Military Review

Battle of Crete. Why Hitler abandoned a further offensive in the Mediterranean

108
Battle of Crete. Why Hitler abandoned a further offensive in the Mediterranean
German transport aircraft Junkers Y. 52 towing gliders DFS 230 during the first day of the operation "Mercury"


The results of the two waves of the Cretan landing were disastrous. Many commanders were killed, wounded or captured. The German landing suffered heavy losses. We did not complete any of the tasks. All objects remained behind the enemy. There were almost no heavy weapons, the ammunition was running out. Weary, wounded paratroopers were preparing for the last battle. There was no connection.

Plan of operation


The attack on the island was planned for May 20, 1941. The 11th Air Corps was to carry out a simultaneous landing at several points on the island. Although there were many planes, they were not enough to carry out a simultaneous landing. Therefore, it was decided to attack in three waves.

The first wave at 7 am (parachute and glider landing) included the "West" group - a separate airborne regiment of General Meindel. The paratroopers were supposed to capture Maleme airport and the approaches to it. This airfield was to become the main landing site for the German troops. Colonel Heydrich's 3rd paratrooper regiment was tasked with capturing the port of Souda and the city of Chania (Kania), where the British headquarters and the residence of the Greek king were.

The second wave at 13 o'clock in the afternoon included the "Center" group - the 1st paratrooper regiment of Colonel Brower. This group was supposed to capture Heraklion and the local airport. Group Vostok, Colonel Sturm's 2nd Airborne Regiment, attacked Rethymno.

It was believed that after the capture of these points, the third wave would begin in the evening - the landing of soldiers of the 5th Mountain Rifle Division, heavy weapons and equipment from aircraft and ships. The air force at this time was supposed to attack the allied garrison and paralyze the actions of the powerful British fleet.


The First Wave


In the early morning, the Luftwaffe struck enemy positions. But the positions of the allies were well camouflaged and survived. Air defense means did not open fire and did not give themselves up. Gliders and junkers with parachutists arrived half an hour after the bombing. It was hot, bombers and attack aircraft raised a cloud of dust. The planes had to wait. It was not possible to land immediately, on the move. This pause had a negative impact on the operation.

At 7 o'clock 25 min. the first detachment of Captain Altman - the 2nd company of the 1st battalion of the airborne assault regiment, began the landing. The paratroopers came under heavy fire. Gliders were shot, they fell apart, crashed and fell into the sea. The Germans desperately maneuvered, used any suitable sites, roads to land.

Some gliders were shot already on the ground. The landed German paratroopers fiercely attacked the enemy. Most were armed only with grenades and pistols. The allies unleashed mortar and machine-gun fire on the enemy. It was not possible to take the airfield on the move. The New Zealanders threw back the enemy in a stubborn battle. The Germans captured only the bridge and part of the position to the west of the airfield. Altman has 108 soldiers out of 28.

The 1st battalion landing next also ran into heavy fire, many of the soldiers were killed while in the air. The battalion commander, Major Koch, and many other soldiers were wounded. The 1st Company captured the enemy battery, but lost 60 of the 90 soldiers. The 4th company and battalion headquarters landed directly on the New Zealanders' positions and were completely destroyed. It was a real massacre. The 3rd company was able to eliminate the air defense positions south of the object. This helped to avoid losses aviation upon further disembarkation. The Germans also captured anti-aircraft guns and with their help threw back enemy reinforcements.

Fierce fighting in the Malem area continued. Due to reconnaissance errors, part of the landing was thrown directly over the enemy's positions. Paratroopers of the 3rd battalion were parachuted northeast of the airport at the position of the New Zealand brigade. Almost all of the German paratroopers were killed. The 4th battalion with the regiment's headquarters landed to the west successfully, lost few people and established itself at the airfield. But the commander of the group, General Mendel, was seriously wounded. The paratroopers were led by the commander of the 2nd battalion, Major Stenzler. The 2nd battalion suffered heavy losses during the landing. One reinforced platoon landed among the Greek positions, almost all were killed. Some of the German soldiers were killed by local militias. The fierce battle continued all day. Some positions changed hands several times. The German paratroopers were gradually able to unite the landed groups and entrenched themselves north of the airfield.

Events developed in a similar way in the area of ​​the landing of the 3rd regiment of Colonel Heydrich. At the very beginning, the division headquarters with the commander of the 7th air division, Lieutenant General Wilhelm Suessman, was killed. The 3rd battalion, which landed by the first, got into the positions of the New Zealanders and was completely defeated. Many were killed while in the air. The rest were finished off or captured on the ground. Due to an error, some units were thrown over the rocks, they crashed, broke their limbs and went out of action. One company was carried out to sea, the soldiers were drowned. A mortar company was thrown over the reservoir, the soldiers drowned. Only the 9th company landed safely and took up defensive positions. The disembarkation lasted all day. The Germans were widely scattered, trying to unite and find containers with weapons and ammunition. They suffered heavy losses.


German paratroopers making final preparations before boarding a transport plane


Burnt-out German parachutist. Nearby is an English soldier with a captured P.08 Luger pistol


German paratroopers and Junkers Ju-52 transport planes flying over them in the area of ​​altitude 107 in Crete. Hill 107 in the Maleme airfield area was one of the most important strongholds of the Allies, over which fierce battles were fought. On May 21, the height was captured by the Germans.

The second wave


The German command did not know about the disastrous start of the operation. It is possible that if it had a complete picture of what happened, the operation was either postponed or would have been canceled. But the German commanders decided that everything was going well. Of the 500 aircraft that took part in the first wave, only a few were lost. The German pilots did not see what was happening on the ground. Therefore, the headquarters of the 12th Army gave the go-ahead for the continuation of the attack.

Things went even worse than in the morning. Refueling problems and clouds of dust interfered with aviation operations. It was not possible to form a dense wave, the aircraft flew in small groups and at large intervals. The paratroopers had to land without aviation support, in small groups and with a large dispersion. The allies have already come to their senses. We realized that the main threat was not from the sea, but from the air. And they were ready to meet the enemy. All convenient landing sites were blocked and shot.

The 2nd regiment was thrown out in the Rethymnon area with a great delay - 16 hours. 15 minutes. Only two companies were landed after an air raid, the third was carried several kilometers to the side. The landing was delayed, and the Nazis suffered heavy losses. The Australians met the enemy with dense fire. The 2nd battalion was able to capture one of the commanding heights and tried to develop an offensive, to take other positions at the airfield. But the German paratroopers were met with strong fire from other heights and from the armored vehicles available here. The Germans retreated. Gathering the soldiers scattered around the area at night, the battalion repeated the attack, but was again driven back. The paratroopers suffered heavy losses; by the evening, 400 soldiers had left. The group commander, Colonel Shturm, was captured.

In the area of ​​the landing of the 1st regiment, the situation was even worse. The landing force was thrown out even later, at 17 o'clock. 30 minutes. The bombers had already left, there was no air support. Part of the regiment was thrown out in Maleme. Heraklion had the strongest air defense, so the paratroopers jumped from great heights. This increased airborne losses. The landers came under heavy fire from enemy artillery and tanks... It was a massacre. Two companies were killed almost entirely. The rest of the units were scattered. And only the onset of darkness saved the Germans from complete destruction. The commander of the "Center" group, Brower, refuses to further suicide attacks, focuses on the collection of the remaining soldiers and on the search for containers with weapons. The Germans were entrenched on the road to Chania.


The second wave of German paratroopers of the "Mars" group from the 7th Airborne Division is landing east of the city of Rethymno. The task of the "Mars" (Center) group under the command of General Süsmann included the capture of the cities of Chania and Rethymno


German parachutists are fighting in the city of Chania


Three German paratroopers remove weapons from a container after landing in Crete

Failed disaster


The results of the two waves of the landing were disastrous. Many commanders were killed, wounded or captured. The landing party suffered heavy losses. Of the 10 thousand parachutists who landed, about 6 thousand fighters remained in the ranks. None of the tasks were completed. All objects were left behind the enemy. They did not capture a single airfield and could not land the 5th Mountain Rifle Division, which was airlifted on transport aircraft. There were almost no heavy weapons, the ammunition was running out. Weary, wounded paratroopers were preparing for the last battle. There was no communication, the radios were broken during the landing. The pilots could not give a clear picture of the battle. The command in Athens did not know about the catastrophe, about the fact that the landing was almost defeated.

The German landing was saved by two factors. First, the high combat quality of the German Airborne Forces. Even in the conditions of the death of headquarters and the dropout of commanders, the remaining officers did not lose heart, they acted independently and proactively. They created nodes of defense, attacked the superior forces of the enemy, imposed a battle on him, did not allow him to seize the initiative. The German paratroopers fought desperately, hoping that the neighbors were more fortunate, and that help would soon come. At night, they did not slow down, attacked, looked for their own people and containers with weapons.

Secondly, the Germans were saved by the mistakes of the Allies. The British had complete superiority in forces and weapons, they could throw all available forces against the enemy and finish it off. However, the allied command decided to keep the troops, waiting for the landing of the main enemy forces from the sea. The landing of the amphibious assault was expected in the area of ​​Chania and Suda. As a result, the chance to defeat the airborne assault was lost. The British bided their time, conserving reserves, instead of crushing the enemy's main hearth in the Malem area.

