Military Review

Hungary in World War II


Retaliatory measures

Bluffing on both sides bordering on absurdity. While the Hungarians expected the Germans to turn to them for help, hoping to later negotiate services in return, Berlin remained indecisive until the very last minute.

Chief of Staff Halder explained this position as follows:

“Nobody makes demands because they require payment, but we would be grateful for any support, especially mobile troops. Under no circumstances can German rail transport be disrupted. "

When the Wehrmacht launched its attack on the USSR on June 22, 1941, the Hungarian-Carpathian border was thus lowered for a while. The border was guarded by only four brigades against the vastly superior 12th Soviet army. The latter, with its armored units, was part of the point of the main forces in the Lvov region. From the OKH's point of view, Hungary's initial non-intervention was entirely welcome, as its own attack on the ledge on the front line at Lvov was to target the flanks. But the frontal pressure of the Hungarians in the near future could possibly have prevented the evasive maneuver of the Soviet group.
In the political arena, Hungary's reserve attracted attention.

However, the Hungarian government soon found its own casus belli. Following an unidentified aircraft raid on Hungary, the government issued an order to take "appropriate retaliatory measures." After the blows of the Hungarian aviation across Soviet territories, two border brigades and a mobile army corps of about 45 soldiers launched an offensive. In the first two weeks, they met almost no resistance.

The Mobile Army Corps under the command of Major General Bela von Miklos, the most modern large formation in the Hungarian Armed Forces (about 25 men), was incorporated into the 000th German Army. Nine tank companies, numbering 160 light tanks, were unsuitable for large-scale combat missions. But as long as the corps simply supported the German offensive as a second echelon, their weak equipment was enough even to secure the Uman pocket, where the heavily depleted Soviet units had almost no armored forces left. Hungarian troops were in euphoria, moving along the Bug through Pervomaisk to the Black Sea. By mid-August, the Hungarians reached the sea near Nikolaev.

While senior officers may have been reminded of their service in Ukraine 23 years ago, their commander-in-chief was more sober in his assessments. The quick victory of the Germans receded into a hazy distance, while the Romanians dug in with the bulk of their army in southern Ukraine. Berlin has always sought to keep two mutually hostile allies as far apart as possible. Horthy was now pushing for a swift withdrawal of his elite corps. Chief of Staff Werth, on the other hand, wanted to send more troops to the Eastern Front. As a result, the vice-regent was forced to resign. His successor, Colonel-General Ferenc Sombatele, was pessimistic about Hitler's prospects in the East and spoke in favor of Hungary retaining its armed forces at home.

But the German dictator demanded further obligations from the Hungarians. Their mobile corps joined the Italian to support the offensive across the Dnieper near Dnipropetrovsk. And in October 1941, together with the 17th German Army, they went all the way to the Donets. Then, in stages, it was allowed to resign from the front and return to their homeland. The loss of nearly 10 percent of the personnel was less severe than the loss of almost all of his armored cars and vehicles, worn out as a result of the long march. With the exception of four infantry brigades, which were quite coveted as an occupying army in Galicia - that is, in the "backyard", the former territory of the Austro-Hungarian Empire - the Hungarian contribution to Hitler's war in the East seemed to be exhausted in every sense and purpose.

Hitler needed Hungarians

The failure at the Battle of Moscow in December 1941 dramatically changed the situation. Hitler needed the Hungarians to prepare another summer offensive. At the end of January 1942, Keitel began negotiations on conditions in Budapest.

Instead of the 32 requested divisions, Hungary ended up offering seventeen. Ten of which were front-line units that will go into battle as the 2nd Hungarian Army under the leadership of Colonel General Gustav Yana. Keitel's promise to supply them with German equipment was less than plausible, but Budapest wanted to believe he had paid off any further obligations.

The Hungarian contingent was undoubtedly the core of the country's military power. The 2nd Army consisted of 200 troops with nine weak infantry divisions and a panzer division equipped for the most part with outdated German models. Seven occupation divisions took control of large areas in northern Ukraine, thereby freeing German security forces. As for the local population, the Hungarians acted in the same way as the Wehrmacht. On the home front, they stepped up anti-Semitic measures. This, however, did not prevent Jewish Hungarian recruits from being assigned to military service in labor companies on the Eastern Front and elsewhere, where they were among the regular units of the Royal Hungarian Honved.

