Military Review

Just ministers, not capitalists - Kerensky, Verkhovsky and Manikovsky

68

Alexander Kerensky. Failed Bonaparte



Alexander Kerensky история remembers both as a nobleman and a homeowner, and as a lawyer with huge fees. But Kerensky and the next two "interim" war ministers, and even more so, his main ally - Boris Savinkov, head of the war ministry, war minister de facto, although not de jure, cannot be called capitalist ministers.

The slogan "Down with the capitalist ministers!", Which appeared on the red banners of the demonstrators in the spring of 1917, was clearly addressed to someone else. The capitalists in the Provisional Government, of course, were, for example, Tereshchenko or Nekrasov, but they also considered saving their capitals not the main task of staying in power.

Alexander Fedorovich Kerensky, Lenin's compatriot from Simbirsk, being 11 years younger than him, unexpectedly quickly got out of the modest ministers of labor into the leaders of the Provisional Government. This became possible thanks to his eloquence, popularity, frantic efficiency and revolutionary charisma.

Of course, from such a position, he could not in any way be a supporter of a compromise with the Soviets, although the Bolsheviks there by no means ruled the show. And after Alexander Guchkov (Alexander Guchkov: the most "temporary" of the military ministers of Russia), in general, there was no worthy leader for the Ministry of War. Tsarist generals there still categorically did not want to appoint.

And this alignment seemed to suit Kerensky quite well. It is no coincidence that he later so quickly endowed revolutionary Russia with the post of minister-chairman and a Directory, like the one that General Bonaparte had dispersed. At the same time, democratic institutions, such as the State Conference or the Council of the Republic - the Pre-Parliament, turned into a meaningless talking shop.

February democracy successfully failed the whole idea with the Constituent Assembly (Russia 1917-1918: an unpaved field of democracy). And, most likely, Savinkov should have been appointed minister. But his reputation at that moment did not allow this. Judging by his further actions, the SR-bombist would have immediately tightened the screws and would have lost his post long before the Kornilov revolt or the coming to power of the Bolsheviks.

After the resignation of Guchkov, the Ministry of War decided to get rid of the hassle of fleet, which became not so much one of the strongholds of the revolution as a headache for the executive branch. Power is almost powerless.

By the time of Kerensky's ministry, the idea of ​​mobilizing the defense industry was not working well, the army was ready to fight solely for the sake of an early conclusion of peace. Real efforts to strengthen the front had to be replaced by meetings and countless meetings, as well as negotiations among themselves.

Democratization led the army to collapse. The War Department was also falling apart, although this was not so noticeable. The search for the very "Bonaparte saber" in Russia did not drag out - this role was claimed, first of all, by Kerensky himself, who was jokingly called "Alexander IV".

But in reality, General Lavr Kornilov came forward as a candidate for dictatorship.


With him, who had a much richer frontline biography than a minister, even a chairman, Kerensky divorced the very course of history. Before that, the ex-lawyer, as prime minister and minister of war, had a complete failure with the surrender of Riga to the Germans (see map). Then in the summer of 1917, the gunners refused to load the guns, and the soldiers of the Provisional Government raised their agitators with bayonets.

And even earlier there was a failure with the material support of the offensive of the Southwestern Front. In Russia, newspapermen, following the example of their European colleagues, also tried to call it "Battle for Peace." But they were pulled personally by Kerensky - the failed Bonaparte, who believed that this could become a propaganda of a separate agreement with Germany and Austria-Hungary.

When there are interruptions in armament and shells, and even in provisions, the death penalty, introduced on the direct orders of General Kornilov, then in command of the front, will not help either. This order, by the way, was sanctioned by Savinkov, who was appointed military governor of Petrograd during the days of the mutiny.

But Boris Viktorovich, a comrade (in our time it is called first deputy) Minister Kerensky, in the days of the mutiny, intrigued with Kornilov and even persuaded him to submit to the Provisional Government. And the showdown with the Kornilovites had to be dealt with by the Bolshevik Red Guard, which eventually brought them to power.


Boris Savinkov resigned. And being summoned by the Social Revolutionaries to give explanations, he divorced them too, leaving the party. Kerensky, more recently a “people's leader,” in a paramilitary jacket with a short haircut (pictured), thought it best to hand over the War Ministry to a professional - Colonel Verkhovsky, popular with newspapermen, who immediately became a Major General.

Kerensky himself lived much longer than his successors as Minister of War - he lived until 1970 in the United States. He left volumes of memoirs, a vivid book about the Russian revolution, as well as a special memory of himself - the famous "Kerenki", a symbol of rampant inflation and the collapse of finance.

Alexander Verkhovsky. Almost dictator or almost Bolshevik


A nobleman, a pupil of the Corps of Pages, who left him because of politics, from a young age was no stranger to revolutionary convictions. Sasha Verkhovsky was not yet 20 years old when, after a bloody Sunday January 9, 1905, with the shooting of a demonstration on the direct order of Grand Duke Vladimir, he was not afraid to declare that “he considers it a shame to use weapon against an unarmed crowd. "

Later, one of his idols would be Napoleon, who did not hesitate to shoot at an unarmed crowd. But before that, Verkhovsky went through the Russo-Japanese and World War, was in the war in the Balkans, studying the experience of future allies - the Serbs. Without any patronage, he eventually earned the rank of major general.

Shortly before the February Revolution, Verkhovsky wrote in his diary:

“The loss of faith in the command staff has become a common phenomenon and sometimes results in ugly forms: for example, corps and divisions do not leave the trenches at the signal of an attack and refuse to attack. This is a directly threatening phenomenon. "

But he had already held positions in which it was possible at least to achieve something. Among other things, for example, in a mission to the allied Romanian army or in divisions ready to land in Trebizond or on the Bosphorus.

But this huge plan, as well as participation in the post-war world, was thwarted for Russia by two revolutions. In them, Alexander Verkhovsky was by no means the last role. He noted his participation in the Sevastopol Council of Deputies by developing a regulation on soldiers' committees and joining the Socialist Revolutionary Party.

He became a supporter of the commander of the Black Sea Fleet, Admiral Kolchak, who chose the path to dictatorship. Lieutenant Colonel (at that time) Verkhovsky believed that:

“It has already become clear: the masses understood the revolution as liberation from labor, from the fulfillment of duty, as an immediate end to the war. It is necessary to do something to stop this movement, to take it in hand, to keep at least what is possible from the army. We must reach the world with this army. "

The Provisional Government did not manage to hold out for peace. And it was the demand for peace, almost immediate, voiced later by Verkhovsky, that became the reason for his resignation from the post of Minister of War a few days before the October coup.