The allies also had their own problems: they did not know the situation as a whole, there were not enough communications equipment, there were almost no armored vehicles for organizing a counteroffensive, transport for the transfer of reinforcements, and air support. Many soldiers had poor training and hardening, fought poorly, were afraid to attack. But the main thing was that the allied command gave the enemy the initiative, did not use their trump cards to destroy the German landing before the arrival of reinforcements. The allies undertook only private counterattacks, which the Germans were able to repulse, and did not enter the nearby reserves into battle, fearing an amphibious landing.


German paratroopers carry containers (Fallschirmjäger Abwurfbehälter) of equipment along the road in Crete. For ease of transportation by land, these containers were equipped with special wheels and handles.


Italian Marines at the 8mm Breda M37 machine gun after landing at Sitia, Crete

The Germans are developing an offensive


At night, the command sent a messenger, he correctly assessed the situation and reported to the headquarters. The Germans decided to take the risk and continue the operation, throw all available forces to storm the airport in Maleme. On the morning of May 21, 1941, the Germans landed an anti-tank battalion of the parachute division and another battalion formed from the remaining divisions of the division. With the help of these reinforcements and aviation support, the Germans took Maleme by storm during the day and were able to clear the airfield area of ​​the enemy. At noon, the first mountain riflemen were dropped off there. This decided the outcome of the operation.

The complete supremacy of the Luftwaffe in the air made it possible in the following days to transfer new units of the mountain rifle division. They cleared the area around the airfield with a radius of up to 3,5 km from the stubbornly resisting New Zealanders. The Nazis created a stable foothold for the invasion.

At the same time, the Germans prepared a naval operation, transferred a transport fleet of numerous ships and boats from the port of Piraeus to the island of Milos, which is located 120 km from Crete. These ships, which did not have air cover, were attacked by British ships on 22 May. Most of the transports with heavy weapons were sunk. Only a few ships reached Crete. But on May 23, the British fleet also suffered serious losses from the actions of the German air force. Two cruisers and two destroyers were killed, two cruisers and a battleship were damaged. The command considered that these were too high losses. The British fleet leaves for Alexandria.

Now the Germans could safely carry reinforcements, weapons and ammunition by sea. The forces deployed by aircraft at Maleme were sufficient to launch a decisive offensive. By May 27, German troops captured Chania, all the strategic points of the island and the western part of Crete. On May 28, an Italian landing was landed on the eastern part of the island. On the same day, the shock detachment, which included a motorcycle and rifle battalion, a reconnaissance battalion of mountain riflemen, artillery and several tanks, launched an offensive from the western part of the island to the east. On May 29-30, the strike group linked up with the units landed in the Rethymnon area, and then with the Italians.

Allied resistance was broken. Already on May 26, 1941, the commander of the allies, General Freiberg, reported that the situation on the island was hopeless. The soldiers were demoralized by enemy air raids that continued for several days. Troop losses grew, air defense systems were scarce, as well as artillery. On May 27, the high command authorized the evacuation. The ships of the Alexandria squadron again went to Crete.

May 28 - June 1, the British fleet evacuated part of the allied grouping (about 15 thousand people) from the Heraklion area in the north of the island and the Sfakia bay, on the southern coast. Then the British, in order to avoid further losses, refused to continue the evacuation. The British fleet lost several ships during the evacuation.

The last centers of resistance were suppressed by the Germans on June 1.


German soldiers in captured British trucks in Crete


The destroyed gun turrets of the British heavy cruiser York. 25.03.1941/10/XNUMX the cruiser was blown up in the Souda bay near Crete by the boats of the Italian XNUMXth MAS flotilla filled with explosives. "York" was planted on the seabed off the coast of the island and during the following time was used to repel German air raids, while receiving bombs. After the start of the landing operation of the German troops in Crete, an order was given to blow up the gun turrets of the cruiser


German Junkers Ju 87 dive bombers attack British ships at a Greek naval base in Souda Bay, Crete. The photo was taken from a German plane. Although the British Mediterranean Navy destroyed or scattered the German amphibious assault on Crete, they then lost three cruisers and six destroyers to Luftwaffe air strikes. Other ships were badly damaged

Results


Thus, the Germans conducted one of the largest airborne operations of the Second World War.

The airborne assault forces captured the most important points of the island, and the complete dominance of the Germans in the air played an important role in the victory. The Germans lost about 7 thousand dead, missing and wounded. The Luftwaffe lost 147 aircraft downed and 73 as a result of accidents (mainly transport). Allied losses - over 6,5 thousand dead and wounded, 17 thousand prisoners. Losses of the British fleet (from the actions of German aviation): three cruisers, six destroyers, more than 20 auxiliary ships and transports. Three battleships, an aircraft carrier, six cruisers, and 7 destroyers were also damaged. About 2 thousand people died.

The losses of the Airborne Forces made such a depressing impression on Hitler that he forbade such operations in the future. The Maltese operation was finally abandoned.

However, no matter how expensive the operation to capture Crete was, strategically it justified itself. Operations by the British fleet in the Mediterranean were further constrained. The oil regions of Romania are protected. Crete, together with Rhodes, occupied by the Italians, formed a convenient base for further operations of the Reich in the Mediterranean.

It was logical to build on the success, to carry out the Maltese operation. Then to land a strike force in Syria and Lebanon, from there to launch an offensive in Iraq, restoring a friendly regime there, and in Palestine. Counter strikes from Libya and Syria to crush the enemy in Egypt. Further, it was possible to take control of the entire Near and Middle East. Threaten British India. This put Britain on the brink of defeat.

However, Hitler adhered unwaveringly to his plans to attack Russia. And the operation in the Balkans was just an unpleasant delay for him. As a result, the opportunities opened up by the capture of Greece and Crete were not used, as were the first successes of Rommel in North Africa.


Australian destroyer HMAS Nizam enters the port of Alexandria with allied soldiers evacuated from Crete


A German truck drives past a column of British prisoners of war in Crete
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  1. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 21 May 2021 05: 07
    0
    The article is interesting, thanks to the author, but these are the words
    This put Britain on the brink of defeat.
    But Hitler adhered unwaveringly to his plans to attack Russia... And the operation in the Balkans was just an unpleasant delay for him.
    in fact, they answer the question that the author asked in the table of contents. lol
    1. Finches
      Finches 21 May 2021 06: 29
      +8
      It has been noted more than once that this is a fatal mistake of the possessed Fuhrer! The German generals were very alarmed when they learned that Hitler intended to abandon the capture of Gibraltar, Suez, Malta and not touch England, since he rightly believed that the British and the United States should not be left behind when the main forces of the Germans were concentrated in the East! Yes! The blitz-scream turned out ... but it all ended in a bunker, not far from the Reich Chancellery! All would, however, and so it ended there! I even think that if Hitler occupied London and the entire island, then after Victory, ours, Victory, the sign of the London Party Committee on the doors of Buckingham Palace would look very harmonious! laughing
      1. Eug
        Eug 23 May 2021 11: 16
        0
        I suspect that the information and promises received from the British by Hess (I am not talking about their reality) played an important role in determining Hitler's further actions.
        1. Finches
          Finches 23 May 2021 11: 19
          0
          Yes, the Anglo-Saxons still carefully conceal the muddy story with Hess!
          1. Eug
            Eug 23 May 2021 11: 26
            0
            Most likely, it was through Hess that the Angles convinced Hitler of
            intentions of the USSR to attack Germany in the event of the withdrawal of the German army to the Mediterranean and promised him tacit but effective support in the event of a German attack on the USSR. If Stalin really had such intentions, then what was wrong with the desire to destroy the fascist regime in Germany?
    2. Per se.
      Per se. 21 May 2021 08: 44
      +5
      Quote: Vladimir_2U
      and answer the question asked by the author in the table of contents
      It is no secret that Hitler was an Anglophile, openly admiring Britain's successes in plundering many countries of the world. Here, the more important question is why Hitler refused to defeat Britain, and the operation "Sea Lion" became just a cover for the main task of the Germans - the "Barbarossa" plan.

      You have to understand whose money the Nazis brought to power, how the main guarantors of Versailles' restrictions turned a blind eye to all violations, without any sanctions, blockade and intervention. Because from Hitler's Germany they made anti-USSR, and from the Germans they made cannon fodder, which was supposed to work for their Anglo-Saxon masters. That is why Hitler was allowed to swallow Austria, gave Czechoslovakia, then, during the "strange war" and most of Europe, everything in order to create the necessary military and economic potential against the USSR.

      Yes, ordinary British pilots and sailors died in the war, the civilian population suffered, similarly in Germany, but huge money was made on this, world influence was created.

      The grateful Hitler did not allow Britain to be left without an army when on May 24, 1940, he ordered the German tank divisions advancing along the coast of the English Channel to stop the advance at the Aa channel line and withdraw units that had advanced on Hazbruck.
      In Halder's "War Diary" dated May 24, 1940 (20 hours, 20 minutes), it is expressed as follows.

      The mobile left wing, in front of which there is no enemy, is stopped at the urgent request of the Führer! In this area, the fate of the surrounded armies should be decided by our aviation


      Britain evacuates its expeditionary force from near Dunkirk to the island, leaving the French allies behind.
      You can't say better about the future than Harry Truman.
      If we see that Germany is winning, then we should help Russia, and if Russia is winning, then we should help Germany, and so let them kill as much as possible, although I would not want to see Hitler a winner under any circumstances. None of them keep their word

      Hitler was not supposed to win, under any circumstances. The Anglo-Saxons again raked in the heat with the hands of others, profited from the world massacre, enslaved Europe, became the sole leaders and masters of world capitalism.
      Germany and Japan are in fact still occupied countries, dancing to the American tune. So, only the USSR did not die then, but became a space and nuclear superpower, but what the Junkers did not do, the Snickers did ... The betrayal of the party nomenklatura and Gorbachev personally ruined the great country for which our grandfathers laid down their heads.