The 2nd Hungarian Army arrived in the zone of the German Army Group South by the end of July 1942. Here, together with the Italians and Romanians, they were supposed to secure the flank on the Don. A defensive mission that was roughly the limit of what Hitler expected of them. In addition, the Hungarians had to ensure the safety of the northern section near Voronezh, which they helped to capture in mid-July 1942. Colonel Gyula Kovacs, the chief of the operations department of the 2nd Hungarian Army, was skeptical about this operation.

When the German armies moved south, the Hungarians were largely left on their own in a 200-kilometer-wide area. The river was not a reliable protection, as the Soviets held several bridgeheads on the west bank. The Hungarian attacks ended in heavy losses and ended in September. Now they are on the defensive.

As the battle for Stalingrad raged and the Soviet counter-offensive in November 1942 succeeded in encircling the 6th Army, tense calm reigned on the Hungarian front in the north. The Hungarian infantry divisions stationed there were supposed to occupy an area of ​​almost 20 kilometers. Heavy weapons were to be deployed on the main line of resistance. Separate German divisions, stationed as reserves behind the Hungarian lines, were withdrawn in December and January to close the huge gap on the southern front.

Relations with the German liaison headquarters under the command of Major General Hermann von Witzleben were extremely tense. With the withdrawal of the last German divisions from the main line of resistance, Jani declared that his entire army, apparently, had been irrevocably betrayed. And that he is considering sending his troops back home.

The promise of a heavy anti-tank weapons was enough to delay him for a while. Behind the scenes, the Germans did not hide their opinion that the Hungarians were unreliable and not particularly suitable for battle. The Army Group, in any case, provided the main command with a tank corps as a reserve.

In early January 1943, with the 6th Army on its last legs in the Stalingrad cauldron, the Hungarians watched the Soviets prepare for an attack on the Uriv bridgehead. The offensive on the Voronezh Front began on January 12 and stretched along the frozen Don along the entire width of the Hungarian sector. Within three days, units of the 2nd Hungarian army were retreating. Hitler forbade any retreat and was obviously willing to sacrifice his allies in a hopeless situation to buy time to reorganize his line of defense.

Hunger and cold undermined morale, as did the constant friction with the Germans. The order to retreat from the Don was given only on January 26, 1943. In total, the 2nd Hungarian Army lost more than 100 people and all its heavy equipment in the winter battles at the beginning of 000.

Given that their Romanian allies suffered similar losses, the security situation in Hungary at least has not deteriorated in this regard. From the point of view of the Hungarian leaders, at that moment, more than ever before, it was important to find a way out of the war in cooperation with the Western allies, without provoking the Germans. But this was hopeless, because every fortification of internal defense could be requisitioned by Berlin to support the faltering Eastern Front. Therefore, it was highly advisable for Hitler to lose all confidence in the Hungarians militarily after their catastrophe on the Don.

While leaders in Budapest were increasingly worried about pulling troops closer to their own border, the Germans viewed their allied Hungarian occupation divisions as a front reserve that could be deployed, if necessary, to counter the breakthrough Red Army units. Thus, a tough political struggle ensued, which demanded a lot of compromises from the Hungarian leaders.

Contacts with the Western powers were strengthened. In a secret agreement dated September 9, 1943, Hungary promised to reduce its military obligations to Nazi Germany. Military clashes with the allies should be avoided whenever possible. Allied POWs who fled to Hungary will not be handed over to Germany. The government will facilitate the departure of the Polish military, internees, and thus facilitate the formation of an army in exile.

On the other hand, Berlin put increased pressure on Hungary to export more to Germany on a credit basis. The proposal to do so by expropriating Hungarian Jews was categorically rejected by the Kallay government, even though discrimination against this economically powerful minority was accelerated.

