, and opens only for a short period of time to obtain an image of the target
      A kind of strobe, like on interwar tanks.
  2. Pavel57
    Pavel57 22 June 2021 18: 46
    +1
    Promising combat aircraft can become a kind of equivalent of surface ships - frigates and destroyers, which do not dodge, but repel the blow.

    Better then cruisers or arsenal ships.
  3. Jacket in stock
    Jacket in stock 22 June 2021 19: 30
    +8
    One thing is certain - the cost of conducting a war in the air will increase significantly.

    Both on land and at sea ...
    The arms race has already ravaged our country once.

    In general, now I remembered a lecturer at the military department, who for a long time and in detail talked about the tactics of American aviation, about the fight against anti-radar missiles, active and passive interference, star raids and so on, so forth, so on.
    And then calmly - "and in order to clear all this dregs, we have a rocket with special warheads."
    It seems that again everything goes to the fact that we cannot master the race of technologies and will simply have to show the readiness to "bang on the table" loudly on occasion.
    1. Intruder
      Intruder 29 June 2021 14: 35
      0
      "and in order to clear all this dregs, we have a rocket with special warheads."
      Well, that's right, but there are alternative technologies, less harsh for the environment and primarily for the atmosphere, such as: explosive magnetic generators, they were successfully tested back in Soviet times, and there are so many electronics in drones and missiles that it is all in a multispectrum wide, not shielded into the board!
  4. gaudin
    gaudin 22 June 2021 20: 13
    0
    means of opening circuits can be used in the event of strong induction currents - zener diodes and varistors

    Zener diode stabilizes the constant voltage of power supplies, and the varistor protects against overvoltage - causing a short circuit.
    Illiterate article.
    1. ProkletyiPirat
      ProkletyiPirat 22 June 2021 20: 33
      +1
      uh, maybe you are confusing different levels of implementation, in power electronics these are different devices, but in semiconductor electrics it can be one node
    2. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 23 June 2021 01: 01
      +3
      Quote: gaudin
      Illiterate article.

      Specifically ... why is she illiterate? Well, in some places the Author expounds on the "concepts" in the wrong words (terms) that should be ... But the essence of the presentation still remains relevant! For example, zener diodes (they are Zener diodes ... Zener diodes) are one of the most common factors in the protection of equipment and weapons from EMP!
    3. Intruder
      Intruder 29 June 2021 14: 44
      +1
      Zener diode - constant voltage stabilization of power supplies
      Eh, young man, this is one of the few uses for this wonderful semiconductor device ... repeat

      1. A special type of zener diodes, high-voltage avalanche diodes ("transient impulse noise suppressors", "suppressors", "TVS-diodes");

      2. The English avalanche diode ("avalanche diode") is applied to any avalanche breakdown diodes, while in the Russian-language literature the avalanche diode, or "limiting diode" according to GOST 15133-77, is a narrowly defined subclass of a zener diode with an avalanche breakdown mechanism, designed to protect electrical equipment overvoltage;

      3. A semiconductor zener diode is a diode designed to operate in the breakdown mode on the reverse branch of the current-voltage characteristic. In a diode to which a reverse, or blocking, voltage is applied, three breakdown mechanisms are possible: tunnel breakdown, avalanche breakdown, and breakdown due to thermal instability - destructive self-heating by leakage currents. Thermal breakdown is observed in rectifier diodes, especially germanium diodes, and it is not critical for silicon zener diodes. Zener diodes are designed and manufactured in such a way that either tunneling or avalanche breakdown, or both of these phenomena together occur long before the preconditions for thermal breakdown arise in the diode crystal. Serial zener diodes are made of silicon, promising designs of zener diodes from silicon carbide and gallium arsenide are also known;