      We are now living on the Soviet reserve of strength, in selected capitalism, and party renegades are squeezing out this reserve like a lemon before surrendering to their masters, in the name of the world of humanism and tolerance, and, blaming on the West, to the "acquired by overwork" in Russia, but stored in foreign banks and foreign currency.
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 21 May 2021 10: 27
        +7
        Quote: Per se.
        The grateful Hitler did not allow Britain to be left without an army when on May 24, 1940, he ordered the German tank divisions advancing along the coast of the English Channel to stop the advance at the Aa channel line and withdraw units that had advanced on Hazbruck.
        In Halder's "War Diary" dated May 24, 1940 (20 hours, 20 minutes), it is expressed as follows.

        The mobile left wing, in front of which there is no enemy, is stopped at the urgent request of the Führer! In this area, the fate of the surrounded armies should be decided by our aviation

        The problem is that the order for the German armored divisions advancing along the coast of the English Channel to stop the offensive was not given on May 24. And not Hitler.
        The "stop order" was issued on May 23, 1940 - by von Runstedt at the suggestion of Kleist.
        Moreover, when the stop order was canceled on May 25, von Runstedt resumed his offensive only on May 27.
        1. Per se.
          Per se. 21 May 2021 12: 10
          -3
          Quote: Alexey RA
          not May 24th. And not Hitler
          So Halder is talking nonsense?
          It is known that on May 20, 1940, German tank formations broke through to Abbeville. The troops of the so-called First Army Group of the Allies, a total of 10 British, 18 French and 12 Belgian divisions) were cut off and pushed to the sea in the area of ​​Bruges, Gravelin and Arras.
          The German tank units had their last attack on Dunkirk, but on May 24, an order was received from Hitler, instructing the divisions advancing along the English Channel to stop the offensive at the Aa channel line. Moreover, to pull back the units that have advanced to Azbruk.
          Hitler ordered "not to approach Dunkirk closer than 10 km" and not to use tanks against the blocked grouping. No Gerd von Runstedt, together with Kleist, would have dared to turn such a thing. This "stop order" was perceived by all German generals with bewilderment, including Franz Halder, which is reflected in his "War Diary". To the above.
          We lost time, so the ring around the French and British was closed more slowly than was possible. The main thing is that, as a result of the stop of the mechanized formations, the ring did not close on the coast, and now we only have to contemplate how many thousands of enemy soldiers are fleeing under our noses to England.


          Moreover, the order was transmitted unencrypted, and became known to the British. Further, the French and British stubbornly defended their defensive lines around Dunkirk, and the Germans, due to Hitler's initiative, were deprived of the opportunity to use their main weapon, tank formations.

          As a result, the entire British Expeditionary Force and more than 90 French troops, as well as Belgians and soldiers from other countries of the allied coalition, were evacuated to the island.
          Without these forces, Britain would be on the brink of total collapse. Didn't you know that?
          1. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA 21 May 2021 14: 43
            +2
            Quote: Per se.
            So Halder is talking nonsense?

            That is, Halder tactfully omits the history of the appearance of a stop order.
            He only has the beginning of the story:
            23 May.
            17.30 - Gildenfeldt: Report on Kleist's concerns. He thinks he is unable to fully fulfill his task until the crisis in the Arras area is resolved. Losses in tanks - up to 50%. I said that the crisis will be overcome within 48 hours. I am aware of how difficult this task is. It is necessary to demand stamina from the troops. There is no danger on the Somme.

            And the end:
            24 May.
            20.20 - Order canceling yesterday's and prescribing the encirclement of enemy troops in the Dunkirk, Esther, Lille, Roubet, Ostend area. The movable left wing, in front of which there is no enemy, was stopped at the insistence of the Fuehrer! In the indicated area, the fate of the encircled armies must be decided by our aviation.

            And what was between these points, until recently, was known only from the memoirs of German generals. And in all of them there is a red thread: "we owe all our victories to our unsurpassed genius, all our defeats to the demoniac Fuhrer". smile
            Quote: Per se.
            The German tank units had their last attack on Dunkirk, but on May 24, an order was received from Hitler, instructing the divisions advancing along the English Channel to stop the offensive at the Aa channel line. Moreover, to pull back the units that have advanced to Azbruk.

            In some detail, Freezer analyzes the stop-order at Dunkirk, analyzing all the versions put forward. So, in his opinion, in fact, the initiator of the stop order was not Hitler, but the commander of Army Group "A" von Rundstedt. The order, the content of which fully corresponded to the stop order, was issued in Army Group "A" the day before the Fuehrer's order. At that moment, the high command wanted to take all the tanks from Rundstedt and transfer them to Army Group B, without consulting the Fuehrer. Hitler learned about this from Rundstedt himself and boiled over. This order was canceled, and Rundstedt received carte blanche for all his actions, including the stop order. Initially, the stop order was dictated by concerns about the flanks. So another myth fell apart - about a stupid Fuhrer and very, very smart commanders.
            © Isaev
            24.05.1940/XNUMX/XNUMX Hitler only approved the stop-order of von Runstedt, issued a day earlier.

            We ought to check Genosse Runstedt on British intelligence. There are also a lot of questions to him about the Ardennes operation. smile
            1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
              Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 21 May 2021 15: 32
              +2
              Quote: Alexey RA
              "We owe all our victories to our unsurpassed genius, all our defeats to the demoniac Fuhrer"

              Absolutely!
              The crafty Guderian in his memoir is very sorry that, they say, they did not allow him to take Dunkirk. Although in the ZhBD of the 19th TC, he wrote differently
              "Further continuation of the offensive will lead to senseless losses in our best troops."
            2. Per se.
              Per se. 21 May 2021 17: 01
              0
              Quote: Alexey RA
              And what was between these points, until recently, was known only from the memoirs of German generals.
              Better on the contrary, was the genius Hitler to go to Dunkirk and capture "the whole royal army" was prevented by cowards, mediocrity and traitors in general's shoulder straps?
              I read "War Diary" by Franz Halder, the diary was not created as a memoir, not to please a political weather vane, it is a daily timekeeping of the events of the war. I will not say for all the German generals, but Halder is difficult to suspect, both in the biased assessment and in incompetence.
              The Nazis came to power with the permission of England and the United States, from Germany they made anti-USSR. Hitler was impressed by England. Everything else can be twisted as you like. There was a big war, after which the United States remained in chocolate. Should we argue with this too?
              I expressed only my opinion, this is not a verdict, not a ban on another point of view. Probably, think all the same, life would be less interesting. Thanks for attention.
              1. Alexey RA
                Alexey RA 21 May 2021 17: 12
                0
                Quote: Per se.
                I read "The War Diary" by Franz Halder, the diary was not created as a memoir, not for the sake of a political weather vane, it is a daily timing of the events of the war.

                Within the framework of what Halder knew - that is, the diary reflects only what Halder witnessed or heard about, and what was within his competence.
                Regarding the history of the adoption of the "stop order", Halder knew only that the tank units had suffered losses, and Kleist was afraid of problems. Further, the issue was decided by von Rundstedt and the Fuhrer who went to him, bypassing intermediate links. Von Rundstedt issued an order, the next day the Fuehrer signed it. Only the final information came to Halder: the Fuehrer signed a stop order.
                Quote: Per se.
                The Nazis came to power with the permission of England and the United States, from Germany they made anti-USSR.

                Why make an anti-USSR from Germany, if at the time the Nazis came to power there was an anti-USSR from the countries of the border cordon for a long time? Moreover, their forces (in the leadership of the Red Army) were considered not only sufficient, but superior to the USSR - provided they were supported by France and Britain.
                I would rather believe that some were restoring the Reich because some had the entire system of checks and balances in Europe (which had been built for a couple of hundred years) without it, while others - because they dreamed of open colonial markets, for which the collapse of the colonial system. smile
          2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
            Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 21 May 2021 15: 47
            +2
            That is, in your view, the picture is as follows:
            Anglophile Hitler gives a stop order, stealing victory from the valiant generals. And those, being hostages of this curtsey of the Fuehrer towards Britain, smeared tears on their faces in impotent anger, watching as their allies, making faces, load onto destroyers and paddle steamers and leave in the direction of Dover, under their noses. There was, therefore, neither Guderian buried in the mud between the channels of the 1st TD, nor the lost mobility of von Bock, who had to hastily assemble vehicles to throw forces at Nyuport, neither Lord Gort's defensive measures, nor the threat of disrupting Operation Roth. ...
            It's as simple as that - the demoniac barked "whoop!" m everything stopped?
            1. Alexey RA
              Alexey RA 21 May 2021 16: 59
              +1
              Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
              There was, therefore, neither Guderian buried in the mud between the channels of the 1st TD, nor the lost mobility of von Bock, who had to haste to collect vehicles in order to throw forces at Nyuport, neither Lord Gort's defensive measures, nor the threat of disrupting Operation Roth. ...

