Military Review

Tokamak T-15MD. New opportunities for Russian and world science

70

The Kurchatov Institute performed the physical launch of a deeply modernized hybrid thermonuclear reactor T-15MD. The experimental setup is intended for research and development of promising technologies, which can then be used in domestic and international projects.


Solemn ceremony


The launch of the mega-installation T-15MD, built at the NRC "Kurchatov Institute", took place on May 18. In view of the high importance of this project, the launch was carried out as part of a solemn ceremony with the participation of Prime Minister Mikhail Mishustin, Minister of Education and Science Valery Falkov and other officials. The guests were entrusted with pressing the symbolic start button.

According to the prime minister, the T-15MD reactor is evidence of the high technological level of our country. Its launch was a huge event not only for Russia, but for the whole world. Also M. Mishustin noted that the creation of a new reliable and powerful source of energy will contribute to the further development of a lot of industries.


President of the Kurchatov Institute Mikhail Kovalchuk said that Russian science is capable of further researching thermonuclear energy. This requires the modernization of the research and production base. In the past, our country was able to implement such projects without foreign assistance, independently producing all the necessary products and components.

The leadership of the international thermonuclear project ITER watched the launch of the T-15MD via video link. CEO Bernard Bigot thanked the Russian government for the great help from our ITER unit. The Russian industry, in turn, received gratitude for the high quality of technologies implemented in the common project.

After deep modernization


The T-15 toroidal plasma magnetic confinement facility was built at the Kurchatov Institute in the late 10s. In its manufacture, the existing designs of the T-1988M reactor were used. Since 15, various plasma confinement experiments have been carried out on the new T-XNUMX facility. At that time, the Soviet installation was one of the largest and most powerful in the world.


Despite all the difficulties of that period, regular research was carried out until the mid-nineties. In 1996-98. the mega-unit T-15 underwent the first modernization. The design of the reactor was finalized, and the program for future research was also adjusted. Now the installation was planned to be used to test solutions and ideas proposed for implementation in the international project ITER.

In 2012, the T-15 reactor was temporarily decommissioned in connection with plans for a deep modernization. As part of this project, the tokamak was supposed to receive a new electromagnetic system, a new vacuum chamber, etc. The increased energy requirements were to be met by a new power supply system. In fact, it was about a radical restructuring of the existing installation with the replacement of all key systems.

The main modernization of the reactor under the T-15MD project was completed last year, after which commissioning work began. Recently, the update process was successfully completed - and a physical launch took place. At the same time, the process of developing the scientific and technical base does not stop. In April it became known that in 2021-24. the existing tokamak will be supplemented with new systems for various purposes.


These measures will help shape the final look of the T-15MD mega-launcher and get all the necessary capabilities. Full commissioning, allowing for all the necessary experiments, will take place in 2024.

New guidelines


During the modernization, the T-15MD reactor received a number of new systems, but its general architecture and operating principles did not undergo fundamental changes. As before, the tokamak must create and maintain a plasma filament using a magnetic field. The reactor forms a filament with an aspect ratio of 2,2 and a plasma current of 2 MA in a magnetic field of 2 T. Continuous operation duration - up to 30 s.

Modernization 2021-24 will take place in two stages. As part of the first, three fast atom injectors with a total power of 15 MW and five 6 MW gyrotrons will be installed on the T-5MD. Then, a system of lower hybrid heating and maintaining the plasma current will be introduced, as well as an ion-cyclotron heating system with a capacity of 4 and 6 MW, respectively.


As a result of the modernization, the reactor became hybrid. In special compartments in the so-called. the blanket is proposed to place nuclear fuel - thorium-232 is used as it. During the operation of the reactor, the fuel must delay the high-energy neutron flux emanating from the cord. In this case, thorium-232 is transmuted into uranium-233.

The resulting isotope can be used as fuel for nuclear power plants. In this role, it is not inferior to traditional uranium-235, but it compares favorably with a shorter half-life of waste. Additional advantages are associated with the fact that thorium is more abundant in the earth's crust and is significantly cheaper than uranium.

