Military Review

Japanese post-war anti-aircraft machine gun and artillery mounts

86
Japanese post-war anti-aircraft machine gun and artillery mounts

After the defeat in World War II, Japan was banned from the creation of the armed forces. The Japanese Constitution, adopted in 1947, legally enshrines the refusal to participate in military conflicts. In particular, in the second chapter, which is called "Renouncing War", it says:


Sincerely striving for international peace based on justice and order, the Japanese people forever reject war as the sovereign right of the nation, as well as the threat or use of armed force as a means of resolving international disputes. To achieve the goal indicated in the previous paragraph, land, sea and air forces, as well as other means of war, will never be created in the future. The right to a state of war is not recognized.

However, already in 1952, the National Security Forces were formed, and in 1954, the Japan Self-Defense Forces began to be created on their basis. Formally, this organization is not the armed forces and in Japan itself is considered a civilian agency. The Prime Minister of Japan is in charge of the Self-Defense Forces.

Although the number of the Japanese Self-Defense Forces is relatively small and now stands at approximately 247 people, they are sufficiently combat-ready and equipped with modern equipment and weapons.

After the formation of the Self-Defense Forces, they were mainly equipped with weapons American production. Until the second half of the 1960s, the main means of air defense for Japanese ground units were 12,7-mm anti-aircraft machine guns and anti-aircraft guns of 40-75 mm caliber.

However, relatively easy-to-use anti-aircraft guns made up the backbone of the air defense systems of the ground forces for a long time. So, as of 1979, the Japan Self-Defense Forces, consisting of 5 armies, 12 infantry divisions, 1 mechanized division and 5 brigades, numbered 180 ground troops. In service there were more than 000 tanks, over 800 armored personnel carriers, 1 artillery pieces and over 300 anti-aircraft guns of 300–35 mm caliber.

12,7 mm anti-aircraft machine gun mounts


During the Second World War, 12,7 mm Browning M2 machine guns were actively used, which were also supplied to the Japanese Self-Defense Forces in the post-war period. The quad 12,7-mm anti-aircraft machine gun M45 Quadmount, in a towed version and mounted on half-track armored transporters M2, M3 and M5, has become widespread.


American 12,7-mm self-propelled anti-aircraft gun M16

Towed quad mounts were mainly used for air defense of stationary objects, and half-tracked ZSU could be used to escort transport convoys and mobile units. Quadruple 12,7 mm mounts have proven to be a powerful means of fighting air targets, manpower and lightly armored vehicles.


12,7-mm ZPU M45 Quadmount on the unified M20 trailer

In 1947, for the towed version of the M45 Quadmount anti-aircraft gun, a compact unified M20 trailer was created, in which the wheel drive was separated at the firing position, and it was hung out on jacks.

The weight of the ZPU M45 Quadmount in the firing position was 1087 kg. The effective firing range at air targets is about 1000 m. The rate of fire is 2300 rounds per minute. The capacity of the cartridge boxes on the installation is 800 rounds. Targeting was carried out by electric drives at a speed of up to 60 deg / s. The electric current came from a gasoline generator. Two lead-acid batteries served as a backup power source.

The M45 Quadmount anti-aircraft guns were widely supplied to the allies as part of military assistance. A number of quadruple ZPUs on a unified M20 trailer entered the anti-aircraft units of the Self-Defense Forces, where they were operated until the mid-1970s.


Sumitomo M2 heavy machine gun on Mitsubishi Type 73

The 12,7 mm Sumitomo M2 heavy machine gun, which is a licensed copy of the American Browning M2 machine gun, became more widespread in the Japanese ground units.


This weapon on a tripod machine is still actively used for firing at ground and air targets, and is also installed on various armored vehicles.

20-mm anti-aircraft gun VADS



By the early 1970s, the quad 12,7-mm was obsolete, and in this connection, in 1979, the Air Self-Defense Forces adopted the American 20-mm M167 Vulcan anti-aircraft gun mount. This towed unit, created on the basis of aviation cannon M61 Vulcan, has an electric drive, and is capable of firing at a rate of fire of 1000 and 3000 rds / min. Effective firing range at fast moving air targets - up to 1500 m. Weight - 1800 kg. Calculation - 2 people.

In the early 1980s, Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd (artillery unit) and Toshiba Corporation (electronic equipment) began licensed production of the M167. In Japan, this installation was designated VADS-1 (Vulcan Air Defense System).


20-mm anti-aircraft gun VADS-1kai

Japanese-made 20-mm anti-aircraft guns received improved radar rangefinders. At present, about three dozen 20-mm Japanese anti-aircraft "Volcanoes" used to guard air bases have been upgraded to the VADS-1kai level. A sighting and search television camera with a night channel and a laser rangefinder have been introduced into the hardware of the installations.

40-mm towed anti-aircraft guns and self-propelled anti-aircraft guns


The 40-mm Bofors L60 automatic anti-aircraft gun was one of the best types of anti-aircraft weapons used in World War II. Due to its high combat and service and operational characteristics, it was used by the armed forces of many states.


40-mm anti-aircraft machine Bofors L60 in the stowed position

In the USA, this anti-aircraft gun was produced under license under the designation 40 mm Automatic Gun. In order to simplify and reduce the cost of production, a number of changes were made to the design of the anti-aircraft machine gun.

The gun is mounted on a four-wheeled towed wagon. In case of urgent need, the shooting could be carried out "from the wheels" without additional procedures, but with less accuracy. In the normal mode, the carriage frame was lowered to the ground for greater stability. The transition from the traveling position to the combat position took about 1 minute. With a mass of an anti-aircraft gun of about 2000 kg, towing was carried out by a truck. The calculation and ammunition were located in the back.

The rate of fire reached 120 rds / min. Loading - clips for 4 shots, which were inserted manually. The gun had a practical ceiling of about 3800 m with a range of 7000 m. A fragmentation projectile weighing 0,9 kg left the barrel at a speed of 850 m / s. In most cases, one hit of a 40-mm fragmentation projectile on an enemy attack aircraft or dive bomber was enough to defeat it. Armor-piercing shells capable of penetrating 58 mm of homogeneous steel armor at a distance of 500 meters could be used against lightly armored ground targets.