              There Rommel got it - near Arras. The future "fox of the desert" then dangled at the front line, watching how the "Matilda" crawl through the positions of its parts, and collected in manual mode new anti-aircraft guns from field and anti-aircraft guns.
              1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
                Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 21 May 2021 17: 17
                0
                Yes, there was enough improvisation in this campaign)
            2. Per se.
              Per se. 21 May 2021 17: 16
              0
              Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
              That is, in your view, the picture is as follows:
              In our representations there can be any pictures, it will not kill anyone in that war. I repeat, I expressed only my personal opinion, which should not offend anyone here. How could I substantiate it. With rare exceptions, in the comments on the article, many "historians" can indulge in a mentoring tone, or outright rudeness, instead of a discussion on a mutually interesting topic. This does not apply to you, but I do not have time to continue the discussion right now. It is a pity that I did not meet like-minded people. All the best.
      2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 21 May 2021 11: 04
        +5
        Quote: Per se.
        The grateful Hitler did not allow Britain to be left without an army when on May 24, 1940, he ordered the German tank divisions advancing along the coast of the English Channel to stop the advance at the Aa channel line and withdraw units that had advanced on Hazbruck.

        Yeah, yeah ... OKW Directive No. 13 of 24.05.1940, issued immediately after the so-called. the "stop order" read:
        destroy with a concentric blow the Franco-Anglo-Belgian forces surrounded in Artois and Flanders

        In addition, on May 24, the 19th TC crossed Aa, Grossdeutschland seized a foothold on the east bank at Saint-Georges. But the next day, the Germans were driven back to the west bank by a French counterattack.
        1. smaug78
          smaug78 21 May 2021 13: 01
          +1
          "You have no methods against Kostya Saprykin." I beg your pardon, cheers for local obsessions. hi
          1. Per se.
            Per se. 21 May 2021 13: 33
            +1
            Quote: smaug78
            "You have no methods against Kostya Saprykin"
            Boris, you would somehow justify your emotions. Even professional historians, biologists, and other specialists often disagree, but they give reasons. This is the essence of discussions and disputes, it is an indicator of intelligence and general culture. If the level of the criminal "Kostya Saprykin" is closer to someone, this is already their problem, as well as all kinds of trolls working out their bone in the network.
            1. smaug78
              smaug78 21 May 2021 14: 18
              -2
              First:
              I have not addressed you.
              The second:
              Argue with the historiography of the USSR.
              1. Per se.
                Per se. 21 May 2021 16: 40
                +2
                Quote: smaug78
                First:
                I have not addressed you.

                You do not specify, so this impression arises.
                Argue with the historiography of the USSR.

                They argue not with the textbook itself or historiography as such, but with the conclusions of specific authors. Anyway, thanks for the clarification.
      3. smaug78
        smaug78 21 May 2021 11: 56
        -3
        What a cute nonsense from history laughing
      4. Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko
        Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko 22 May 2021 21: 25
        0
        Sorry, but the liquidation of the cause of socialism and the winding down of the "Soviet project" began with the report of N.S. at the XX Congress of the Party, and not with the reforms of M.S. Gorbachev. Otherwise I agree with you. I support. But all is not lost. It will be necessary to restore the USSR-2, then this is doable. Legally, the USSR is also alive. And we, the reserve officers of the USSR, are not exempt from the oath. Even here, the lawyers made a mistake in the false liquidation of the country. Or maybe this is also not without reason?!? And a puncture is not a puncture at all? ...
        1. Per se.
          Per se. 24 May 2021 06: 32
          +1
          Good day, Andrey! Yes, it started with Khrushchev, but ended with Gorbachev, not with Khrushchev the red flag was lowered in the Kremlin. I also took the oath to the Soviet people, like the majority in our country then, who went through the army. In addition, most of the officers were communists, and you cannot be a former communist unless you become a renegade traitor or initially a career opportunist. How Pugacheva sang there, who is the "real colonel", time will tell. I also believe and hope that a renewed Soviet Union will be restored and that power will be held by the people.
      5. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 23 May 2021 10: 53
        +2
        "On May 24, 1940, he gave an order to the German tank divisions advancing along the coast of the English Channel to stop the offensive at the line of the Aa Canal and to pull back the units," ////
        ----
        Hitler did not want tanks - his main striking force - to come under fire
        guns of British ships. So the tanks were taken to a safe distance.
  2. avia12005
    avia12005 21 May 2021 05: 15
    +1
    We must learn from the British and the Germans how to fill up with corpses.
    1. Revolver
      Revolver 21 May 2021 05: 45
      -9
      Quote: avia12005
      We must learn from the British and the Germans how to fill up with corpses.

      Next to Zhukov, they are children fighting in the sandbox. Under Rzhev, the count of corpses was roughly in the hundreds of thousands, and according to some attempts at counting it exceeded a million, but it has not been counted yet, and it is unlikely that they will be able to. And all that many families received is a piece of paper "missing". So, at the very least, let's be silent for a minute in their memory.
      1. Lech from Android.
        Lech from Android. 21 May 2021 05: 58
        0
        No blah blah about Zhukov ... in the battle for the heights at the Somme, the British and French laid mountains of the corpses of their soldiers for taking the heights.
        There was a meat grinder the same as Rzhevskaya.
        1. Revolver
          Revolver 21 May 2021 06: 49
          +2
          Yes, and about the same under Verdun. By the way, the French were commanded there by the notorious Pétain, who then somehow announced that if he knew how this battle would end, before it began, he would have surrendered. But he did not capitulate and received a marshal's baton for that massacre. So yes, the butcher is also the same. But then, having received the whole of France in the team, he did not hesitate to capitulate.
          1. Andrey VOV
            Andrey VOV 21 May 2021 08: 08
            +5
            Enough to tell stories about Zhukov the butcher and millions of corpses in the Izhevsk operations, the archives on these operations have already been declassified and the numbers are clear
            1. Revolver
              Revolver 21 May 2021 09: 01
              +1
              Quote: Andrey VOV
              millions of corpses in Izhevsk operations

              And this was where and when?
            2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
              Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 21 May 2021 09: 11
              +7
              Quote: Andrey VOV
              and millions of corpses in Izhevsk operations

              Well ... the damned Hitler has already reached Izhevsk ...
              1. Andrey VOV
                Andrey VOV 21 May 2021 10: 04
                +2
                I beg your pardon, I wrote the damn t9 on the phone ... of course the Rzhevskys ... and probably all adults here, understand where the typo is, and where is ignorance, how would it be
                1. The comment was deleted.
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 21 May 2021 14: 01
                    +1
                    ... local Russophobes are Jews, ...

                    Colonel-General David Abramovich Dragunsky is a Jew. Do you think he bought his two gold stars of the Hero at the Odessa "Privoz"?

                    Unfortunately, I can only stick in one minus.
                    1. Konnick
                      Konnick 21 May 2021 14: 19
                      +1
                      Colonel General David Abramovich Dragunsky - Jew

                      Is it true that Dragunsky told Stalin that if he ordered, he would go to Israel as Minister of Defense?
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish 21 May 2021 14: 38
                        +3
                        I have not heard about this story, but the fact that one of the companies of the first Israeli tank battalion was staffed with Russian tankers is for sure.
                    2. The comment was deleted.
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish 21 May 2021 14: 36
                        +1
                        And what does the Nagan and the Paragraph have to do with the Jews? laughing
                        Or do you think that if people tell the truth, albeit unpleasant, they automatically become "Jewish Russophobes"? From what dense swamp did you crawl out, comradeSSCH?
                      2. The comment was deleted.
                  2. chenia
                    chenia 21 May 2021 17: 34
                    +1
                    Quote: Sea Cat
                    Colonel-General David Abramovich Dragunsky is a Jew.


                    This is one of the best Russian generals, and at the same time the main anti-Zionist.
                    NOT?
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 21 May 2021 17: 53
                      0
                      The question is not for me, I have never been interested in the political orientation of war heroes.
      2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 21 May 2021 09: 19
        +6
        Quote: Lech from Android.
        in the battle for the heights of the Somme, the British and French laid mountains of the corpses of their soldiers for the capture of the heights.

        In the first war? That is why the ghost of these hecatombs haunted the Anglo-French throughout the second war. In Churchill's eyes, the bloody boys jumped so hard that he resisted the landing in Normandy to the last. But in our country some degenerates proudly brandish the seven-digit figure of the Red Army's losses and threaten to "repeat" it.
        1. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh 23 May 2021 11: 01
          +2
          Churchill personally participated as a cavalryman in four wars and knew firsthand
          what is loss.
          The British conducted a test landing to assess the capabilities of the amphibious assault
          and realized that the "freebie" will not work. Therefore, the allies waited for the accumulation of
          million soldiers
          for disembarkation with all suitable equipment.
          But then they landed this million soldiers in a month without any special losses.
    2. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 21 May 2021 11: 17
      +4
      Quote: Nagan
      Next to Zhukov, they are children fighting in the sandbox. Under Rzhev, the count of corpses was roughly in the hundreds of thousands, and according to some attempts of counting it exceeded a million, but it has not been calculated yet, and it is unlikely that they will be able to.

      Then this was happening not only near Rzhev. Remember how at Stalingrad in the northern direction three armies tried several times to break through the defenses of one corps. And rolled back as a result to the original ones.
      And it's not just the commanders. The problem was in the training of all the armed forces in general. When the front commander gives an order to attack, he means that his subordinates at all levels will carry it out and plan their actions at least within the framework of the Regulations.
      But in fact, it turns out that they scored for reconnaissance, smeared artillery throughout the entire strip, instead of bypassing and maneuvering, frontal blows, they forgot about the flanks long ago and firmly, taking the enemy's positions, they are not fixed on them and retreat to the initial ones at the first counter-attack, interaction their heavy weapons are not even at the battalion level, the infantry does not fire from personal weapons (consumption is 3-4 cartridges per rifle per day), the infantry does not follow the tanks, the tanks are on fire, and the infantry continues the attack the next day without tanks.
      The result is that the German defense is still worth it despite the use of 305 mm howitzers and heavy tanks.
      1. Revolver
        Revolver 21 May 2021 19: 34
        0
        Quote: Alexey RA
        And it's not just the commanders. The problem was in the training of all the armed forces in general.
        Quite right. But how to evaluate the actions of the commander, who, instead of figuring out what went wrong and why, stupidly throws more and more reserves into the meat grinder until everything is worn off?
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 24 May 2021 10: 29
          0
          Quote: Nagan
          But how to evaluate the actions of the commander, who, instead of figuring out what went wrong and why, stupidly throws more and more reserves into the meat grinder until everything is worn off?