In theory, a hybrid tokamak can also be used to transmute high-level waste. Uranium-238 or other components of spent nuclear fuel can be converted to other isotopes, incl. for the production of new fuel assemblies. Another use case for a hybrid plant is to build a power plant. In this case, a coolant must circulate in the blanket, which ensures the transfer of energy to the generator.

Tokamak T-15MD. New opportunities for Russian and world science

Thus, the developed and implemented appearance of the hybrid reactor allows solving several problems at once. It can be used for power generation, as well as for the release of nuclear fuel or waste treatment. Scientists have to confirm the reality of such operation of the reactor, as well as determine its real performance, incl. economic.

Goals and perspectives


The main design decisions of the tokamak and the principles of its operation are well studied and worked out. This makes it possible to design new, more efficient reactors, as well as conduct experiments with an eye to obtaining real technical, energy and economic results. These are the tasks that can be solved with the help of the modernized hybrid mega-installation T-15MD.

The physical start-up of the new reactor took place, but its full and full-scale operation will become possible only in 2024, when the manufacturing and installation of new systems are completed. This means that in the middle of the decade there will be experiments that will provide the necessary information. It will make it possible to determine the most profitable ways of developing the entire direction, not only within the framework of Russian science, but also in the international ITER program.

Thus, our scientists receive the most modern scientific equipment, and with it the opportunity to continue bold experiments with an eye to the future. It is quite possible that this time new research will end with the desired results, thanks to which mankind will receive a fundamentally new source of energy, and Russia will once again show the highest potential of its science.
Author:
Photos used:
Rosatom, Government of the Russian Federation
70 comments
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  1. The comment was deleted.
  2. Serpet
    Serpet 20 May 2021 06: 13
    +38
    This topic is rarely mentioned in the press. I am glad that the development of science in this area continues.
    1. Machito
      Machito 20 May 2021 07: 44
      -8
      The news is good and joyful. But why is there so much fuss about the Tokamak modernization?
      1. Oleg ratay
        Oleg ratay 20 May 2021 08: 19
        -15%
        And there is nothing more to brag about. The number of fanfare is not true to scale. And about new sources of energy, they are still a pitchfork on water. Thermonuclear energy is still expensive, the energy consumption for maintaining the plasma is higher than that released as a result of the TN reaction. Irradiation of thorium, etc., is only a slight increase in efficiency; there is still no new source of energy. That is, it’s good that we did it, they will work, but there’s nothing to shout about.
        1. NIKN
          NIKN 20 May 2021 10: 09
          -9
          Quote: Oleg Ratay
          Fanfare not true to scale

          Fanfare does not sound in honor of the installation, but in honor of those who pressed the button ...
        2. A009
          A009 20 May 2021 11: 15
          +15
          Yours is not true! Why are you misleading people? Thermonuclear installations are not yet economically feasible, but the energy release already exceeds the costs.
          Let me explain: the process is already energetically beneficial (the release of energy is more than the expended one), but it is not economically profitable (it costs a lot of money). Therefore, technologies and materials are being developed. To make it cheaper. It's simple.
          1. Hwostatij
            Hwostatij 20 May 2021 12: 39
            -9
            Thermonuclear installations are not yet economically feasible, but the energy release already exceeds the costs.

            So this was achieved even during the creation of a thermonuclear bomb. But I haven’t heard anything about the self-sustaining of a controlled thermonuclear reaction.
            1. A009
              A009 20 May 2021 14: 00
              +4
              This is about controlled reactions, so your remark is inappropriate. If you have not heard then it is not?
              1. Hwostatij
                Hwostatij 20 May 2021 15: 37
                -1
                Have you heard? When and at which plant was the positive energy yield achieved?
                1. A009
                  A009 20 May 2021 15: 39
                  +7
                  Do you always ask a counter question instead of an answer? And, as I understand, I won't hear an answer from you?)))))) I heard, read, discussed, even saw some calculations, but, again, this is not my area of ​​physics, which I wrote about below.
                  1. Hwostatij
                    Hwostatij 20 May 2021 15: 51
                    -13%
                    I heard, read, discussed, even saw some calculations, but, again, this is not my area of ​​physics, which I wrote about below.