Usually 40-mm "Bofors" were reduced to anti-aircraft batteries of 4-6 guns guided by PUAZO. But if necessary, the calculation of each anti-aircraft gun could act individually.

In the second half of the 1950s - early 1960s, the United States transferred to Japan approximately two hundred 40-mm towed anti-aircraft guns. The rapid increase in the characteristics of jet combat aircraft quickly became obsolete. But in the Japanese Self-Defense Forces "Bofors" (L60) were used until the early 1980s.

In parallel with towed 40-mm anti-aircraft guns, Japan received 35 ZSU M19. This vehicle, armed with two 40-mm machine guns mounted in an open-top turret, was created in 1944 on the chassis of the M24 Chaffee light tank. Guidance in the horizontal and vertical planes - using an electrohydraulic drive. Ammunition - 352 rounds. Combat rate of fire when firing bursts reached 120 rounds per minute with a range of fire at air targets up to 5000 m.


ZSU M19

By the standards of World War II, the anti-aircraft self-propelled gun had good data. The vehicle weighing 18 tons was covered with 13 mm armor, which provided protection against bullets and light fragments. On the M19 highway, it accelerated to 56 km / h, the speed over rough terrain did not exceed 20 km / h.

Before the surrender of Germany, a small number of self-propelled anti-aircraft guns were supplied to the troops. And these machines were not used against the German aviation. In connection with the end of hostilities, not many ZSU M19 were released - 285 vehicles.

Self-propelled anti-aircraft guns, armed with 40-mm sparks, were actively used in Korea for firing at ground targets. Since the ammunition was consumed very quickly when firing in bursts, about 300 more shells in cassettes were transported in special trailers. All M19s were decommissioned shortly after the end of the Korean War. The least worn-out vehicles were handed over to the Allies, and the rest were written off for scrap.


The main reason for the short service of the ZSU M19 was the refusal of the American army from the light M24 tanks, which were unable to fight the Soviet T-34-85. Instead of the M19, the ZSU M42 Duster was adopted. This self-propelled gun with anti-aircraft weapons, similar to the M19, was created on the basis of the M41 light tank in 1951. With a combat weight of 22,6 tons, the car could accelerate on the highway to 72 km / h. Compared to the previous model, the thickness of the frontal armor increased by 12 mm, and now the forehead of the hull could confidently hold 14,5 mm armor-piercing bullets and 23 mm shells fired from a distance of 300 m.

Guidance is carried out using an electric drive, the tower is capable of rotating 360 ° at a speed of 40 ° per second, the vertical guidance angle of the gun is from -3 to + 85 ° at a speed of 25 ° per second. The fire control system included a mirror sight and a calculating device, the data into which were entered manually. Compared to the M19, the ammunition load was increased and amounted to 480 shells. For self-defense, there was a 7,62 mm machine gun.

A significant drawback of the "Duster" was the lack of a radar sight and a centralized anti-aircraft battery fire control system. All this significantly reduced the effectiveness of anti-aircraft fire. In this regard, in 1956, a modification of the M42A1 was created, on which the mirror sight was replaced with a radar one. ZSU M42 was built in a fairly large series, from 1951 to 1959, General Motors Corporation produced approximately 3700 units.


ZSU M42, belonging to the Self-Defense Forces of Japan

In 1960, Japan purchased 22 ZSU M42. These cars, due to their simplicity and unpretentiousness, were liked by the crews. "Dasters" were operated until March 1994. And the ZSU Type 87 was replaced.

75-mm anti-aircraft gun M51 Skysweeper


The heaviest anti-aircraft gun used in the post-war period by Japanese air defense units was the American-made 75-mm M51 Skysweeper automatic cannon.

The appearance of the 75-mm automatic anti-aircraft gun was due to the fact that during the Second World War there was a "difficult" for anti-aircraft artillery range of altitudes from 1500 to 3000 m. small. In order to solve the problem, it seemed natural to create anti-aircraft guns of some intermediate caliber.

Jet combat aircraft in the post-war period developed at a very rapid pace, and the command of the US Army put forward a requirement that the new anti-aircraft gun mount should be able to deal with aircraft flying at speeds up to 1600 km / h at an altitude of 6 km. However, subsequently, the maximum flight speed of the targets being fired was limited to 1100 km / h.

Due to the high speed of flight of targets and the need to ensure an acceptable probability of destruction at a long firing range, the 75-mm anti-aircraft artillery system, which was put into service in 1953, contained a number of advanced technical solutions at that time.

When the flight speed of the fired aircraft is close to the sound one, manually entering data on the target parameters would be absolutely ineffective. Therefore, in the new anti-aircraft installation, a combination of search and guidance radar with an analog computer was used. The rather bulky equipment was combined with the artillery unit of the 75-mm M35 revolving cannon.

A radar with a parabolic antenna was mounted in the upper left of the gun mount. Provided the detection and tracking of air targets at a distance of up to 30 km. Guidance was carried out by electric drives. The gun had an automatic remote fuse installer, which significantly increased the effectiveness of firing. Effective firing range at high-speed air targets - up to 6300 m. Vertical aiming angles: from -6 ° to + 85 °. The gun ammunition during firing was automatically replenished using a special loader. The practical rate of fire was 45 rds / min, which is an excellent indicator for a towed anti-aircraft gun of this caliber.

At the time of the appearance of the 75-mm M51 anti-aircraft gun in its class, it had no equal in range, rate of fire and firing accuracy. At the same time, the complex and expensive hardware required qualified maintenance and was quite sensitive to mechanical stress and meteorological factors.


75-mm anti-aircraft gun M51 Skysweeper on a wheeled vehicle

The mobility of the gun left much to be desired. The transfer to a combat position was quite troublesome. In the stowed position, the anti-aircraft gun was transported on a four-wheeled cart, upon arrival at the firing position, it was lowered to the ground and rested on four cruciform supports. To achieve combat readiness, it was required to connect the power cables and warm up the guidance equipment. The power supply was carried out from a gasoline power generator.


