Military Review

"The good, immortal deed of Stalin must be fully defended"

67

Enver Hoxha (1908-1985)


After the death of Stalin and the manifestations of Khrushchev's treacherous, revisionist policy, the practically kinship, fraternal relations between the Soviet Union and Albania were destroyed. Tirana's disagreements with Moscow grew with each new attack by Khrushchev against Stalin, reaching its climax after a report at the XX Party Congress in February 1956. Khrushchev's leadership Khoja henceforth referred to as "imperialists and revisionists" who, "opening their mouths to the great Stalin," dared to launch a campaign against communism.

When Khrushchev called on Khoja to rehabilitate the members of the Communist Party who suffered for the support of Yugoslavia and the decisions of the XNUMXth Congress, in the following words:

"You are like Stalin, who killed people."

Then the Albanian leader calmly replied:

"Stalin killed traitors, we also kill them."

Occupation period


Having occupied Albania (How Italy occupied Albania) and joining it in the framework of "personal union", Italy established full control over the internal politics, trade and resources of the country. The Italians relied on the puppet Albanian Fascist Party. Albania was to become a part of "Great Italy", the Italians received the right to settle in Albania as colonists.

When the Italian-Greek war broke out in the fall of 1940, Albania became a springboard for Italy to invade. Albanian fascist militia legions took part in the war with Greece. Later, other Albanian units were formed - infantry and volunteer battalions (later regiments), artillery and anti-aircraft batteries. Also, Albanians were taken into the Italian troops, the Navy, the Air Force, border guards, etc.

However, the Greeks repulsed the blow, launched a counteroffensive and occupied Southern Albania (Northern Epirus). The Italians took control of the area when Germany defeated Yugoslavia and Greece in the spring of 1941. The Grand Duchy of Albania, created in August 1941 by decree of the Italian king Victor Emmanuel, included the territories of Metohija, Kosovo and western Macedonia.

"The good, immortal deed of Stalin must be fully defended"

Fight for Albania


Soon a new stage began in the struggle for Albania. The Albanian king Ahmet Zogu, who fled to London in September 1941, called on the countries of the anti-Hitler coalition to recognize him as the only legal authority in Albania. At this time in Albania there were his supporters, monarchists (or zogists). They were based in the north of the country. The Zogist rebels were headed by the head of the monarchist movement "Legality" ("Legality") Abaz Kupi.

Zog, who had changed his political orientation more than once, was brushed aside by the great powers. In London, Moscow, and then in Washington, they were interested in expanding the partisan movement in Albania in order to divert Italian troops from North Africa and Russia. Great power rivalries developed for control of the insurgency and, accordingly, the future of Albania. However, among the Albanian partisans, the most active role was played by the communists based in southern Albania.

On November 7, 1941, in Tirana, an underground conference of communists proclaimed the creation of the Albanian Communist Party (Albanian Party of Labor). Enver Hoxha became the deputy first secretary of K. Dzodze, and was also approved as the commander-in-chief of the partisan formations. The red partisans had more popular support than the Zogist monarchists or the Bali Kombetar (Popular Front) nationalists. In addition, Albanian nationalists leaned towards the Nazis and German Nazis. And in the end we went over to their side.

Britain had the best opportunities to supply the Albanian partisans, however, in the leadership of the Albanian resistance, E. Hoxha took the leading positions, who had already visited Moscow, studied at the Institute of Marxism-Leninism, the Institute of Foreign Languages, and met with Stalin and Molotov. Hoxha promised to defeat the Nazis of Albania and build a socialist state based on the teachings of Lenin-Stalin. Khoja announced the future restoration of Albania's independence, rejecting the territorial claims of Italy and Yugoslavia.

This was a blow to the plans of British Prime Minister Churchill, who did not rule out a possible post-war partition of Albania between Italy, Yugoslavia and Greece. Thus, Britain tried to lure these countries over to its side. Churchill tried to improve his position in Albania with the help of diplomatic maneuver. In December 1942, England, followed by the United States, supported the idea of ​​restoring a free Albania. The form of government was to be established by the Albanian people themselves. Then London offered Moscow to officially join the Anglo-American guarantees of non-interference in the affairs of Albania. The Soviet government replied that "the question of the future state system of Albania is its internal affair and must be decided by the Albanian people themselves."


German soldiers in Albania. September 1943

Albanian communist victory


After the defeat of the German and Italian forces at Stalingrad and the successes of the Allied forces against Italy, the Italian occupation forces were partially demoralized. The partisans significantly expanded their zone of influence, the number of units and formations of the People's Liberation Army under the leadership of Khoja increased (NOAA was formed in July 1943). Communist guerrillas increasingly came into conflict with nationalists. Italy surrendered in September 1943. The Royal Government of Italy has declared war on Germany. Italian troops in Albania laid down weapon, part of the 9th Army went over to the side of the partisans. German troops entered Albania before Italy's surrender.

The Germans announced the restoration of the "independence" of Albania. The wealthy Kosovar landowner Mitrovica became the prime minister of the pro-German puppet government. He relied on the support of the military formations of Northern Albania and Kosovo. He was supported by feudal lords, tribal elders and leaders. The National Front (nationalist ballists) also went over to the side of Germany. In particular, Albanian nationalists and Muslims fought as part of the 21st SS division "Skanderbeg" (1st Albanian), the "Kosovo" regiment, etc. They were noted in a number of brutal war crimes against Serbs, Montenegrins, communists, Albanian and Yugoslav partisans.

Yugoslav support in organization and armament made the communist NOAA the most combat-ready guerrilla force, far superior to the nationalists and monarchists. By the beginning of the winter of 1943-1944, the partisans had made great strides in the southern and central parts of the country. The number of NOAA under the leadership of Khoja reached 20 thousand people. In the winter, the Germans and collaborators launched a major counteroffensive in the south and center of Albania. After fierce battles, the Germans took up, the partisans retreated to inaccessible mountain areas. They retained their morale, potential and quickly recovered their numbers.

In the summer of 1944, NOAA seized the initiative and liberated much of the country again. On May 24, 1944, the Anti-Fascist National Liberation Council of Albania was formed, reorganized on October 20 of the same year into the Provisional Democratic Government. It was headed by General Khoja, all the key posts in the government were given to the communists. In November, NOAA liberated the capital Tirana and all major cities in Albania. The remnants of the German troops went to Yugoslavia.