And the rise of an officer, who received the rank of general only in this post, was directly related to his counter-revolutionary successes. Having risen at the head of the Moscow Military District, and not without the support of Boris Savinkov, Colonel Verkhovsky brutally, albeit without excess blood, dealt with soldiers' demonstrations in Nizhny and Tver, in Vladimir, Yelets and Lipetsk.

Just ministers, not capitalists - Kerensky, Verkhovsky and Manikovsky
Minister of War Verkhovsky at the funeral of those killed during the suppression of riots in the Nizhny Novgorod province. Summer 1917

In fear of the Bolsheviks and the emerging workers' guard, the press started talking about a sensible commander as a possible military leader. Before Kornilov he was, of course, far away, but a little later A. V. Lunacharsky in a letter to his wife seriously called Verkhovsky one of the possible members of "a purely democratic coalition, that is, the front: Lenin - Martov - Chernov - Dan - Verkhovsky."

The very idea of ​​such a coalition, Anatoly Vasilyevich, Trotsky's friend and loyal Leninist comrade-in-arms, however, described as utopian. But the creation of the ruling five at that moment, in fact, was not a utopia - it, having called it in the French manner "Directory", was formed for himself by Kerensky, immediately after he got rid of Kornilov. And he wrote there together with others and Verkhovsky.

It is unlikely that the minister-chairman was afraid of competition from Verkhovsky - the post of Minister of War, unlike the post of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief, was not very suitable for this. But the popularity of Verkhovsky after the failed negotiations with Kornilov and the order for five regiments of the Moscow district to strike at Mogilev, where the headquarters of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief was, only grew.

At the same time, Verkhovsky constantly and convincingly advocated, if not for peace, then at least for peace negotiations. He even declared himself an internationalist, almost a supporter of the Bolsheviks. At the same time, the newly-minted general clearly leapt into ambitions, because of which many began to speak of him in the same way as Moscow University professor Mikhail Bogoslovsky: "a charlatan and a scoundrel."

He did not abandon business at the ministry. But he was clearly unable to change something. Too independent Verkhovsky did not suit not only Kerensky, but all the other ministers. Others were not asked at the time. The resignation of this almost dictator was best described by British Ambassador George Buchanan:

“Minister of War Verkhovsky has resigned. He always stated that in order to keep the troops in the trenches, they need to be told what they are fighting for, and that, therefore, we must publish our peace terms and make the Germans responsible for the continuation of the war.
At the last meeting of the Presidium of the Council of the Republic last night, he apparently completely lost his head and said that Russia must immediately conclude peace and that when peace is concluded, a military dictator must be appointed to ensure the maintenance of order. "


The ex-minister, like a real statesman, went to serve the new government and the Red Army without any doubts, although after a six-month stay in Kresty. However, he only rose to the rank of brigade commander and did not live to see a new world war. Verkhovsky fell under repression - he was shot in August 1938 on charges of participating in an anti-Soviet conspiracy.

Alexey Manikovsky. Two days in the ministry, two in prison


Formally, General Manikovsky, better known as an excellent supplier, was not a minister of war. After the resignation of the young General Verkhovsky, they did not even have time to confirm him in office before the Bolsheviks spoke. For history, Manikovsky remained “only” the interim head of the War Ministry.

The general, who served for several years as the head of GAU - the Main Artillery Directorate of the General Staff, gained fame in 1916, when he submitted to Emperor Nicholas II a memorandum with a plan to reform the defense industry in Russia. Later it began to be called nothing else than the "mobilization economy plan."


Passions around him were in full swing both under the tsar and under the Provisional Government. But what about - for the then business elite, who profited from military orders and created the Interim Committee of the State Duma for themselves, this meant the nationalization of the source of their fabulous profits. That is, for them it was about something more terrible than the revolution.

But, of course, not the same one that Lenin and his comrades did in October, who immediately adopted Manikovsky's ideas. He just fell under the hand, as one of the members of Kerensky's last cabinet, abandoned by his prime minister in the Winter Palace.

According to the two-day minister's plan, strong defense state-owned enterprises are given priority in industry, not only during the war. In peacetime, they will become price regulators, becoming the vanguard of technological progress. Doesn't this remind you of today's state corporations? Only slightly distorted the very essence of General Manikovsky's project.

The general went further in his ideas, proposing to introduce something like workers' control at state and even private factories. The factory committees, which Manikovsky wanted to introduce, drew attention to Leonid Krasin, Stalin's friend, then manager of a powder factory, and the Bonch-Bruevich brothers.

In October 1917, this helped the general not stay in custody and go to the service of the new government - the Council of People's Commissars. And before that, Manikovsky had, in fact, a completely ordinary military career, more precisely, a staff career, a graduate of the Mikhailovsky Artillery School, a participant in the Russian-Japanese and world wars.

In the Red Army, where Manikovsky simply could not help but get, he also served in the artillery unit and supply. His book "Combat Supply of the Russian Army in the World War" was published only in 1937. And rightly considered a classic.


And many of the problems of the Russian army in the world war were associated with the fact that there were negligibly few such as Manikovsky among the supplies. Alexei Alekseevich died in 1920 in a train crash heading to Tashkent, where the former general, now painted, was going on a business trip.

In his own way, the British military attaché in Russia, Major General Alfred Knox, draws a unique picture of the circumstances of the resignation and early release of the non-Dominant Manikovsky:

“At four o'clock I went to a meeting with General Manikovsky, who was appointed to the post of Minister of War instead of Verkhovsky and who was arrested along with the rest of the Provisional Government. He was released from the Peter and Paul Fortress on the 9th (November 1917 - ed.) And assigned to head the rear services, which, as a result of the boycott of the new government by officers and officials, fell into a state of chaos.

Manikovsky agreed to take over the leadership of the ministry on the condition that he was given freedom of action and not forced to interfere in politics. I found the general in his apartment, sitting in a room with a puppy and a kitten, one of whom he called a Bolshevik, and the other - Menshevik. His sad experience did not affect him in any way, and he shared with me with a laugh how, because he had been a minister for two days, he had to spend exactly two days in prison.

Instead of an epilogue


Each of our heroes deserves a separate essay, even a book. Moreover, a lot of them have already been written about Savinkov and Kerensky. They themselves also wrote quite a lot. And each in its own way professionally.

In this cursory review, we only showed how hopeless were the attempts of Kerensky, together with Savinkov, and then Verkhovsky and Manikovsky, to make the rusted mechanism of the War Ministry from tsarist times work. The last of them, however, did not have time at all and could not do anything.