75mm anti-aircraft gun M51 Skysweeper in combat position

75-mm anti-aircraft guns, possessing high combat characteristics, created many problems for their calculations. Delicate radar equipment on electrovacuum devices at the first stage of operation often did not withstand the powerful recoil and went out of order after a dozen shots. Subsequently, the reliability of the electronics was brought to an acceptable level, but the installation of the M51 was never popular in the American army.

Problems with the reliability and mobility of 75-mm automatic anti-aircraft guns were partially solved by placing them in fixed capital positions, together with 90 and 120-mm anti-aircraft guns. However, the M51 Skysweeper service in the US was short-lived. After the appearance of the MIM-23 Hawk air defense system, the American army abandoned the 75-mm anti-aircraft installations.


75-mm anti-aircraft gun M51 Skysweeper, installed as a monument near the entrance to the Japanese military base Shimoshizu (Camp Shimoshizu)

After 1959, American troops stationed in Japan transferred their 75-mm anti-aircraft guns, which were used to cover air bases, to the Self-Defense Forces. The Japanese highly appreciated the M51 installations. Approximately two and a half dozen of these guns were on alert around important facilities until the second half of the 1970s.

Moreover, when designing an "anti-aircraft tank" in Japan, which was supposed to replace the outdated ZSU M42 in the army, the possibility of using the 75-mm M35 automatic revolving gun with a new radar guidance system as the main weapon was considered as one of the possible options. The firepower of such an anti-aircraft self-propelled gun, if necessary, made it possible to effectively use it against enemy armored vehicles and landing craft. However, later on, preference was given to 35-mm assault rifles, which provide a high probability of destruction when firing at rapidly moving low-altitude targets.

35-mm towed and self-propelled anti-aircraft guns


By the early 1960s, it became clear that 40-mm towed and self-propelled anti-aircraft guns no longer meet modern requirements. The Japanese military was not satisfied with the rate of fire of the 40-mm "Bofors" and the low probability of hitting the target, due to primitive sighting devices.

In 1969, Japan purchased the first batch of towed twin 35-mm Oerlikon GDF-01 anti-aircraft guns. At that time, it was, perhaps, the most advanced anti-aircraft gun, which successfully combined high accuracy of fire, rate of fire, range and reach in height. The licensed production of 35-mm anti-aircraft guns was established by the Japanese engineering company Japan Steel.


Japanese 35-mm twin anti-aircraft gun in the museum exhibition

The mass of the towed 35-mm anti-aircraft gun in the combat position was more than 6500 kg. Sighting range at air targets - up to 4000 m, reach in height - up to 3000 m. Rate of fire - 1100 rds / min. The capacity of the charging boxes is 124 shots.

To control the fire of the four-gun anti-aircraft battery, the Super Fledermaus FC radar system with a range of 15 km was used.

In 1981, Japanese anti-aircraft artillery units received upgraded 35-mm GDF-02 anti-aircraft guns with an improved fire control radar, which was produced in Japan by Mitsubishi Electric Corporation.


Paired 35-mm anti-aircraft guns were connected by cable lines with an anti-aircraft fire control station. All of its equipment was located in a towed van, on the roof of which there was a rotating pulse Doppler radar antenna, a radar rangefinder and a television camera. Two people serving the station could remotely direct anti-aircraft guns to the target without the participation of gun crews.

The service of 35-mm towed anti-aircraft guns in the Self-Defense Forces ended in 2010. At the time of decommissioning, there were more than 70 twin units in service.

In the second half of the 1970s, the command of the Self-Defense Forces came to the conclusion that the American-made M42 Duster ZSU was obsolete, after which the technical requirements for a promising anti-aircraft self-propelled gun were approved. By that time, Japan had decided to almost completely abandon the purchase of foreign weapons and thereby stimulate the development of its own defense industry.

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries was chosen as the contractor, which had a solid experience in the defense sector. In accordance with the terms of reference, the contractor company was supposed to build a self-propelled anti-aircraft artillery mount on a tracked chassis, with a complex of electronic means that ensure the search and firing of targets.

After going through the options, the Type 74 tank was chosen as the chassis, the production of which had been going on since the mid-1970s. The main difference between the anti-aircraft self-propelled gun and the base tank was a two-man turret of a new design with two 35-mm Oerlikon GDF assault rifles. The rotating turret allows you to fire in any direction with a vertical aiming angle of the barrels from -5 to + 85 °. Ballistic characteristics and firing range correspond to towed 35 mm GDF-02 anti-aircraft guns. Surround and target tracking radars, whose antennas are located at the rear of the tower, provide detection at a range of 18 km and target tracking from a distance of 12 km.


The mass of the ZSU in the firing position is 44 tons. Diesel with a capacity of 750 liters. from. capable of providing highway speeds up to 53 km / h. The power reserve is 300 km. The protection of the case is at the level of the base chassis. The tower has a bulletproof booking.


ZSU Type 87

In 1987, the anti-aircraft self-propelled gun was put into service under the designation Type 87. Serial production was carried out jointly by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Japan Steel Works. A total of 52 vehicles were delivered to the customer. Currently, anti-aircraft units operate approximately 40 Type 87 ZSUs. The rest have been written off or transferred to storage.


ZSU Type 87 in the stowed position, radar antennas folded

In terms of firing characteristics, the Type 87 corresponds to the German ZSU Gepard, but surpasses it in terms of radar equipment.

Currently, the Type 87 ZSU no longer fully meets modern requirements, and long-term operation will inevitably lead to the decommissioning of all anti-aircraft self-propelled guns or will require major repairs. However, a radical modernization of the Type 87 in the future is not rational, since this machine was created on the basis of the outdated Type 74 tank.

Thus, we can expect the emergence of a new Japanese self-propelled anti-aircraft gun with a combined missile and cannon armament on a modern tracked chassis.