          Are you talking about Paulus? wink
  • antivirus
    antivirus 21 May 2021 06: 00
    -3
    not said about Enigma - read the plans of the Germans.
    The WB fleet was afraid for itself (n \ boats), the land ship fought for its own, separately .. the raskaryaka turned out.
    1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 21 May 2021 08: 06
      +5
      Quote: antivirus
      not said about Enigma - read the plans of the Germans.

      they began to read only from July, and not immediately after the capture of U-110 and Munich in early May.
      1. antivirus
        antivirus 21 May 2021 10: 06
        -1
        I have read it for a long time - they knew about the landing, supposedly the decoding of the Enigma gave results, they met on a tip.
        - and the brits acted so weakly. foreign land does not warm on hot stones.
  • Mikhail Ya2
    Mikhail Ya2 21 May 2021 06: 07
    +3
    You read and involuntarily feel the author's sympathy for the Germans. And it is strange to use the word "allies" in relation to the British in an article about the events of May 1941. At that time, the allies of the USSR were the Nazis and fascists. In my opinion, this is a distortion of history belay
    1. Konnick
      Konnick 21 May 2021 07: 38
      +2
      You read and involuntarily feel the author's sympathy for the Germans

      On the contrary, most of the articles were originally written by the British to justify the failed defense of Cyprus. And the author, using numerous articles, repeats the same subjective approach .... Yes, Hitler was outraged by the losses that occurred on the first day during the landing, but Churchill was much more outraged, so the British generals began to take the Airborne Forces more seriously and created their own airborne units.
    2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 21 May 2021 08: 39
      +6
      Quote: Mikhail Ya2
      At that time, the allies of the USSR were the Nazis and fascists.

      The Reich and the USSR were not any allies, do not distort. Or did I miss something and the Union joined the Axis in November 1940 ??
      Quote: Mikhail Ya2
      And it is strange to use the word "allies" in relation to the British in an article about the events of May 1941.

      Why so? Actually, the term "allies" did not appear in 1941 and regardless of the USSR.
      Quote: Mikhail Ya2
      In my opinion, this is a distortion of history

      So do not distort.
      1. A1845
        A1845 21 May 2021 10: 09
        0
        Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        The Reich and the USSR were not any allies, do not distort

        right, there was no union
        was the SOVIET-GERMAN TREATY OF FRIENDSHIP AND BORDER 1939 concluded on September 28 in Moscow.
        1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 21 May 2021 10: 23
          +1
          Quote: A1845
          was the SOVIET-GERMAN TREATY OF FRIENDSHIP AND BORDER 1939 concluded on September 28 in Moscow.

          it does not do the USSR and the Reich allies.
    3. Gvardeetz77
      Gvardeetz77 21 May 2021 11: 37
      +1
      Why is it strange? Greece and Great Britain were allies in World War II, what does it have to do with, in the context of this article, allied / hostile / neutral, or what other relations between the USSR and Great Britain?
    4. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 21 May 2021 13: 39
      +2
      Quote: Mikhail Ya2
      And it is strange to use the word "allies" in relation to the British in an article about the events of May 1941.

      With regard to WWII, "Allies" (in the original Allies, Allied Powers) is the designation of a group of countries allied in the fight against the Axis. This term was widely used already in 1940.
    5. Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko
      Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko 22 May 2021 21: 33
      0
      We were not allies of Nazi Germany, but temporary fellow travelers. Lord, put yourself in Stalin's place - what would you do in August 1939? Stalin did not make a mistake then. Stalin's miscalculation was already later, in 1940 and even in 1941, but again, information was given to him by various intelligence structures. They misled him. And they themselves got confused at the same time. That's why we got that black day on June 22, 1941 ...
    6. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 23 May 2021 11: 07
      +2

      "You read and involuntarily feel the author's sympathy for the Germans." ////

      This is not surprising.
      Samsonov is a convinced Germanophile and an equally convinced Anglophobe.

      Regarding that time, my father told me that the entire Soviet press,
      headed by the newspaper Pravda, she enthusiastically talked about the successes of the German army
      against the "British imperialists". And they wrote about the bombing of London with unconcealed
      pleasure.
      Readers of Pravda 1939-early 41 immediately understood who was a friend and who was an enemy. As well as Samsonov's readers.
      1. Rt-xnumx
        Rt-xnumx 23 May 2021 13: 41
        0
        Dear Alexey (Namesake!)

        Here I am reading your comments. And I have the impression that you are helping us.
        How to do it right in the army.

        I have the impression that you are a Russian person to the core.
        For some reason it seems so to me.
  • Olgovich
    Olgovich 21 May 2021 06: 48
    +4
    Yes, the British had a real chance to destroy the landing, they lacked skill and determination ...

    And the operation in the Balkans was just an unpleasant delay for him. As a result, the opportunities opened by the capture of Greece and Crete were not used, as were the first successes of Rommel in North Africa.
    Who will climb into Africa with all his might, leaving behind the huge unbroken USSR?
    1. tihonmarine
      tihonmarine 21 May 2021 10: 07
      +4
      Quote: Olgovich
      Who will climb into Africa with all his might, leaving behind the huge unbroken USSR?

      Having started the Balkan operation in March 1941, and then the capture of Crete, it was necessary to complete the matter to the end, and not to attack the USSR. As a result, the Balkan-Mediterranean operation, won in a short time, turned out to be a loss in the end. The "Bavarian corporal" did not strengthen the southern rear.
      1. Sunstorm
        Sunstorm 22 May 2021 17: 06
        0
        Quote: tihonmarine
        Quote: Olgovich
        Who will climb into Africa with all his might, leaving behind the huge unbroken USSR?

        Having started the Balkan operation in March 1941, and then the capture of Crete, it was necessary to complete the matter to the end, and not to attack the USSR. As a result, the Balkan-Mediterranean operation, won in a short time, turned out to be a loss in the end. The "Bavarian corporal" did not strengthen the southern rear.

        Until the end is a canal disembarkation. However, there was no strength for her. And taking control of the Mediterranean ... of course it would be good. But even Gibraltar was not taken.
  • Unknown
    Unknown 21 May 2021 07: 09
    +6
    The losses of the Airborne Forces made such a depressing impression on Hitler that he forbade such operations in the future. The Maltese operation was finally abandoned ... This bike, launched after the war by the British to hide their failure in the defense of Crete, still walks. Fighting at the forefront of the Wehrmacht attacks, fighting most often successfully, the German Airborne Forces suffered extremely high losses. If during the assault on Fort Eben-Emael in the Granite group there were only 6 killed and 20 wounded (for 58 killed and 300 wounded Belgians), then 70 out of 28 paratroopers died during the landing in Norway, and 32 British were taken prisoner. In the operation against Holland under the fire of anti-aircraft guns and fighter units, the 7th and 22nd divisions suffered enormous losses: in 8 days - 3700 dead and 2500 wounded. An erroneous landing directly over enemy positions, an unsuccessful wind direction, enemy fire when searching for containers with weapons - the life of a German paratrooper was short.
    Hitler was never stopped by great losses before the intended targets. So, in October 43rd, the entire 1st Airborne Division - 6 soldiers with weapons, equipment and equipment - on 000 trains was redeployed to Russia. On 75/1.06.1944/2, the remnants of the once formidable formation, together with the reinforcements received already at the front, returned back to the Reich in XNUMX trains.
    On the Eastern Front, the former heroes of Narvik and Crete quickly lost their chic
    and suffered heavy losses. Nevertheless, they continued to be kept on the Soviet-German front. Or let's take the division ss ,, Dead ,, head, which was almost completely knocked out near Demyansk. Hitler, however, did not forbid the use of ss troops in the east, because they are suffering heavy losses, by no means there are more of them there. The success of the Airborne Forces is only for surprise, if it is not, things take a different turn. Your jamb in the defense of the island, having gathered there a combined hodgepodge, from New Zealanders Greeks, etc., the Anglicos are trying to cover up with fables about the great losses of the Germans, and supposedly by Hitler's personal order.
    1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 21 May 2021 09: 04
      +5
      Quote: Unknown
      So, in October 43rd, the entire 1st Airborne Division

      The 1st traffic police never fought on the Eastern Front, only in Italy.
      In November 43rd, the 2nd traffic police was transferred from Italy to Zhitomir.
      1. Konnick
        Konnick 21 May 2021 14: 23
        +1
        The 1st traffic police never fought on the Eastern Front, only in Italy.
        In November 43rd, the 2nd traffic police was transferred from Italy near Zhytomyr

        There, and the comment will be blown off the Internet, one will write nonsense and everyone believes.
        1. Unknown
          Unknown 21 May 2021 17: 24
          0
          Quote: Konnick
          There, and the comment will be blown off the Internet, one will write nonsense and everyone believes

          No need to throw a tantrum. Nobody got into someone else's pocket. The information was taken from here http://forum.bestway.com.ua/index.php? Threads / pexota-zeljonye-djavoly-germanija.4572 /. The information turned out to be incorrect, what happens.
    2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 21 May 2021 09: 39
      +1
      Quote: Unknown
      The success of the Airborne Forces is only for surprise, if it is not there, things take a different turn

      Quite right, this is exactly what Hitler said to Student when presenting him with the Knight's Cross for Crete on 19 July. The shocked Student considered it a joke, since Barbarossa was supposed to become the swan song of the Falshirmagers. However, if you read the Soviet summaries of the beginning of the war, then paratroopers fell from the sky in hundreds)))
      1. Unknown
        Unknown 21 May 2021 13: 49
        0
        Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.