                    There is evidence, but they are secret (c). In general, I congratulate you lying.
                    1. A009
                      A009 20 May 2021 15: 59
                      +9
                      May I know how old you are? Forgive my curiosity, but your answers are similar to those of a 12-year-old student.
                      I even specifically googled it, is there really no information. The third reference is an experiment where the Lawson criterion will be exceeded. You are probably taken away by the search engines.
                      But I repeat, is it worth waiting for an answer from you? or not? And I will repeat the question - If you have not heard, then it is not? Just answer please without counter questions.
                      And I will also give a link. An interesting community and there is a lot of information about thermonuclear fusion. Everything is set out in an accessible language: https://tnenergy.livejournal.com/
                      1. Hwostatij
                        Hwostatij 20 May 2021 16: 08
                        -10%
                        And I will repeat the question - If you have not heard, then it is not?

                        It seemed to me that the question is rhetorical))). If you insist so, then I will answer: of course, it does not mean. But only if this event took place, then this, without a doubt, would be the greatest breakthrough in technology that a deaf person would have heard about. Therefore, admit already that you lied and stop wagging.
                      2. A009
                        A009 20 May 2021 16: 10
                        +5
                        Ie in the search engines you were taken away irrevocably ??
                        And it is impossible to convince you even with references to scientific journals and reviews. I mean, nothing.
                        And I will be "sovramshi" because I have seen and read these conclusions and I suggest that you familiarize yourself, but you will not and will remain unconvinced. Right?
                      3. Hwostatij
                        Hwostatij 20 May 2021 16: 20
                        -5
                        I will repeat the question again:
                        When and at which plant was the positive energy yield achieved?

                        A place. Time. And the question is closed.
                      4. A009
                        A009 20 May 2021 16: 23
                        +3
                        https://lenta.ru/news/2014/02/13/nucfusion/
                        Do you admit that you are wrong? And why is your search engine not working?
                        There is a link to the original source (Nature)
                      5. Hwostatij
                        Hwostatij 20 May 2021 16: 30
                        -1
                        In the course of the last experiment, the level of released energy reached its maximum value - 17 kilojoules. In this case, the fuel absorbed no more than 10 kilojoules. However, it should be borne in mind that the absorbed energy is only a small (less than a percent) fraction of the energy spent on a laser pulse, with which scientists are trying to initiate thermonuclear fusion.

                        Have you read your link yourself? wassat
                      6. A009
                        A009 20 May 2021 16: 40
                        +2
                        Are you seriously turning on the fool now? Or do you really not understand what this criterion is? and what I'm talking about, I will quote my own "I will explain: the process is already energetically beneficial (the release of energy is more than spent), but it is not economically profitable (it costs a lot of money)" and yours from the article "During the last experiment, the level of released energy reached its maximum value - 17 kilojoules. The fuel has absorbed no more than 10 kilojoules. " Actually, what the very Lawson criterion speaks about! And it has been achieved but is still not economically viable
                      7. Oleg ratay
                        Oleg ratay 20 May 2021 17: 33
                        +5
                        God. 17KJ was released, 10KJ was absorbed, this is less than one percent of the spent, that is, more than 1000KJ was spent. This is better than before, but far from spending less and allocating more. This is what the whole conversation is about.
                      8. Hwostatij
                        Hwostatij 20 May 2021 18: 33
                        -5
                        Do you seriously think that an installation that produces 2 orders of magnitude less heat output than it consumes meets the Lawson criterion? Or is it just that you don't want to admit your lies so much that you have to pretend to be a fool?
                    2. Oleg ratay
                      Oleg ratay 20 May 2021 17: 35
                      -1
                      Everything is correct, but the comrade is hopeless. I'll go into other topics, and you brace yourself.
  • Oleg ratay
    Oleg ratay 20 May 2021 14: 09
    +2
    Nope. Plasma temperatures of more than 10 ^ 9 may have already been obtained, but Lawson's criterion (nt> 10 ^ 14) has not yet been obtained. In my opinion, now we got 10 ^ 12. If it were different, the scream would have stood for the whole wide world, but ...
    1. A009
      A009 20 May 2021 14: 17
      0
      The skepticism about words on the Internet is quite reasonable, but you can search a little. The data is there and it is open. Fusion is not my specialty in physics, but curiosity allows me to be interested in this topic. On this topic, even from open sources, the picture is quite definite. As far as I remember, the ITER is being built in an energy-positive manner. And the criterion you indicated was overcome several years ago, if my memory serves me right. But again, it's all about costs.
  • astepanov
    astepanov 20 May 2021 17: 06
    +6
    Quote: A009
    Let me explain: the process is already energetically beneficial (the release of energy is more than the expended one), but it is not economically profitable (it costs a lot of money).