But Guchkov, of course, had to start this. But he didn’t even have any attempts to change something, he almost didn’t change personnel either. In this they are very similar to the historian Professor Pavel Milyukov, who was also in no hurry to change anything in the tsarist Foreign Ministry.

Later, the RSDLP (b) together with the Left Socialist-Revolutionaries and anarchists became the RSDLP (b) to change both the cadres and the system itself, changing the name “ministry” to “people's commissariat”. Although the actual commissars to the fronts and fleets were sent just "temporary". Even before the Bolsheviks took over the country.
Author:
Photos used:
wikimedia.org, from the author's archive, photoarchive.spb.ru, stolicaplus.ru, statearchiv.ru
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  1. Avior
    Avior 23 May 2021 04: 51
    +5
    An amazing connection between Lenin and Kerensky - through Kerensky's father, Fyodor Mikhailovich, director of the Simbirsk gymnasium.
    The most famous pupil of Fyodor Kerensky was Volodya Ulyanov (Lenin) - the son of his boss, director of the Simbirsk schools, Ilya Nikolaevich Ulyanov. Fyodor Mikhailovich Kerensky gave him the only four (logically) in the gold medalist certificate of 1887. Fyodor Mikhailovich Kerensky was very disappointed with the further choice of Volodya Ulyanov, as he advised him to enter the history and verbal faculty of the university in view of the great success of the younger Ulyanov in Latin and literature [4].

    The families of the Kerensky and Ulyanovs in Simbirsk were tied by friendly relations, they had much in common in their way of life, position in society, interests, origin. Fyodor Mikhailovich, after Ilya Nikolaevich Ulyanov died, took part in the life of the Ulyanov children [5].

    In 1887, after Alexander Ilyich Ulyanov was arrested and executed, he gave the revolutionary’s brother Vladimir Ulyanov a positive rating for admission to Kazan University.
    1. Lech from Android.
      Lech from Android. 23 May 2021 05: 27
      +5
      Politics in general is an amazing thing ... looking at the current Communist Party of Zyuganov in the State Duma of Russia and comparing it with the fiery Bolsheviks of 1917.
      1. Ross xnumx
        Ross xnumx 23 May 2021 08: 21
        +10
        Quote: Lech from Android.
        ... looking at the current Communist Party of Zyuganov in the State Duma of Russia and comparing it with the fiery Bolsheviks of 1917 ...

        ... I would like to ask, what are you, Gennady Andreevich, posing as an ardent fighter for social justice? I don't even know how to interpret this:
        The leadership of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation decided to transfer the mandate of the deceased State Duma deputy Vakha Agayev to the former candidate for mayor of Moscow businessman Vadim Kumin ...

        There is no Bondarenko N.N. there are no other leftist candidates ...
        The flabby party, which was flabbergasted in 1996, together with the leader, cannot gain trust among citizens who are inclined to a different economic formation.
        At best, the party representatives can continue to choose an elderly leader who has lost his authority among the population, whose vocabulary and texts of speeches are drawn from the editorials of the Pravda newspaper. yes launches of the last century. You cannot lie so ineptly and brazenly manipulate facts, choosing a quiet existence at the expense of the state budget and accepting awards from the hands of the one with whom (in words) an irreconcilable struggle is being waged).
        Clownery... yes
        1. Lech from Android.
          Lech from Android. 23 May 2021 08: 28
          +3
          It would be better for the Communist Party of Russia in the State Duma to change the signboard to a social democratic one ... this way it will be closer to reality.
      2. paul3390
        paul3390 23 May 2021 14: 18
        +5
        The Communist Party of the Russian Federation is by no means a communist party. This is just a successful project of the Kremlin to utilize the leftist aspirations of the people .. Nobody has done so much to discredit the communist idea as Genosse Zyu. For which the regime and appreciate.
    2. Finches
      Finches 23 May 2021 07: 42
      +4
      The history of the Provisional Government is a vivid example of what happens when bawking theoreticians with brain liberalism get to power! In 7 months, ruin in general everything that the traitor monarchists did not diminish, and again serving exclusively the interests of the Entente, that is, the Anglo-Saxons! Nothing has changed yet!
      1. Peak
        Peak 23 May 2021 07: 49
        +4
        Just ministers, not capitalists


        They are now called with sarcasm - "Effective managers"

        Power in the country "temporary" muddleheads got a freebie, and what to do with it, how to manage a vast economy, and even during a protracted war - request fool
      2. Avior
        Avior 23 May 2021 07: 58
        +2
        It took the tsar a long time to realize that his autocratic time was long gone.
        But he did not carry out a gradual transformation of power.
        Often, when the rulers who stayed too long do not leave, the country comes to rebellion in the worst sense of the word.
        At the time of the arrival of the Provisional Government, the people were already ready for a riot, and they were not interested in other methods.
        1. Finches
          Finches 23 May 2021 08: 12
          0
          Don't tell liberal tales! It was a complex complex of interconnected internal and external economic, political, social and cultural and any other processes, and not that the tsar-rag did not understand something there ... Durnovo, in his prophetic note, painted everything very accurately and predicted, up to that that the "intellectual" parties would quickly lose power, giving it over to the more dynamic left ...

          “Of course, Russia is a particularly fertile ground for social upheavals, where the masses of the people undoubtedly profess the principles of unconscious socialism ... The Russian commoner, peasant and worker alike do not seek political rights, both unnecessary and incomprehensible to him. land, the worker - about transferring to him all the capital and profits of the manufacturer, and their desire does not go further than this. And once these slogans are widely thrown at the population, if the government authorities irrevocably allow agitation in this direction, Russia will undoubtedly be the anarchy she experienced during the memorable period of the turmoil of 1905-1906 ... The war with Germany will create extremely favorable conditions for such agitation. As already noted, this war is fraught with enormous difficulties for us and cannot turn out to be a triumphal march to Berlin. - let's hope, partial, - these or other shortcomings will be inevitablein our supply. With the exceptional nervousness of our society, these circumstances will be given exaggerated importance, and with the opposition of this society, everything will be blamed on the government. "