        The 1st traffic police never fought on the Eastern Front, only in Italy.
        In November 43rd, the 2nd traffic police was transferred from Italy to Zhitomir.

        Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        However, if you read the Soviet summaries of the beginning of the war, then paratroopers fell from the sky in hundreds

        Thank you for correcting, writing incorrectly. On September 24, 1941, the 7th Air Division received an order to be sent to the Eastern Front, near Leningrad.

        On September 29, 1941, two regiments (1st and 3rd) divisions occupied a sector of the front in the Neva region (Nevsky Pyatachok). These regiments participated in hostilities (as infantry) until mid-December, when they were sent to rest in Germany. Since November 2, the 1941nd regiment of the division fought (also as an infantry) to the south, in the Volkhov area, and was sent to rest in June 1942.

        In October 1942, the division was again sent as infantry to the Eastern Front, in the Rzhev area. After heavy fighting, the division was again withdrawn to the rear (to France) in April 1943, and on May 1, 1943, it was reorganized into the 1st parachute division. Yes, in the first days of the war, rumors about German landings poured in like peas. Well, let's be lenient to our grandfathers. This is now, we can learn from various sources, almost everything about the composition, application, and losses of different parts. And then? Nazi Germany did not publish secret data, about its losses, for example, for the same Crete, there were no idiots in the OKW from birth. The whole world knew that the German Airborne Forces had successfully taken the island. Therefore, the sudden appearance in the rear of the Wehrmacht's mobile formations was taken for a landing. The grounds were, to fall off the landing. Plus all sorts of saboteurs, pilots from downed planes, everything was taken for a landing out of fear. Simonov wrote well about this on different days of the war ... All three of us were escorted to the regiment headquarters. A very tall man got up from the trench and asked who we were. We said that the correspondents. It was so dark that the faces could not be seen.

        - what are the correspondents? He shouted. - What correspondents can be here at two in the morning? Who comes to me at two in the morning? Who sent you? So I will put you on the ground now, and you will lie until dawn. I do not know your personalities.

        We said that the division commissioner sent us to him.

        “But I’ll put you before dawn and report to the Commissioner in the morning so that he doesn’t send me strangers at night to the regiment’s location.”

        At first, the bereaved attorney finally cast a voice:

        - Comrade Colonel, this is me, Mironov, from the political department of the division. Well you know me.

        “Yes, I know you,” said the colonel. - I know. That’s the only reason I’m not putting them down until dawn. Judge for yourself, - suddenly softening, he turned to us. - Judge for yourself, comrade, correspondents. Do you know what the position is? You have to be strict. I'm already tired of all the saboteurs, saboteurs around. I do not want even a rumor about saboteurs in my regiment's disposition. I do not recognize them. If you are guarded correctly, there can be no saboteurs. Come to the dugout, there your documents will be checked, and then we'll talk. When the units are in order and decisive, firm leadership, then there are no rumors. Well, the Airborne Forces, have always been a scarecrow for the command of different countries. After the Vyazemsk airborne operation, any appearance of the Red Army units in the rear irritated the command of the Center group, they were taken for another landing. all the allied command. So, Operation Mercury cannot be considered a failure.
    3. tihonmarine
      tihonmarine 21 May 2021 10: 01
      +1
      Quote: Unknown
      Hitler did not prohibit the use of ss troops in the east, because they are suffering heavy losses, there are by no means more of them there.

      That's right, Hitler did not care about the big losses, but for what reason he did not begin the assault on Malta from the coast when the British Air Force and Navy left Malta. It was high time to finish off the British.
  • Avior
    Avior 21 May 2021 07: 49
    +5
    ... It was logical to build on this success and conduct the Maltese operation. Then to land a strike force in Syria and Lebanon, from there to launch an offensive in Iraq, restoring a friendly regime there, and in Palestine. Counter strikes from Libya and Syria to crush the enemy in Egypt. Further, it was possible to take control of the entire Near and Middle East. Threaten British India. This put Britain on the brink of defeat.

    Fiction from an alternate reality. The success of the Cretan operation was achieved primarily due to the actions of German aviation in the absence of opposition from the British due to the peculiarities of the geographical position of Crete, and even though the losses of the paratroopers were large, this is a local success due to local characteristics.
    And the author is trying to draw far-reaching conclusions from this
    1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 21 May 2021 08: 29
      +4
      Quote: Avior
      And the author is trying to draw far-reaching conclusions from this


      From this Samson's summary, I draw the following conclusion: if Hitler had not attacked the USSR, he would have been a good guy, the father of a new Europe and a useful partner. Wise comrade Stalin, without shedding a single drop of the blood of a Soviet soldier, with the hands of the Reich would have conquered his eventual enemy No. 1. And there, you see, while the Germans stormed Calcutta and threw landings on Ceylon, while the Zoldates would die of malaria, expired canned food and Sikh bullets, Comrade Stalin would have seized Eastern Europe with a couple of three Liberation campaigns. Well, something like that, apparently.
      1. Avior
        Avior 21 May 2021 08: 37
        +3
        yes, something like that can be seen from him.
        He also slips that Hitler was tricked into going to war with us.
        Blind Hitler did not see the peculiarities of the hostilities in the war with Finland, so Canaris opened his eyes to him.
        1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 21 May 2021 08: 46
          +5
          Quote: Avior
          He also slips that Hitler was tricked into going to war with us.

          Yes! The Canterbury ghost of a spoiling Englishwoman rattles with chains and a chamber pot in every article of this historical libelist. And to call the Wehrmacht's campaign to India "logical" .... Samsonov, apparently, once worked as a watchman in the dormitory of the Faculty of History of the Pedagogical University somewhere in the outback?
      2. A1845
        A1845 21 May 2021 10: 14
        +3
        Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Comrade Stalin would take over Eastern Europe with a couple of three Liberation campaigns. Well, something like that, apparently.

        exactly like in the Rezunovsky icebreaker
  • tihonmarine
    tihonmarine 21 May 2021 09: 47
    +2
    The losses of the Airborne Forces made such a depressing impression on Hitler that he forbade such operations in the future. The Maltese operation was finally abandoned.
    Here Hitler's stubbornness is incomprehensible, the same as he showed in Calais. At the same time, in April 1942, Malta was brought to its knees by the Luftwaffe. "From 20.03.1942/28.04.1942/6557230 to 1940/XNUMX/XNUMX, XNUMX kg of bombs were dropped on Malta, this is as much as the peak of the" Battle of England "in September XNUMX. Airfields of Malta were turned into a desert, docks and wharves into ruins. The Air Force and Navy were withdrawn to Alexandria . "
    Raeder and Kesselring persuaded Hitler to continue the ground operation of Malta, which was defended by 30 British, the supply to Malta was practically cut off by the Luftwaffe. But Hitler replied, "Someday we'll take Malta, then."
    Mussolini said "Until we take Malta, I will not take a step."
    Although Malta is 25 times smaller than Crete, it was strategically more important, since convoys from Italy to Africa made a huge detour, and the Royal Navy knew how to fight, drowning the transport Neptunia, Oceania, Oriana in September 1941 - perished 5000. Hitler's ambitions for the USSR Deprived Germany of a reliable rear in the Mediterranean and North Africa.
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 21 May 2021 13: 43
      +1
      Quote: tihonmarine
      Here Hitler's stubbornness is incomprehensible, the same as he showed in Calais. At the same time, in April 1942, Malta was brought to its knees by the Luftwaffe. "From 20.03.1942/28.04.1942/6557230 to 1940/XNUMX/XNUMX, XNUMX kg of bombs were dropped on Malta, this is as much as the peak of the" Battle of England "in September XNUMX. Airfields of Malta were turned into a desert, docks and wharves into ruins. The Air Force and Navy were withdrawn to Alexandria . "
      Raeder and Kesselring persuaded Hitler to continue the ground operation of Malta, which was defended by 30 British, the supply to Malta was practically cut off by the Luftwaffe. But Hitler replied, "Someday we'll take Malta, then."

      The British need to award Rommel with the Saving Malta Medal. smile
      For it was he, despite all the objections of Kesselring, who convinced Hitler that Egypt could be taken without taking Malta. After which the cut off Malta itself will fall.
  • Konnick
    Konnick 21 May 2021 09: 54
    +2
    So, in October 43rd, the entire 1st Airborne Division - 6 soldiers with weapons, equipment and equipment - on 000 trains was redeployed to Russia. On 75/1.06.1944/2, the remnants of the once formidable formation, together with the reinforcements received already at the front, returned back to the Reich in XNUMX trains.


    Here, some shine with knowledge from the Internet, presenting entire articles as their comments.