      Something like that! drinks
  5. SovAr238A
    SovAr238A 22 June 2021 23: 02
    +2
    All fantasies.
    First.
    Look at the power of the electric generators of modern fighters
    You are unlikely to see power over 25-40 kW.
    Accordingly, there can be no talk of any long-term use of energy weapons.
    And carrying tons of batteries on fighters is nonsense.
    Second
    I repeat for a year now
    The future of the medium and close combat airborne missile systems is the swarm principle.
    When 2 missiles are fired, and the missiles together, exchanging information, attack the plane.
    All anti-missile maneuvers of the aircraft and the pilot are predictable and predictable: by the flying school, possible permissible overloads of the pilot and aircraft, and flight speed.
    Everything now, in the era of machine analysis, is calculated.
    And always one of the missiles will go in advance to where the pilot will make the evasive maneuver from the other missile.
    And two missiles, working in tandem, will drive the plane into inevitable defeat.
    This is the future of the URVV.
    1. Shopping Mall
      23 June 2021 10: 14
      +3
      Quote: SovAr238A
      All fantasies.
      First.
      Look at the power of the electric generators of modern fighters
      You are unlikely to see power over 25-40 kW.
      Accordingly, there can be no talk of any long-term use of energy weapons.
      And carrying tons of batteries on fighters is nonsense.


      It is precisely on such energy sources that they are actively working now, both for containerized laser weapons and built-in ones. PMSM power of generators on the engine shaft in advanced aircraft can be about 500 kW-1 MW.

      Quote: SovAr238A
      Second
      I repeat for a year now
      The future of the medium and close combat airborne missile systems is the swarm principle.
      When 2 missiles are fired, and the missiles together, exchanging information, attack the plane.
      All anti-missile maneuvers of the aircraft and the pilot are predictable and predictable: by the flying school, possible permissible overloads of the pilot and aircraft, and flight speed.
      Everything now, in the era of machine analysis, is calculated.
      And always one of the missiles will go in advance to where the pilot will make the evasive maneuver from the other missile.
      And two missiles, working in tandem, will drive the plane into inevitable defeat.
      This is the future of the URVV.


      This partly echoes what I wrote. Only missiles will be required not two, but much more.
    2. Intruder
      Intruder 29 June 2021 14: 48
      0
      Look at the power of the electric generators of modern fighters
      You are unlikely to see power over 25-40 kW.
      Accordingly, there can be no talk of any long-term use of energy weapons.
      Pulsed laser, with fiber hub, up to 50 kW. in the total impulse, it is quite possible to power it from - 25-30 kW additional APU, on an external suspension and hang a couple of these generators, slipped somewhere, in the network - this development is already in the Yankees, there the target load is not so big , and to feed all this generating business with kerosene from onboard supplies !?
  6. thekhohol
    thekhohol 22 June 2021 23: 51
    0
    > 10-15 kilometers, a V-B rocket will cover this distance in 5-10 seconds
    Ahem ... 2 km / s, Mach 6 ... Is that correct?
    1. Jacket in stock
      Jacket in stock 23 June 2021 04: 41
      +1
      Quote: thekhohol
      ... 6 Mach. That's for sure?

      Mach 3,5 is the rocket itself plus Mach 2 is the plane. This is if the Meteor.
      And if the 48N6DM is from the S-400, then it itself flies 2,5 km / sec.
      1. Momotomba
        Momotomba 23 June 2021 08: 41
        +1
        Quote: Jacket in stock
        Quote: thekhohol
        ... 6 Mach. That's for sure?

        Mach 3,5 is the rocket itself plus Mach 2 is the plane. This is if the Meteor.

        Is the target stationary or moving? what
        1. Jacket in stock
          Jacket in stock 23 June 2021 10: 31
          0
          Quote: Momotomba
          Is the target stationary or moving?

          Sorry, I wrote it incomprehensibly.
          Mach 3,5 rocket plus Mach 2 target aircraft.
          1. Momotomba
            Momotomba 23 June 2021 18: 26
            0
            Quote: Jacket in stock
            Mach 3,5 rocket plus Mach 2 target aircraft.

            As a result, 5.5M towards or 1,5M in pursuit?
    2. Shopping Mall
      23 June 2021 10: 15
      +3
      Quote: thekhohol
      > 10-15 kilometers, a V-B rocket will cover this distance in 5-10 seconds
      Ahem ... 2 km / s, Mach 6 ... Is that correct?