To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
Articles from this series:
Actions of American strategic bombers against Japan
Actions of American aviation against the Japanese islands at the final stage of the war
Japanese small-caliber anti-aircraft artillery
Japanese anti-aircraft artillery of medium and large caliber
Single-engine Japanese fighters against long-range American B-29 bombers
Heavy twin-engined Japanese fighters versus American bombers
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  1. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 2 June 2021 18: 21
    +6
    I love your articles, Sergei! It is what it is! Neither add nor subtract. With illustrations, with performance characteristics. Write more often!
    I look forward to continuing!
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 2 June 2021 20: 42
      +6
      Igor, hello! hi

      I join you and completely agree with your assessment. good

      Interestingly, the Mitsubishi Type 73 jeep in the photo, is this not an army version of the first Toyota Landcruiser?
      1. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 2 June 2021 20: 46
        0
        I do not know. Alas, the car industry is not so strong by foreign)))
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 2 June 2021 20: 49
          +2
          Me too, just very similar. Yes, looking at the photographs, at first glance it seems that you are leafing through a catalog of American air defense. smile
          Okay, I went to read on, I'll write it off to Sergey tomorrow. hi
          1. The leader of the Redskins
            The leader of the Redskins 2 June 2021 20: 55
            +4
            Quickly "ran". Not. Comes from its predecessor - a licensed "jeep" sample 52 years old.
            And, in general, I like "Kruzak 70" most of all from this line.
            And the suspension is indestructible, and the interior is roomy.
            No wonder his barmaley and SSO amers use it.
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 2 June 2021 20: 57
              +1
              Alas, I am absolutely not a motorist. smile request
              1. The leader of the Redskins
                The leader of the Redskins 2 June 2021 20: 59
                0
                I am a theorist. The wife drives. And I am a mechanic, well, and according to magazines and articles)))
                After the tank, I never learned how to drive a car normally!)))
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 2 June 2021 21: 03
                  +1
                  Get on the quad, there is the same principle - "let the road take care of itself." I'm doing it so far. drinks
            2. Catfish
              Catfish 2 June 2021 21: 24
              +4
              Here is the civilian "Kruzak" of the first model, just like the younger brother of the American "Jeep".
              1. Zaurbek
                Zaurbek 3 June 2021 07: 07
                +2
                All Japanese SUVs went from him: Mitsu Pajero and Nissan Patrul ... and Correian Corrandos and Indian TATA
      2. tima_ga
        tima_ga 2 June 2021 21: 26
        +8
        No, this Mitsubishi product has nothing to do with Toyota. Mitsubishi produced J55 and J58 models for the domestic market from 54th to 98th, although the main consumer, of course, was the "army" of Japan. At first, it was the assembly of Willis under license, and then there was a gradual import substitution of the main units.
      3. Mooh
        Mooh 3 June 2021 02: 14
        +5
        Interestingly, the Mitsubishi Type 73 jeep in the photo, is this not an army version of the first Toyota Landcruiser?

        Not at all. After the war, Mitsubishi produced the Jeep under an American license. I can't say whether the Type 73 is a copy of the later Jeep or an independent development based on the earlier one, but it definitely has nothing to do with Toyota cars.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 3 June 2021 18: 07
          +5
          This means that this particular car was still the progenitor of all Japanese SUVs. smile
  2. Split
    Split 2 June 2021 19: 08
    -5
    It is strange that all Japan did not make seppoku after 45 ... but sold itself to pants ... and praise those who killed their fathers, grandmothers, etc. I also have bushido, which depends on the dough
    1. mark1
      mark1 2 June 2021 19: 52
      +8
      Quote: Split
      It's strange that all of Yaonia Seppoku didn't do after 45