The Albanian People's Liberation Army (up to 60 thousand people) is the only one in Europe that independently liberated the entire country. NOAA then helped liberate Greece and Yugoslavia. After the end of the war, the Albanian People's Army was created on the basis of NOAA. A special unit - the "internal security division", became the structural and personnel basis for the state security service of the People's Republic (Sigurimi).


Guerrilla Enver Hoxha

Along the path of the USSR


After the liberation of the country was completed, the communists became an overwhelming military and political force in Albania. Formally, Albania was still a monarchy, but King Zog was banned from entering the country, and the monarchist movement (Legality) was defeated. Its members were repressed or fled from the country. The resistance of the Balli Kombetar (nationalists) was suppressed by force. All the remaining political forces were united under the auspices of the Communist Party. In December 1945, elections were held for the Constitutional Assembly. The communists got the majority, non-communist deputies showed political loyalty. In January 1946, the Constitution of the People's Republic of Albania (NRA) was approved, which was developed on the basis of the basic laws of the Soviet Union and socialist Yugoslavia. The Council of Ministers was headed by E. Hoxha, he also headed the Communist Party.

The new government enjoyed broad popular support. The Communist Party was supported by peasants, youth, women, a significant part of the intelligentsia. Hoxha's communist government was backed by many left-wing republicans, rank-and-file monarchists, and nationalists, inspired by sweeping reforms, strong power, and independence. The former feudal and tribal hierarchy was scrapped, extensive social reforms were carried out, and the equality of women was introduced. An agrarian reform was carried out, landlord ownership was destroyed, the debts of the peasants were canceled, they received land, pastures and livestock. The elimination of illiteracy took place. There was a sharp increase in social mobility, young people received a good education, could develop a career.

The main social lift was the army. The goals were set for industrialization, modernization, creation of modern infrastructure, education and health systems. All this deprived the enemies of the Khoja regime of their social base. All attempts by the anti-communist émigré forces to raise an uprising in Albania failed.

It is clear that a small, impoverished and war-ravaged country could not do all this on its own. Albania had some important resources - oil, coal, chromium, copper, etc. But apart from oil, other minerals have hardly been exploited. There was no adequate personnel, funds and equipment. The industry was in its infancy, mostly at the artisanal level. The people were poor, they did not have the means to raise the country on the basis of internal resources.

The West would not finance the communist regime. So, Britain offered help with finances, food, all the necessary materials, in the restoration of infrastructure, but demanded "free" and allied-controlled elections. The Albanian army was armed with captured (German and Italian) and allied (British and American) weapons. There was ammunition for several days of fighting. The uniforms of the army were 50% British and captured, the rest of the troops had only part of the ammunition or did without it. The soldiers lived from hand to mouth. The country was threatened by famine.


NOAA artillery parade in Tirana. November 28, 1944

Fraternal Soviet aid


E. Hoxha declared himself a staunch supporter of Stalin's policy. The Soviet leader expressed support for socialist Albania, personally to Khoja during his visit to the Union in June 1945. The Albanian leader was present at the Victory Parade, was in Stalingrad, received assurances of Soviet scientific, technical and material assistance.

Already in August 1945, the first Soviet steamers arrived in Albania with food, medicine and equipment. Direct assistance in the West could be regarded as the USSR's interference in the internal affairs of Albania. Therefore, at first, Albania was formally helped not by the Union, but by Yugoslavia - in gratitude for the help in liberating this country from the Nazis. Food was brought from Russia, ammunition and equipment from captured warehouses in Poland.

Hundreds of Albanian students studied in the USSR. Soviet oilmen, geologists, engineers, teachers and doctors arrived in Albania. The Soviet people created industry and energy in a backward agrarian country. In the summer of 1947, Khoja again visited the Union. Stalin presented him with the Order of Suvorov. The tyrant was promised to re-equip the army for free and was provided with a soft loan for the purchase of various goods. Subsequently, Albania was provided with new soft loans, plus gratuitous assistance with food and technology. In the Stalin-Tito conflict in 1948-1949, Enver supported Moscow. He feared Belgrade's plans to create a Balkan Federation with the incorporation-absorption of Albania.

In 1950, Albania joined the CMEA, and in 1955 - the Warsaw Pact. In 1952, the USSR built a naval base near the city of Vlore. Taking into account the geographical position of Albania, it was a strategic base. We got a base in the Balkans and the Mediterranean.

Why Albania rebelled against the USSR


Enver sincerely believed in Stalin's policy, considered him to be his mentor. Therefore, Khrushchev's anti-Stalinism, his "perestroika-1", which, in fact, brought a bomb under Soviet civilization that exploded already under Gorbachev (betrayal of communism, the return to the rails of predatory, anti-human capitalism), led to a sharp deterioration in relations between Moscow and Tirana. Disagreements with the Khrushchev regime grew steadily and reached their climax after Khrushchev's report at the 1956th Party Congress in February XNUMX. Then Khoja and the head of the State Council of China Zhou Enlai left the congress in protest, without waiting for its closure. It is worth noting that Khrushchev's anti-Stalinist policies provoked irritation in China and North Korea.

The Albanian leadership has abandoned de-Stalinization. Enver called the Khrushchevites "imperialists and revisionists", renegades who encroached on the great Stalin. Enver noted:

“Stalin's good, immortal deed must be fully defended. He who does not defend him is an opportunist and a coward. "

Khrushchev threatened to curtail aid to Albania. In 1961, Khrushchev harshly criticized the Albanian leadership. Soviet specialists are being recalled from Albania. Joint Soviet-Albanian projects are being frozen. Under pressure from Moscow, almost all socialist countries are curtailing economic cooperation with Albania and freezing credit lines. In response, Tirana is strengthening economic relations with China.

Then there was a complete rupture.

In May 1961, Moscow withdraws submarines from Vlora. 4 submarines, with Albanian crews, remained. Chinese specialists began to serve them, and they served for another three decades.

The training of Albanian officers and cadets in Soviet schools and academies is being stopped. In 1962, Albania withdrew from the CMEA, in 1968 - from the Warsaw bloc.

Tirana headed for rapprochement with Beijing. In 1978, a break with the PRC followed (the Chinese leadership moved towards rapprochement with the West).