      We are talking about promising ramjet missiles. There is already 5M, but not on the entire trajectory. Plus I gave the B-B missiles a little head start.
  7. Charik
    Charik 23 June 2021 00: 14
    -1
    I understood which weapon is the most effective - a club - you approach the one who is trying to come up with the most modern weapon and bang him in the head, and who asks, and what is it for me? wassat
  8. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 23 June 2021 01: 45
    +5
    Mdaaaa ...! The author really did the job! Even in spite of the natural harmfulness of my character, I do not want to look for "errors" in the article! (But, perhaps, it will have to!) Well, this may also be due to the fact that the Author writes about many such "veschas", which I am a supporter of, and which I have repeatedly mentioned in various comments (!) ...: 1. 2-3 stage rockets; 2. submunitions with their own engines; 3. propulsion systems of transverse control (gas-dynamic belts); 4.RPVJE and quasi-liquid-propellant engine with gel fuel; 5. multi-mode GOS and ARL.GSN with AFAR, capable of working simultaneously in different modes (at least 2x) and so on ... That is why, in general, the article is "pretty" to me! Probably, you can find "roughness" in the article, but I'll do this a little bit later ... now I need to "break off" ... I hope not for long ...
    1. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 23 June 2021 05: 35
      0
      2. The author has posted a snapshot of the American RVV with a "gas-dynamic belt" shifted to the bow ... It turns out, as it were, a kind of imitation of aerodynamic control surfaces of the "duck" scheme! I believe that greater "super-maneuverability" can be achieved by placing a "gas-dynamic belt" in the middle of the rocket ("center of mass" ...)
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 23 June 2021 08: 30
        +4
        I believe that greater "super-maneuverability" can be achieved by placing a "gas-dynamic belt" in the middle of the rocket ("center of mass" ...)

        Super-maneuverability is achieved by rapidly changing the direction of the rocket's movement, and for this, its reversal is needed. The location of the gas-dynamic belt in the place of the center of mass does not lead to its reversal.
        1. Nikolaevich I
          Nikolaevich I 23 June 2021 11: 30
          0
          Quote: Aviator_
          The location of the gas-dynamic belt in the place of the center of mass does not lead to its reversal.

          Do not need ! In many cases it is enough to "jump" (up, down, left, right) while maintaining the same longitudinal axis!
      2. Intruder
        Intruder 29 June 2021 14: 56
        +1
        with a "gas-dynamic belt" shifted into the bow ... It turns out, as it were, a kind of imitation of aerodynamic control surfaces of the "duck" scheme!
        By the way, I have recaptured someone's minus now, I think I will be reckoned with, Vladimir !? hi
        But, I don’t quite agree - after all, a "duck" is an aerodynamic scheme, and a gas-dynamic belt, momentary impulse control - even in its name (what was the name of Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin ... ??? repeat ) excludes the use of aerodynamic surfaces, only gas dynamics in implementation - an impulse of reactive force, here! And to the heap, a more universal system, little depends on the environment, although: gas / liquid / vacuum, it works everywhere, only the impulse will be different, but it can also be effectively leveled at the design stage of the gas-dynamic control system ...
        1. Nikolaevich I
          Nikolaevich I 29 June 2021 17: 19
          0
          Quote: Intruder
          But, I do not quite agree - after all, "duck" is an aerodynamic scheme