    Already on April 6, 1943, the remnants of the 7th aviation arrived in France, in the city of Caen to form the 1st parachute division, since then they have not appeared on the eastern front.
    Replication of unverified myths again. Especially striking is the "75 compositions". For comparison - the 78th division of Beloborodov, numbering 14 thousand with artillery and tanks, was transferred to Moscow in 36 echelons. And under Volkhov in the 41st, only two regiments of the 7th Air Division were sent, on September 24 an order was received, and on September 29 they were already at the front. In October 42, these regiments were transferred to Rzhev, and in April they were in France.
  • Engineer
    Engineer 21 May 2021 11: 20
    +6
    The confrontation between the Luftwaffe and the KF remained behind the scenes. The British stubbornly rescued people even from unequipped areas, but after May 31, they broke down too - the evacuation was stopped due to the risk of losing even more ships. 11000 soldiers still in the evacuation areas were captured.
    The results were best summed up by Goncharov:
    https://warspot.ru/11061-bitva-za-krit-begstvo-britantsev

    The results of the battle for Crete are most clearly illustrated by simple numbers. In total, by 20 May 1941, there were 32 British and about 000 Greek soldiers in Crete; about a thousand more British were transferred to the island after the outbreak of fighting. On the German side, a total of 10 people were involved in the operation, of which only 000 people were delivered by air to the island, as well as 23 guns and mortars, 464 motorcycles, 15 landing containers with equipment and 750 tons of various cargo. Thus, the Germans involved in the operation half the number of soldiers, and achieved a turning point when the enemy's superiority was still threefold.


    In addition, I will note that at the disposal of the British were the Australians and New Zealanders, who, along with the Canadians, were the best soldiers of the empire. This is the role of the senior and senior command personnel, which among the British was perhaps the worst of all the great powers in the 20th century.
    1. Mihaylov
      Mihaylov 21 May 2021 12: 19
      +3
      Quote: Engineer
      11000 soldiers still in the evacuation areas were captured.

      If the British had organized the evacuation a little better and a little more timely, they could have safely evacuated everyone, it was necessary to make the most of the ports on the northern coast, where large ships could enter. And they decided to carry out the main evacuation from the southern coast, where there are no such ports and the ships could not come close, they took them by boat, for example, in the same Sfakia, as a result, naturally, they did not have time to take everyone out. This is, of course, an afterthought, but still ...
      This is the role of senior and senior command personnel, which the British had almost the worst of all the great powers in the 20th century.

      I agree, there are no questions to the soldiers and ordinary officers, but to the command staff - there are. In Evelyn Waugh's The Armed Men trilogy, the second volume is devoted to the events in Crete. It is certainly a work of art, but very atmospheric. hi
      1. Engineer
        Engineer 21 May 2021 13: 16
        +4
        Hardly any.
        On the north coast. Heraklion was captured on May 30th. Another 28-29 people were taken out from there. Rethymnon and Souda Bay were captured even earlier. Bragadin arrived at Souda Bay on May 28 in Italian TKA. The east of the island remained, but I don’t know what would be suitable for evacuation.
        Goncharov claims that the Germans began a gradual withdrawal of aviation from Greece on May 31. And at that moment the British stopped the evacuation. From May 31 to June 1, only the formation was at sea D. Cunningham held back the rest of the forces, fearing losses. Compound D received a minimum of attacks on its way back. Only a pair of 88s drowned Calcutta from the cover group.
        Irony. History in the 20th century recovered all debts from the British, and even with interest.
        1. Mihaylov
          Mihaylov 21 May 2021 13: 52
          +2
          Quote: Engineer
          The east of the island remained, but I don’t know what would be suitable for evacuation.

          There I think Agios Nikolaos (Mirabelo Bay), Sitia, maybe something else, there are ports. But what's true - it's really far there, apparently that's why the British command made a decision - about the southern coast, but there were some pitfalls:
          First, you can only get there through the mountains along narrow gorges. There and now the roads, to put it mildly, are not very wide, but then apparently there were generally donkey paths. These gorges were then littered with weapons and equipment. Secondly, there are no normal ports: the same Hora-Sfakion - a village with several dozen inhabitants and a pier where 2-3 fishing boats can be accommodated. Therefore, people were taken out in boats, the throughput, respectively, was extremely low. The decision to end the evacuation was apparently wrong.
          I read somewhere that the possibilities of evacuation from the northern coast were not fully used, but now I don’t remember.
          In general, this whole story looks a little phantasmagoric: a successful attack by the Germans by weak forces of a significantly stronger enemy!
          I do not know who is to blame, but I think completely - the British command.
          Or the time has really come for the British to repay debts with interest. hi
          1. Engineer
            Engineer 21 May 2021 14: 13
            +3
            As far as I know, a through road along the island appeared only after WWII. A little to the east - 30 km from Heraklion there is Malia. There are at least sandy beaches. But we must look at the tactical situation and which side the Germans were on. As I understand it, the battle broke up into several foci. Maleme - Rethymnon - Heraklion. It is not a fact, for example, that the Maleme group could retreat past the German bridgeheads in Rethymnon and Heraklion. It turns out movement along the bridgeheads that could quickly lead to a rout. The Germans are not British and do not fight while sitting on their ass, as you know.
            In general, this whole story looks a little phantasmagoric.

            Almost all stories are phantasmagoric. Norway, Singapore, El-Ghazala, Burma. It feels like any adventure will work against the British.
            1. Mihaylov
              Mihaylov 21 May 2021 14: 31
              +1
              Quote: Engineer
              As far as I know, a through road along the island appeared only after WWII.

              Kind of like under the "black colonels".
              there is Malia. There are at least sandy beaches.

              The beaches there are good, but I don’t know about the port, in my opinion there is no significant port in Malia, although there is a Minoan palace there, in theory there should be a port.
              Almost all stories are phantasmagoric. Norway, Singapore, El-Ghazala, Burma. It feels like any adventure will work against the British.
              Apparently, it is no coincidence that Evelyn Waugh, like other writers, so mocks the English aristocracy (= high command), presumably they had reason hi
            2. Alexey RA
              Alexey RA 21 May 2021 17: 24
              +1
              Quote: Engineer
              Almost all stories are phantasmagoric. Norway, Singapore, El-Ghazala, Burma. It feels like any adventure will work against the British.

              The battles in Southeast Asia in 1941 and early 1942 are phantasmagoric exactly as long as the British forces are counted according to the numbers on the plates - personnel, guns, tanks, etc.
              And when the British forces in Southeast Asia are considered in detail, it becomes absolutely incomprehensible - how it could have fought for so long at all? There was not only the second, but the last grade - the colonial troops of the secondary theater of operations.
              But not that the regular parts were anything extraordinary.
              Firstly, they lacked weapons (for example, only 1 Indian infantry battalion of 20 was staffed by state), and what was, was by no means the first grade (for example, almost all anti-tank missiles in Malaya were captured Italian 47 mm guns of delirium). In addition, the acquisition of new weapons also meant the reorganization of the unit (the states of the units with the "old" and "new" weapons were noticeably different) with the corresponding tactical retraining. How these perturbations affect the combat effectiveness of the unit is not necessary to say.
              Secondly, the quality of troops also left much to be desired. The unusually rapid growth of the British and Indian armies (in the beginning of 1939 the first was 7, and in the second 4 divisions - by the end of 1941 there were 36 and 15, respectively) led to a shortage of qualified command personnel. This especially affected the Indian parts. The fact is that they, like all units with a low level of education and recruitment initiatives, very much depended on the quality of the officers. With the commander who thoroughly knew their language, customs and needs, these soldiers worked miracles - the trouble was that the best officers were sent to Africa and the Middle East. However, the officers of the "peacetime" level of training was also insufficient due to the fact that combat training was not uniform and to a large extent theoretical. And the soldiers until the widespread introduction at the end of 1942 a single so-called. “Combat training” did not have a standard training system at all - only general directives that the commander of each regiment depot could carry out at his discretion.
              And thirdly, the British troops simply did not know how to fight in the jungle. It sounds surprising, but, for example, in the officer's handbook of the mid-20s, there is no word "jungle" at all, although everything is described from organizing a camp in the mountains to the weight of an 18-pound cannon. In addition, out of 12 conditional brigades, only 2 were in Malaya for more than a year, of which only 1 (12th Indian) was a field unit.

              ... the 17th Indian division consisted of newly formed battalions, half or more of recruits who had undergone only basic individual training, i.e. was actually incapable of combat. And the Australian reinforcements, aimed at replenishing the loss in combat units, in general did not undergo combat training
              ... © Evgeny Pinak
              1. Engineer
                Engineer 21 May 2021 17: 41
                0
                Oops, it turns out that the normal power supply unit was not organized. Who would have thought. That is, they are of the third grade, first of all, because someone did not organize something?
                Fights in Southeast Asia in 1941 and early 1942

                Why so modest? And what was there all 42-43? But for some time now there was the most intelligent British commander of the WWII. That did not prevent him from sleeping through the offensive on Imphal already in 1944.
                Was the Air Force any better? The British did not have victories in air operations against the Yaps right up to the very end of 1943.
                PS The British, fighting for two years in Burma, only learned not to run away in case of outflanking positions. Stilwell's Americans learned to bypass the Japanese in a year.
                The role of land clowns for the Angles has been fixed for a long time and firmly. Even in the First World War, they managed to lose to the Turks on land more than once or twice.
                1. Alexey RA
                  Alexey RA 24 May 2021 10: 44
                  0
                  Quote: Engineer
                  Oops, it turns out that the normal power supply unit was not organized. Who would have thought. That is, they are of the third grade, first of all, because someone did not organize something?