True, Albania has retained political, commercial and cultural ties with a number of countries.
Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/
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  1. Far B
    Far B 28 May 2021 05: 05
    +8
    Time has shown that Khoja, speaking of Stalin, was right. And Khrushchev is a classic rubber-technical product number two, and he managed to quarrel with China, and, in fact, the collapse of the world communist beginning.
    1. Pessimist22
      Pessimist22 28 May 2021 05: 23
      +4
      So the article says that Albania and China also fell out, continuing the path to communism Albania trades in human organs, people, drugs, weapons and supports terrorists, little is left until the bright future.
      1. Far B
        Far B 28 May 2021 05: 29
        +12
        Until the 90s, Albania never quarreled with China. And everything that you have listed began precisely in the 90s, when Albania no longer thought about any path to communism.
        1. nikvic46
          nikvic46 28 May 2021 06: 18
          0
          Michael. Disagreements between the PRC and Albania were constant.
          1. Far B
            Far B 28 May 2021 06: 32
            +2
            Disagreements? Well, maybe. There was no quarrel. After the Twentieth Congress, Albania embarked on a course of political isolation. Relations were maintained only with the PRC and Romania. Something like this.
            1. Sergej1972
              Sergej1972 30 May 2021 17: 30
              +2
              It’s not quite right. Read my comments below. Relations with the PRC were maintained until about 1978, when Dan Hodge quarreled with the PRC. Hoxha could hardly tolerate Ceausescu, he considered him an opportunist, a compromiser with the West. But he maintained trade and economic relations with Romania. After the break with both the USSR and China, Khoja considered only Vietnam, North Korea, and Cuba to be real friends of Albania. Well, and to a certain extent, the then satellites of Vietnam, Laos and Kampuchea. At the same time, the Albanian propaganda kept silent about the fact. that the countries of Indochina and Cuba were among the best friends of the USSR. and the DPRK tried to be friends with both the USSR and the PRC, and at the same time kept a certain distance from them. Plus, in Albania, they did not advertise the fact that North Korea, like China, supported the Pol Pot regime, to which Khoja was extremely negative.
        2. ccsr
          ccsr 28 May 2021 12: 41
          0
          Quote: Dalny V
          when Albania no longer thought about any path to communism.

          They easily turned from the path indicated by Stalin - apparently from great love for him.
          In general, these are ordinary Balkan scoundrels, and it is not necessary to make of them some holy communist followers of the Marx-Lenin cause, which they never were, but only used the influence of the USSR on the southern Slavs for their own purposes.
          By the way, they left the Warsaw Pact not under Khrushchev, but under Brezhnev, and this was not due to ideology, but to the fact that they relied on a new feeding trough. In the end, Yugoslavia also followed their path - so do not exaggerate the desire of these peoples to be friends with us.
          1. Sergej1972
            Sergej1972 30 May 2021 17: 20
            +2
            They actually ceased to participate in the activities of the OVD after 1961, and formally and legally withdrew after the introduction of the OVD forces in Czechoslovakia. They did not support Dubcek's reforms, but they strongly condemned interference in the internal affairs of Czechoslovakia.
            1. ccsr
              ccsr 30 May 2021 17: 59
              0
              Quote: Sergej1972
              They actually ceased to participate in the activities of the Department of Internal Affairs after 1961,

              Do not forget that in 1961 they kicked out our OSNAZ detachment from Albania, which not only supplied us with information, but also trained personnel for the Albanian army. So they not only stopped participating in the VD, but, on the contrary, went into conflict, showing that they do not bother with friendship with us.
              Quote: Sergej1972
              Yugoslavia became one of the founders of the Non-Alignment movement.

              And did it help her a lot during the bombing, or during the civil war inside the country? All this Non-Aligned movement was an ordinary poorhouse, and only for the sake of appearance they were reckoned with, trying to win over to our side both we and the Americans on some issues. Where is this movement now?
              Quote: Sergej1972
              Plus a redneck, boorish-dismissive tone during negotiations with Albanian delegations, especially when discussing economic issues.

              And all small peoples always believe that one should curry favor with them, although their role in the world arena is insignificant. It's good that we didn't hang this collar in the form of Albania around our necks - it was a far-sighted step of our leadership, no matter how Khoja water our leaders out of anger.
              1. Sergej1972
                Sergej1972 30 May 2021 18: 31
                +1
                In the 90s, the SFRY no longer existed. There was "Little Yugoslavia (FRY) from Serbia and Montenegro. And independent Croatia, Slovenia, Macedonia and Bosnia Herzegovina (where there was a fierce interethnic war). During Tito's life, Yugoslavia occupied a place in international politics that clearly exceeded its share in the world economy and its military The Non-Aligned Movement still exists with about 120 member states, including India, several CIS countries, and about 20 observer states, while some members of this movement are themselves in hostile relations.
                Earlier, in the 70s, there fought for the influence of Tito and the pro-Soviet Castro, and Indira Gandhi took a conciliatory position.
                1. ccsr
                  ccsr 30 May 2021 18: 41
                  0
                  Quote: Sergej1972
                  In the 90s, the SFRY no longer existed.

                  So this was a consequence of their political course, when the country did not have anything to pay for their desire to live like in the West for other people's money.
                  Quote: Sergej1972
                  During Tito's lifetime, Yugoslavia occupied a place in international politics that clearly surpassed its share in the world economy and its military power.

                  Unfortunately, this happened with our help - we endured Tito's tricks for a long time, instead of sending him away with Albania back in 1961.
                  Quote: Sergej1972
                  The Non-Aligned Movement still exists, about 120 member states, including India, several CIS countries, and about 20 observer states.

                  And what did they do - maybe they prevented the bombing of Libya and Syria? Do not be ridiculous, this is an ordinary sharaga, on which nothing in the world depends.
                  Quote: Sergej1972
                  At the same time, some members of this movement are themselves in hostile relations with each other.