          Thank you for your support! yes And now I will try to explain myself ... The fact is that I meant an alternative to the "canard" aerodynamic scheme (schemes with aerodynamic rudders ...)! The result from the actuation of the gas-dynamic belt displaced into the nose of the rocket body will be approximately the same as from the action of the aerodynamic control surfaces; that is, the rocket will be deployed with the "nose", changing the direction of movement ... and this happens faster and "easier" at high speed or at high altitude than with aerodynamic rudders (there you have to put dampers in front of the rudders ... it seems that are called ...) But here, too, certain time constraints are imposed (a reversal cannot happen "instantly", like a "flying saucer" ...) and overloads ... When a gas-dynamic belt is placed in the "center of mass", a significant change in direction (!) movement does not occur (in azimuth), but the rocket does not turn "with the nose" ... but the elevation angle and distance relative to the target change, while maintaining the same longitudinal axis of motion ... (I call this a jump ... left, right, down, up ...) The movement of the rocket in this case can be compared to some extent (partially!) with the movement ... more precisely, with the maneuverability of a "flying saucer"! I believe that in this case, the rocket increases its maneuverability and resistance to overloads ... But there is a "but" ... the maneuvering space is narrowed (with the limited capabilities of the DPU) ... That is why the advantage of this scheme manifests itself at high speed (the more, so much the better ...) when the "miss distance" is within acceptable limits ... The gas-dynamic belt in the "center of mass" is very suitable for hypersonic missiles ... for example, for the newest Pantsir-SM missiles! Something like this ... I apologize for speaking inconsistently; because. I had a meeting with an old friend whom I had not seen for 10 years due to his departure for permanent residence in another region ... hi
          1. Intruder
            Intruder 29 June 2021 17: 27
            0
            Thank you for your support! yes
            Always ready to help allies! soldier

            The point is that I was referring to an alternative to the "canard" aerodynamic scheme (schemes with aerodynamic rudders ...)! The result from the actuation of the gas-dynamic belt displaced into the nose of the rocket body will be approximately the same as from the action of the aerodynamic control surfaces; that is, the rocket will be deployed with the "nose", changing the direction of movement ... and this happens faster and "easier" at high speed or at high altitude than with aerodynamic rudders (there you have to put dampers in front of the rudders ... it seems that are called ...) But here, too, certain time constraints are imposed (a reversal cannot happen "instantly", like a "flying saucer" ...) and overloads ... When a gas-dynamic belt is placed in the "center of mass", a significant change in direction (!) movement does not occur (in azimuth), but the rocket "nose part" does not turn either ... but the elevation angle and distance relative to the target change, while maintaining the same longitudinal axis of motion ... (I call this a jump ... left, right, down, up ...)