Hitler complained about Hungary's lack of commitment to the war against Bolshevism and Jewry during Horthy's visit to Klessheim on April 16, 1943. The vice regent confirmed his absolute loyalty, but said that "he couldn't just kill the Jews." He expected more German support, at least in rebuilding the Hungarian army. But Berlin has retained its trademark restraint. Eight divisions with increased firepower will be sent to Hungary by October 1944.

This army framework most likely took into account the expectations of the Allied offensive. Although the Honved still lacked equipment, he significantly increased the number of his troops, sufficient, at least for national defense. By the end of 1943, he also had eight reserve divisions, two tank divisions, one cavalry division, and eight specialized brigades at his disposal. The arms industry in Hungary, a country still unharmed by the air war, was far from meeting demand. Sixty percent of its capacity worked for the Germans, who ordered an increase in the supply of weapons, especially aircraft.

As a result, in the spring of 1944, the mobilization plans had to be drastically reduced. Only a quarter of those eligible for military service could be conscripted, but even these 500 soldiers did not have enough weapons. Heavy equipment is technically outdated. Tanks "Turan-000" and "Turan-40" with their 41 and 40 mm cannons had no chance against the Soviet T-75. An additional challenge, in terms of morale, was the high proportion of recruits of Romanian, Slovak, Ukrainian and Serbian nationalities. These soldiers were mainly used in the rear, which hardly improved the Germans' opinion of the ally.

The Hungarian western and eastern occupation groups, with their nine divisions, largely bore the brunt of the war in the East in 1943-1944. It was assumed that about 90 troops would provide security for large areas in the rear of the German Army Groups Center and South. Hungarians made up about 000 percent of the total occupation forces. The Vostok group was supposed to control the eastern part of the Pripyat bog between Kiev and Priluki, while the West group was supposed to control the railway lines between Brest-Litovsk and Gomel.

In the Bryansk forest, the partisan war was especially fierce. The remaining units of the Soviet army, provided with continuous air cover, developed military equipment that the lightly armed and poorly trained Hungarians could not match.

Constantly overwhelmed, the Hungarians reacted by creating "dead zones" with harsh repression against the civilian population. In terms of cruelty, only the SS were superior to the Hungarians.

Beginning in 1943, the Hungarian occupation forces became increasingly passive. They failed miserably against the Soviet troops when the latter managed to break through the front.

By the spring of 1944, the front was approaching northeastern Hungary. The critical situation and mistrust of the Allies forced Hitler to act. Plans, developed long before that to occupy a strategically and economically important country, were withdrawn from the reserve.

On March 18, 1944, Hitler put pressure on Horthy in Klessheim. Ultimately, he had no choice but to agree to the occupation of his country by 8 German divisions and to dissolve the Callay government, which Berlin hated so much.

The Germans did not disarm the Honvedians, but they drastically changed their policy towards the Hungarian Jews. A special unit of Adolf Eichmann moved forward and, with the support of the opposition fighting for power, organized the deportation of 437 people to Auschwitz. Not only did the Germans benefit from the confiscation of their belongings, but countless Hungarian citizens helped themselves acquire Jewish property, making the alliance with the Reich more "productive."

The Germans intervened en masse in the organization of the army. Higher headquarters were eliminated and new reserve divisions were formed. Particular attention was paid to the recruitment of Hungarian Germans. About 120 men were mobilized by the Waffen SS. Himmler thus gathered at least five divisions, as well as reserves for his police regiments, in which there were less able-bodied recruits.

Of immediate military importance was the use of the recently activated 1st Hungarian Army in April 1944 to defend the foothills of the Carpathians. About 150 troops under the command of Colonel-General Geza Lakatos fought in units of the German Army Group Northern Ukraine, led by Field Marshal Walter Model. With a constant stream of reinforcements from Hungary, the army on July 000, 22, faced a Soviet offensive on a 1944-kilometer front, which within two days forced the Hungarians to retreat to their positions in the Carpathians.

The 1st Hungarian Army lost in this process about 30 people - killed, wounded and missing in action. But the concentration of two German divisions allowed them to hold their deeply echeloned defense lines against numerous attempts by Soviet troops to break through, especially at the crucial Dukla Pass.

