Artemis, sister of Apollo, goddess of the moon, who at one time knew how to use the bow, killing a bunch of characters such as the children of Niobe. And in her honor was named the second American program for the exploration of the moon. The lunar program "Artemis" began in 2017.
As those who really know remember, the predecessor of Artemis was the Apollo program, which was launched in 1961 and completed in 1972.
The result was 6 (SIX) flights to the Moon (and not one taken in Hollywood, as some are trying to imagine), 11 thousand photos of the lunar surface, on the basis of which a new lunar atlas was created, 400 kilograms of lunar soil.
We graduated from the Apollo program because in fact we did everything. what they could: they landed a man (and more than one), won the lunar race, planted the US flag. The photo was taken, the soil was brought. But it cost so much that even an economy like that of the United States really collapsed and could not stand the high cost. Well, the technical capabilities of mankind at that time were exhausted. So the program was closed, which was pretty logical. The victory was for the United States, there was no point in driving Apollo to the Moon anymore.
In those years, there were much fewer conspiracy theorists, Neil Armstrong was received in the USSR at the proper level and from the heart, without questioning his merits.
Neil Armstrong and Valentina Tereshkova
These two photos show Neil Armstrong in the company of pilot-cosmonaut Konstantin Petrovich Feoktistov and pilot-cosmonaut Georgy Timofeevich Beregov.
In 2017, a new stage began. Now flights to the Moon for the sake of flights and jumps on its surface are not interesting to anyone and are not worth the money spent on it. Now we are talking about how to land on the surface of the moon and gain a foothold there. And on an ongoing basis, start exploring the Earth's satellite in earnest.
The Artemis program consists of several stages.
1. Launch of the circumlunar orbital station "Getway" in 2024.
2. Development of the project "Getway" to the permanent presence of a person on it.
3. Re-landing of a man on the moon, especially a woman (hurray for the US feminists). The year is 2028.
4. Construction on the lunar surface of the infrastructure for human habitation there. From 2030 onwards.
5. Geological exploration with the subsequent extraction of minerals. The time frame is 2040-2050.
All this should lead to the constant presence of a person, first in the circumlunar space, then on the Moon itself.
And then only the development and improvement of the station, infrastructure and logistics. But in 2021, the assembly work of the first modules of the Getway station has already begun.
The huntress goddess Artemis naturally had a bow and arrows. Today in the quiver of the project there are eleven arrows, that is, the participating countries.
In addition to the United States, Canada, Japan, the United Arab Emirates, Great Britain, Italy, Australia, Luxembourg, Brazil, Ukraine and South Korea are participating in the project.
It is clear that the participation of the same UAE or Luxembourg is for the sake of money. So what? Who was hindered by big budgets? But there is plenty of money in these countries, why not? Japan and Korea are electronics, in addition, the Japanese are very successful in working on asteroids with their automatic stations.
But Russia, as you can see, does not exist. In January 2021, Russia was excluded from the list, and was removed from the expert group for the development of Getway. The reason was the repeated statements by Russian representatives about the insufficient role of Russia in the project.
The head of Roscosmos, Dmitry Rogozin, has repeatedly spoken out negatively about the role that was offered to Russia, namely the creation of gateways in accordance with NASA standards. Rogozin was against this approach, in the end the parties did not agree, and Russia was forced to leave.
Alas, whoever pays is the one who calls the tune.
Apparently, Rogozin somewhat underestimated the situation. With the advent of Elon Musk's creations, the States have absolutely no reason to play on the same site with Russia, since they can play solo. Basically, if you remember history from the ISS, then, despite the fact that the first block of the station, the Zarya module has a Russian name, was created in Russia and launched into orbit by a Russian carrier rocket, the USA paid for everything. And it is they (NASA) who own the ownership of Zarya.
Who pays, I repeat ...
As a result, the composition of the ISS is known: eight American modules, one European, one Japanese and five Russian. The US pays 60% of the ISS budget, the remaining 40% - Russia, Japan and Europe.
When creating a lunar station, the United States decided not to waste time on trifles, and, playing in high stakes, immediately designate who will be the owner there. The rest of the countries either agree to the position of junior partners, or ... to exit. So after the ISS was flooded in 2024, the roads of countries in space finally diverge.
Projects for the construction of a Russian station, either in Earth orbit or in the Moon orbit, raise doubts both in terms of technical and in terms of financial. And this is a reality that is difficult to get out of.
And then it is worth looking at what the United States is planning in a complex.
The intended final and irrevocable break in US-Russian cooperation is just the beginning.
On April 7, 2020, the United States denounced its signature under the 1979 UN General Assembly resolution, in which the Moon and its resources were declared common to mankind.
Now the US does not recognize this document. There is nothing universal in the Moon. The moon will belong to those who can reach it, gain a foothold and begin development. This immediately puts all the points on the "and", but it looks quite logical.
The 1979 resolution and the “Agreement on the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies”, created on its basis, provided for somewhat non-marketable things. Any profit received from the development of the Moon goes to the disposal of the UN, international bodies and is divided equally among the UN member states.
You know, so that all North Koreas, Iran, Venezuela, and Belarus do not hurt too much to rely on profits. There will be no interest, whoever has mastered the moon will have money.
In general, of course, it is completely in the order of things.
May 2020. Will go down in history that the consortium "Artemis Accord", "Artemis Agreement" was created. And it stipulated the "rules of the game": "Lunar law", the division of the satellite into spheres of responsibility and sectors of influence and stuff like that.