                  This is the true price of such an almshouse, which even general principles do not unite.
          2. Sergej1972
            Sergej1972 30 May 2021 17: 24
            +1
            Yugoslavia carried out an independent Kurm after the Soviet-Yugoslavian confict of 1948. And even after the normalization of relations with the USSR in 1954-1955, Tito made it clear that his country would not join the Department of Internal Affairs. Yugoslavia became one of the founders of the Non-Alignment movement. Plus, the concept of "self-governing socialism" of the Union of Communists of Yugoslavia, the main author of which was Kardel, was in many ways at odds with the ideas of the ideologists of the CPSU.
            By the way, Cuba was and still is a member of the movement. but she was also one of the closest friends of the USSR. However, there were some ideological and geopolitical disagreements with her in the 60s and 70s, which were not reported to the Soviet public.
          3. Sergej1972
            Sergej1972 30 May 2021 17: 42
            +2
            Khoja was really a fanatic communist and a fan of Stalin. He really respected Stalin. And of all the other Soviet leaders, he preferred Molotov, considering him the only, apart from Stalin, a sincere friend of Albania in the Soviet leadership. When Molotov died in 1986, Ramiz Aliya, Khoja's heir (the latter died in 1985), declared mourning in Albania.
            By the way, in his books, Khoja spoke negatively not only about Khrushchev and Brezhnev (whom he also considered a Khrushchev). He spoke very negatively about Mikoyan, calling him an Armenian merchant. And he spoke even more harshly about Malenkov, despite the fact that he was an opponent of Khrushchev. In his opinion, both on the part of Malenkov, and on the part of Khrushchev, and in general on the part of the majority of the members of the Presidium of the CPSU Central Committee, a chauvinistic raid, coupled with a too mercantile attitude, was noticeable in relation to Albania. Plus a redneck, boorish-dismissive tone during negotiations with Albanian delegations, especially when discussing economic issues. In general, there is a feeling that Khoja negatively assessed the behavior of many of Stalin's associates during the life of the leader. Plus, he was jarred by the excessive luxury of the Kremlin's receptions both during the time of Stalin and during the time of Khrushchev, excessive gluttony and libation of alcohol on them.
        3. Sneaky Urus
          Sneaky Urus 28 May 2021 20: 18
          -1
          So why did she stop thinking about communism? wink Khrushchev interfered? They are loyal Stalinists, they went the right way. In general, shielding everyone does not contribute to the advertising of communism.
        4. Sergej1972
          Sergej1972 30 May 2021 17: 14
          +1
          Albania, while still socialist, had a serious quarrel with China after Deng came to power in China from Xiaoping and began reforms. Hoxha wrote a book "Reflections on China", in which he criticized not only Deng, but also Mao, in which relations between Alyubania and China were good. He wrote there that Mao was a progressive leader, but not entirely a communist. And during the Sino-Vietnamese War, Hoxha supported Vietnam. He also condemned the Pol Pot regime in Kampuchea. In the late 70s and early 80s, he considered only Albania itself, Vietnam (and its younger allies Laos and Kampuchea), Cuba and North Korea to be real socialist countries. And this despite the fact that Vietnam and Cuba were friends of the USSR, and the DPRK tried to be friends with both the USSR and the PRC. Trade relations were maintained with Romania, but Hoxha had a rather wary attitude towards Ceausescu. At least in Hoxha's books, I found several attacks in the direction of Ceausescu.
          Somewhere in 1983-1984. trade and economic relations with the PRC were restored, but on a very limited scale. Political relations were not restored, relations between the ruling parties were never unfrozen.
      2. Sergej1972
        Sergej1972 30 May 2021 17: 17
        +1
        Modern Albania, which has renounced communism, is already trading in human organs. Although the heirs of the Albanian Party of Labor, members of the Socialist Party of Albania take an active part in the political life of the country, and its representatives periodically occupy top positions in the state. The Socialist Party is now positioning itself as a socialist, social democratic party of the European type, supports the EU, NATO, the United States, supported the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia and the proclamation of the Republic of Kosovo.
  2. Uncle lee
    Uncle lee 28 May 2021 05: 10
    +3
    “Stalin's good, immortal deed must be fully defended. He who does not defend him is an opportunist and a coward. "
    And our liberoids just haut!
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich 28 May 2021 05: 35
    -3
    Then the Albanian leader calmly replied:

    "Stalin killed traitors, we also kill them."


    even if I could name it, but who is NOT a traitor? belay request

    The first General Commissar of State Security of the USSR, People's Commissar of the NKVD Comrade Yagoda, who destroyed the traitors Kamenev and Zinoviev and who opened the Gulag and filled it with traitors, turned out to be .... a traitor.

    General Commissar of State Security of the USSR, People's Commissar of the NKVD of the USSR Comrade Yezhov, who shot from 08.1937 to 08.1938. 640 thousand traitors, turned out to be ... a traitor and a homosexual (he himself admitted).

    People's Commissar of the NKVD Beria, who shot the traitor Yezhov, is recognized as a traitor.

    Molotov, Voroshilov, Malenkov and others 1400 MPs - the best party members at the 20th Congress unanimously vehemently condemned the personality cult ...

    In addition, many traitors were rehabilitated by non-betrayers, who were later recognized as traitors ...

    And who was left of the non-betrayers? recourse
    1. tatra
      tatra 28 May 2021 06: 02
      +5
      You, the enemies of the communists liberated by Gorbachev, proved by your example during your anti-communist Perestroika - how many of you, for the sake of profit, for years and decades in the USSR pretended to be communists and their supporters, climbed into Soviet power. , pretend to be "great philanthropists" in your slander against the Bolshevik communists, which you have the only justification for your seizure of the USSR in 30 years.
      1. kalibr
        kalibr 28 May 2021 07: 09
        +6
        Dear Irina! Still, Olgovich asked the question: Who is left of the non-betrayers? And before denouncing it would be reasonable and decent to answer it, huh? And only then write your thoughts and judgments.
        1. Boris55
          Boris55 28 May 2021 08: 24
          +4
          Quote: kalibr
          Who are the non-betrayers left?

          The Communist Party of the USSR was not united. There were two main opposing groups in it - the Bolsheviks and the Trotskyists. The confrontation between them never ended, therefore it is quite natural that for the Bolsheviks Yagoda and Yezhov were traitors, and for the Trotskyists there was a traitor Beria. Depending on who is in power, he accused the other of betrayal (the people are so understandable). Today the Humpback is a traitor for the majority of the people.
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 28 May 2021 10: 03
            0
            Quote: Boris55
            for the Bolsheviks, Yagoda and Yezhov were traitors, and for the Trotskyists, Beria was a traitor.

            That is, those who were shot by Yagoda and Yezhov (more than 700 thousand in 1930-1938) are NOT traitors, right?
            1. Boris55
              Boris55 28 May 2021 10: 23
              +6
              Quote: Olgovich
              That is, those who were shot by Yagoda and Yezhov (more than 700 thousand in 1930-1938) are NOT traitors, right?

              Term traitor is an understandable term for milking the people. There is no need to go into the details of the vicissitudes of the inter-party struggle. They said: a traitor, an agent of an enemy country and everyone understands everything.

              For the Bolsheviks, when, starting from 1924, there were more of them in the party than the Trotskyists, and at all party meetings a majority vote was taken, Yagoda and Yezhov were "traitors." For the Trotskyists, the "traitor" was Beria, with whose arrival the repressions against the people practically ceased.