          And if the king-rag were not the king-rag, then he would still be sitting on the throne, God knows how long! Nicholas II did not draw conclusions not from the first Russian revolution, did not listen to smart people, and did not read the note of the Minister of Internal Affairs, in general, according to some historians, did not read it! He kept trusting in God, forgetting the Russian proverb that trust in God, but don’t make a mistake yourself ...
          1. Avior
            Avior 23 May 2021 09: 11
            0
            After the events of 1905, it became obvious to everyone that a revolt with left-wing radicals at the head was inevitable.
            But everyone used it as a scarecrow to propagate their views.
            The policeman, in fact, and a supporter of Germany, used this as an excuse for possible repression of the population and for agitation against England.
            Durnovo interpreted this rebellion, to the creation of conditions for which he put his own hands, and would have done more, if he had not been burned with his mistress and the search of a Brazilian diplomat, as a result of Russia's future loss in the war.
            Only now Russia did not lose in the First World War, but won. But the riot happened anyway.
            1. Finches
              Finches 23 May 2021 09: 21
              -5
              If Nicholas II had listened to the Black Hundreds, and not to the Duma liberal opposition, which in its projects was very much divorced from the Russian people, but very closely coincided with the interests of England, then the tsar could have avoided many problems! And they correctly pointed out to Nicholas that Kaiser's Germany, in its conservative beginning, is closer in spirit than the Anglo-Saxon circumcised monarchy ... And what can be seen with the naked eye - the British want their imperialist contradictions with the Germans to be resolved with the blood of a Russian soldier!
              1. Avior
                Avior 23 May 2021 09: 32
                +3
                And the king himself was not connected with England, it turns out

                Cousin Nikki and Cousin George were not related in any way
                Probably, if Nikki's cousin could not cope with the state, which he accidentally got, it was necessary to step aside in time, and not hold on to power until the last, and there would be no rebellion
                1. Finches
                  Finches 23 May 2021 09: 33
                  0
                  Here the question is not in blood - all the monarchs of Europe were bound by themselves, but the question is in the interests of the state!
                  1. Avior
                    Avior 23 May 2021 10: 05
                    +3
                    and that the state interests of Russia demanded to fight with Britain and France for the interests of Germany?
                    But in general, the choice on which side to fight was for the tsar, which brings us back to the fact that he needed to step aside in time, since he clearly could not cope with the leadership of the country. And Durnovo and the Black Hundreds just demanded the strengthening of the tsarist power.
                    So even if the riot could be temporarily delayed, it would simply be even more destructive.
                    1. Finches
                      Finches 23 May 2021 10: 15
                      +1
                      History does not know the subjunctive mood! And we need to talk about the entire time of the reign of Nicholas, during which he either did not make important decisions, or made erroneous or half-hearted ones!
                      1. Avior
                        Avior 23 May 2021 10: 21
                        +1
                        History does not know the subjunctive mood!

                        how would you actually start talking about him when you brought up the speech about Durnovo's note.
                        And we need to talk about the entire time of the reign of Nicholas, during which he either did not make important decisions, or made erroneous or half-hearted ones!

                        that's exactly what he did. And it was already clear to everyone that he could not cope with the role of the head of state, but he continued to cling to power with his teeth.
                        So the riot was inevitable - we naturally got it :(
                      2. Finches
                        Finches 23 May 2021 10: 32
                        0
                        I will correct you a little, if we go down to form, we received the usual betrayal of the liberal-bourgeois elite and the tsarist generals, which led to a change in the state system and went down in history as the February bourgeois revolution!
                      3. Avior
                        Avior 23 May 2021 11: 20
                        +3
                        The revolt was inevitable, as many saw and understood.
                        The bourgeois revolution could no longer change anything.
                        The government reform was delayed for too long against the background of an outright incapacity from the tsar.
                        Durnovo also understood that a rebellion would be inevitable, but misjudged the reasons for its occurrence.
                      4. Finches
                        Finches 23 May 2021 11: 22
                        0
                        During the war, there was a criminal act of betrayal of the Motherland, but there was no riot!
                      5. Avior
                        Avior 23 May 2021 11: 33
                        +2
                        the war only hastened the process.
                        Moreover, the tsar decided to become the Supreme Commander-in-Chief and abandoned the rule of the country altogether.
                        This step was suicidal for the autocracy.
                        It turned out to lead the army with him as badly as the country before, especially given his attitude to losses
                        "... whether such people still perished, we will manage with others, that's enough"

                        The king's decision led to the collapse of power.
                      6. Finches
                        Finches 23 May 2021 11: 35
                        0
                        Here I agree with you, another idiotic decision of the king-rag!
                      7. ANB
                        ANB 23 May 2021 15: 04
                        -2
                        ... He turned out to lead the army just as badly

                        Having delved into the needs of the army at the headquarters and breaking away from his wife and other advisers, Nikolai was able to improve supplies.
                        IMHO, it was not Nikolai's mistake that he took command.
                        He did not really lead the country anyway.
                        Rampant speculators began even before Nikolai took command.
                        And not an attempt to restore order (to deprive speculators of super profits) led to a conspiracy at the top and the February coup?
                      8. Avior
                        Avior 23 May 2021 15: 25
                        +2
                        And who would not answer for the speculators if not the autocrat?
                        And for the fact that he did not really lead the country, but occupied a place?
                      9. ANB
                        ANB 23 May 2021 15: 46
                        -1
                        ... And who would not answer for the speculators if not the autocrat?
                        And for the fact that he did not really lead the country, but occupied a place?

                        And I do not argue that Nikolai was out of place.
                        So, small details. Not everything Nikolai did was bad.
                        But the Februaryists who came after him were even worse.
                        PS. Nicholas did not have his Richelieu. And he did not have enough intelligence to find himself the same.
                      10. Avior
                        Avior 23 May 2021 16: 39
                        -2
                        I'm not saying that I did everything badly.
                        But he didn’t want to run the state, and he didn’t want to give up power either.
                      11. ANB
                        ANB 23 May 2021 16: 48
                        0
                        ... and did not want to give up power either

                        Uh-huh.
                        As a result, he refused already under pressure and a complete mess ensued.
                      12. Avior
                        Avior 23 May 2021 18: 06
                        0
                        and there is.
                        Refused when it went too far
        2. paul3390
          paul3390 23 May 2021 14: 23
          +3
          The government reform was delayed for too long against the background of an outright incapacity from the tsar.