            Well .... rather and more precisely, it will be like this:
            Motion control: includes motion control of the center of mass and motion control around the center of mass (attitude control). The task of the first is to purposefully change the trajectory of movement, and the second is to maintain the axes rigidly connected to the body. These movements are practically independent of each other, and, therefore, they can and should be studied separately.
            Those. on the fingers: one, to change the trajectory of the device (any) with gas-dynamic control, and the second - already for its direct orientation, on a given / given trajectory in flight already! drinks
        2. Capt cook
          Capt cook 1 July 2021 00: 18
          0
          you will be credited with a minus. For the Russian language. Although, perhaps, you are a nonresident, an Uzbek, for example.
          1. Intruder
            Intruder 1 July 2021 00: 29
            -1
            you will be credited with a minus. For the Russian language. Although perhaps
            And ... now what? Should I cry and fall with repentance on both knees, or stand up for one ??? belay
  9. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 23 June 2021 04: 14
    +2
    So ... back to our bar ... anti-missiles and RVV!
    1. Laser destruction and anti-laser protection:
    The author is sure that the introduction of "anti-laser protection" into the design of missiles (RVV) will force them to "get fat": to increase their dimensions and weight! But is it necessary? New materials are currently being developed to improve anti-laser protection without excessively increasing the weight and dimensions of the protected "products"! Most likely, the dimensions of the products will increase, but, perhaps, not as "critical" as the Author frightens us! RVV ammunition, perhaps, will have to change ... future RVVs are thin-walled cases made of light heat-resistant (and mechanically strong ...) ceramics ... carbon-fiber cases covered with anti-laser "shells"! What are the candidates for the role of such "shells"? Well, for example ... now they are working on metamaterials with a negative refractive index ... an anti-laser coating has been created in the USA from a mixture of carbon nanotubes and special ceramics ... the Chinese have reported about some kind of ablative material with aerosol-forming properties ... the future and other materials or will develop recently discovered ... I "pointed out" the materials about which it is said that even when implemented in the form of relatively thin films, they provide quite effective protection against "lasers"! I have listed the materials, so to speak , passive protection from lasers ... There are also active ones ... for example, the "Helios" system (but here it would probably be more expedient to install it on airplanes to protect their RVVs ... Perhaps such a system would be better suited for "self-defense" of UAVs ...) In one thing, the Author is certainly right ... RVV "will" have to change (!) And they will become more expensive!
    1. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 23 June 2021 05: 23
      +2
      PS The author is "critical" of thermo-optical shutters (TOZ), doubting their sufficient efficiency ... There is a reason in his arguments! But in this case, an idea appears ... with the help of TOZ to use a "striking" laser beam to aim a missile at a carrier of laser weapons! Knowing the scheme of the TOZ device, such an idea does not seem impossible!
    2. Shopping Mall
      24 June 2021 10: 07
      +1
      Quote: Nikolaevich I
      So ... back to our bar ... anti-missiles and RVV!
      1. Laser destruction and anti-laser protection:
      The author is sure that the introduction of "anti-laser protection" into the design of missiles (RVV) will force them to "get fat": to increase their dimensions and weight! But is it necessary? New materials are currently being developed to improve anti-laser protection without excessively increasing the weight and dimensions of the protected "products"! Most likely, the dimensions of the products will increase, but, perhaps, not as "critical" as the Author frightens us! RVV ammunition, perhaps, will have to change ... future RVVs are thin-walled cases made of light heat-resistant (and mechanically strong ...) ceramics ... carbon-fiber cases covered with anti-laser "shells"! What are the candidates for the role of such "shells"? Well, for example ... now they are working on metamaterials with a negative refractive index ... an anti-laser coating has been created in the USA from a mixture of carbon nanotubes and special ceramics ... the Chinese have reported about some kind of ablative material with aerosol-forming properties ... the future and other materials or will develop recently discovered ... I "pointed out" the materials about which it is said that even when implemented in the form of relatively thin films, they provide quite effective protection against "lasers"! I have listed the materials, so to speak , passive protection from lasers ... There are also active ones ... for example, the "Helios" system (but here it would probably be more expedient to install it on airplanes to protect their RVVs ... Perhaps such a system would be better suited for "self-defense" of UAVs ...) In one thing, the Author is certainly right ... RVV "will" have to change (!) And they will become more expensive!


      The author is not sure if it will be thick and heavy, but believes that it will.

      Although all the latest developments are underway, there are no guarantees that they will work in real-life conditions, outside the walls of laboratories. How will they behave during storage? When exposed to the atmosphere, moisture? Metamaterials still operate in very narrow wavelength ranges - will it be possible to obtain multiband metamaterials in principle?

      Aerosol-forming agents are poorly suited for aviation - the entrainment of the substance will be faster than it will protect against the effects of LO.

      It is impossible to answer this question even with the help of calculations. We need a complex modeling stand, on which ammunition with different types of protection will be tested for the impact of LOs of different power, in different conditions - speeds, hull position, etc.
    3. Intruder
      Intruder 29 June 2021 15: 14
      0
      RVV ammunition, perhaps, will have to change ... future RVVs are thin-walled cases made of light heat-resistant (and mechanically strong ...) ceramics ... carbon-fiber cases covered with anti-laser "shells"!
      Hmm, well, if only, believe our geopartners ... who are already assembling their orbital station ... then the solution is only in the area:
      the Chinese have reported some kind of aerosol-forming ablative material ...
      , plus a decrease in the mass of the URVV body, while the coating is such - the laser radiation will evaporate in flight, and then not for long, if the rocket maneuvers in space at the same time, substituting different sections of its surface!
  10. riwas
    riwas 23 June 2021 05: 03
    +2
    The Su-57 has already become the first fighter in the world with an installed system of controlled countermeasures to enemy infrared means. This system is able to "blind" approaching air-to-air missiles. Previously, such systems, due to their bulky size, were installed only on military transport aircraft. Russian scientists managed to create a miniature device, thanks to which the Su-57 became the owner of a self-defense device unique for world aviation.
    https://army.ric.mil.ru/Stati/item/255977/
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 23 June 2021 16: 40
      +1
      "This system is able to" blind "approaching air-to-air missiles" ///
      ---
      Laser, or what?
      What else can you blind with?
      1. Shopping Mall
        24 June 2021 10: 09
        0
        Quote: voyaka uh
        "This system is able to" blind "approaching air-to-air missiles" ///
        ---
        Laser, or what?
        What else can you blind with?