After the collapse of the Romanian front on August 23, 1944, Hungary had to use its 2nd Army to defend Transylvania in the southern Carpathians. She was able to mobilize about 190 soldiers. One of the ways to obtain the necessary strength was to reduce the front of the 000st Army. The occupation forces also received permission to return home from Poland.

Hungarian theater of operations

Hungary suddenly became an important theater of war.

Her oil fields, the only ones that Hitler now had, were under threat. Therefore, from September 1944 to March 1945, several major offensive operations were launched here.

Hitler deployed most of his mobile reserves (15 armored divisions, 4 armored infantry divisions, 4 cavalry divisions, 6 infantry divisions) to try to regain the initiative. The largest concentration of German armored units on the Eastern Front required the support of infantry troops, most of whom were Hungarians.

The Hungarians were actually quite brave in their offensive near Kolossvar (Cluj) against their "sworn enemy" the Romanians, who were preparing, with the support of the Soviet Union, for the "liberation" of northern Transylvania. However, with the deployment of Soviet armored forces, the General Staff in Budapest found it expedient to go on the defensive again in just two weeks.

The Red Army tried to break through Nagyvarad (Oradea) and Debrecen in order to attack the Hungarian capital. One of the fiercest tank battles of World War II took place there in early October 1944.

German-Hungarian troops with 11 divisions defeated the enemy's edge, inflicting heavy losses. Thus, the attempt of the 2nd Ukrainian Front to encircle the 8th German army together with the 1st and 2nd Hungarian armies had the opposite effect. The bulk of these armies were able to retreat in an organized manner to the Budapest area.
Horthy, who deeply despised the Soviets, wanted to avoid negotiating with them at all costs.

But the Western allies rejected a separate ceasefire. Following Finland's example, the vice regent was looking for a way out of the war by mid-September 1944. He even sent a delegation to Moscow. And in a letter to Stalin, he begged for a condescending attitude towards his country.

On October 11, he announced his readiness to accept the Soviet demand for an immediate declaration of war on Germany. However, the Germans were well informed and organized a putsch in Budapest. Under Otto Skorzeny's leadership, individual commandos arrested important officers loyal to Horthy and kidnapped Horthy's son. On October 16, Horthy signed his abdication.

The radical Cross and Arrow Party has now taken the reins of government in Hungary, mobilizing the entire country and intensifying anti-Jewish measures. They promised the Germans four additional divisions, while even their regular troops were disbanded. They disbanded the divisional headquarters and formed mixed German-Hungarian regimental groups.

At the beginning of 1945, the number of Hungarian troops on the ground was 280, as well as 000 rear troops. The Hungarian commanders often had the impression that the Germans shamelessly allowed untrained or exhausted Hungarian units to be "led to the slaughter".

While the country was drowning in the maelstrom of war, Berlin at least wanted to secure some reserves of troops. The logistic installations and training regiments of the Honvedian, with approximately 200 men, were distributed throughout Germany and Denmark. About 000 young men were employed in German anti-aircraft units. Separate Hungarian battalions fought in "fortresses" on the Eastern Front, such as Breslau (Wroclaw), Kohlberg (Kolobrzeg) and Posen (Poznan). At the end of the war, 16 Hungarian soldiers were still deployed, mostly in Army Group South.

Battle of Budapest

The attack on Budapest was of great strategic importance for Stalin. A quick takeover attempt in early November 1944 failed, and the Germans seized the opportunity to fortify their defenses with the help of Jewish forced laborers. The attacks of the 2nd Ukrainian Front moved very slowly against the outnumbered German-Hungarian defenders. Several German counter-offensives endangered the Soviet victory.

The Hungarians did not expect to defend their capital for a long time, but Hitler ordered to keep the "fortress" at any cost, regardless of civilian casualties. Thus, the battle for Budapest became "Stalingrad on the Danube". By the end of the year, about 100 soldiers were surrounded, half of them Germans and half Hungarians. They managed to hold the city for 000 days against superior Soviet forces.

The worse the hopeless military situation became, the more often there were German reports of the allegedly low morale of the Hungarians and their high level of desertion. The fact that the Germans themselves contributed to this, in fact, incapacitating the Hungarian officers and treating them condescendingly, without giving them any real reason to push their troops, was not mentioned.