      "Sepuka" is for export, otherwise the Japanese are quite sane and want to live no matter what. And whatever was so offensive, they (on an instinctive level, like true samurai) forced themselves to fall in love with the new master and hate his enemy.
      1. Split
        Split 2 June 2021 19: 56
        +2
        It's strange to say, given the kamikaze planes, there was no end of the torpedo from the number of volunteers ... and so on ... although the Germans had something similar
        1. mark1
          mark1 2 June 2021 20: 01
          +8
          If you look at the percentage of the population, then not so much. Fanatics are everywhere. And they also ate the liver of the prisoners (also not all) ... so their culture does not cause awe in me, basically everything is for export (yes, you can read the notes of Russian sailors).
          1. Split
            Split 2 June 2021 20: 05
            +3
            Yes, I have too ... show-off they are expensive laughing Like cool, but how does it all end up then. Sold for candy wrappers. Although ... what can I say, I myself drive a Honda 5d ... 2008 ... after 8 years I bought Nyashka repeat Although I'm selling right now, the child is more important and the father-in-law is really bad recourse
            1. mark1
              mark1 2 June 2021 20: 13
              +2
              I beg your pardon, but Nyashka is who (what)?
              1. Split
                Split 2 June 2021 20: 18
                +6
                My Honda Civic 5d, the so-called. spaceship ... Probably the most beautiful car ... Alas, we will have to sell ... and the rights were deprived a year ago + ended ... this is another year ... Fortunately, the previous owner took good care of it ... the body was nowhere in the yard for a year ! not rusted. I punched mine through clon2, 2 accidents in parking lots. But they tried to steal it from me, the immobilizer right now does not recognize my own keys.
                17 thousand mileage, dviglo in the ideal body and interior too ... right now I'm selling for 450
                1. mark1
                  mark1 2 June 2021 20: 26
                  +6
                  And I have Varka (Navara) 2007, I won't sell it to anyone - we'll die together.
                  1. Split
                    Split 2 June 2021 20: 30
                    +5
                    So what to do? Do not die live in it, 1.5 years ago I sold avechka (Aveo 2, 78 thousand ... for 10 years) Also my heart was bleeding crying
                    1. mark1
                      mark1 2 June 2021 20: 35
                      +2
                      Yes I am. 4-5 years and I do not plan to go - it looks like I left, if my wife only goes for a ride. hi
                      1. Split
                        Split 2 June 2021 20: 45
                        +6
                        But I can't ... I like it, especially after her ... my blizzard rubbed me for six months, hard, jumping ... she was pregnant ... well, I blissed out ... turned 90, all the same, the equipment was sports. .. I haven’t been driving for over a year, if it hadn’t been for the immobilizer, I would have rolled sober at 0 and didn’t care that the cops would have slowed down ... I miss ...
                      2. mark1
                        mark1 2 June 2021 20: 54
                        +6
                        What are your years! Ride some more swallows, but driving alcohol is evil, I say from personal experience.
                      3. The comment was deleted.
                    2. mvg
                      mvg 2 June 2021 21: 40
                      +4
                      Google, the problem with the imma is being solved. If there are no specialists, then you yourself can. On disassembly, the dashboard and ignition lock with a key. Half day work. Experience with VW Passat. If there are specialists, they will alter the ROM on the tidy, tie it to the key
                    3. Split
                      Split 4 June 2021 08: 57
                      0
                      YES, they also tried aveo, there the signaling was bypassing the immobilizer, but in the end I did not see the key either, I called it ... changed the chip + work for 30 minutes ... I gave somewhere 2,5k. I hardly traveled ... I have accumulated 7-8 km a year. But I dashed off on a civie in six months repeat sometimes just small (3 cats) raised at 3 in the morning in the summer ... I rode before work and the joke was that I had been slowed down for six months only 1 time before that day! ... and that day they immediately slowed down like you smell like alcohol ... we go to their car ... 0, 2nd time literally in 20 minutes ... they kind of smells ... 0 again ... they are strange, we have an orientation that you are drunk ... well, 3- eh already "cops" ... immediately 0.64 ...% installed ... and the shooting was done "professionally" and could not find witnesses ... but the court did not care, everything was bought there. And right after the protocol, like go. I sat down and went home. stop again laughing start, then oops ... sorry ... good road ... and then they slow down again wassat
                      Nada had to go to the medical ... but I just already understood who and what he wanted ... 5e were clearly not in the subject and could have been taken from them ... but they would have said something like "weathered out" and so on.
                      And the next day, the office called, fully aware of the circumstances, what violations of the protocol ... 56 thousand and we kind of otmazyvayut ... struck a gene - the former head of the traffic police of the Tagansky district ... everything is seized and strangled
                    4. Split
                      Split 4 June 2021 09: 13
                      0
                      I have already contacted, they said if there was an attempt, it is more likely to change the block, or rather to tie it. A block of about 6 + work and binding ... in general, almost 10k.
                      Well, it's easier for me to pay .... it's not poking around in the suspension ... I myself went through all the suspension myself on the Aveo after a hole in the water, I even have a puller. It turns out that the rack can be removed in the field ... replacing the damper, support, springs, steering (tip and thrust), I even replaced the stabilizer cushion with mats myself ... so that it lifted and burst lol ... I also dug in the engine, flushed the engine with Dimexide, changed the oil and the block gasket that had flowed after that ... although the current was successful for the 2nd time repeat Well, only the descent had of course to be done in the nearest workshop
                      And it all started when they put a filter on me in 15 ... they didn't really put on a clamp, it jumped out and the tube from below, outwardly not visible ... it left and in the summer the engine was already swallowing dust ... at the next hundred I managed to wave the ignition block, troit the beginning ... I later bought it and began to figure it out myself ... the cat almost burned out in the end, changed the lambda and what is higher. But after .... not straight Aveo, and BMW began to drive.

                      I’ll probably figure it out in electrics ... and I don’t want to sell the civie ... I wanted it for 10 years ... no crying
          2. Catfish
            Catfish 2 June 2021 20: 33
            +2
            Sorry, Anatoly, why the hell are you hanging noodles here about your Honda, is she, an honored combat unit of the Japanese air defense, and the author does not say a word about it?
            1. Split
              Split 2 June 2021 20: 35
              +2
              And what, someone canceled the communication on the site? Or do you want to list the characteristics of our missiles or Ilono Gais, who, thank God, was not given a Guinness record for the maximum number of murders?
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 2 June 2021 20: 46
                +1
                If you decide to address "you", you write this pronoun with a capital letter, sociable boy. And better not list anything, God forbid.
                1. Split
                  Split 2 June 2021 20: 49
                  +4
                  I do not remember the place where we are with you. "You characteristics." I owe you nothing, just like you do me ... but for a "sociable boy" you can get 9.6
                2. Split
                  Split 2 June 2021 20: 51
                  +1
                  It is possible and 6,1 and 0.7 from 770m / s ... just kidding, let me sleep at last laughing
                3. Catfish
                  Catfish 2 June 2021 20: 55
                  0
                  but for a "sociable boy" you can get 9.6