          Well, where does some kind of government reform have to do with it, when the problem was in the crisis of social and economic relations in Ingushetia? It is not for nothing that the idol of the liberals Stolypin is sometimes called the father of the Russian revolution ..
        3. Avior
          Avior 23 May 2021 16: 40
          +2
          the problem is - it was in the crisis of social and economic relations in the Republic of Ingushetia

          under the autocracy, the problem is primarily in the autocrat.
  • Aviator_
    Aviator_ 23 May 2021 09: 53
    +5
    but very closely coincided with the interests of England,

    That is, of course, so, but the majority of RI's loans were French. Whoever eats the empire dances it. So it was necessary to even send an expeditionary corps to France to WWI (with then a soldier, and later the USSR Ministry of Defense, Marshal R.Ya. Malinovsky). Together with the Senegalese, this corps fought there.
    1. Finches
      Finches 23 May 2021 10: 13
      +2
      Here is another calico - we had an agreement on military cooperation with France, concluded by Alexander III. And there everything was spelled out according to an adult!
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 23 May 2021 14: 25
        +1
        Well, I think the other emperor, not Nick. the second, he could have gotten away from the contract, but, having grabbed loans, and even with such a leader, he had to get into the war.
  • gsev
    gsev 24 May 2021 13: 24
    +1
    Quote: Finches
    If Nicholas II would have listened to the Black Hundreds, and not to the Duma liberal

    And what are the Black Hundreds in the homeland of my ancestors, the Tambov region? Criminals hired by landowners to protect their privileges from peasants brought to starvation by these landowners. The landowners' path of development came to an end with the industrial revolution of the 19th century. Accordingly, and the Black Hundreds. Even many priests in the 20th century understood the perniciousness of landlord privileges and preached among the peasants. The Tsar is the father of the Russian people, which means the peasantry, and he, as a father, must endow his children-peasants with land by taking it away from the parasite landlords who are unable to work on it independently.
  • notingem
    notingem 23 May 2021 22: 56
    -1
    It was NOT too lazy to write nonsense
  • paul3390
    paul3390 23 May 2021 14: 20
    +1
    It took the tsar a long time to realize that his autocratic time was long gone.

    If I am not mistaken - even such an ardent monarchist as Solonevich once put forward an interesting slogan - the Emperor was obliged to lead the socialist revolution!
  • Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 24 May 2021 10: 51
    0
    Quote: Avior
    An amazing connection between Lenin and Kerensky - through Kerensky's father, Fyodor Mikhailovich, director of the Simbirsk gymnasium.

    Yes, there were many funny parallels.
    You are a successful lawyer from the Volga city. The revolution has been for many years. An unyielding fighter against tsarism. A brilliant speaker. They are cute. Knowledge of military affairs. Modesty in everyday life. A swift, almost bloodless victory. All power is with you. Enemies are trampled. You are literally carried in your arms. And then you run, disguised as a man - because you shouldn't confuse Kerensky with Lenin :).
    © E. Belash
  • Asad
    Asad 23 May 2021 05: 18
    +3
    Plus the author, it was very interesting to learn new things in the history of Russia!
    1. Ross xnumx
      Ross xnumx 23 May 2021 08: 06
      +6
      Quote: ASAD
      Plus the author, it was very interesting to learn new things in the history of Russia!

      Are you interested in ministers whose lot lasted less than a woman's pregnancy? You know, during the reign of EBN there were so many "interesting" ministers and all kinds of citizens, about whose activities, unexpectedly acquired fortune and urgent migration it would be much more interesting and useful not only for ordinary Russian citizens, but also for the prosecution, investigation and inquiries. And you suddenly became interested in political and physical corpses due to their involvement as some officials endowed with temporary powers ... I do not understand such an interest. There are more significant figures in the history of Ingushetia, and not priests of rabble, who were not interested in the fate of the country, but in their personal situation and their own security.
      1. Lech from Android.
        Lech from Android. 23 May 2021 08: 22
        +6
        Digging into the biographies of oligarchs close to the emperor is fraught.
        The large fortunes of the oligarchs of the 90s did not profit legally ... behind each of them there is a train of skeletons in the closet.
        1. Ross xnumx
          Ross xnumx 23 May 2021 08: 33
          +5
          Quote: Lech from Android.
          there is a train behind each of them ...

          ... bloody squabbles and impudent appropriation of public property with the help of forgeries, deception, speculation, threats and by-laws from the authorities of the 90s.
      2. Boris55
        Boris55 23 May 2021 08: 37
        +3
        Quote: ROSS 42
        during the reign of EBN there were so many "interesting" ministers and all sorts of citizens, about whose activities, unexpectedly acquired fortune and urgent migration it would be much more interesting and useful to learn not only for ordinary Russian citizens, but also for the prosecution, investigation and inquiry

        "Crow does not pick out the crow".

        The adopted laws allow them, on completely "legal" grounds, to derail the people's property. The judicial and investigative bodies are limited by the framework of the law, which the legislative power has determined for them.

        Your appeal to the repressive authorities looks somewhat naive. Until the social system changes, nothing will change, but it must be changed in an evolutionary way.
        1. Ross xnumx
          Ross xnumx 23 May 2021 08: 40
          +4
          Quote: Boris55
          Your appeal to the repressive authorities looks somewhat naive.

          After the trial in the Gagarin court, I no longer appeal to anyone ... It's just that the habit works.
        2. Usher
          Usher 24 May 2021 23: 54
          -1
          Quote: Boris55
          Quote: ROSS 42
          during the reign of EBN there were so many "interesting" ministers and all sorts of citizens, about whose activities, unexpectedly acquired fortune and urgent migration it would be much more interesting and useful to learn not only for ordinary Russian citizens, but also for the prosecution, investigation and inquiry

          "Crow does not pick out the crow".

          The adopted laws allow them, on completely "legal" grounds, to derail the people's property. The judicial and investigative bodies are limited by the framework of the law, which the legislative power has determined for them.

          Your appeal to the repressive authorities looks somewhat naive. Until the social system changes, nothing will change, but it must be changed in an evolutionary way.

          You already zadolbal in every article your nonsense to post.
  • Olgovich
    Olgovich 23 May 2021 06: 32
    -3
    To serve the new government and the Red Army, the ex-minister, as a real statesman, went without any doubts, although after a six-month stay in Kresty.
    .

    After the thief, the "statesman" rushed to Mogilev at Headquarters to organize resistance to the Bolsheviks, then with the same purpose in the Rada in Kiev. Upon arrival in Petrograd, he was first arrested for 2 months, then released, then again not imprisoned for six months.

    And only after convincing half a year "Crosses"statehood" and a desire to serve the new regime leaped in him.

    But in 1919 he was again in prison for six months.

    In 1922, he played the disgusting role of an informer in the trial of his own comrades in the Socialist-Revolutionary Party.

    July 18, 1931 was sentenced to death by the OGPU collegium in the "Vesna" case, on December 2, 1931 the sentence was changed ten years in prison.

    He served 3 years and was released.