The SS units recruited from the Hungarian Germans did not make a much better impression. The fighting outside the city, with their eventually failed offensive relief operations, was fought almost exclusively by German units. On February 11, 1945, the attempt to escape the last defenders ended in disaster.

After the failure of the last German offensive on Lake Balaton in mid-March 1945, the Red Army continued its campaign to occupy the country. Its vastly superior forces defeated the Hungarian defensive front in the Wertes Mountains and pursued the 6th German Panzer Army westward.

The defense of the German-Hungarian positions north of the Danube in the Komarom region collapsed on 25 March. The complete dissolution of the Hungarian units loomed on the horizon. The Chief of Staff of the St. Laszlo Division went over to the Soviet side and called on his soldiers to do the same.
Hungarian troops were subsequently disarmed in the operational area of ​​the 6th German Army. They had to hand over their cars and walk to the indicated neighborhoods.

An estimated 360 Hungarians died, more than a third of them (000 to 120) on the Eastern Front and at least 000 in captivity. During the war, 155 civilians were killed. About 000 people died during the Allied bombing raids, and another 55 during the fighting in the last months of the war.

The 1947 Paris Peace Treaties returned the country to its 1920 territorial status. Moreover, she was forced to pay $ 300 million in reparations.
Photos used:
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  1. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 26 May 2021 18: 15
    Constantly overwhelmed, the Hungarians reacted by creating "dead zones" with harsh repression against the civilian population. In terms of cruelty, only the SS were superior to the Hungarians.
    They overloaded the poor fellows, it is a pity that they were not overloaded by graves. The enemies were, as it were, no worse than the Germans.
    1. SERGE ANT
      SERGE ANT 26 May 2021 18: 26
      I absolutely agree. For ethical reasons, I will not post photos and documents confirming the facts of atrocities (otherwise it’s difficult to say) Magyars in relation to our prisoners and civilians. Watching and reading this .. very hard ..
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 26 May 2021 18: 50
        They could not calm down even after the war. I mean the Hungarian revolt of October 23 - November 9, 1956. They committed atrocities in their own countries, cracking down on their own.

        And only tough measures with the introduction of our troops made it possible to turn the tide.