              How the balance of power in the party changed can be estimated from this graph:



              How did the population change depending on who ruled the country:

          2. kalibr
            kalibr 28 May 2021 11: 25
            0
            Quote: Boris55
            for most people

            It's nice when a man tries to protect a woman. But still, since she gets into the affairs of men, I would like to get an answer from her herself. And then I ask her for the second time. But I don't get an answer ...
      2. A. Privalov
        A. Privalov 28 May 2021 07: 37
        +4
        Quote: tatra
        You, the enemies of the communists liberated by Gorbachev, proved by your example during your anti-communist Perestroika - how many of you, for the sake of profit, for years and decades in the USSR pretended to be communists and their supporters, climbed into Soviet power. , pretend to be "great philanthropists" in your slander against the Bolshevik communists, which you have the only justification for your seizure of the USSR in 30 years.

        Yes, somewhere in the mid-70s, obviously, it was necessary to carry out a big purge in the CPSU.
        No, there was no need to put every third person against the wall, but it was stuck to push out and the reincarnations should have been. To announce a great appeal to the youth, disconnect the refrigerator from the radio point ...
        There was not enough determination. Or maybe foresight ...
        Perhaps the undercover wars in the Central Committee interfered ...

        As a result, socialism rested in the Bose, communism was never born, and capitalism did not end its existence with a collapse.
        The communists, apparently, are still somewhere else, but they have lost their popularity, they are no longer building communism, and they do not particularly spread about the bright future.
        The enemies of the communists, judging by the words of the communists, also exist somewhere. However, we do not see the wars of the communists with their enemies, and this is good. There is enough tension in society. hi
        1. ivan2022
          ivan2022 28 May 2021 08: 15
          0
          Quote: A. Privalov
          There was not enough determination. .... As a result, socialism rested in the Bose, communism was never born, and capitalism did not end its existence with a collapse.


          Resulting in ? The indecisiveness of the "kind master"? This is the logic of a serf or his descendant. No, as a result of the fact that the VKPb-KPSS was a political party with a democratic statutory principle of "dem- centralism". All leaders are elected and accountable to meetings and congresses. As a result of this, the party got the leaders of precisely those who corresponded to the level of development of our blessed society. Khrushch, Yeltsin, Gorbachev. According to Senka and a hat .....
          Capitalism, socialism and communism are not born of a "far-sighted and decisive master" - these are social movements above all. They can only be born in a sufficiently intelligent and sufficiently self-organized society. "The land of slaves, the land of masters" has not grown to such a level, and it is unlikely that it will ever grow.

          Capitalism was not "born" in our country either. You somehow forgot to mention IT. Only serfdom and landlord estates with slaves were born in our country and do not die. Slaves need a Tsar, and our General Secretary and Presidents were all Tsars. With absolutely any legislation.
          1. Siberian54
            Siberian54 28 May 2021 11: 26
            -2
            Ivan, are you broadcasting from Tel Aviv or Kiev?
            1. ivan2022
              ivan2022 28 May 2021 12: 18
              +3
              Quote: Siberian54
              Ivan, are you broadcasting from Tel Aviv or Kiev?

              Another confirmation of my innocence.
              Serfs need to find out "who is who and who is broadcasting from where, but the essence of the matter can be" put "..... why should we know THIS?"
              And the causes of events are universal, they always come down to one; "it was because these did not like these ... and we stood side by side and were not responsible for anything ... including the history of our own country. Those in Tel Aviv are responsible for it. . They always make revolutions and counter-revolutions in our country and manage the economy. "
              1. A. Privalov
                A. Privalov 28 May 2021 12: 56
                -4
                Quote: ivan2022
                Those in Tel Aviv are responsible for it. They always make revolutions and counter-revolutions in our country and manage the economy. "

                They control both tsunamis and earthquakes and the green pea crop in Madagascar. They bought everything, and what they could not - sold.
                The tap water was drunk and tortured, as is known in the elephant zoo.

                At the same time, they still need to give hard on the horns of Hamas and Hezbollah, create new drugs and breakthrough technologies in the industry, keep them at the Hi-Tech level, develop and release new processors for Intel, maintain and arm the army, have excellent medicine, high life expectancy and one hundred millionth export.
                (And the whole country is the size of the Vladimir region, there is no coal, no forests, no oil, 2/3 waterless desert ...)
                They already do not have time to do it all, they have few people, they have to work hard in three shifts,
                and now, according to Ivan2022, you also need to go to Tel Aviv - to manage the Russian economy ... crying
                1. ivan2022
                  ivan2022 29 May 2021 13: 23
                  +2
                  Quote: A. Privalov
                  and now, according to Ivan2022, we need more


                  Well, sho? Again Mr. Privalov's problems? To solve his chronic problem called "nothing to cover", A. Privalov seems to "forgets" that the words allegedly belonging to Ivan2022 were in the original enclosed in quotation marks ...
                  PS If you do as always, complain to the Administrator, there may be a nickname Ivan2022 and will be banned because of the "inconsistency of the general line", but they will explain this by the fact that Ivan2022 is swearing. And it would be necessary, but how should it be, and even kicks!
                  1. A. Privalov
                    A. Privalov 29 May 2021 13: 44
                    0
                    Quote: ivan2022
                    Quote: A. Privalov
                    and now, according to Ivan2022, we need more


                    Well, sho? Again Mr. Privalov's problems? To solve his chronic problem called "nothing to cover", A. Privalov seems to "forgets" that the words allegedly belonging to Ivan2022 were in the original enclosed in quotation marks ...
                    PS If you do as always, complain to the Administrator, there may be a nickname Ivan2022 and will be banned because of the "inconsistency of the general line", but they will explain this by the fact that Ivan2022 is swearing. And it would be necessary, but how should it be, and even kicks!


                    Life is short, Vanyusha, but I am already an old person and I have no time for useless conversations.
                    You, the person here seem to be as good as new, I consider it necessary to inform:
                    I don’t communicate with trolls, I don’t answer stupid assaults, boorish attacks and idle harassment. Well, those interested in the topic will always receive a friendly and detailed answer to their questions.
                    For this, let me take my leave. I dare not delay any longer. hi
                    1. ivan2022
                      ivan2022 29 May 2021 18: 23
                      +1
                      Quote: A. Privalov
                      Vanyusha, and I am already an old person and I have no time for useless conversations.

                      If there is no time for useless conversations, then there is no need to speak. And then from some with their strange "arguments" - do not breathe. In old age, this happens often
              2. Siberian54
                Siberian54 30 May 2021 09: 49
                0
                ivan2022 \ just about myself I know for sure that I live in the USSR \ RF and I'm wondering where you can meet serfs on the territory of the country? Tell you from the outside.
                1. place
                  place 2 June 2021 19: 13
                  0
                  Quote: Siberian54
                  where can you meet the serfs on the territory of the country?