    Not. A doubling of energy compared to expended is expected for the ITER installation, which is being built with the joint participation of many countries, including Russia. This installation will start operating no earlier than 2025. Generally speaking, any installation in which the formation of neutrons, even single ones, is simply observed, already produces energy - so formally "the process has begun." Only to the point of this ... To pump up billions for the sake of obtaining a few joules of energy is nonsense. These works are carried out exclusively for research purposes and for technology development. It should also be taken into account that this energy is ultimately released in the form of heat, and the efficiency of obtaining electricity or work from heat is limited by the Carnot formula, like any heat engine. Conversion efficiency is usually between 30 and 60%. So, there is no talk of any energy production either at this facility or at ITER.
    Thus, the developed and implemented appearance of the hybrid reactor allows solving several problems at once. It can be used for power generation, as well as for the release of nuclear fuel or waste treatment.
    This is probably nonsense. What energy? Watts? Milliwatts? And what is the release of nuclear fuel? For the industrial production of nuclear fuel (uranium-233) from thorium, a neutron source is needed, comparable in power to the giblets of a nuclear reactor. The blanket in this installation, apparently, plays the role of a neutron absorber to protect personnel from radiation.
    And the last:
    In the past, our country was able to implement such projects without foreign assistance, independently producing all the necessary products and components.
    It is worth recalling that the first TOKOMAK was designed and built in the USSR, so that the country could, could. Without any outside help.
    Also M. Mishustin noted that the creation of a new reliable and powerful source of energy will contribute to the further development of a lot of industries.
    Okstay, Mr. Mishustin, we have been talking about the creation of a controlled thermonuclear fusion for more than half a century, and things are still there. And the new (or rather, the modernized old) installation is not a "new reliable source of energy", it is a purely research project with unclear prospects.
  • Vadim237
    Vadim237 20 May 2021 16: 21
    +4
    "The number of fanfare is out of scale"
    When I will launch UFL 2M in Sarov, the fanfare will correspond to the event

    The central element of UFL-2M, a sphere 10 meters in diameter and weighing about 120 tons, in which the interaction of laser energy with the target will take place. The thickness of the aluminum alloy chamber wall is 100 mm. More than 100 ports are located on the surface of the sphere.


    The building for UFL-2M has dimensions of 322,5 by 67 meters, the length of the laser hall is 130 meters, it was built on special foundations that protect the laser from seismic effects, the area of ​​clean rooms is 16 thousand square meters.
    The total energy supplied to the target is 4,6 MJ. The start of operation of the facility is scheduled for 2022.
  • Victor Tsenin
    Victor Tsenin 20 May 2021 21: 17
    +5
    What black people you are.) It is clear that if you do not deal with the topic, then a self-sustaining reaction will never come. Shouts are not heard, good news is heard, leading humanity in general and the Russian Federation in particular to a bright thermonuclear future.
  • Snail N9
    Snail N9 26 May 2021 14: 09
    0
    The only plus is the production of transuranic elements, however, on what scale, they are modestly silent ... yes The previous version of the reactor also produced them in quantity ... as it was written: for medical purposes ... wink
  • Anachoret
    Anachoret 20 May 2021 09: 43
    -9
    Quote: Bearded
    The news is good and joyful. But why is there so much fuss about the Tokamak modernization?