        1. hohol95
          hohol95 26 May 2021 19: 34
          At the same time, some kind of "bastard" gave out YELLOW boots to the employees of the Hungarian State Security. And because of these boots they were easily identified and hung! Andropov witnessed those events! His reports on the infection of this massacre in Moscow did not believe or "did not attach importance"!
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 26 May 2021 19: 58
            Yes, and the captured GB officers were tied in three to the rear bumpers of cars and driven around the city, calling it the "Russian troika". But then they quickly quieted nothing. And they gave theirs what they deserved.
            1. hohol95
              hohol95 26 May 2021 20: 59
              There is a documentary about those events. And there it was said about the promise of help by the NATO troops during the "uprising of the Honvedians"! But apart from literature and weapons, the "Honveda" did not get anything!
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 26 May 2021 21: 02
                Since childhood, I remember a newsreel about these events, for me, a boy, it was the first bell that not everything is safe in my familiar world.
                1. hohol95
                  hohol95 26 May 2021 21: 06
                  I had not yet been born. But Nicaragua, Angola and Ethiopia were also familiar to me later. I don't remember about the NDP. But in my distant childhood I always wondered why things and toys are brought from the GDR that are more "beautiful" than those made by us? Oh childhood ... childhood barefoot ...
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 26 May 2021 21: 09
                    "Should we be sad about the old days,
                    After all, wait there are death and blood, and fear. "(C) smile drinks
                    1. hohol95
                      hohol95 26 May 2021 21: 14
                      drinks there are, but ... Today, it has gone up. Survived the 3rd academic year! HOLIDAY!!! drinks drinks drinks
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish 26 May 2021 21: 26
                        We have it in the past, and the daughter and son are already independent people, and for me now the main thing is not to go into their lives without asking, while it works. smile
                      2. hohol95
                        hohol95 26 May 2021 21: 27
                        For children ... drinks
                      3. Catfish
                        Catfish 26 May 2021 21: 28
                        Accepted without reason! drinks smile
                    2. hohol95
                      hohol95 26 May 2021 21: 17
                      The main thing is not to become our children those who look like "processors" from the Japanese work "Project 86" ...
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish 26 May 2021 21: 24
                        Alas, I have not read it. But in any case, I really hope that our children will be all right. smile
                      2. hohol95
                        hohol95 26 May 2021 21: 25
                        You can and see. Animeha comes out. Already 7 episodes. "86". It is called.
                      3. Catfish
                        Catfish 26 May 2021 21: 27
                        Thank you, there will be time - I'll take a look, but for now - a vegetable garden and everything that comes with it.
                      4. hohol95
                        hohol95 26 May 2021 21: 29
                        The garden is our everything. But I haven't been to my parents' garden for a long time. Father is making do with it so far ... And let the nephews help.
                      5. Catfish
                        Catfish 26 May 2021 21: 36
                        You need to sit with your father, at least for tea. He's bored. I judge by myself, the guys come, but not often, but with this covid in general ...
                  2. boris epstein
                    boris epstein 2 June 2021 17: 29
                    What's true is true. GDR prefabricated models are really class. Operating models of trains, in Moscow in the GDR store there was a huge stand - an operating model of a railway with bridges, crossings, stations, traffic lights, tunnels, bridges, mountains, forests. Models of tanks, airplanes ... All with necklines. Shoes (I wore sneakers for two years), clothes, telephones.
                    1. hohol95
                      hohol95 2 June 2021 18: 13
                      "The Wizard of the Emerald City" was a great rarity ... And toys from the countries of the socialist camp ...
                      But now they don't. hi
        2. Machito
          Machito 26 May 2021 20: 02
          We have not forgotten the atrocities of the Hungarian fascists. They never answered for their crimes.
          1. Victor Tsenin
            Victor Tsenin 26 May 2021 21: 26
            Let's just say they answered, but not enough.
    2. qQQQ
      qQQQ 27 May 2021 09: 50
      Quote: Vladimir_2U
      The enemies were, as it were, no worse than the Germans.

      Already more atrocities, and what they did during the putsch of 1956 is a separate story. It is a pity that in the name of friendship between peoples, in Soviet times, they did not poke their muzzles into their own guano.
  2. Xlor
    Xlor 26 May 2021 18: 24
    It seems there was an order from Zhukov not to take the Hungarians prisoner - they behaved in our occupied territories not like a gentleman ...
    1. SERGE ANT
      SERGE ANT 26 May 2021 18: 36
      Or Vatutin, but I did not find a document on such an order (how then to explain more than half a million prisoners of Hungarians), rather it looks like a soldier's story ... Although looking at their atrocities one could with full moral right and give such an order.
    2. tihonmarine
      tihonmarine 26 May 2021 19: 15
      Quote: Xlor
      It seems there was an order from Zhukov not to take the Hungarians prisoner - they behaved in our occupied territories not like a gentleman ...

      Rather Vatutin. Hungarians inherited great. To say that they were hated more than the Germans is to say nothing. The tale that General Vatutin (a deep bow to him and eternal memory) gave the order “not to take the Hungarians prisoner” is absolutely not a fairy tale, but a historical fact. General Vatutin, after listening to the people who survived the atrocities of the Hungarians in a rage, literally wheezed only one phrase: "Do not take Hungarians prisoner!" Of course, the phrase of the front commander dropped in anger was not an order to action, but the soldier's rumor quickly spread these words to the units and formations of the front.
      The motto of the Hungarian Royal Army is "The price of Hungarian life is Soviet death."
      8 Hungarians were awarded the German Knight's Crosses. During the Second World War, Hungary gave the largest number of volunteers to the SS troops. More than 200 thousand Hungarians died in the war against the USSR (including 55 thousand who died in Soviet captivity). During the Second World War, Hungary lost about 300 thousand soldiers killed, 513 766 people were taken prisoner.

      The memorial cemetery of Hungarian soldiers in the village of Rudkino, Voronezh Region, has been equipped on a large scale. And they cruelly dealt with our people, more cruel than the Nazis.