                  But you, probably, are not looking "from the side", but from somewhere strongly from above .... from the side of a personal liner. That is why you do not see our harsh truth.
    2. tihonmarine
      tihonmarine 28 May 2021 07: 45
      +6
      Quote: Olgovich
      And who was left of the non-betrayers?

      Those who survived, but eventually betrayed the country, the people, and destroyed the USSR.
    3. Gardamir
      Gardamir 28 May 2021 07: 54
      +3
      And who was left of the non-betrayers?
      Your most favorite topic is to expose everything that is Soviet.
      Walk through modern cemeteries How many people have suddenly left and are leaving young. but it will be possible to talk about this only after 50 years. So it’s worthless for your accusatory zeal.
      You are now allowed to scold Gorbachev Yeltsin, but do not get carried away. Because for the modern government, Yeltsin is better than Stalin.
      You will probably scold the Bolsheviks forever, and you didn't even live then. So believing the enemies of Russia ...
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 28 May 2021 09: 30
        +2
        Quote: Gardamir
        Walk through modern cemeteries How many people have suddenly left and are leaving young. but it will be possible to talk about this only after 50 years.

        and WHO is stopping you from telling, revealing your terrible terrible "truth"?

        Go to Echo, RBK, Voice of America, Kashtanka, etc. and revel in your "truth".

        And yes: did someone shoot those who left today? Exiled? Attributed to the collective farm? Not provided with bread, as in the 1930s? Not?

        And yet, take me through the cemetery where they lie 681 691 (Pvlov's certificate) shot per year 08.37-08.38 of my fellow citizens.
        Or in the cemetery, where millions of compatriots who have died from the famine of 1921,22,23,24,25,30,32,33,36,37,46,47 are lying.
        Or in the cemeteries of millions of dead exiled peasants, exiled peoples, etc.

        Can't you? And this is something inhuman, that even a place in the cemetery is not deserved in the bunk. state? And yes, in SUCH a cemetery, your hair would stand on end too ...
        Quote: Gardamir
        So it’s worthless for your accusatory zeal.

        the facts are calmly presented. Do not like it - live in your cozy little world of LIESwhere all of the above did NOT officially exist.
        Quote: Gardamir
        You will probably scold the Bolsheviks forever, and you didn't even live then. So believing in the enemies of Russia ..

        WHAT to believe, if the Bolsheviks themselves about everything important ... or were silent or lied?

        I believe the Soviet open today documents, who were hiding from you, under the heading "secret" - read Istmat and so on. Electronic libraries.

        And yes, think, WHOM did these secretaries think you were, believing that they did not come out with a snout to show them to you ...
        1. Gardamir
          Gardamir 28 May 2021 12: 35
          +1
          You are a comedian, the echo of Moscow is mocked by Gazprom, consider the Kremlin, the RBK is probably from the HSE, whose representatives are also many in the government. I learned about the chestnut from you.
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 29 May 2021 11: 59
            -2
            Quote: Gardamir
            You are a comedian, the echo of Moscow is mocked by Gazprom, consider the Kremlin, the RBK is probably from the HSE, whose representatives are also many in the government.

            AND? Your voice of America sings the same as your sn and dv

            You rest in your soul when they "expose" today's "regime."

            And what other "terrible" true the truth do you [b] [/ b] want to say / hear?

            by God, they made me laugh! lol
      2. kalibr
        kalibr 28 May 2021 11: 17
        -2
        Dear Gardamir! And tell me, please, what is your knowledge of the Soviet era based on? From personal experience, right? On newspapers, magazines ... Is there among your sources of information at least one, besides your personal experience, which can be attributed to PRIMARY SOURCES? Probably not. All that you know is that you have been told, you have read it, you have been shown it. But ... this is all propaganda. She even orients her personal gaze in a certain way. And here's the question: Have you worked in at least one archive of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, familiarized yourself with their affairs? Are you familiar with the Do Archive MO? FSB, Ministry of Internal Affairs, the current archive of the administration of your region? Have you read at least one dissertation on the problems of socialist construction, have you looked into the documents on its links? Not? Then ... you only know what you were allowed to know. And your sad destiny is "to feed on fables." And it is clear that everything that does not look like a "fable" causes your rejection. By the way, young people left in 20-30,40. Only many of the old cemeteries have not survived. But again, the high mortality rate can be checked using the data from the archives. But this topic is not about you either ...
        1. Gardamir
          Gardamir 28 May 2021 12: 31
          +1
          Vyacheslav Olegovich agrees with you that even personal observations are sometimes distorted under the influence of propaganda.
          I remembered about the cemetery. About eight years ago I was in my small homeland. The new cemetery is as full as the old one. But the old one took about four hundred years to fill, and the new one in thirty. And photographs on the monuments of my peers or those who are younger. How did no one shoot them, starve them, and they left this world from such a happy life?
          1. kalibr
            kalibr 28 May 2021 13: 22
            -3
            Quote: Gardamir
            How did no one shoot them, starve them, and they left this world from such a happy life?

            The fact that you are observant is great. But let's think together: who prepared these people for life? Their parents, right? And they ... failed. Who prepared them? Their parents ... and they didn't do it either. Why did my daughter, Ph.D., associate professor, ask for a university and earn money that her colleagues never dreamed of? And she was ready to change jobs. And they are not. And now they are vegetating at work in a higher school, and she goes on vacation abroad twice a year ... Different preparation for life from childhood, right? So not everything depends on LIFE NOW. Much depends NOW on life IN THE PAST! I think on reflection, you will agree with this.
            Quote: Gardamir
            About eight years ago I was in my small homeland.

            By the way, about cemeteries. When in 1977 -80. worked in the village, then walked to the station on the grass fields, and not on a muddy road. And there were two cemeteries on the way. I was resting there. And I was struck by the same thing: how many young graves. I saw another cemetery in the village of Taman. Early 19th century. So there ... there were entirely young people ... officers, ladies ... And it was not for the poor ... And what can I say about the poor then ... That is, we have people ... always! And very many were always not ready for change.
          2. Olgovich
            Olgovich 29 May 2021 12: 46
            0
            Quote: Gardamir
            I remembered about the cemetery. About eight years ago I was in my small homeland. The new cemetery is as full as the old one. But the old one took about four hundred years to fill, and the new one in thirty.

            show the graves there of the 17th century.

            or, at least, the 19th century is just around the corner.