    PATAMUSHTA Kovalchuk)) Kovalchuk's brother))
    I would like to hope for real results, and not a wagon of money for another laundering) Gref won’t have time to spend money on syperkomytyri and write off losses on the imperfection of AI)
  • Lord_Bran
    Lord_Bran 20 May 2021 06: 57
    +4
    Hurray-hurray for national science!
    If possible, it will be a colossal leap forward.
    1. peter1v
      peter1v 20 May 2021 07: 39
      -22%
      And Sharikov will turn into a highly organized person!
      60 years of spending an insane amount of money with zero yield for practice.
      1. Sergey_G_M
        Sergey_G_M 20 May 2021 09: 53
        +12
        Quote: peter1v
        And Sharikov will turn into a highly organized person!
        60 years of spending an insane amount of money with zero yield for practice.

        Investing in basic science requires more and more money from everyone. Not developing them is a dead end and stagnation. And the economic effect of the fundamental sciences is usually not immediately visible.
        So don't talk about the Sharikovs, with such statements you yourself look like Sharikov.
      2. nobody75
        nobody75 20 May 2021 10: 49
        +7
        Do you think high-temperature plasma research is useless ??? You, forgive me, understand why REALLY a tokomak is needed ???
        Sincerely
        1. dauria
          dauria 20 May 2021 16: 15
          +1
          You, forgive me, understand why REALLY a tokomak is needed ???


          And in fact, why? To make "luts" from the seas? And then from the "luts" back to water? Greta Thunberg explained everything.
          Thermonuclear fusion in the sun. Grass converts energy, water and carbon dioxide into sugar. The horse and the cow eat grass and turn sugar back into water, carbon dioxide and energy. And they ride and feed Greta.
          And everyone is good.
          Names ....
          1. nobody75
            nobody75 20 May 2021 19: 35
            +1
            Thermonuclear warheads cannot be made environmentally friendly without a tokomak. In the event of a nuclear war, Greta will be unhappy ...
            Sincerely
            1. dauria
              dauria 20 May 2021 20: 27
              +4
              In the event of a nuclear war, Greta will be unhappy ..


              She might be silly. But he's right about something. The energy is full, one uranium is enough for 1000 years. Plus the temperature in magma - pick the bark and enjoy the freebie. Plus the sun. The trouble is that convenient there is little energy. The only thing that humanity has invented since the time of Prometheus is fire. We burn a complex hydrocarbon (firewood, oil, gas), the blessing of the oxidizing agent is oxygen, the mother nature gave us free. Both that, and another - from living nature. On Jupiter, there are heaps of hydrogen fuel, somewhere in general methane seas. And the trouble with the oxidizer - no.
              I'm only for nuclear fusion and stuff. But he will not be needed now, and he will not solve the earthly problem either. You can't put it on an airplane, a chainsaw, and a motorcycle. The battery, even if you jump out of your pants, will not be better than a can of kerosene - there is also chemical energy, plus both components (fuel and oxidizer in the same can).
              1. nobody75
                nobody75 20 May 2021 22: 21
                +3
                She, of course, is silly, but Forester - the inventor of the CNC machine - no ... At MIT, a whole scientific school deals with models of economic dynamics of the "Mir" series ... And one of the factors of the crisis, along with overpopulation and depletion of mineral resources, is the global pollution. It was the influence of this factor that caused the Club of Rome to mistrust the Mir-1 model ...
                As for the problems of large and small power engineers, the USSR Academy of Sciences has been dealing with them for a long time. You can find on the net Kapitsa's critical remarks about nonorbital solar power plants in the USSR.
                Sincerely
      3. Artem76
        Artem76 25 May 2021 12: 33
        +1
        Personally, in protest, you can use only a splinter and firewood ... Internet on coals - I highly recommend
    2. Oleg ratay
      Oleg ratay 20 May 2021 08: 20
      -1
      Calm down, colleague, so far there is nothing qualitatively new.
  • Undecim
    Undecim 20 May 2021 07: 44
    +31
    In 2012, the T-15 reactor was temporarily decommissioned in connection with plans for a deep modernization.