        Something like the President-S system. It seems like there are low-power lasers and special lamps.
        1. Intruder
          Intruder 29 June 2021 15: 20
          0
          special lamps.
          Pulsed gas discharge and other lamps:
          One of the most important applications is the use of infrared sources in the systems of opto-electronic counter-homing (GOS) anti-aircraft guided missiles for the protection of aircraft. For these purposes, it is necessary that the source operate in pulsed or repetitively pulsed modes of generation of incoherent modulated radiation in the spectral ranges from 3,5 μm to 5,5 μm (IR GOS receivers based on PbS, diode arrays, etc.). Currently used heating elements with modulation of constant radiation by mechanical gates have low efficiency and do not provide the possibility of creating a repetitively pulsed structure of the output radiant flux with specified energy characteristics. Pulse lamps (hereinafter lamps) with a discharge in an inert gas (xenon, krypton, etc.) make it possible to achieve a complex structure of the radiation flux due to modulation of the discharge current, but they have a radiation spectrum close to continuous (low efficiency in the IR range), which limited by the long-wavelength transmission limit of quartz (~ 4 μm) used as a lamp cladding.
          The urgent need for lamps free from these drawbacks led to the creation of a new class of selective radiation sources, namely, lamps with a discharge in alkali metal vapors. As follows from the foreign press, the most promising for the creation of an IR source is a high-pressure pulsed discharge in cesium vapor. At present, the AN / ALQ-123 and AN / AAQ-4 stations have been developed abroad to protect aircraft from new-generation missiles, using a pulsed cesium lamp with two sapphire shells. According to expert estimates, such a lamp should provide a maximum pulse amplitude of an IR signal of more than A = 50 W / sr and a modulation depth of at least m = 95% in the spectral range of 3,5 - 5,5 μm with an average power consumption of no more than 3 kW. In the creation of highly efficient radiation sources based on a high-pressure pulsed discharge in cesium vapor for optical systems to counter missiles with infrared homing heads.
  11. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 23 June 2021 05: 42
    +1
    as submunitions in which the promising K-77M air-to-air missiles will be used, which are the development of RVV-SD missiles. More promising may be the new RVV, made in the dimensions and weight of the R-60 ... or even less!
  12. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 23 June 2021 06: 08
    0
    Again, the "hope" for the "miracle weapon" (EMP ammunition), which no one has seen, used and does not have! For some reason, no one bothers that despite the awesome advertising and promises, no one is in a hurry with the message that they are going to "just about" adopt this notorious EMP weapon! Why is that ? Yes, because in parallel with this, a tremendous amount of work needs to be done! It is necessary to develop new models of "conventional" weapons or upgrade existing ones with protection even from their own EMP weapons! It is necessary to develop tactics for the use of EMP weapons, make changes in the organization and tactics of troops, train the troops in the use of EMP weapons and protection against them! Etc...!
    1. Intruder
      Intruder 29 June 2021 15: 32
      +1
      Again, the "hope" for the "miracle weapon" (EMP ammunition), which no one has seen, used and does not have! For some reason, no one bothers that despite the awesome advertising and promises, no one is in a hurry with the message that they are going to "just about" adopt this notorious EMP weapon
      They researched it for a long time in the Soviet Union and abandoned it for later ... "under the cloth", but one of the founders, has long been living overseas, after the 90s migrated, sold out ... for sneakers and sneakers, as some envious people like to say!
      By the way, there is a very informative reading about this area, with a detailed description of the experimental base, in those years of research: "Explosive sources of EMP", Prishchepenko A.B., Binom 2008
      Moreover ... I will not say the names and cities where this was done, but back in 2004, one interesting service of three letters (not obscene bully ), received an already operating model of a quantum-mechanical generator, to create artificial disturbances in the electromagnetic spectrum (the test item was at a ridiculous power of tens of watts, dynamic effects of changes in leakage currents in semiconductor junctions were caused, even in spite of shielding, it could "shoot "), researched even at the Russian Academy of Sciences and for ten years put" on the shelter "with a subscription for the participants in the work, and then they have already successfully forgotten, the paradigm has changed clearly negative , ... unfortunately for the developers, who did everything at their own expense (they did not take a penny from the state budget) and on their own initiative ...
  13. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 23 June 2021 06: 30
    +1
    In Russia, promising missiles and heavy V-V missiles are being developed - the presence of several individually homing submunitions will increase the likelihood of hitting complex high-speed targets.It is unlikely that it will be advisable to use RVV type R-77 or anything like that as a sub. That is why it is necessary to remove all "superfluous" from them! That is, a "submunition" is possible without a longitudinal thrust engine, but a DPU is needed ... it is possible to use a warhead as a "2in1" ... that is, the use of detonation-capable rocket fuel as an explosive in a warhead with the possibility of using a warhead as a solid propellant. .. in this case, the ammunition is applied on a hit-to-kill basis
  14. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 23 June 2021 08: 26
    0
    necessary for the correct operation of the ramjet