            You are not the only one who goes to this and should also know that the graves, even 60 years ago, are already abandoned by 99%, therefore they are reburied at once, leaving only monuments of architecture or izm. of people.

            The young, as the VO rightly noted, also died en masse in the 1930s, 40s and 1950s: all the construction sites of communism, for example. had their own huge cemeteries, and life expectancy, for example, the 1930s 33 years
            Quote: Gardamir
            And photographs on the monuments of my peers or those who are younger. How did no one shoot them, starve them, and they left this world from such a happy life?


            well you remembered happiness: from 1940 to 1980, to increase the degree of HAPPINESS of the people, your party increased production alcohol for SEVEN HUNDRED % (with an increase in the number by 30%) - they could not offer anything else, neither a solution to the housing issue, nor food.

            It's the same with tobacco.

            The USSR is the world leader in alcoholics, tobacco smoking, suicide, divorce, and abortion.

            All this led to tragedies during the Soviet era, and in the 90s already brought up alcohol, in him they sought consolation with tripled strength: YOURS taught them to this.

            The Ingush, for example, do not have such problems; the mortality rate has dropped since 1990.

            almost three times)
    4. ivan2022
      ivan2022 28 May 2021 07: 55
      +6
      Quote: Olgovich
      And who was left of the non-betrayers?

      Who cares who stayed? If there was such a leapfrog, then the matter is in the struggle of interests, and not in who was "a saint in reality." The main point is understanding the meaning, the logic of leapfrog.
      What were you fighting for? For food from the regional committee cafe or a service car? For THIS did they shoot and go to the GULAG masses of convicts? Rave.
      Yes, now a middle-class businessman has a lot more without any repression. Or maybe there was a struggle for a new order, for the opportunity in the 30s to arrange what they achieved in 91?
      The worst thing is not repression, but the mighty interest of the public in any fried facts with a complete lack of interest in understanding the meaning of the facts. In such a strange society, anything is possible, because the logic of what is happening and what is happening does not interest anyone.
    5. ccsr
      ccsr 28 May 2021 12: 43
      -1
      Quote: Olgovich
      And who was left of the non-betrayers?

      Olgovich is still loyal to the cause of the CPSU and is not a traitor ...
    6. Edvid
      Edvid 30 May 2021 01: 25
      +2
      And what could Molotov do - he suggested it, and Stalin approved approving the executions of "enemies" not personally, but with lists! ... So he covered his ass ...
      The beginning of Stalin's biography: https://proza.ru/2013/11/25/690
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 30 May 2021 07: 17
        0
        Quote: Edvid
        And what could Molotov have to do

        What’s it, but how these loyal nondevotees threw mud at another loyal comrade-in-arms - Beria at the 1953 Plenum - not a single paper will stand ...
  4. serg.shishkov2015
    serg.shishkov2015 28 May 2021 05: 48
    +2
    you can have different attitudes towards the leader of Albania, but he was one of the very few mighty of this world,
    who did not betray Stalin. To the detriment of everything! There was an interesting article about Albania a few years ago in * T&V * - * The last of the Mohicans *.,
  5. nikvic46
    nikvic46 28 May 2021 06: 28
    +1
    I remember the boys enthusiastically watching the film "The Great Warrior of Albania Skanderbeg". Then a stupid film "Furtuna" was released, where the boys smashed the fascists with stones. I was a kid and advised my older sister to watch this film. She did not speak to me for a week after watching. Stalin was the ideal of the Soviet system, but it would be a disaster if he was adopted by the bourgeoisie.
  6. A. Privalov
    A. Privalov 28 May 2021 06: 58
    +5
    The rule of a firm Marxist, which stretched out for almost 50 years, brought Albania to the handle. The result was severe poverty in the country, leveling and intimidation of the population. Every third was subjected to various kinds of repression, disqualification, or simply imprisoned. In Khojaist Albania, even for secretly carrying out religious rituals, they were executed. The population was forced to lead an ascetic lifestyle - while any desire to improve everyday life was perceived as bourgeois trends. Science and art fell into complete decay.
    But Enver Hoxha has been gone for almost 40 years, and the country has not really made any progress in its development. It will be the poorest country in Europe for many years to come.
    1. smaug78
      smaug78 28 May 2021 08: 30
      +1
      So few traitors were shot by Khoja. And he did not have people like Boris55 и tatra... They would sweep away all the traitors and Trotskyists with a filthy broom and flow in Albania rivers of milk in the jelly banks ...
      1. Boris55
        Boris55 28 May 2021 09: 38
        +1
        Quote: smaug78
        They would sweep away all the traitors and Trotskyists with a filthy broom and flow in Albania rivers of milk in the jelly banks ...

        Practice is the criterion of truth.
        Trotskyists, hiding behind communist party cards, seized power after Stalin's death and brought the country to perestroika. Comrade Stalin failed to work, the war interfered.
        1. smaug78
          smaug78 28 May 2021 09: 40
          0
          You weren't there, you would definitely have finished ... laughing laughing laughing
          1. Boris55
            Boris55 28 May 2021 09: 42
            -1
            Quote: smaug78
            You would

            If only ... I told you the facts, you give me your fantasies.
            Do you enjoy the exploitation of man by man? I don't.
            1. smaug78
              smaug78 28 May 2021 10: 29
              -3
              Since when did your fantasies become facts? laughing laughing laughing
              Do you enjoy the exploitation of man by man? I don't.
              But why do they shoot people ...
              1. Boris55
                Boris55 28 May 2021 10: 31
                +3
                Quote: smaug78
                But you like people who were shot ...