    Due to the lack of funding, the reactor was decommissioned much earlier - in 2005.
    In the course of modernization, the T-15MD reactor received a number of new systems, but its general architecture and operating principles did not undergo fundamental changes.

    The main difference between the T-15MD and the T-15 is in the design of the magnetic plasma confinement system.
    The T-15 has a superconducting magnetic plasma confinement system and requires cryogenic temperatures for cooling. Such systems are called "cold" systems.
    T-15MD "warm": 16 of its magnets do not use superconductivity and do not require cooling, their coils are wound from a conventional copper conductor with the addition of less than 1% silver.
    This significantly increased the strength of the winding, which makes it possible to create and withstand a sufficiently high magnetic field of 2 Tesla, necessary for the operation of a tokamak with an aspect ratio (the ratio of the outer and inner radii of the plasma cord) of 2,2.
    As a result of the modernization, the reactor became hybrid. In special compartments in the so-called. the blanket is proposed to place nuclear fuel - thorium-232 is used as it.

    The blanket is not a "special compartment", it is a tokamak system (along with a divertor). The purpose of the blanket is to capture high-energy neutrons produced by a thermonuclear reaction. In the blanket, neutrons are slowed down, releasing heat, which is removed by the cooling system. The "hot wall" of the blanket, due to water cooling, will not heat up above 240 ° C.
    1. Oleg ratay
      Oleg ratay 20 May 2021 08: 22
      +2
      A sensible explanation.
    2. garri-lin
      garri-lin 20 May 2021 08: 47
      +1
      Thanks for the additions. Informative.
    3. Svetlana
      Svetlana 20 May 2021 16: 54
      0
      Quote: Undecim
      As a result of the modernization, the reactor became hybrid. In special compartments in the so-called. the blanket is proposed to place nuclear fuel - thorium-232 is used as it.

      Judging by the size of the T-15MD tokamak (pictured), the thickness of the special compartments of the blanket is not large enough to absorb thermonuclear neutrons. You need a blanket thickness of at least 0.5 meters to absorb more than 90% of neutrons. Otherwise, it will be impossible to stay in the reactor room during the D + T reaction due to the strong neutron radiation from the thin blanket.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 20 May 2021 17: 47
        0
        Judging by the size of the T-15MD tokamak (pictured)

        What photo do you mean?
        1. Svetlana
          Svetlana 20 May 2021 18: 24
          0
          These photos are:

          1. Undecim
            Undecim 20 May 2021 20: 21
            +5
            The author chose a photo that was completely unsuccessful. The actual size of the vacuum chamber is not visible on them.




            The internal dimensions of the chamber are 3390 mm vertically. Inspection hatches - 880x400 mm.
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 20 May 2021 20: 26
              +4
              Therefore, the blanket indicated by you fits well, even if you do not check the correctness of your calculations.
  • Aleksandr97
    Aleksandr97 20 May 2021 08: 46
    +3
    The unconditional future of mankind belongs to thermonuclear energy !!! Any, even minimal successes are significant achievements !!! Approximately 25 reactors of this type have been built in the USSR, Czechoslovakia, Great Britain, France, China and Japan. The EU has high hopes for the ITER project, which is scheduled to be completed by 2025. The task of ITER is to demonstrate the possibility of commercial use of thermonuclear fusion reactions and to solve physical and technological problems that may arise along the way.
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 20 May 2021 21: 32
      +6
      MIT is also assembling a small tokamak. So that it was interesting. :)))
      Illustration, picture:

      Want to overtake ITER, hooligans am
      ... would be far more powerful, achieving fusion performance comparable to that expected in the much larger ITER tokamak being built in France by an international consortium. The high power in a small size is made possible by advances in superconducting magnets that allow for a much stronger magnetic field to confine the hot plasma
  • 123456789
    123456789 20 May 2021 11: 24
    -1

    Until we overcome fundamental contradictions, there will be no controlled thermonuclear soldier
  • KSVK
    KSVK 20 May 2021 11: 53
    +1
    Quote: Undecim
    The purpose of the blanket is to capture high-energy neutrons produced by a thermonuclear reaction.