It is clear that candidates for the role of satellites will be carefully selected in the United States. For many countries such as the Emirates or Canada, this will be the only real road to space. It is clear that the United States will take on the main role in financing the project here, but "there is never a lot of money." Therefore, it turns out something like a closed elite club, where not everyone will be allowed.
In some media and on the Internet in particular, strange reactions have started. Criticism and laughter addressed to the same Luxembourg and Ukraine. Not space powers, so to speak.
Forgive me, you can gossip a lot, but Luxembourg is one of the countries whose banking and insurance systems are in the top ten of the world ranking. And the euros that the Luxembourg bankers will invest in the project are no different from the dollars of American financial tycoons. Well, or from the UAE dirhams.
And Ukraine will also be able to play its own melody in the general choir. Whatever the very sharp-tongued "experts" of the Internet say, what is in Ukraine - it is. KB Yuzhnoye, Yuzhny Machine-Building Plant named after A. M. Makarov, Khartron-Arkos, Kievpribor, Khartron-YUKOM, Rapid - these are all world-famous plants. And the fact that they are going through hard times, as practice shows, is treated with an infusion of money.
Even Musk admitted that the Zenith rocket, created by Ukrainian hands, is one of the best in the world.
How realistic is what the Americans are up to?
Unfortunately, real. There is a lot of backbiting in the style of Dmitry Rogozin, but let's take a look at the breakthrough that NASA is showing today.
- The United States delivered to Mars, landed and successfully used the third rover. Weighing 1 kg.
The Chinese, who approached Mars almost simultaneously with the Americans, hung out in orbit for three months. And their apparatus weighed only 260 kg. The Americans sat down almost immediately.
What difference does it make? It's just that landing is considered the most difficult stage from the technical point of view for any such flight.
- From the rover, they launched and carried out several flights (albeit not over long distances) of a propeller drone for flying in the atmosphere.
- Musk launched and landed the same first stage of the Falcon.
The first stage is the most complex and expensive part of the rocket. Plus there is another one that flew nine times. And several with the number of starts from four to six. That is, in fact, Musk's reusable system works.
“Most recently, I successfully tested Starship, the heaviest missile in US history.
Not partially, like the Falcon, but completely reusable. Yes, Musk's company ditched a lot of money and materials along the way. Yes, the prototype exploded at the start, jumped, exploded in flight, exploded on landing ...
But in the end, the rocket took off 12 km and safely landed back on the ground. And it didn't explode. When Russia and China will be able to raise the Yenisei and Changzhen 9 in the same way is a question. Not anytime soon.
- in 2021, the Parker solar probe (named after the scientist Eugene Parker, who discovered and proved the existence of the solar wind), launched in 2018, accelerated to 532 km / h, flies to the Sun (where it will burn in 000), sending a huge number of measurements and telemetry of solar activity. Will go down in history as the fastest earthly vehicle that will approach the Sun at a minimum distance.
One could talk about the achievements of Russia, but ...
By the way, there was a similar solar project in Russia. "Interheliozond". The project, worth just $ 1,5 billion, was pulled out of poverty.
Regarding reusable rockets, heavy launch vehicles, reusable spaceships - so far only empty talk and promises. As well as about his station ROSS, lunar stations, flights to Mars and Venus. All this so far exists only on Dmitry Rogozin's twitter.
But 2021 will go down in history as the last year of use of Russian "Unions" for money. Now, from 2022, the Americans themselves will deliver their astronauts into orbit. No, no one says that countries will not let US representatives on board in Soyuz, and Russians in Cru Dragon. But already just by barter.
Here, perhaps, it is worth remembering that for 140 successful launches, Soyuz transported 373 cosmonauts and astronauts into orbit. The Space Shuttle program has delivered 135 people over 852 successful flights. So, for comparison.
But when the Space Shuttle program was curtailed, Roscosmos frankly used it to its advantage. Having become a monopoly, the Russian company raised prices a little. Four times, from $ 21 million in 2006 for a seat, to $ 83 million in 2020. Since 2006, Americans have paid more than $ 72 billion for 4 seats. For Roskosmos, it was good money. That's it. The shop has closed. Cruise Dragon start - $ 55 million. Not a bad signal for the rest.
The program of deliveries of Russian RD-180 engines was closed in exactly the same way. This year, 2021, will be the last in which the United States acquired the RD-180. Yes, the Russian engine accounted for 10 to 15% of the launches of American missiles, but the Americans approached the BE-4 and Raptor, which are at least as good as, and as they say in the United States, head and shoulders above the RD-180.
Energomash, which supplied the RD-180 to the USA, received from these contracts from 10 to 13 billion rubles a year. What fate awaits NPO Energomash named after academician V. P. Glushko after the end of work with the Americans, today it is difficult to say. But it is clear that there is nothing optimistic about the prospects.
There is an understanding that the arrows of "Artemis" will still fly to the moon. Perhaps, under the Internet cackle of a certain category of users. To stories about trampolines and stupid Americans, but ...
I would very much like to write about the real successes of Russian cosmonautics. I would like to live up to this holiday, when something flies with us, works, gets lucky or lands on the moon. When, I hope, we will still move from words on Twitter to deeds at the enterprises of the space industry.
It is not entirely pleasant to watch the next success of the Americans, with each step throwing Russia to the side of the space road.