      At the cemetery in Rudkino there was also a place for the memory of Jewish soldiers of the labor battalions of the 2nd Hungarian army.

      So understand now, are we kind or .............
  3. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 26 May 2021 18: 33
    Well, this is at least an article as an article, and not that recent "stub" ...
  4. iouris
    iouris 26 May 2021 18: 43
    Calling your country "Soviets" is a sin. Or is it a foreign country?
    1. Senior seaman
      Senior seaman 26 May 2021 19: 50
      I have the impression that this is a translated article (or at least some fragments) from some foreign language source.
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 26 May 2021 20: 57
        Quite right. The text is completely unreadable.
        The attack on Budapest was of great strategic importance for Stalin. A quick takeover attempt in early November 1944 failed, and the Germans seized the opportunity to fortify their defenses with the help of Jewish forced laborers.

        About the "attack on Budapest" - generally a masterpiece of stupidity. And why are these oak publications on VO?
      2. basal
        basal 26 May 2021 23: 36
        I join. And the translation is some kind of "machine". Not even corrected normally. It looks like Russian is not a native language for the author (translator).
  5. prior
    prior 26 May 2021 18: 47
    Are there any countries in Europe whose troops did not trample the Russian land together with Hitler?
    Why did we forgive them so quickly and easily?
    It's never too late to call for accountability.
    There can be no statute of limitations for criminals.
    Let them repent. Forever.
    1. Bolt cutter
      Bolt cutter 26 May 2021 20: 50
      Are there any countries in Europe whose troops did not trample the Russian land together with Hitler?
      Ireland only.
      1. Xlor
        Xlor 27 May 2021 02: 39
        More Iceland and the Faroe Islands ...
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 28 May 2021 14: 12
          Quote: Xlor
          More Iceland

          Iceland at that time was not quite a country. It was an independent kingdom in personal union with Denmark, which gained independence only in 1944. In addition, since 1940 Iceland was under occupation - first by Britain, and then by the neutral USA.
      2. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 28 May 2021 14: 09
        Quote: Bolt Cutter
        Ireland only.

        Now Switzerland was offended. smile
        1. Bolt cutter
          Bolt cutter 28 May 2021 14: 12
          I read somewhere about the small Swiss Nazis who voluntarily joined the ranks of the Wehrmacht. As well as a small detachment of British. Iceland is still yes, but the Faroe Islands are Denmark, so it doesn't roll.
          1. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA 28 May 2021 14: 16
            Quote: Bolt Cutter
            Iceland stillB yes but Faroe Islands - Denmark, so it does not roll.

            Iceland is also formally Denmark. At least until 1944.
            But it would be extremely difficult for the Icelanders to fight on the side of the Nazis - given the occupation of the island by the Allies. smile
            1. Bolt cutter
              Bolt cutter 28 May 2021 14: 19
              Well, a couple of dozen German-Swiss, admired by the genius of the Fuhrer, fled across the border and set off to colonize lands in the East. Switzerland's neutrality did not stop them.
              The British squad, however, did not seem to have time to fight ...
              1. Alexey RA
                Alexey RA 28 May 2021 14: 23
                ABOUT! How did we forget about the Vatican? wink
                1. Bolt cutter
                  Bolt cutter 28 May 2021 14: 28
                  The local priests were well aware of the misadventures of their colleagues from the USSR and prudently decided not to meddle laughing
  6. Cat Alexandrovich
    Cat Alexandrovich 26 May 2021 18: 56
    Some strange text in terms of the Russian language. It looks like a poorly done translation. Many words are clearly missing. Continuous "non-Russian" turns. Punctuation problems. A strange impression ... The author is definitely an author, and not a weak translator?
  7. The comment was deleted.
    1. Andrei Nikolaevich
      Andrei Nikolaevich 27 May 2021 06: 00
      I also paid attention. As it is slippery and one-sided. My grandfather went all over Hungary and did not favor them, to put it mildly ..
  8. hohol95
    hohol95 26 May 2021 19: 29
    There is no Hungarian contribution to support the Luftwaffe! Hungarians and in the Soviet sky fought against our pilots!
  9. Professor
    Professor 26 May 2021 19: 40
    The Germans did not disarm the Honvedians, but they drastically changed their policy towards the Hungarian Jews. A special unit of Adolf Eichmann moved forward and, with the support of the opposition fighting for power, organized the deportation of 437 people to Auschwitz. Not only did the Germans benefit from the confiscation of their belongings, but countless Hungarian citizens helped themselves acquire Jewish property, making the alliance with the Reich more "productive."