                  Seriously? laughing ... a cocky boy. angry
                4. Split
                  Split 2 June 2021 20: 57
                  +1
                  Well, how rldili, f generally fired 2 chief accountants from autohermes and not only
                5. Catfish
                  Catfish 2 June 2021 20: 58
                  +1
                  Google translator does not work for me. request
                6. Split
                  Split 2 June 2021 21: 25
                  +1
                  Everyone is born and dies by himself .... Google will only help you here
                7. Catfish
                  Catfish 2 June 2021 21: 27
                  +1
                  Well, at least something is clear. Are you sure you were born without someone's help? bully
                8. Split
                  Split 2 June 2021 21: 30
                  +4
                  It's already difficult for me, Mama was buried 16 years ago in Perepechenka near Moscow, since the accompanying offices helped, with the letter F
                9. Split
                  Split 2 June 2021 22: 28
                  +1
                  Well, at least this message was not deleted by the forest mods. I myself modernize the game and its software, Some kind of striped one gives me a minus ... is this normal?
                10. Catfish
                  Catfish 3 June 2021 18: 19
                  +1
                  Yes, you spit on the minus, they have nothing to say, because they are offended by God, they mold their minuses from their own stupidity and impotent anger. laughing
                  I slightly corrected your karma. drinks
                11. Split
                  Split 4 June 2021 10: 34
                  +1
                  Spasibki!
                  drinks
                  I fell ill with my leg, bursitis, the doctor told me directly, if you drink, drink Although I injected 20 mg of pain in my leg ... novocaine, thank God it is harmless repeat fellow Knocked out at 12 o'clock, tk. novocaine blockade
                12. Catfish
                  Catfish 4 June 2021 11: 21
                  +1
                  I sympathize, I did not have this charm, but there are enough others. wink
                  For our health. drinks
                13. Split
                  Split 4 June 2021 11: 23
                  +1
                  And for your health! drinks
      2. Intruder
        Intruder 2 June 2021 22: 31
        +3
        Are you sure you were born without someone's help?
        In the sense - in a bioreactor, or surrogacy !? repeat
      3. Catfish
        Catfish 3 June 2021 18: 22
        +2
        It makes no difference, but in this case, of course, someone must necessarily participate. wink
  • Intruder
    Intruder 2 June 2021 20: 37
    +4
    Alas, they will have to sell ... and they were deprived of their rights a year ago + ended ... this is another year ...
    Sorry... winked
    1. Split
      Split 2 June 2021 20: 42
      +5
      Thank...
      I wrote 1,5 years ago that I have a son and she will never be able to ... from the current one ... whom I only did ... 0.64 ... yeah, I drank all night and got behind the wheel ... even when I vilified this cop, the judge didn't even take anything out for me ... I called him a corrupt creature in court ... the court was silent ... because they were bought everything. I was deprived, but they deigned not to touch me too much. I shouldn't have blown his nose then as in the army no one worried
      1. Intruder
        Intruder 2 June 2021 20: 46
        +5
        I wrote 1,5 years ago that I have a son and she will never be able to ...
        A familiar situevena, in her personal life 2x2, and 10 years of King's nightmares, you will not wish the enemy ... am
  • Catfish
    Catfish 2 June 2021 20: 37
    +4
    ... forced themselves to love the new master and hate his enemy.


    And what, Russia and China for the Japanese became enemies only after the Second World War and only at the behest of the States? With whom, then, did they fight from the very beginning of the twentieth century for almost fifty years?
    1. mark1
      mark1 2 June 2021 20: 39
      +3
      Quote: Sea Cat
      With whom, then, did they fight from the very beginning of the twentieth century for almost fifty years?

      Duc with everyone ...
    2. Intruder
      Intruder 2 June 2021 20: 47
      +3
      Constantine, Greetings !!! hi
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 2 June 2021 20: 53
        +4
        Denis, hello and best wishes! hi
        The article is good as always, but I am already familiar with these samples from the "Foreign Military Review", subscribed to in Soviet times. But all the same, Sergei knows how to do the job. good drinks
        1. Intruder
          Intruder 2 June 2021 22: 16
          +3
          hello and best wishes! hi
          Mutually, Constantine! drinks
        2. Toucan
          Toucan 3 June 2021 01: 10
          +3
          The article is good as always, but I am already familiar with these samples from the "Foreign Military Review", subscribed to in Soviet times. But all the same, Sergey knows how to do business ...

          It is unlikely that these samples were described in the ZVO with all the nuances. For example, I didn't know that the Japanese were releasing a licensed version of Browning M2.
          Presumably, the next article in the cycle will be about air defense systems and fighters.
          1. Bongo
            3 June 2021 10: 50
            +3
            Quote: Tucan
            Presumably, the next article in the cycle will be about air defense systems and fighters.

            The next article will be about Japanese radars and automated control systems.
            1. Intruder
              Intruder 3 June 2021 14: 49
              +1
              about the Japanese radar and ACS.
              Or maybe, then about the Japanese types: ATGMs or MANPADS, or they have there, not very much with them, American ones use ... winked !?
              PS I'm not very insolent ... I hope within reason! ??? repeat
              1. Bongo
                4 June 2021 01: 15
                +2
                Quote: Intruder
                Or maybe, then about the Japanese types: ATGM or MANPADS, or they have there, not very much with them, American ones use ... winked !?

                Hello! There will be no ATGMs in this cycle, anti-tank complexes do not belong to air defense.
                And I will definitely consider MANPADS and other Japanese complexes.
                1. Intruder
                  Intruder 4 June 2021 01: 33
                  +1
                  And I will definitely consider MANPADS and other Japanese complexes.
                  Here, for this - Thank you so much ... from the hungry audience ... otherwise, you need to read, an excellent author !!! Let's wait with puppy impatience ...
          2. Catfish
            Catfish 3 June 2021 18: 16
            +3
            "ZVO" was a serious magazine and in the description of Japanese small arms it could well be about the licensed production of Browning M2HB, you just did not come across this particular issue of the magazine. And I have all the filing for many years remained in Moscow and now there is nowhere to look. smile
  • Intruder
    Intruder 2 June 2021 20: 39
    +5
    but sold to pants ... and praise those who killed their fathers, grandmothers, etc.
    And to a heap, heavy particles were sprinkled, these proud samurai !!!
    I also have bushido, which depends on the dough

    The world has become unimportant, who pays the most - he chooses a pose ... of the defeated !?
  • Dkuznecov
    Dkuznecov 4 June 2021 00: 24
    +2
    In Japan, the version is as follows: the rabid Japanese military, led by Hirohito
    decided to go to the end in the war. And the hand of God in the face of the USA stopped it
    madness, stopped the senseless death of the civilian population.
    So when you talk to the Japanese about Hiroshima and Nagasaki, they do
    round (as far as they can) eyes and are sincerely surprised, because
    this was done, in their opinion, for the good and in the name of peace.
  • Intruder
    Intruder 2 June 2021 20: 36
    +4
    To the author, bravo !!! Accurately and briefly .. but how beautiful it is for children (sons, let them absorb ... types of probabilistic .. wink ) you can read before going to bed ... good
    1. zyablik.olga
      zyablik.olga 3 June 2021 12: 18
      +2
      Quote: Intruder
      To the author, bravo !!! Precisely and briefly .. but how beautiful