                Those who suck blood from the people, wash themselves with blood.

                ps
                Do you like it when people die from cold and hunger? During perestroika, the country lost a million of its citizens a year. Do you want to repeat?
                1. smaug78
                  smaug78 28 May 2021 10: 52
                  -5
                  Do you like it when people die from cold and hunger? During perestroika, the country lost a million of its citizens a year. Do you want to repeat?
                  How light you think and jump back and forth laughing
                  PS Can you prove your words with documents?
                2. Sergej1972
                  Sergej1972 30 May 2021 17: 54
                  +1
                  During perestroika (1985-1991, although the term itself began to be used only since 1987)), the population of the USSR and the RSFSR was still growing. And among people born in 1986-1988, at the height of the anti-alcohol campaign, a much smaller percentage are oligophrenic, etc. compared to both earlier and later periods. Not to be confused with the Yeltsin period, when serious demographic problems arose since the mid-90s.
    2. Bolt cutter
      Bolt cutter 28 May 2021 12: 31
      +5
      But Enver Hoxha has been gone for almost 40 years, and the country has not really made any progress in its development.
      The point is that, compared to the Albanians, your Palestinians are noble intellectuals. And you can understand Enver Hoxha - to rule a country differently where the majority of the population is Albanians, it is simply impossible
    3. ivan2022
      ivan2022 28 May 2021 12: 32
      0
      Quote: A. Privalov
      The rule of a firm Marxist stretched out for almost 50 years


      Can you formulate firmly and concisely how a "firm Marxist" differs from a "not firm"? Heh ... heh ... firmly, there will not be a firm answer ... there will only be attempts to translate the question into the sphere of personal wit and solidly puffing out the cheeks ...
    4. ccsr
      ccsr 28 May 2021 12: 46
      -3
      Quote: A. Privalov
      But Enver Hoxha has been gone for almost 40 years, and the country has not really made any progress in its development. It will be the poorest country in Europe for many years to come.

      I can only agree with Privalov on this issue - it is immediately clear that he is an old Marxist, and does not deviate from the line of historical materialism.
  7. Terran ghost
    Terran ghost 28 May 2021 10: 14
    +1
    In practice, during his reign, Enver Hoxha built a repressive state-concentration camp in Albania.
    Quote: "in Khojaist Albania, even for secretly holding religious rites, they were executed"
    at the same time, the country remained in fact completely impoverished, which was "organically" combined with political repression
    Quote: "Any desire to improve everyday life was perceived as bourgeois trends."
    Where did the resources of the economy go? And for the construction of seven hundred thousand (sic) single and double concrete bunkers. The taxpayers' money was literally buried by the government of Enver Hoxha into the ground, without any sense (most of these bunkers did not really have any military significance).
  8. Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 28 May 2021 15: 00
    -1
    Comrade Khoja is a real communist, internationalist and patriot (which is the same thing). Like all people, he had some mistakes - he failed to clear the leadership of the party, which led to the restoration of capitalism.
    During the time of Comrade Khoja, Albania made a leap from the Middle Ages to the modern world. It beat a completely independent, politically, economically and militarily state that guaranteed peace and a dignified life for all Albanians.
    Albania after the restoration of capitalism is misery, economic emigration, crime, religious fundamentalism, chronic conflict within and with neighbors. This is a complete denial of the legacy of Comrade Hodge.
  9. Sergej1972
    Sergej1972 30 May 2021 18: 10
    +1
    None of Khrushchev's real competitors were going to preserve the Stalinist order. Come to power Beria, the country would become much more decentralized, national policy would become more liberal. Come to power Malenkov, he would have carried out more radical reforms in the socio-economic sphere in comparison with Khrushchev. Even so, being (seemingly) the main one in 1953-1954, he focused on the development of agriculture, light and food industries, on the transfer of many enterprises to republican subordination. It was on Malenkov's initiative that many ambitious projects were curtailed. He clearly did not want to remain in the memory of the people as a comrade-in-arms of Yezhov and Shkiryatov and as the organizer of the "Leningrad affair". And he well remembered that he himself was under the threat of dismissal from office in 1947-1948, when he temporarily fell out of favor with Stalin because of the "case of the aviators", etc.
    Which is amazing. Stalin, as a number of authors write, periodically in the last years of his life showed dissatisfaction with Beria, Malenkov, and Molotov (although, on the other hand, why did Molotov, along with Voroshilov, occupy such a prominent place in the process of holding the 19th Party Congress?) With Mikoyan, and other associates. Voznesensky and a number of other Zhdanovites generally sent to the next world. But Khrushchev, apparently, completely trusted. The most serious criticism leveled at him was his infatuation in the early 50s with the idea of ​​creating agricultural towns. But she was of a moderate nature, Khrushchev himself admitted his mistake. And if you look at the Soviet visual agitation of the early 50s, then very often Khrushchev was depicted on the posters of the paintings next to Stalin, along with Malenkov. Beria's personality, by the way, was not particularly advertised.
  10. Sergej1972
    Sergej1972 30 May 2021 18: 16
    +1
    There was a double personality cult - Enver Hoxha and Mehmet Shehu. Then it turned out that Shehu was a perennial enemy of the people, a polyagent of the Western special services, and at the same time the KGB of the USSR and Chinese intelligence.) In the early 80s, he was removed. According to official data, he committed suicide, after which many of his former associates, as well as relatives, were tried and shot, or imprisoned. There is a version that he was shot at the Plenum of the Central Committee of the Albanian Party of Labor. It's hard to believe in it. But there is evidence that in the 40-50s, young hot guys prevailed in this body, who could even arrange a shootout, finding no other arguments when defending their positions on this or other issues.
  11. Sergej1972
    Sergej1972 30 May 2021 18: 24
    +1
    https://yandex.ru/video/preview/?text=%D1%8D%D0%BD%D0%B2%D0%B5%D1%80%20%D0%A5%D0%BE%D0%B4%D0%B6%D0%B0%20%D0%B2%D1%8B%D1%81%D1%82%D1%83%D0%BF%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B5%20%D0%BF%D0%BE%20%D0%B4%D0%B5%D0%BB%D1%83%20%D0%B1%D0%B0%D0%BB%D1%83%D0%BA%D1%83%20%D0%B2%D0%B8%D0%B4%D0%B5%D0%BE&path=wizard&parent-reqid=1622387846408757-1445894904599186082000198-prestable-app-host-sas-web-yp-183&wiz_type=vital&filmId=6310645439413635794
    Video with Hodge. Early 70s Such a kind uncle, looking like a Greek or Italian provincial mafioso or mayor of a small town.) Outwardly he gave the impression of a kind, smiling person. Many of those who sit on the podium during this speech will be shot and sent to prison. Someone in 1973-1974 (the case of Baluku and others), someone in the early 80s (the case of Mehmet Shehu). Although, I must say frankly that Mehmet Shehu, being the second person in the country from the late 40s to the early 80s. (when it was removed) bears no less responsibility for the massive repression.
  12. Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 31 May 2021 15: 56
    0
    Quote: Sergej1972
    Mehmet Shehu, being the second person in the country from the late 40s to the early 80s. (when it was removed) bears no less responsibility for the massive repression.

    No mass repressions have ever been hit in Albania under socialism. Crime and, accordingly, the number of convicted and imprisoned people in Europe per million people. And the death penalty is a very rare exception.
    Enver Hoxha himself is a very educated person - he finished his higher education in Paris.