    In 1938 he was arrested again and the VK of the USSR Armed Forces was recognized as a terrorist and conspirator and, finally, was shot.


    yes, the fate of a traitor and a defector is not easy ...
    1. Ross xnumx
      Ross xnumx 23 May 2021 07: 59
      +6
      Quote: Olgovich
      "statesman" after the thief rushed to Mogilev at Headquarters, to organize resistance to the Bolsheviks,

      Forgive me for the strange question: "In what school and at what time did you receive your education, if it gives you pleasure to distort the abbreviation Vosr?"
      It is interesting that you were not satisfied with either the name October Revolution or the October Revolution ... Did you decide to emphasize the belonging of the Bolsheviks to a certain social group or?
      October Revolution, or October Revolution (in Soviet historiography, the name Great October Socialist Revolution) - an armed coup in Petrograd on October 25-26 (November 7-8, new style) 1917 under the leadership of the Bolshevik Party, as a result of which the Provisional Government was overthrown.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 23 May 2021 10: 26
        -1

        Quote: ROSS 42
        Forgive me for the strange question: "In what school and at what time did you receive your education, if it gives you pleasure to distort the abbreviation Vosr?"

        I studied at the same school in the 1960s and 70s as you did, but I had to learn a lot myself already in adulthood, because that uncontested LIE (not in everything, but very much) that was hammered into the so-called lessons. "stories", left a person robbed by a dunno.

        If you take an interest in the history of, for example, this question, you will finally find out that the definition of “Great October Revolution (THIEF) "first appeared in the declaration of the Bolsheviks in the Constituent Assembly in 1918

        And the definition of "socialist" appeared only by the end of the 1930s (when in 1937 it was announced about the construction of mainly socialism, the same year when people were dying of hunger and ate patal). Therefore, the THIEF.
        1. Ross xnumx
          Ross xnumx 23 May 2021 11: 39
          +2
          Quote: Olgovich
          Therefore, the THIEF.

          Now everything became clear to me. It turns out that the United Russia party is the party of the Great October Revolutions ...
          They wrote you an excerpt from those years when you lived in the USSR, and what happened in the thirties and who died there and ate "patal", and who traveled abroad with rubles, you could only find out by hearsay ... They also say Lenin ate small children when there was famine in Petrograd. Your beliefs are understandable, as are your eloquence (or rhetoric?).
          You don't need to be seven inches in your forehead to understand that such an abbreviation (VOR) is associated with a dissonant meaning, which is why they did not write "DAZDRAPERM" or "KRAVASIL" on postcards of the Soviet era, leaving this opportunity for happy parents and their wild imagination.
          God is your judge.
          hi
          1. Ross xnumx
            Ross xnumx 23 May 2021 11: 50
            +2
            PS Originally it was like this:
            “Comrades! Workers 'and peasants' revolution, about the necessity of which the Bolsheviks were talking all the time, has come true! What is the significance of this workers 'and peasants' revolution? First of all, the significance of this event lies in the fact that we will have a Soviet government, our own organ of power without any participation of the bourgeoisie. The oppressed masses will themselves create power. The old state apparatus will be fundamentally smashed, and a new administrative apparatus, represented by Soviet organizations, will be created. From now on, a new phase begins in the history of Russia, and this, the third revolution, should ultimately lead to the victory of socialism. "
            (A report by V.I. Lenin on the task of the power of the Soviets at a meeting of the Petrograd Soviet of Workers 'and Peasants' Deputies on October 25 (November 7) 1917).

            Or, how it looks more intelligible and artistic:
          2. Olgovich
            Olgovich 23 May 2021 11: 57
            -4
            Quote: ROSS 42
            Now everything became clear to me. It turns out that the United Russia party is the party of the Great October Revolutions ...

            The thief stole from Russia freedom and led to such gigantic victims (even in peacetime), which Russia and any country in the world did not know in its history. The overall result is17th century borders and extinction
            Quote: ROSS 42
            They wrote you an excerpt from the years when you lived in the USSR,

            you have written what was in History in REALITY
            Quote: ROSS 42
            and what happened in the thirties and who died there and ate "patal", and who traveled abroad with rubles, you could only learn from hearsay ..

            of course, it was not accepted to speak the TRUTH at school and in the country, but from this data haven’t gone anywhere.
            Who does not know them and does not want to know, an unfortunate deprived person living in a fictional "reality"
            Quote: ROSS 42
            They say Lenin also ate small children when there was famine in Petrograd. Your beliefs are understandable, as are your eloquence (or rhetoric?).

            figuratively, of course: the victims of the GW they unleashed are from 12 to 15 million.
            think-how many million of them are children.
            Quote: ROSS 42
            understandable, as well as your eloquence (or rhetoric?).

            Should the talkers talk about rhetoric? belay
            Quote: ROSS 42
            You don't need to be seven spans in your forehead to understand that such an abbreviation (VOR) is associated with a dissonant meaning,

            very well associated with the root essence of the event.

            Stay in the NON-existent, then invented to you, NERALITY. Good luck there ... hi
            1. Ross xnumx
              Ross xnumx 23 May 2021 12: 04
              +1
              Quote: Olgovich
              Who does not know them and does not want to know, an unfortunate deprived person living in a fictional "reality"

              Unlike you, I know this first-hand (from my grandmother, born in 1916 and grandfather, born in 1924) and parents. They survived this reality, including that hunger when they ate everything they could cook.
              As for "GV", in the early 90s, no less people were killed (figuratively speaking), but no one drapes the EBN house on holidays.
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich 23 May 2021 15: 17
                -2
                Quote: ROSS 42
                Unlike you, I know this first-hand (from my grandmother, born in 1916 and grandfather, born in 1924) and parents.

                yeah, only you had grandparents.

                Mine were born at the very beginning of the last century, survived both WWI and GV, and hunger strikes and WWII and they were that compare, yes ....
                Quote: ROSS 42
                As for "GV", then in at the beginning of the 90s, no less people were killed (figuratively speaking), but no one drapes the EBN house on holidays.

                in the GW war only from hunger with a massive cannibalism killed at least 5 million people, millions dead at the fronts, let alone demographic losses-25 million people... And wild poverty - for decades to come ... But under that regime, they were dying of hunger in 1923,24,25,30,32,33,36,37,46,47 ...

                WHAT are you comparing?

                As for the draperies, yours should have spoken the TRUTH about the millions who died of hunger in peacetime after the same 1932-33 and other things like that, and after that organize an HONEST election: so everyone would see what the voters would wrap up those leaders, yes .. But they were afraid of this truth - before animal horror, as well as elections and were silent - they knew WHAT would happen .......
                1. Ross xnumx
                  Ross xnumx 23 May 2021 15: 45
                  -1
                  Quote: Olgovich
                  WHAT are you comparing?