                  Not only. The shortage of weapons, the reorganization of the staff, the shortage of officers and non-commissioned officers, the low level of education of the rank and file — a painfully familiar picture, isn't it.
                  Quote: Engineer
                  Why so modest? And what was there all 42-43?

                  And there was our 1942. There is already some experience, but unjustified self-confidence is still present. One operation "Anakim" is worth it.
                  Quote: Engineer
                  But for some time there was the most intelligent British commander of the WWII. That did not prevent him from sleeping through the offensive on Imphal already in 1944.

                  You will also remember Operation Zipper - landing in Singapore in September 1945, after the official surrender of Japan. smile
                  Despite the fact that the Japanese garrison in Singapore officially surrendered on September 3 and the war with Japan was already over, transports with troops and escort forces still went to sea on September 6 and headed for Singapore, where preparations were underway for the solemn ceremony of signing the surrender.

                  The only spectators of the powerful landing operation were local fishermen, amazed by the spectacle, but not realizing with whom the British were fighting. The landing sites were extremely poorly chosen, although the British landed on an island, the approaches to which they should have known perfectly. The landing itself was so stupid that one Japanese battalion would have been enough to drop a colossal landing into the sea. Even the official British history of the war admits that "under combat conditions, landing would be a nightmare." Without any enemy resistance, many cars and tanks were drowned near the shore, and when an avalanche of equipment and people nevertheless made it to the shore with considerable losses, tanks and vehicles blocked the beaches and were so firmly stuck on the hillsides that it took several days before managed to free the technique. Thus, the operation turned into an embarrassment - the last embarrassment and the last defeat of the British in World War II.
                  © Mozheiko I.V. West wind - clear weather.
    2. tihonmarine
      tihonmarine 21 May 2021 16: 32
      0
      Quote: Engineer
      In addition, I will note that at the disposal of the British were the Australians and New Zealanders, who, along with the Canadians, were the best soldiers of the empire.

      Of the 42 soldiers defending Crete, the New Zealanders were considered the most combat-ready; Major General Bernard Freiberg of New Zealand also commanded all the troops of Crete.
  • Operator
    Operator 21 May 2021 11: 51
    0
    The main striking force in the capture of Crete and the defeat of the British naval group was the dive aviation of the Luftwaffe.
    The idea of ​​massive parachute landings of the Airborne Forces failed both in the Wehrmacht (1941 in Crete), and in the Red Army (1943 on the Dnieper) and among the British-American allies (1944 in Normandy). The main reasons are the multiple difference in the number of paratroopers and their opponents, the uncontrollable situation with the landing sites (wind), the frankly weak composition of the paratroopers' weapons and the lack of ammunition replenishment.
    The only rational means for mass airborne assault behind enemy lines are helicopters.
    1. Pilat2009
      Pilat2009 21 May 2021 12: 45
      +1
      Quote: Operator
      The main reasons are the multiple difference in the number of paratroopers and their opponents, the uncontrollable situation with the landing sites (wind), the frankly weak composition of the paratroopers' weapons and the lack of ammunition replenishment

      How do the current Airborne Forces look in this light?
      1. Operator
        Operator 21 May 2021 14: 19
        -6
        The Russian ones are worse than in 1943 (the Il-76 is knocked out of a slingshot over enemy territory), the American ones are chocolate-covered (they have dozens of transport helicopters as part of the Airborne Division).
    2. Catfish
      Catfish 21 May 2021 14: 24
      +1
      ... the defeat of the British naval group was the dive aviation of the Luftwaffe.

      Do not specify, the sinking of how many British ships ended this "defeat"?
      1. Alf
        Alf 21 May 2021 19: 23
        +1
        Quote: Sea Cat
        ... the defeat of the British naval group was the dive aviation of the Luftwaffe.

        Do not specify, the sinking of how many British ships ended this "defeat"?

        https://warspot.ru/10799-bitva-za-krit-shvatka-na-more
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 21 May 2021 19: 45
          +1
          Thank you, Vasily. hi As a matter of fact, I am aware that the British losses in sunken and damaged ships do not correspond to the definition of "defeat" in any way.
          1. Alf
            Alf 21 May 2021 20: 14
            +1
            Quote: Sea Cat
            Thank you, Vasily.

            Yes, not at all!
            Quote: Sea Cat
            just the loss of the British in sunken and damaged ships does not correspond to the definition of "defeat".

            The fact is that for the first time the British were convinced in their own skin how vulnerable the fleet near the coast, and even without an "umbrella".
            They did not understand the hint in Dunkirk ...
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 21 May 2021 20: 22
              +1
              There was already a precedent, it happened on December 10, 1941 in the South China Sea, the Japanese aircraft sank the battleship Prince of Wales and the battle cruiser Ripals, just in the absence of an "air umbrella". The British could draw conclusions from this, but ... request
              1. Alf
                Alf 21 May 2021 20: 26
                +1
                Quote: Sea Cat
                The British could draw conclusions from this, but ...

                So while the information from Europe to the Asian Command has reached the limit, while they have comprehended, and British conservatism is still .. laughingAnd what cover something? Bulls? So Buffalo did not dance against Japanese cars. Yes, and there were those Buffaloes in Asia, the cat cried ...
                And when you consider that Buffalo was the only British aircraft with a normal range ...
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 21 May 2021 20: 29
                  0
                  As someone from the United States wrote: "It's good when the country has a lot of traditions, but it's bad when there is little money." laughing
                  1. Alf
                    Alf 21 May 2021 20: 32
                    +1
                    Quote: Sea Cat
                    As someone from the United States wrote: "It's good when the country has a lot of traditions, but it's bad when there is little money." laughing

                    Tradition is good, little money is bad, but solvable, but if the lack of a brain ... this is just something fatal.
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 21 May 2021 20: 44
                      +1
                      It is impossible not to agree with this. drinks
  • iouris
    iouris 21 May 2021 12: 32
    +2
    Conclusion: Airborne forces - troops of one, maximum, two successful operations. And even then, if you're lucky. This means that the assessment of the effectiveness of the possibility of using airborne forces in such operations must be very careful. If the Germans could have taken Belgium without the Airborne Forces, then Crete is unlikely.
  • smaug78
    smaug78 21 May 2021 13: 04
    +1
    Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    Liberation campaigns would have seized control of Eastern Europe. Well, something like that, apparently.
    and it's strange that Samsonov / Frolov doesn't like Suvorov ...
  • NF68
    NF68 21 May 2021 16: 26
    0
    On the one hand, Germany did not have enough resources for everything at once. On the other hand, Hitler did not want to cross the road of his ally Mussolini.
  • Hellene
    Hellene 21 May 2021 17: 19
    0
    After reading this article, I unfortunately want to note the neglect or ignorance of the author here, at least to hint at the main reason for the large losses of the Nazi occupants in the Cretan battle and the impact of the outcome of this operation on the further strategic plans of the Wehrmacht in the Mediterranean. This is the great resistance of the Cretan people despite the already surrender of the Greek government. This people, among whom old men, women and children stood up and whatever anyone wanted - with old rifles, axes, knives and sticks, they chased and beat paratroopers from the moment they set foot on the land of Crete. Of course, the Cretan people subsequently paid a heavy price for their fierce resistance to the fascist invaders. The Germans, in response, indulged in the destruction of housing and mass executions of civilians. This is precisely the fact that Hitler did not foresee during the preparation of the operation to seize the island of Crete.
    In general, it would be very useful for readers of VO articles of history concerning Greece and the resistance of its people to WWII, if the authors concerning these topics did not ignore the role of this country in the outcome of WWII, and what it paid after the future on the side of the winners.
    The Greeks won their first victory, fighting 7 months against fascism with weapons of the 19th century and the First World War. Read what the leaders of the great powers said then and how they sold Greece after the war.
    And at present, the European Union, led by the descendants of the German fascists, is completing this plan and taking revenge on Greece for its resistance.
    1. iouris
      iouris 21 May 2021 18: 18
      0
      Well, this is not entirely true, for Crete in fact was and is a British military base.
      1. Hellene
        Hellene 24 May 2021 20: 19
        0
        Perhaps you would not accidentally confuse Crete with Cyprus?
    2. Pilat2009
      Pilat2009 22 May 2021 08: 56
      -1
      Quote: Ellen
      And at present, the European Union, led by the descendants of the German fascists, is completing this plan and taking revenge on Greece for its resistance.

      Do not write nonsense. After 70 years they remembered the Greek resistance and began to take revenge. And where was Greece these 70 years?
      1. Hellene
        Hellene 24 May 2021 20: 12
        0
        Well, okay, but who is doing this nonsense here can be easily assessed. And by the way, for your knowledge of Greek history of the last 70 years, I will preliminarily give you a round two. Hello
        1. Pilat2009
          Pilat2009 25 May 2021 17: 01
          0
          Quote: Ellen
          Well, okay, but who is doing this nonsense here can be easily assessed. And by the way, for your knowledge of Greek history of the last 70 years, I will preliminarily give you a round two. Hello

          PFFF. I have everything in order with the history, unlike brothers-Bulgarians, Romanians and other liberated
  • smaug78
    smaug78 23 May 2021 13: 21
    -1
    Quote: Per se.
    akova, but with the conclusions of specific authors.

    Amazing. That is, false facts or events are not scary. The main thing is the conclusions ...
  • Olezhek
    Olezhek 24 May 2021 06: 17
    0
    Thank you for the article!

    The losses of the Airborne Forces made such a depressing impression on Hitler that he forbade such operations in the future.


    But it seems to me that it was a mistake.
    Hitler was all one fighting a very big war ...
    The result justified the loss.