    The author forgot that before the deportation of Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz, Hungary took tens of thousands of Jews to labor camps. Jews were sent to dismantle rubble, mine and other hard work. The prisoners were starved and simply shot. There was no place to run. The locals handed in the fugitives. In the occupied territories, the prisoners were dressed in the uniform of the Wehrmacht and had to forget about the escapes altogether. At the end of the war, about 10 prisoners were freed captured by the Red Army and sent to Soviet prisoner camps. The exact number of those who returned to Hungary is not known, but those who returned found their families destroyed in Auschwitz. In total, about 70% of Hungarian Jews died.

    In Hungary, the Nazis enjoyed wide popular support; Miklos Horthy's government forged an alliance with Nazi Germany, passed anti-Semitic laws, and during the war mobilized over 100,000 Jewish men into labor battalions, in which more than 40,000 of them died.

    After Hungary entered the war against the USSR, its government transferred 14,000-18,000 Jews to the Germans - refugees from Poland and the Soviet Union. The Germans shot them in Kamyanets-Podolsk. In Hungary itself, the extermination of Jews began later, only after the occupation of the country by the Germans in March 1944. Until that moment, Regent Horthy had not yielded to Hitler's pressure and refused to hand over the Jews to the Nazis. There were 800 Jews on the territory of Hungary at that time, including the Jews of the annexed lands of Slovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia. In May 000, the deportations of Hungarian Jews began to Auschwitz-Birkenau. Within 1944 days, 56 Hungarian Jews were sent by train.

    In October 1944, the Nazi Arrow Cross (Nyilash) party came to power in Hungary as a result of a coup. On the banks of the Danube, thousands of Budapest Jews were killed and tens of thousands were sent on death marches to the Austrian border. In total, 565,000 Hungarian Jews were killed during the Holocaust.
  10. Tiksi-3
    Tiksi-3 26 May 2021 19: 47
    author. how to understand your phrase - since Tips held several bridgeheads on the western bank, that is, you call us advice in the Second World War ???, then it is clear that you did not write a word about the devilish deeds of the Magyars near Voronezh, that even parts of the SS did not understand such atrocity - and what for all this 2 -the Magyar army ceased to exist just near Voronezh .... author, you better not write!
    1. andrew42
      andrew42 27 May 2021 16: 29
      There, in the article, not only "Soviets" are indicated, but also the "occupation" of Hungary. The article as a whole bears in itself a certain justifying character of the war of the Hungarians against the peoples of the USSR. Kolya from Urengoy is "resting". It looks like a translation of the Hungarian original source.
  11. dgonni
    dgonni 26 May 2021 20: 55
    Such a cocktail is not clear why.
    In short!
    In the occupied territories, the Magyars were probably worse than the Romanians and the Germans!
    If the Romanians, the local population for theft was simply beaten to the point of unconsciousness. And the Germans just
    fired without such frills.
    Then the Magyars first beat him to death and then shot.
    Regarding the stability of the units!
    On the territory of the USSR, stability again depended on the situation and the equipment of the units with heavy equipment.
    The bayonet was kept at the level of the Germans, and maybe even better.
    On their own territory, they fought back worse than the Doyches near Berlin.
    A strong enemy, glory to all the saints that he did not have enough normal heavy equipment.
    The fighter pilots were at the level of the Germans.
    Given that the level of 1941. They did not release ducklings in battles. A flight of 350-400 hours for a beginner was the norm by the end of 44!
  12. ecolog
    ecolog 27 May 2021 00: 51
    while I was reading, I didn’t leave the feeling that there was a google translator in co-authors
  13. bbss
    bbss 29 May 2021 00: 15
    Some strange, inarticulate translation of an article from Western sources.