    Explicit google translation. Was it really impossible to write in Russian?
    1. Shopping Mall
      23 June 2021 10: 19
      +1
      Quote: Aviator_
      necessary for the correct operation of the ramjet

      Explicit google translation. Was it really impossible to write in Russian?


      Due to the tight deadlines for preparing the article, there are typos or phrases that are not always correctly composed.

      And I don't translate other people's articles.
  15. sivuch
    sivuch 23 June 2021 09: 23
    0
    And clause 1 in the author's vision (i.e. direct flow) does not contradict clause 3 (decrease in visibility)? The mouth of the OT will glow like a Christmas tree. And in the case of Meteor, questions with large angles of attack also arise.
    Maybe this is why it is better to use dual-mode solid propellant engines?
    1. Shopping Mall
      24 June 2021 10: 14
      0
      Quote: sivuch
      And clause 1 in the author's vision (i.e. direct flow) does not contradict clause 3 (decrease in visibility)? The mouth of the OT will glow like a Christmas tree. And in the case of Meteor, questions with large angles of attack also arise.
      Maybe this is why it is better to use dual-mode solid propellant engines?


      Optimally shaped air intakes, sawtooth edges.

      I cannot say which option is definitely preferable. PMSM ramjet engine for the first stage, and solid propellant or RPM for the second stage (submunitions).
  16. CastroRuiz
    CastroRuiz 23 June 2021 14: 16
    +1
    High quality article served very readable. The author is fat plus.
  17. 501Legion
    501Legion 23 June 2021 15: 38
    +1
    Quote: Aaron Zawi
    Powerful article. Thanks to the author for the work done.

    fully support
  18. Shahno
    Shahno 24 June 2021 10: 49
    -1
    // It would seem - what is the point then, in fact it is almost a V-V rocket? However, the absence of a warhead, transverse control and / or UHT engines, abandonment of technologies for reducing visibility, and most importantly - from an expensive guidance system, will make a false target several times cheaper than a "real" V-B missile and several times smaller in size. //
    This is too optimistic a statement.
    Nothing prevents the recognition of a false target by non-standard aerodynamics and differences in surface material. As a result, the ideal false target is actually a real unit, only without the bch ....
    1. Shopping Mall
      24 June 2021 14: 49
      0
      Quote: Shahno
      // It would seem - what is the point then, in fact it is almost a V-V rocket? However, the absence of a warhead, transverse control and / or UHT engines, abandonment of technologies for reducing visibility, and most importantly - from an expensive guidance system, will make a false target several times cheaper than a "real" V-B missile and several times smaller in size. //
      This is too optimistic a statement.
      Nothing prevents the recognition of a false target by non-standard aerodynamics and differences in surface material. As a result, the ideal false target is actually a real unit, only without the bch ....