    I beg your pardon for my denseness, but would you explain then where the "fast" neutrons come from in a thermonuclear reaction? After all, fusion is a fusion reaction when one helium atom is obtained from two deuterium atoms.

    And another question to the author, how is uranium obtained from thorium 232 by neutron irradiation? Indeed, to change the atomic number, it is necessary to change the number of protons in the nucleus. And the addition or decrease in the number of neutrons leads to the appearance of isotopes without changing the element. Like hydrogen-deuterium-tritium.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 20 May 2021 12: 41
      +7
      I beg your pardon for my denseness, but would you explain then where the "fast" neutrons come from in a thermonuclear reaction? After all, fusion is a fusion reaction when one helium atom is obtained from two deuterium atoms.


      The fusion of deuterium (an isotope of hydrogen, characterized by the presence of a neutron) and tritium (also an isotope of hydrogen, which has 2 neutrons) produces helium and a neutron. This reaction gives a significant energy output (17.6 MeV)
      1. nobody75
        nobody75 20 May 2021 22: 23
        +1
        With Helium - 3, everything would be easier ... It is he who should be used as fuel.
        Sincerely
    2. military_cat
      military_cat 20 May 2021 12: 53
      +6
      Neutrons are taken from tritium in a deuterium-tritium reaction. Nobody plans to do nuclear fusion on pure deuterium yet, because it is incommensurably more difficult.

      Thorium, upon capturing a neutron, turns into a rapidly decaying isotope, which successively loses two beta particles (electrons), as a result, two neutrons become protons, and the element, respectively, uranium.
  • dgonni
    dgonni 20 May 2021 12: 07
    0
    In the 80s, he was heavily written in the journal Science and Life.
    It's good that we have updated and modernized. Only this is not new.
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 20 May 2021 16: 24
      0
      It is completed and modernized with new equipment.
  • bk316
    bk316 20 May 2021 13: 54
    +5
    there is nothing qualitatively new there yet.

    I'll tell you a secret in high quality tokamaks, there can be nothing new at all. The principle is just in the name and embedded. Toroidal Camera with Magnetic Coils.
    Moreover, in the entire controlled thermonuclear core there will be practically nothing qualitatively new.
    Either the confinement of the plasma by a magnetic field or the firing of micro targets. I am glad that we (RUSSIA) are moving in both directions in the leading group.
  • Oleg133
    Oleg133 20 May 2021 14: 10
    +2
    When I was little (in the 70s) I heard songs about these tokomaki. I open the site in 50 years, everything is in place. Songs on the spot - the result, as there was no, and there is no, and there are no billions of money
    1. nobody75
      nobody75 20 May 2021 14: 24
      +3
      The result is in BB mbr ...
      Sincerely
  • AAK
    AAK 20 May 2021 16: 47
    0
    Colleagues over 50, remember the Soviet television of the late 60s - 70s, then in all programs at least somewhat related to science and technology there were a lot of stories about all sorts of tokamaks, synchrophasotrons, Dubna, Serpukhov, etc., There was a lot of talk that another ten or two years and we will have an inexhaustible ocean of thermonuclear energy ... Then the oil and gas lobby crushed and little remained of our nuclear fundamental science. And then on Russia-24 days 4 ago, infa slipped through that the developed oil reserves in Russia remained for 52 years, and gas - for a little more than a hundred years, so they combed from above ... Although we still have the largest in the world coal and firewood reserves ...
    1. Intruder
      Intruder 20 May 2021 17: 19
      0
      Although we still have the world's largest reserves of coal and firewood ...
      And then breathe then, what will our children and grandchildren be !? Until the trees grow, taiga and forests are not the Ocean of the World, somehow suddenly No. , everything has been restored there for decades ...
    2. Vadim237
      Vadim237 20 May 2021 18: 30
      +1
      "Then the oil and gas lobby crushed and little was left of our nuclear fundamental science." Nothing it pressed down stop fantasizing.
      The mastered oil reserves in Russia remained for 52 years, and gas - a little more than a hundred years, so they combed from above ... The first has nothing to do with the second, and these figures for oil and gas reserves refer to the already explored and used - not explored 10 times more.
  • Intruder
    Intruder 20 May 2021 17: 12
    +1
    Well, the main thing is moving in the right direction for peaceful science ... otherwise all the armaments and rearmaments, all sorts!
    Stable plasma for the T-15MD !!! good
  • KSVK
    KSVK 20 May 2021 18: 31
    +1
    Quote: Undecim
    ...