                  I consider the continuation of our dialogue a useless exercise. Unlike you, I do not spit on my own past and do not call villains saviors. As for the Bolshevik party that came to power, forgive me, dear, no one else was found.
                  If you compare the results of the historical period of our country in a socialist form with the reign of the last of the Romanov dynasty (as well as the period of the new capitalist formation), you may notice that there were more chances for development and simple population growth during this period. Errors, miscalculations and blunders were no doubt about it. Only Adolf Aloisovich would not have given a chance in the event of his victory to either the USSR, or socialism, or the Russian people, in whose blood social justice (mind you - not slavery!) Occupies one of the leading principles of life.
                  The socialist system presupposes the use of what has been gained to create benefits for the entire society. I understand that the laws of a wolf pack are more attractive to someone. That is why some consider wolves to be the orderlies of the forest. Only we do not live in the forest.
                  Why did I give the example of grandparents? There have been many people in my life whose life experience cannot be compared even with the experience of the "well-worn" ministers.
                  That is why the words "thief", "scoop" and others are disgusting to me. I am not a supporter of the golden billion. I do not like it when from my, the richest country in the world, they drag everything and everyone who is not lazy. And even more I hate the tenderness of such a life and the delight of some kind of invented "capitalist happiness".
                  1. Olgovich
                    Olgovich 24 May 2021 07: 10
                    -3
                    Quote: ROSS 42
                    ... Unlike you, I do not spit on my own past and do not call villains saviors.

                    you just spit into your own past, insulting him and our ancestors by ignorance of their hardships and huge sacrifices
                    Quote: ROSS 42
                    As for the Bolshevik party that came to power, forgive me, dear, no one else was found.

                    do not chant nonsense, deceived and unwilling to know the history of the person: the people in free elections chose the party of ESER
                    Quote: ROSS 42
                    If you compare the results of the historical period of our country in a socialist form with the reign of the last of the Romanov dynasty (as well as the period of the new capitalist formation), you may notice that there were more chances for development and simple population growth during this period.

                    if you start to study your history, you will finally learn that 70 years of soviet power is the history of demographic catastrophes, which resulted in the extinction of the people, latent since 1964 and obvious by the end of 1980 (in central Russia).

                    And remember, under the last Romanov in 22 years, the population grew by 50%, and with yours, they could even eat, as in 1913, only after 40 years.
                    Quote: ROSS 42
                    Only Adolf Aloisovich would not give a chance

                    you just think about what Brest 1918 led to September 1, 1939, instead of Karhorst 1945 already in 1918
                    Quote: ROSS 42
                    That is why I hate the words: "THIEF",

                    this is not a word, but an abbreviation, but you will have to endure: what is written by the rer, yes ..

                    And the richest country, with the largest arable land in the world, could not provide itself with food, buying more and more grain, meat, butter, canned food for foreign currency, while a THIRD of its harvest went under the snow, and it all ended with coupons for everything ...

                    good luck!
                    1. Ross xnumx
                      Ross xnumx 24 May 2021 09: 13
                      +2
                      God knows - did not want to answer. But you, as that official, know for sure that in the USSR, except for galoshes, nothing was produced, and milk and meat were obtained from the beast that sits inside the bear emblem of a famous party.
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      you just spit into your own past, insulting him and our ancestors by ignorance of their hardships and huge sacrifices

                      Super insolence (I will not decipher). You are either such an arrogant and cynical person that you do not distinguish between the past in general and the past of a particular person, or just write to order.
                      Can I explain to you how life was different under the tsar from life under the Bolsheviks and after in the USSR? To recall the baptism of Russia, Vladimirov, or to mention being under Ivan IV and Peter I (tell about torn nostrils and bones near St. Petersburg). Deal with your huge sacrifices together with Solzhenitsyn and Korotich.
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      if you start to study your history, you will finally learn that 70 years of soviet power is the history of demographic CATASTROPHES, which resulted in the extinction of the people- hidden since 1964 and evident by the end of 1980 (in central Russia).

                      So hidden that you can't even see it:
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      And remember, under the last Romanov in 22 years, the population grew by 50%, and with yours, they could even eat, as in 1913, only after 40 years.

                      And you will remember that I have no desire to listen to such figures without the confirmation available for my words. Leave your idle chatter (idle talk) for grateful subscribers.
                      Everything! The beads are over.
                      1. Olgovich
                        Olgovich 24 May 2021 10: 57
                        -3
                        Quote: ROSS 42
                        Super insolence (I will not decipher). You are either such an arrogant and cynical person that you do not distinguish between the past in general and the past of a particular person, or just write to order.

                        super insolence is to talk about the history of your country without knowing it and not wanting to know it.
                        Quote: ROSS 42
                        Can I explain to you how life was different under the tsar from life under the Bolsheviks and after in the USSR?

                        I don’t need to explain, I already know: under the tsar they ate and dressed BETTER than under the new regime before the 1950s: read even the lying owls. statistics - Report of the Central Statistical Office of the USSR 1955
                        Quote: ROSS 42
                        Deal with your huge sacrifices together with Solzhenitsyn and Korotich.

                        in your cozy little world of LIES, they, of course, are not: at the 17th congress of the "people's" party, held in January 1934, immediately after the wild starvation death of 30-33, not a single one stood up and expressed condolences to the victims, but the party lied about ... secured peasants - and such a cynical lie was until the last year of its existence.

                        And the party was silent, which means that there were no millions of hunger deaths, a comfortable, cozy, deceitful world ...
                        Quote: ROSS 42
                        So hidden that you can't even see it:

                        this is because of chronic ignorance: the birth rate has been steadily falling and NOT ONE generation of Russians who started working in the 1930s has not even reproduced themselves.

                        if in 1987 it died out three areas Russia, in 1990, in the conditions of extinction, already lived THIRD of the population of Russia in the 21st region-.cm... "Collection of statistics", Moscow, 1991, no. 7.

                        The result of your "achievements" is the dying old, vodka-drenched people, the world leader in alcoholics, smoking, suicide, divorce, and abortion (200 people).

                        Let me remind you that for good luck, yours have increased the output alcohol by 700% from 1940 to 1980 (with a population growth of 30% -DMN Angles)
                        Quote: ROSS 42
                        And you will remember that I have no desire to listen to such figures without the confirmation available for my words.

                        Dunno, this is denied only by complete ignoramuses, but here you are not an educational program
                        Quote: ROSS 42
                        this! The beads are over.