      And how to recognize it by the materials?

      And the aerodynamics will be the same up to the area of ​​active maneuvering, to which the false target is not adapted. The smaller size will be offset by the lack of measures to reduce the visibility, i.e. EPR will be similar + it can be increased by corner reflectors or Luneberg lenses. The decoy engine will be weaker (less mass and midship), but it can be left open and the IR signature will also be comparable.
      1. Shahno
        Shahno 24 June 2021 14: 58
        -1
        //those. EPR will be similar + it can be increased with corner reflectors or Luneberg lenses //
        They did not think about the option of laser irradiation. Different surface, different interaction pattern ... different IR profile, etc.
        // And the aerodynamics will be the same up to the area of ​​active maneuvering, to which the false target is not adapted. Smaller sizes will be compensated by the absence of //
        Didn't think that smaller dimensions and surface changes also affect aerodynamics ...
        1. Shopping Mall
          24 June 2021 15: 49
          0
          Quote: Shahno
          //those. EPR will be similar + it can be increased with corner reflectors or Luneberg lenses //
          They did not think about the option of laser irradiation. Different surface, different interaction pattern ... different IR profile, etc.


          Lidar can theoretically recognize the type of material from a distance, but it all takes time. The count goes on for seconds. Therefore, any time spent by the enemy is a plus.

          Quote: Shahno
          // And the aerodynamics will be the same up to the area of ​​active maneuvering, to which the false target is not adapted. Smaller sizes will be compensated by the absence of //
          Didn't think that smaller dimensions and surface changes also affect aerodynamics ...


          If this is a guided munition, especially with a similar aerodynamic design and slightly different dimensions, then the control system is more influenced.

          If it is uncontrollable, then the proportions must be observed - it is all blown in a wind tunnel to obtain comparable results.

          In any case, the defender should spend time filtering out false targets, and he does not have a lot of time.
          1. agond
            agond 26 June 2021 13: 23
            +1
            A working laser on an aircraft can be not only a weapon against a rocket, it can also be a beacon if, for example, the head of the rocket is covered by a certain thick ceramic shield-shield inside which there are temperature sensors capable of determining the location of the radiation source by the nature of the screen heating and aiming a rocket at it
            1. Intruder
              Intruder 29 June 2021 15: 54
              0
              A working laser on an aircraft can be not only a weapon against a rocket, it can also be a beacon if, for example, the head of the rocket is covered by a certain thick ceramic shield-shield inside which there are temperature sensors capable of determining the location of the radiation source by the nature of the screen heating and aiming a rocket at it
              Well, this is just like any active location, so now they are switching to passive sensors, everyone who can and has the appropriate technologies so that missiles or loitering ammunition are not guided, even a preliminary radiation source in any spectrum, even optics or RFEMI, is at the location of a preliminary radiation source !?
  19. sawic1
    sawic1 2 July 2021 20: 43
    0
    The question of a teapot, if a large enough anti-aircraft missile is made in a powerful case that will not be afraid of fragments from an anti-missile and, having dispersed to high speeds, explode in advance by creating a cloud of fragments within a radius of 100, 150 meters, flying with an impulse from the gained speed, thereby you can sacrifice accuracy, maneuverability and expensive guidance systems not resistant to laser interference, as an option is this a possible option or not possible?
  20. rica1952
    rica1952 4 July 2021 12: 52
    0
    At present, the destruction of missiles with a laser will not work out 150 kW, say for a carbon-fiber hull for 1-2 seconds, this is not enough on the surface for destruction, it is necessary to create 4-5 kJ until this is possible.
  21. Vsevolod136
    Vsevolod136 23 July 2021 15: 52
    0
    Quote: gaudin
    means of opening circuits can be used in the event of strong induction currents - zener diodes and varistors

    Zener diode stabilizes the constant voltage of power supplies, and the varistor protects against overvoltage - causing a short circuit.
    Illiterate article.

    No wonder, the author's weapon is based on "new" physical principles, and this is a diagnosis)))