    Quote: military_cat
    ...

    Thanks for the clarifications. I have not come across for a long time.
    For some reason I was always sure that during fusion energy is released in the form of photons.
    This means that the fusion will not be so safe. Moreover, you have to somehow "catch" a neutron and an alpha particle in order to get energy from them.
    It will be necessary to read materials on the topic at your leisure.
  • Oleg133
    Oleg133 20 May 2021 18: 52
    +1
    Quote: nobody75
    The result is in BB mbr ...
    Sincerely

    Tokomaki has nothing to do with this
    1. nobody75
      nobody75 20 May 2021 19: 36
      0
      Sure???
      Sincerely
  • Oleg133
    Oleg133 20 May 2021 18: 54
    -2
    Ostap Bender knew 400 relatively honest ways to take money from the population. Tokomak - 401st.
  • amr
    amr 21 May 2021 07: 08
    0
    Quote: Hwostatij
    Thermonuclear installations are not yet economically feasible, but the energy release already exceeds the costs.

    So this was achieved even during the creation of a thermonuclear bomb. But I haven’t heard anything about the self-sustaining of a controlled thermonuclear reaction.

    krasava, briefly - clearly - succinctly))
    now looking for economic efficiency)
  • Gunther
    Gunther 22 May 2021 05: 26
    0
    Quote: Author
    President of the Kurchatov Institute Mikhail Kovalchuk said that Russian science is capable of further researching thermonuclear energy. This requires the modernization of research and production facilities.


    two clients in the photo resemble cunning mediums - a saucer-table of rotators)))
    The thermonuclear scam is already 70 years old, in terms of the number of unfulfilled promises of the Jydai thermonuclear fusion have surpassed Ilona Mask.
    an illustrative example - the ITER project (international experimental thermonuclear reactor) - was conceived in 1985, the USA, Russia, the European Union, China, India, Japan, Korea, and Kazakhstan are participating in the ITER project.
    the cost of the project, as planned, has grown from 4,6 billion euros to 20 billion, and of course it will grow further.
    in 2019, the management of Horns and Hoofs LLC (ITER) announced once again about 50% of the reactor's readiness and promised (again and again) to launch the reactor by 2025, and by 2035 to reach the declared parameters, the strategy of the Jedi thermonuclear is simple - the money spills here and now, and then either the donkey or the padishah will die.
  • zenion
    zenion 22 May 2021 19: 01
    0
    Does the tokamak itself know why it is needed, or does it care? If you do not know, we will teach. If you don't want to, we will force you.
  • kig
    kig 23 May 2021 02: 40
    0
    Science is the best way to satisfy personal curiosity at public expense - and it was not someone there who said this, but a whole physicist-academician, with great merit, and among other things, Hero of Socialist Labor L, Artsimovich
  • Ilya Aksyonov
    Ilya Aksyonov 27 May 2021 19: 06
    0
    The main reason why a permanent and controlled thermonuclear fusion reactor will not be created is that the fundamental foundations of scientific research do not correspond to the real structure of the universe.
    Modern science and its scientific research are very similar to reading a book from the middle, from which the cover with the title of the book and the first most important pages about the cause-and-effect relationships of the beginning of everything were torn off a long time ago. Moreover, some of the characters in this book call the title of the book in both poetic and metaphorical language and tell the previous contents of the book, but they do not listen to them and let this information go deafening, busy looking for beads in the dung heap.
    And until humanity creates a true chain of cause and effect of the beginning of everything and creates a true Standard Model of the essence of the structure of the universe, until then it, humanity, will wander in the dark.