      You can't drink the skill ...
      In the past, Seryozha compiled reviews "under the heading" for big commanders .... the skills remained, now he uses them for "peaceful" purposes.
      1. Intruder
        Intruder 3 June 2021 14: 43
        +2
        In the past, Seryozha compiled reviews "under the heading" for big commanders .... the skills remained, now he uses them for "peaceful" purposes.
        Hmm, but I thought it was a sinful thing, did it seem to me ... but that's how it is! yes Now we will know and especially appreciate the author's prof. Past, which is now used in articles! hi
  • mvg
    mvg 2 June 2021 21: 45
    +3
    Sergey, welcome. Cool. Nice to read.
    Give a master class to Ryabov, so that he doesn't paint three phrases on 5-6 full-size Vord sheets.
    1. Intruder
      Intruder 2 June 2021 22: 29
      +2
      Vordovskih sheet.
      can he just use another text editor !? laughing
    2. Dante Alighieri
      Dante Alighieri 3 June 2021 05: 07
      +7
      Give a master class to Ryabov

      Will not help. There are differences at the stage of goal setting. Sergei, he writes for the idea, with all his heart. And Kirill just fulfills the agenda and the fee. So these things are incomparable.

      It would be better appreciated what Ryabov's vocabulary is, how skillfully he has a syllable, which allows him to literally juggle words, sentences and paragraphs. Swap the preamble and the conclusion and nothing will change. This is what I understand LEVEL. wassat I have no doubt that if the best representatives of the Soviet party nomenclature of the late USSR had a chance to familiarize themselves with Cyril's articles, they would proudly realize that the cause they serve is still alive and in worthy hands.

      Of course, I am ironic about this, but admit, there are not many of those who, from the news, consisting of 2 sentences, will be able to issue two A4 sheets to the mountain. It would be interesting to look at his diploma laughing
      1. Intruder
        Intruder 3 June 2021 14: 45
        +2
        there are few of those who, from the news, consisting of 2 sentences, will be able to issue two A4 sheets to the mountain
        This is for harmony in the Universe, one on 1 sheet, and the other on 4 !!! Balance, however ... lol
    3. Bongo
      3 June 2021 14: 08
      +4
      Quote: mvg
      Sergey, welcome.

      Maxim, hello!
      Quote: mvg
      Cool. Nice to read.

      Thank you!
      Quote: mvg
      Give a master class to Ryabov, so that he doesn't paint three phrases on 5-6 full-size Vord sheets.

      It is hardly worth teaching Cyril anything. No. We have different situations with him, for me it's a hobby.
      1. Intruder
        Intruder 3 June 2021 14: 46
        +2
        We have different situations with him, for me it's a hobby.
        As you put it culturally and subtly !!! good
      2. Catfish
        Catfish 3 June 2021 18: 57
        +4
        Sergey, good evening and thanks for the article. smile

        ... it's a hobby for me.


        This is just a great hobby! And great articles. good

        Once, in my childhood, my brother gave me a rare "Handbook of Foreign Fleets for 1943." and wrote this dedication:
        "Your hobby has been formed
        When you were still in the womb.
        Here is my advice: So as not to ruin life,
        Make a hobby the basis of your life. " smile

        I didn’t work out with the navy, but life is good as it is. drinks
        1. Bongo
          4 June 2021 01: 13
          +3
          Quote: Sea Cat
          Sergey, good evening and thanks for the article.

          Konstantin, good morning! smile
          Quote: Sea Cat
          This is just a great hobby! And great articles.

          Thank you! Your praise is especially gratifying! drinks
          Quote: Sea Cat
          Once, in my childhood, my brother gave me a rare "Handbook of Foreign Fleets for 1943."

          The handbook released during the war is a rarity today.
          Quote: Sea Cat
          "Your hobby has been formed
          When you were still in the womb.
          Here is my advice: So as not to ruin life,
          Make a hobby the basis of your life. "

          Well, this hobby of mine was formed later, of course. I started writing on VO after I was tired of reading stupid articles, and frank delirium in the comments to them. However, in the matter of enlightenment, I was not very successful. For example, in the "News" section the other day there was an article about how well the Soviet air defense system "Dvina" is used in Syria, which was removed from service in the air defense of the SAR 30 years ago. wassat
          Quote: Sea Cat
          I didn’t work out with the navy, but life is good as it is.

          It didn't work out for me in aviation, I always wanted to fly.

          It turned out, once on the simulator.
          1. Dante Alighieri
            Dante Alighieri 4 June 2021 04: 53
            +2
            It turned out, once on the simulator.

            Sergey, I welcome you!

            Let me ask you: have you tried to try with small aircraft? The pleasure is of course expensive, and the speeds are not the same as those of fighters, but the sky is it.

            By the way, Microsoft released an incredibly realistic simulator of a civilian pilot that year. It's called Microsoft Flight Simulator (not advertising). The simulator is so reliable that, for example, real high-resolution satellite photographs were used to display the landscape. And even the speed of movement completely coincides with real prototypes, i.e. if the conditional AN-2 will fly from Novosibirsk to Tomsk for 40 minutes, then in the simulator you will fly exactly 40 minutes (although I don’t know if there is an AN-2 model in the list of available ones, but there is definitely some Cessna). I am already silent about the weather conditions.

            The product is certainly not for everyone, but it can be run on most modern home computers.
            1. Bongo
              4 June 2021 11: 27
              0
              Quote: Dante
              Sergey, I welcome you!

              Let me ask you: have you tried to try with small aircraft? The pleasure is of course expensive, and the speeds are not the same as those of fighters, but the sky is it.

              By the way, Microsoft released an incredibly realistic simulator of a civilian pilot that year. It's called Microsoft Flight Simulator (not advertising). The simulator is so reliable that, for example, real high-resolution satellite photographs were used to display the landscape. And even the speed of movement completely coincides with real prototypes, i.e. if the conditional AN-2 will fly from Novosibirsk to Tomsk for 40 minutes, then in the simulator you will fly exactly 40 minutes (although I don’t know if there is an AN-2 model in the list of available ones, but there is definitely some Cessna). I am already silent about the weather conditions.