                        have you eaten all? lol
                      2. _The Wanderer_
                        _The Wanderer_ 27 May 2021 13: 04
                        0
                        Not a modest question, but did the monarchy and monarchists walk with one halo? The other three filmed out of modesty?
                        Who deprived the power of the last Russian monarch, if not his inner circle. The Provisional Government, one might say, appeared spontaneously. Shouting and shouting at the authorities - you don't need a lot of intelligence, but in reality, there are no people who want to rule the country. It is precisely to manage, not to chat, but to make decisions and have the political will to carry out these decisions.
                        You can treat the Bolsheviks in different ways, but the fact remains that they took power, were able to keep it and so that they would not say, again in fact, to develop the country.
                        Of course, not everything was smooth and there were many excesses and, let's say, "zigzags" in the process of establishing the new government. I would like to note that it was not so terrible and in a "bloody frenzy" as some say without confirming the words with numbers.
                        PS About hunger .... And the famine in Europe is the same Bolsheviks ??
                  2. Alexey RA
                    Alexey RA 24 May 2021 11: 11
                    +1
                    Quote: Olgovich
                    you just think about what Brest 1918 led to September 1, 1939, instead of Karhorst 1945 already in 1918

                    By September 1, 1939, it was not Brest that led, but Versailles. If Russia were among the winners, it would not change anything. Because the Reich was revived by those whom Russia could not influence in any way. And Russia itself would have problems over the roof - independent Poland alone is worth something.
                    If someone believes that there will be no Hitler without the USSR, since he was brought to power solely for the sake of crushing the world's first state of workers and peasants - this is far from the case. When Hitler was brought to power, the USSR was considered a third-rate country in world politics (in fact, for whom the USSR was held was excellently shown by Munich-38), and militarily, even the coalition of the "cordon sanitaire" countries was dangerous to him.
                    1. Olgovich
                      Olgovich 24 May 2021 11: 58
                      -2
                      Quote: Alexey RA
                      By September 1, 1939, it was not Brest that led, but Versailles.

                      Brest also led to Versailles.

                      The occupation of Germany and another world could have taken place without Brest.
                      Quote: Alexey RA
                      If Russia were among the winners, it would not change anything. Because the Reich was revived by those whom Russia could not influence in any way.

                      together with France, Russia could all, but France, with its real desire to keep Germany and fear of Germany, did not have a strong ally
                      Quote: Alexey RA
                      If someone believes that there will be no Hitler without the USSR, since he was brought to power solely for the sake of crushing the world's first state of workers and peasants

                      If someone thinks so, then he is mistaken ...
  • bober1982
    bober1982 23 May 2021 07: 40
    +1
    It is strange that the article does not even mention in passing that Kerensky was a Freemason and that Alexander Fedorovich owes his rapid rise to power to his influential patrons from Masonic circles, behind him were more intelligent and experienced comrades.
    1. Peak
      Peak 23 May 2021 07: 54
      0
      Quote: bober1982
      Alexander Fyodorovich owes his rapid rise to power to his influential Masonic patrons, backed by smarter and more experienced comrades.

      That's what they with their experience and heaped up ...
      1. bober1982
        bober1982 23 May 2021 08: 45
        0
        Quote: PiK
        That's what they with their experience and heaped up ...

        Well, this is how to say ....... and, one might say, they successfully completed their task.
        1. Peak
          Peak 23 May 2021 08: 50
          +5
          Quote: bober1982
          Well, this is how to say ....... and, one might say, they successfully completed their task.

          Yes, but Russia, the Russians again presented a surprise, stubbornly unwilling to disappear from the map of the World as a country, a state.

          The Bolsheviks came, under whose leadership German fascism was defeated in the country and socialism was subsequently built ...
    2. Boris55
      Boris55 23 May 2021 08: 02
      -5
      Quote: bober1982
      ... behind him were more intelligent and experienced comrades ...

      Which finally, for the first time in many centuries, managed to impose the tricolor on Russia:

      "... The white-blue-red tricolor, for which all liberal circles of Russia stood up, was approved as a state by the decision of the Provisional Government only 01 [14] September 1917... Not only was the government temporary, for a transitional period, which means that all decisions of this government in the future must be approved by the government that govern the created state, so on October 25 [November 07] 1917 the Great October Socialist Revolution took place, as a result of which The historically primordial Russian red flag, with the addition of ideological symbols of the revolution, has become the national flag of Russia. "

      Who is interested in the history of the flag, do not be lazy to read:
      http://fct-altai.ru/files/2021/Tricolor_09_04_2021.doc
    3. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 24 May 2021 11: 12
      +1
      Quote: bober1982
      It is strange that the article does not even mention in passing that Kerensky was a Freemason and that Alexander Fedorovich owes his rapid rise to power to his influential patrons from Masonic circles, behind him were more intelligent and experienced comrades.

      Uh-huh ... some Masons overthrew other Masons, in order to later become a victim of third Masons.
      Not the history of Russia, but some kind of circulation of the Freemasons. smile
      1. bober1982
        bober1982 24 May 2021 11: 22
        0
        Quote: Alexey RA
        Not the history of Russia, but some kind of circulation of the Freemasons.

        It began with Peter Alekseevich, they poured into Russia in a muddy stream, through the window cut through by the tsar to Europe.
  • SERGE ANT
    SERGE ANT 23 May 2021 10: 51
    +9
    And this
    the silence
    rolling out
    bass,
    strong
    above the yards of yards:
    “Which ones are temporary?
    Slash!
    Your time is up. "
  • iouris
    iouris 23 May 2021 16: 03
    +1
    And now why it was not worth raising this topic.
    The "tsarist regime" was overthrown not by the Bolsheviks, but by the pro-Western "liberals." It was the removal of the emperor from power during the war, when the surrender of Germany was already a decided issue, and led to the result that we all know. Russia received it at the Dno station. And no democratic ministers (populists, progressives, Zionists, anarchists ...) could save the situation. The country was saved and made a superpower by the Bolsheviks-Leninists.
    Kerensky himself, when asked what could have prevented the collapse of Russia, replied: "The shooting of one person - me." Denial of the Soviet period in the country's history means that we were led and are being led to the finish line. The finish line should come somewhere in 2025..2030, when the generational change will take place.
    1. Obliterator
      Obliterator 23 May 2021 23: 49
      +2
      Quote: iouris
      Denial of the Soviet period in the country's history means that we were led and are being led to the finish line.

      To deny him is stupid and, in fact, a betrayal, but it is hardly worth idealizing.