              The product is certainly not for everyone, but it can be run on most modern home computers.

              Cyril, hello!
              In order to seriously engage in small aircraft, it is necessary to devote almost all free time to it. But with this I am very tense. A lot of time is spent on helping his wife in the family business, hunting and fishing, children, parents - all this also requires attention. So, alas ... Although I really liked the passenger on the hang-glider. I rode in Koktebel and at home. good
              As for flight simulators, thanks for the tip, I will definitely try it on occasion. yes

              And so, sometimes I "fly" in a flight simulator on Googl Earth, there is such a function.
            2. Alexey RA
              Alexey RA 4 June 2021 12: 43
              +2
              Quote: Dante
              By the way, Microsoft released an incredibly realistic simulator of a civilian pilot that year. It's called Microsoft Flight Simulator (not advertising). The simulator is so reliable that, for example, real high-resolution satellite photographs were used to display the landscape.

              Giggle ... the previous Microsoft Flight Simulator X immediately came to mind: "Our 747 has just been overtaken by a hot air balloon! Oh, he also made a barrel!" smile
          2. Catfish
            Catfish 4 June 2021 10: 00
            +3
            And I got into diving and pretty much walked under water, partly the dream came true. smile
            1. Bongo
              4 June 2021 11: 39
              +2
              Quote: Sea Cat
              And I got into diving and pretty much walked under water, partly the dream came true. smile

              Leaving to the seas every time I take a wetsuit, fins and a mask. But I don't dive deeply, usually no more than 6 m. Once I got a comb from 8 m, after that my eyes were like those of a vampire - blood vessels burst from the pressure and my wife flew into it.

              The same time I took the squid away from the cormorant, I emerged next to him, and he threw it from the already crushed but alive from fright. As a result, in a place with scallops and trepangs I went to our table.

              The taste of squid caught in the Sea of ​​Japan is for the better very different from those sold in the store.
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 4 June 2021 14: 49
                +2
                Sergei, you are a happy person (do you mind "you"?), The sea is already inaccessible to me, I can't go under the water, but I can't warm my ass on the shore - it's sickening. So all that remains is to lick your lips. laughing
                And about "eyes like a vampire" - so you have to blow through, right through the mask you pinch your nose and exhale into it, not necessarily sharp, though with a runny nose it will not come out right away. In general, I tore the membrane on my right ear well, foolishly because of my youth, all in scars, as the doctor said. smile
                My wife adores squids, I call now to see the photo, and she fights back - right away, she says, I will want to eat them, but nothing, looked, was delighted and went to eat vobla. smile drinks
                1. Bongo
                  4 June 2021 15: 03
                  +4
                  Quote: Sea Cat
                  Sergey, you are a happy person (do you mind "you"?)

                  Kostya, it's high time yes
                  Quote: Sea Cat
                  for me the sea is already inaccessible, under the water I can’t, but I can’t warm my ass on the shore - it’s sickening. So all that remains is to lick your lips.

                  Duc and I are not so young, but my wife 10 years younger has to correspond and keep herself in shape. wink
                  In general, I like the Sea of ​​Japan and the Sea of ​​Okhotsk more than the Black Sea. It is a real celebration of life in the Far Eastern seas, after which it is not interesting to dive on the Black Sea.
                  Quote: Sea Cat
                  And about "eyes like a vampire" - so you have to blow through, right through the mask you pinch your nose and exhale into it, not necessarily sharp, though with a runny nose it will not come out right away.

                  Duc was not someone who taught me ... request I put on fins and a mask and climbed under the water. Then I bought a wetsuit, in our seas it is difficult without it. Upstairs, the water is relatively warm, but ice cold already four meters away.
                  Quote: Sea Cat
                  My wife adores squids, I call now to see the photo, and she fights back - right away, she says, I will want to eat them, but nothing, looked, was delighted and went to eat vobla.

                  Squid, what's this ... have you tried a live scallop?
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 4 June 2021 15: 42
                    +2
                    Regarding the holiday of life, I agree, in the Far East I did not go under water, but on the White Sea I myself was amazed by the abundance of different forms of living creatures. There, as in tropical seas and the stars of the sea and sponges, not counting kelp and other things, the eyes run up. Only the water there and on the surface is icy even in summer, but, of course, we swam with an "awl" before and a double injection after, but under water only in dry HA.
                    ... have you tried a live scallop?

                    So where did it come from? smile We eat fried rotans here, but purchased roach, though this roach has a very ambiguous name - "Pelyad", but it's delicious, awesome, goes with a bang even without beer.
  • English tarantas
    English tarantas 3 June 2021 05: 04
    +4
    Hurray, waited)
  • Yaroslav Tekkel
    Yaroslav Tekkel 4 June 2021 01: 14
    +1
    The author, you have clearly three machine guns instead of four in your photo of the ZSU M16. Is the car incomplete?
    1. Bongo
      4 June 2021 01: 20
      +2
      Quote: Yaroslav Tekkel
      The author, you have clearly three machine guns instead of four in your photo of the ZSU M16. Is the car incomplete?

      Hello! I am sincerely gladdened by readers like you! good This is a photo of an American car currently on display. It is possible that someone who loves weapons has borrowed a 12,7 mm barrel from the Browning.
    2. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 4 June 2021 12: 50
      +1
      Quote: Yaroslav Tekkel
      The author, you have clearly three machine guns instead of four in your photo of the ZSU M16. Is the car incomplete?

      PMSM, there are four machine guns. It's just that the angle is such that the trunks of the left pair overlapped.
      The enlarged illustration shows the end of the lower barrel casing, the lower barrel against the background of the upper barrel casing and a light risk against the background of the upper barrel (approximately at the muzzle of the lower right barrel) - the muzzle of the lower left barrel.
  • Intruder
    Intruder 13 July 2021 03: 06
    +2
    Thanks a lot to the author for the excellent material presented in this article! good